WorldWideScience

Sample records for units volume reduction

  1. Lung protection: an intervention for tidal volume reduction in a teaching intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briva, Arturo; Gaiero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of feedback and education regarding the use of predicted body weight to adjust tidal volume in a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy. Methods The study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015 (12 months) in a single university polyvalent intensive care unit. We developed a combined intervention (education and feedback), placing particular attention on the importance of adjusting tidal volumes to predicted body weight bedside. In parallel, predicted body weight was estimated from knee height and included in clinical charts. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. Predicted body weight assessed by knee height instead of visual evaluation revealed that the delivered tidal volume was significantly higher than predicted. After the inclusion of predicted body weight, we observed a sustained reduction in delivered tidal volume from a mean (standard error) of 8.97 ± 0.32 to 7.49 ± 0.19mL/kg (p < 0.002). Furthermore, the protocol adherence was subsequently sustained for 12 months (delivered tidal volume 7.49 ± 0.54 versus 7.62 ± 0.20mL/kg; p = 0.103). Conclusion The lack of a reliable method to estimate the predicted body weight is a significant impairment for the application of a worldwide standard of care during mechanical ventilation. A combined intervention based on education and repeated feedbacks promoted sustained tidal volume education during the study period (12 months). PMID:27925055

  2. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  3. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  4. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  5. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-07-01

    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cherman, Aleksey; Wagman, Michael L; Yaffe, Laurence G

    2016-01-01

    Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with $SU(N_f)$ light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large $N_c$ volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.

  8. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Neder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR, bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC 225% predicted and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order are the next logical alternatives.

  9. Sequential unilateral lung volume reduction for emphysema - Stretching the benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramnia, Sadie; Holsworth, Lynda; Mestitz, Hugh; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Gooi, Julian H; Snell, Gregory I

    2017-01-01

    Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction (BLVR) and Surgical Lung Volume Reduction (SLVR) and are two different approaches used to remodel severely emphysematous lungs to improve lung function and quality-of-life. We present a case initially referred for lung transplantation, where sequential left upper lobe BLVR and 7 years later right upper lobe SLVR, providing enduring physiological and functional improvement. The potential for sustained benefit via sequential unilateral lung volume reduction is under-appreciated.

  10. October 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The October 2015 pulmonary journal club focused on the review of older studies evaluating lung volume reduction surgery and how this has transitioned toward the development of non-surgical modes of lung volume reduction. The physiology behind dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex process. One of the proposed mechanisms has been hyperinflation associated with air trapping. In the mid 1990s studies by Cooper and Peterson (1 offered a promising approach in which lung volume reduction (LVR could improve ventilatory mechanics and improve dyspnea. As the procedure gained more popularity, additional larger scale trials were performed to support its validity. We reviewed 2 studies looking at lung volume reduction. The first was "The Effect of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery In Patients With Severe Emphysema” (2 . This was a smaller, randomized controlled trial (RCT that looked at 2 groups of 24 patients. Once group received LVR while the ...

  11. Time for the Global Rollout of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Shah, Pallav L; Theron, Johan; Dheda, Keertan; Allwood, Brian W; Herth, Felix J F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is generally managed with pharmacotherapy, as well as guidance about smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation. Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) has been proposed for the treatment of advanced emphysema, with the aim of obtaining the same clinical and functional advantages of surgical lung volume reduction whilst potentially reducing risks and costs. There is a growing body of evidence that certain well-defined sub-groups of patients with advanced emphysema may benefit from ELVR, provided the selection criteria are met and a systematic approach is followed. ELVR devices, particularly unidirectional valves and coils, are currently being rolled out to many countries outside of the U.S.A. and Europe, although very few centres currently have the capacity to correctly evaluate and provide ELVR to prospective candidates. The high cost of these interventions underpins the need for careful patient selection to best identify those who may or may not benefit from ELVR-related procedures. The aim of this review is to provide the practicing pulmonologist with an overview of the practical aspects and current evidence for the use of the various techniques available, and to suggest an evidence-based approach for the appropriate use of these devices, particularly in emerging markets, where there should be a drive to develop and equip key specialised ELVR units.

  12. Predictors of prostate volume reduction following neoadjuvant cytoreductive androgen suppression

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    Krishan R. Jethwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Limited duration cytoreductive neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT is used prior to definitive radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer to decrease prostate volume. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of NHT on prostate volume before permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB, and determine associated predictive factors. Material and methods : Between June 1998 and April 2012, a total of 1,110 patients underwent PPB and 207 patients underwent NHT. Of these, 189 (91.3% underwent detailed planimetric transrectal ultrasound before and after NHT prior to PPB. Regression analysis was used to assess predictors of absolute and percentage change in prostate volume after NHT. Results: The median duration of NHT was 4.9 months with inter quartile range (IQR, 4.2-6.6 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA reduced by a median of 97% following NHT. The mean prostate volume before NHT was 62.5 ± 22.1 cm 3 (IQR: 46-76 cm 3 , and after NHT, it was 37.0 ± 14.5 cm 3 (IQR: 29-47 cm 3 . The mean prostate volume reduction was 23.4 cm 3 (35.9%. Absolute prostate volume reduction was positively correlated with initial volume and inversely correlated with T-stage, Gleason score, and NCCN risk group. In multivariate regression analyses, initial prostate volume (p < 0.001 remained as a significant predictor of absolute and percent prostate volume reduction. Total androgen suppression was associated with greater percent prostate volume reduction than luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa alone (p = 0.001. Conclusions : Prostate volume decreased by approximately one third after 4.9 months of NHT, with total androgen suppression found to be more efficacious in maximizing cytoreduction than LHRHa alone. Initial prostate volume is the greatest predictor for prostate volume reduction.

  13. Volume reduction through perturbative Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Margarita Garcia; Okawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    We derive the perturbative expansion of Wilson loops to order g^4 in a SU(N) lattice gauge theory with twisted boundary conditions. Our expressions show that the thermodynamic limit is attained at infinite N for any number of lattice sites and allow to quantify the deviations from volume independence at finite large N as a function of the twist.

  14. Disc volume reduction with percutaneous nucleoplasty in an animal model.

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    Richard Kasch

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. PURPOSE: To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. METHODS: We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. RESULTS: The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml. In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21 volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21 volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.

  15. Reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation

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    Audrey T. Tantua, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early postoperative phase after transtibial amputation is characterized by rapid residual limb volume reduction. Accurate measurement of residual limb volume is important for the timing of fitting a prosthesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation and to correlate residual limb volume with residual limb circumference. In a longitudinal cohort study of 21 people who had a transtibial amputation, residual limb volume was measured using a laser scanner and circumference was measured using a tape measure 1 wk postamputation and every 3 wk thereafter until 24 wk postamputation. A linear mixed model analysis was performed with weeks postamputation transformed according to the natural logarithm as predictor. Residual limb volume decreased significantly over time, with a large variation between patients. Residual limb volume did not correlate well with circumference. On average, residual limb volume decreased 200.5 mL (9.7% of the initial volume per natural logarithm of the weeks postamputation. The decrease in residual limb volume following a transtibial amputation was substantial in the early postamputation phase, followed by a leveling off. It was not possible to determine the specific moment at which the residual limb volume stabilized.

  16. Safe Reduction of Blood Volume in the Blood Gas Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Phillip R; Markewitz, Boaz A

    2016-11-01

    Phlebotomy is a significant cause of iatrogenic anemia in the critical care environment. It is estimated that one-third of all transfusions of packed red blood cells in intensive care units (ICU) result from phlebotomy. The aims of this study were to determine if utilizing the 1mL blood gas syringe for an adult population would impact the rate at which specimens were acceptable for testing and result reporting based on lab specimen rejection criteria; and to compare blood utilization between the 2 different syringes. This study was conducted in 1 of the adult ICUs at the University of Utah Hospital. Over a baseline period a standard adult 3 mL blood gas syringe was utilized. Subsequently the standard adult syringe was replaced by a 1 mL syringe produced by the same manufacturer with the same heparin concentration. The change to the 1 mL syringe had no effect on specimen integrity in regards to laboratory's ability to process the specimen. With use of the 1 mL syringe there was a 60% reduction in the volume of blood drawn compared with the baseline period. Standardizing the 1 mL syringe for Blood Gas Laboratory tests will reduce patient blood loss without appreciably affecting specimen rejection relative to current rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Stabilization and volume reduction of radioactive spent ionexchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Stabilization and volume reduction of spent radioactive ion-exchange resins (IERs)were studied. Stabilization technology includes volume reduction with wet chemicaloxidation process and immobilization of the residue into cement. Undersuitable conditions, the exhaustedradioactive ion-exchange resins were dissolved successfully in aH2O2-Fe2+/Cu2+ catalytic oxidationsystem (Fenton reagent). The analytical results indicated that the radioactive nuclides loaded in the resins were concentrated in decomposed solution and solid residues. The process parameters ofwet chemical oxidation and solidification were also obtained. Thedecomposition ratios were 100%and more than 90% for cation and anion IERs respectively. The waste volume was decreased by40% compared with that of original spent resins.

  18. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 1: Instrumentation and Reduction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles, aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges, cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library, in addition to its being essential reading for all practical astronomers.

  19. Endobronchial Valves for Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : Best Practice Recommendations from Expert Panel on Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Herth, Felix J F; Valipour, Arschang

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) is being adopted as a treatment option for carefully selected patients suffering from severe emphysema. ELVR with the one-way endobronchial Zephyr valves (EBV) has been demonstrated to improve pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patie

  20. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  1. Accurate monitoring of intravascular fluid volume: A novel application of intrathoracic impedance measures for the guidance of volume reduction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Lara

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Impedance vectors derived from a multivector monitoring system reflect changes in intravascular plasma volume. Two of these vectors most closely track changes in plasma volume and may be used to more accurately guide and optimize volume reduction therapy.

  2. Particle size separation via soil washing to obtain volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R; Rasor, E; Van Ryn, F

    1999-04-23

    A pilot-plant study was performed using a soil washing pilot plant originally designed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate scale-up and potential full-scale remediation. This pilot plant named VORCE (Volume Reduction/Chemical Extraction) was modified to meet the specific requirements for treatment of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and a Department of Energy site soils. After a series of tests on clean soils to develop operating parameters and system performance, the machine was used to treat soils, one contaminated with Thorium-232 and the other with Cesium-137. All indicate that soil washing is very promising for volume reduction treatment. In addition, cost data was generated and is given herein.

  3. Large Nc volume reduction and chiral random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Wan; Yamada, Norikazu

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the understanding of the Eguchi-Kawai (EK) volume equivalence and growing interest in conformal window, we simultaneously use the large-Nc volume reduction and Chiral Random Matrix Theory (chRMT) to study the chiral symmetry breaking of four dimensional SU(Nc) gauge theory with adjoint fermions in the large Nc limit. Although some cares are required because the chRMT limit and 't Hooft limit are not compatible in general, we show that the breakdown of the chiral symmetry can be detected in large-Nc gauge theories. As a first step, we mainly focus on the quenched approximation to establish the methodology. We first confirm that heavy adjoint fermions, introduced as the center symmetry preserver, work as expected and thanks to them the volume reduction holds. Using massless overlap fermion as a probe, we then calculate the low-lying Dirac spectrum for fermion in the adjoint representation to compare to that of chRMT, and find that chiral symmetry is indeed broken in the quenched ...

  4. Hippocampal volume reduction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

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    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a genetic disorder characterized by diminished drive to breathe during sleep and impaired CO(2 sensitivity, show brain structural and functional changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans, with impaired responses in specific hippocampal regions, suggesting localized injury.We assessed total volume and regional variation in hippocampal surface morphology to identify areas affected in the syndrome. We studied 18 CCHS (mean age+/-std: 15.1+/-2.2 years; 8 female and 32 healthy control (age 15.2+/-2.4 years; 14 female children, and traced hippocampi on 1 mm(3 resolution T1-weighted scans, collected with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. Regional hippocampal volume variations, adjusted for cranial volume, were compared between groups based on t-tests of surface distances to the structure midline, with correction for multiple comparisons. Significant tissue losses emerged in CCHS patients on the left side, with a trend for loss on the right; however, most areas affected on the left also showed equivalent right-sided volume reductions. Reduced regional volumes appeared in the left rostral hippocampus, bilateral areas in mid and mid-to-caudal regions, and a dorsal-caudal region, adjacent to the fimbria.The volume losses may result from hypoxic exposure following hypoventilation during sleep-disordered breathing, or from developmental or vascular consequences of genetic mutations in the syndrome. The sites of change overlap regions of abnormal functional responses to respiratory and autonomic challenges. Affected hippocampal areas have roles associated with memory, mood, and indirectly, autonomic regulation; impairments in these behavioral and physiological functions appear in CCHS.

  5. A CASE STUDY OF BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

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    Ivan N. Dimitrov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging techniques and software for medical imaging processing and analysis has led to a significant progress in multiple sclerosis research and clinical care. The measurement of brain volumes provides a quantitative representation of damage, thus facilitating the objective follow-up process. The parameters obtained, though not being used routinely in clinical practice, are more and more often applied in clinical studies. The amount of whole brain and regional atrophy, estimated from serial scans, is considered important not only for disease progression, but also for cognitive dysfunction which is common in multiple sclerosis. In this paper we describe a volumetric study of two magnetic resonance scans of a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, performed 16 months one after the other, and analyzed using FSL SIENA software. Analysis demonstrated brain volume reduction of 1.7% between the two scans. We discuss the advantages of the method and its possible clinical applications.

  6. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

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    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  7. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  8. Lung volume reduction surgery: an overview Cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to review the literature on the efficacy, safety and feasibility of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS in patients with advanced emphysema. Studies on LVRS from January 1995 to December 2009 were included by using Pubmed (MEDLINE and Cochrane Library literature in English. Search words such as lung volume reduction surgery or lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty or reduction pneumoplasty, COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and surgery, were used. We also compared medical therapy and surgical technique. Studies consisting of randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials (randomized and nonrandomized, reviews and case series were analyzed. Questions regarding validity of the early clinical reports, incomplete follow-up bias, selection criteria and survival, confounded the interpretation of clinical data on LVRS. Patients with upper, lower and diffuse distribution of emphysema were included; we also analyzed as key points perioperative morbidity and mortality and lung function measurement as FEV1. Bullous emphysema was excluded from this review. Surgical approach included median sternotomy, unilateral or bilateral thoracotomy, and videothoracoscopy with stapled or laser ablation. Results of prospective randomized trials between medical management and LVRS are essential before final assessment can be established.O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura acerca da eficácia, segurança e viabilidade da cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar (CRVP em pacientes com enfisema pulmonar avançado. Estudos de CRVP de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2009 foram incluídos através de pesquisa na Pubmed (MEDLINE e Cochrane Library, na literatura inglesa. Palavras de busca tais como lung volume reduction surgery ou lung reduction surgery, pneumoplasty ou reduction pneumoplasty, COPD ou chronic obstructive pulmonary disease e surgery foram utilizadas. Também realizamos comparação entre terapia médica e cir

  9. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater management using water sensitive urban design is expected to be part of future drainage systems. This paper aims to model the combination of local retention units, such as soakaways, with subsurface detention units. Soakaways are employed to reduce (by storage and infiltration) peak...... and volume stormwater runoff; however, large retention volumes are required for a significant peak reduction. Peak runoff can therefore be handled by combining detention units with soakaways. This paper models the impact of retrofitting retention-detention units for an existing urbanized catchment in Denmark....... The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...

  10. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during a simu...

  11. Efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar IH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Imran H Iftikhar,1 Franklin R McGuire,1 Ali I Musani21Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USABackground: Over the last several years, the morbidity, mortality, and high costs associated with lung volume reduction (LVR surgery has fuelled the development of different methods for bronchoscopic LVR (BLVR in patients with emphysema. In this meta-analysis, we sought to study and compare the efficacy of most of these methods.Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed and Embase for the following BLVR methods: one-way valves, sealants (BioLVR, LVR coils, airway bypass stents, and bronchial thermal vapor ablation. Primary study outcomes included the mean change post-intervention in the lung function tests, the 6-minute walk distance, and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included treatment-related complications.Results: Except for the airway bypass stents, all other methods of BLVR showed efficacy in primary outcomes. However, in comparison, the BioLVR method showed the most significant findings and was the least associated with major treatment-related complications. For the BioLVR method, the mean change in forced expiratory volume (in first second was 0.18 L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09 to 0.26; P<0.001; in 6-minute walk distance was 23.98 m (95% CI: 12.08 to 35.88; P<0.01; and in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire was −8.88 points (95% CI: −12.12 to −5.64; P<0.001.Conclusion: The preliminary findings of our meta-analysis signify the importance of most methods of BLVR. The magnitude of the effect on selected primary outcomes shows noninferiority, if not equivalence, when compared to what is known for surgical LVR.Keyword: emphysema, endobronchial valves, sealants, stents, coils

  12. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY... Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management that updates the 1981 Policy... are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The public comment period closed on...

  13. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Commission) is revising its 1981 Policy Statement on Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction..., ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML090410531), and referenced the Policy...

  14. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment of Patients With Severe Heterogeneous Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix J. F.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The lung volume reduction coil (LVR-coil), a new experimental device to achieve lung volume reduction by bronchoscopy in patients with severe emphysema, works in a manner unaffected by collateral airflow. We investigated the safety and efficacy of LVR-coil treatment in patients with hete

  15. Reduction of Volume-preserving Flows on an n-dimensional Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-ai Zheng; De-bin Huang; Zeng-rong Liu

    2003-01-01

    A geometric reduction procedure for volume-preserving flows with a volume-preserving symmetry on an n-dimensional manifold is obtained. Instead of the coordinate-dependent theory and the concrete coordinate transformation, we show that a volume-preserving flow with a one-parameter volume-preserving symmetry on an n-dimensional manifold can be reduced to a volume-preserving flow on the corresponding (n - 1)-dimensional quotient space. More generally, if it admits an r-parameter volume-preserving commutable symmetry, then the reduced flow preserves the corresponding (n - r)-dimensional volume form.

  16. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  17. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  18. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  19. Reduction in mean platelet volume in children with acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Ayşe Betül; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Uytun, Salih; Aslaner, Hümeyra; Kısaaslan, Ayşenur Paç; Şerbetçi, Mahmut Can

    2016-03-01

    Platelets which are known to play a role in inflamation change their shapes when they are activated and this change is reflected in mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values. Therefore, the mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values are considered to be beneficial parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate platelet volume indices in children with acute bronchiolitis. A total of 514 infants who were below the age of 2 years old were evaluated in this study. Three hundred thirteen of these infants were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis patients and 201 were healthy children. The patients were separated into four groups as mild, moderate, severe bronchiolitis and the control patient group. The groups were evaluated in terms of significant differences in the values of mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all results. The mean platelet volume was found to be 6.8±0.6 fL in the patients with mild bronchiolitis attack, 6.7±0.6 fL in the patients with moderate bronchiolitis attack, 6.5±0.5 fL in the patients with severe bronchiolitis attack and 7.3±1.1 fL in the control group. The mean platalet volume was statistically significantly lower in the mild, moderate and severe bronchiolitis attack groups compared to the control group (p=0.000). The platelet distribution width was found to be 17.2%±0.83 in the mild bronchiolitis attack group, 17.1%±0.96 in the moderate bronchiolitis attack group, 17.3%±0.87 in the severe bronchiolitis attack group and 16.9±1.6% in the control patient group. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.159). The platelet count was statistically significantly higher in the mild, moderate and severe bronchiolitis attack groups compared to the control group (p=0.000). The mean platalet volume is decreased in patients with acute bronchiolitis. It is not

  20. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  1. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mollock, J. [Devon Energy Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  2. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  3. Reduction of Laboratory Utilization in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Samih; Elliott, Rachel; Dickerson, Evan; Khan, Babar; Diab, Khalil

    2017-09-01

    In our academic intensive care unit (ICU), there is excess ordering of routine laboratory tests. This is partially due to a lack of transparency of laboratory-processing costs and to the admission order plans that favor daily laboratory test orders. We hypothesized that a program that involves physician and staff education and alters the current ICU order sets will lead to a sustained decrease in routine laboratory test ordering. Prospective cohort study. Academic closed medical ICU (MICU). All patients admitted to the MICU. We consistently educated residents, faculty, and staff about laboratory test costs. We removed the daily laboratory test option from the admission order sets and asked residents to order needed laboratory test results every day. We only allowed the G3+I-STAT (arterial blood gas only) cartridges in the MICU in hopes of decreasing duplicative laboratory test results. We added laboratory review to the daily rounding checklist. Total number of laboratory tests per patient-day decreased from 39.43 to an average of 26.74 ( P central laboratory processing duplicative laboratory tests per patient-day decreased from 0.17 to an average of 0.01 ( P unit morbidity and mortality were not impacted. A simple technique of resident, nursing, and ancillary staff education, combined with alterations in order sets using electronic medical records, can lead to a sustained reduction in laboratory test utilization over time and to significant cost savings without affecting patient safety.

  4. The lung volume reduction coil for the treatment of emphysema : a new therapy in development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Lung volume reduction (LVR) coil treatment is a novel therapy for patients with severe emphysema. In this bilateral bronchoscopic treatment, approximately 10 LVR coils per lobe are delivered under fluoroscopic guidance in two sequential procedures. The LVR coil reduces lung volume by compressing the

  5. Reduced astrocyte density underlying brain volume reduction in activity-based anorexia rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Johann, Sonja; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Heussen, Nicole; Neulen, Joseph; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe grey and white matter volume reductions were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) that were linked to neuropsychological deficits while their underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. For the first time, we analysed the cellular basis of brain volume changes in an animal

  6. New Approach for Error Reduction in the Volume Penalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakami-Nakano, Wakana; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Hattori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The volume penalization method offers an efficient way to numerically simulate flows around complex-shaped bodies which move and/or deform in general. In this method a penalization term which has permeability eta and a mask function is added to a governing equation as a forcing term in order to impose different dynamics in solid and fluid regions. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of the volume penalization method in detail. We choose the one-dimensional Burgers' equation as a governing equation since it enables us extensive study and it has a nonlinear term similar to the Navier-Stokes equations. It is confirmed that the error which consists of the discretization/truncation error, the penalization error, the round-off error, and others has the same features as those in previous results when we use the standard definition of the mask function. As the number of grid points increases, the error converges to a non-zero constant which is equal to the penalization error. We propose a new approach for reduc...

  7. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    -off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...... with breast hypertrophy as a tool which facilitates their decision-making and patients' acceptance of the decisions made. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  8. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  9. Volume reductions in frontopolar and left perisylvian cortices in methamphetamine induced psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Orikabe, Lina; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Yahata, Noriaki; Mozue, Yuriko; Sudo, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Tatsuji; Itokawa, Masanari; Suzuki, Michio; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of methamphetamine disturbs dopaminergic transmission and sometimes provokes schizophrenia-like-psychosis, named methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP). While previous studies have repeatedly reported regional volume reductions in the frontal and temporal areas as neuroanatomical substrates for psychotic symptoms, no study has examined whether such neuroanatomical substrates exist or not in patients with MAP. Magnetic resonance images obtained from twenty patients with MAP and 20 demographically-matched healthy controls (HC) were processed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie Algebra. An analysis of covariance model was adopted to identify volume differences between subjects with MAP and HC, treating intracranial volume as a confounding covariate. The VBM analyses showed significant gray matter volume reductions in the left perisylvian structures, such as the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior superior temporal gyrus, and the frontopolar cortices, including its dorsomedial, ventromedial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral portions, and white matter volume reduction in the orbitofrontal area in the patients with MAP compared with the HC subjects. The smaller regional gray matter volume in the medial portion of the frontopolar cortex was significantly correlated with the severe positive symptoms in the individuals with MAP. The volume reductions in the left perisylvian structure suggest that patients with MAP have a similar pathophysiology to schizophrenia, whereas those in the frontopolar cortices and orbitofrontal area suggest an association with antisocial traits or vulnerability to substance dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in superior mesenteric artery Doppler waveform during reduction of cardiac stroke volume and hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Perko, Grazyna; Just, S

    1996-01-01

    Influence of stroke volume reduction and hypotension on the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) Doppler waveform was evaluated during head-up tilt-induced central hypovolemia in 11 healthy volunteers. During normotensive reduction in stroke volume, peak systolic velocity (pV), mean velocity, pulsati......Influence of stroke volume reduction and hypotension on the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) Doppler waveform was evaluated during head-up tilt-induced central hypovolemia in 11 healthy volunteers. During normotensive reduction in stroke volume, peak systolic velocity (pV), mean velocity...... of the study indicate that alterations in stroke volume induce consequential changes in the SMA Doppler waveform. These changes originate from both direct influence of stroke volume and/or pressure on blood flow velocity, and alterations in SMA peripheral resistance that follow variations in stroke volume....... Presented interdependencies should be taken into consideration while studying mesenteric physiology with the use of Doppler technique and while interpreting the duplex results in patients suffering from diseases that may influence flow velocity and mimic or obscure Doppler effects of the SMA stenosis....

  11. Cortical grey matter volume reduction in people with schizophrenia is associated with neuro-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Catts, V S; Sheedy, D; McCrossin, T; Kril, J J; Shannon Weickert, C

    2016-12-13

    Cortical grey matter volume deficits and neuro-inflammation exist in patients with schizophrenia, although it is not clear whether elevated cytokines contribute to the cortical volume reduction. We quantified cortical and regional brain volumes in fixed postmortem brains from people with schizophrenia and matched controls using stereology. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and SERPINA3 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were quantified in the contralateral fresh frozen orbitofrontal cortex. We found a small, but significant reduction in cortical grey matter (1.3%; F(1,85)=4.478, P=0.037) and superior frontal gyrus (6.5%; F(1,80)=5.700, P=0.019) volumes in individuals with schizophrenia compared with controls. Significantly reduced cortical grey matter (9.2%; F(1,24)=8.272, P=0.008) and superior frontal gyrus (13.9%; F(1,20)=5.374, P=0.031) volumes were found in cases with schizophrenia and 'high inflammation' status relative to schizophrenia cases with 'low inflammation' status in the prefrontal cortex. The expression of inflammatory mRNAs in the orbitofrontal cortex was significantly correlated with those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (all r>0.417, all Pgrey matter and superior frontal gyrus volumes (all rgrey matter volume in people with schizophrenia is exaggerated in those who have high expression of inflammatory cytokines. Further, antipsychotic medication intake does not appear to ameliorate the reduction in brain volume.

  12. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  13. Fluorescence enhancement and focal volume reduction observed in c-shaped nano-apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yin; Fore, Samantha; Huser, Thomas; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2008-02-01

    We evaluate the potential ability of c-shaped apertures milled in aluminum thin films to reduce the effective measurement volume and to enhance the fluorescence signal for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of ATTO655 dye dissolved in a HEPES buffer solution. Previous studies have shown that by morphing a square aperture into a rectangular aperture while holding the cross-sectional area constant will yield strong polarization dependence in the reduction of the effective volume and about a factor of 2-3 enhancement in the fluorescence count rate per molecule. By morphing the rectangular aperture into a c-shaped aperture we gain further reduction in focal volume while maintaining the count rate enhancements. In particular, we compare c-shaped apertures to squares with the same cross-sectional area and show that one can achieve one molecule per focal volume at ~3µM (about a 1000 times reduction in effective volume compared to confocal FCS) while maintaining a fluorescence count rate per molecule of about an order of magnitude higher than for bulk diffusing dyes. Two orthogonal polarizations for the incident field have been studied to explore the effects on the focal volume reduction and fluorescence count rate enhancements.

  14. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  15. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut......-off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  16. Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R A; Pride, N B; Thomas, E Louise; Ind, P W; Bell, J D

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in total lung capacity (TLC) in obese men is associated with restricted expansion of the thoracic cavity at full inflation. We hypothesized that thoracic expansion was reduced by the load imposed by increased total trunk fat volume or its distribution. Using MRI, we measured internal and subcutaneous trunk fat and total abdominal and thoracic volumes at full inflation in 14 obese men [mean age: 52.4 yr, body mass index (BMI): 38.8 (range: 36-44) kg/m(2)] and 7 control men [mean age: 50.1 yr, BMI: 25.0 (range: 22-27.5) kg/m(2)]. TLC was measured by multibreath helium dilution and was restricted (fat volume was 16.65 (range: 12.6-21.8) liters in obese men and 6.98 (range: 3.0-10.8) liters in control men. Anthropometry and mean total trunk fat volumes were similar in OR men and obese men without restriction (the ON subgroup). Mean total intraabdominal volume was 9.41 liters in OR men and 11.15 liters in ON men. In obese men, reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation and restriction of TLC were not inversely related to a large volume of 1) intra-abdominal or total abdominal fat, 2) subcutaneous fat volume around the thorax, or 3) total trunk fat volume. In addition, trunk fat volumes in obese men were not inversely related to gas volume or estimated intrathoracic volume at supine functional residual capacity. In conclusion, this study failed to support the hypotheses that restriction of TLC or impaired expansion of the thorax at full inflation in middle-aged obese men was simply a consequence of a large abdominal volume or total trunk fat volume or its distribution.

  17. Feasibility of contrast material volume reduction in coronary artery imaging using 320-slice volume CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Patrick A.; May, Juliane; Rogalla, Patrik; Hamm, Bernd; Lembcke, Alexander [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Butler, Craig [Charite-University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Alberta, Department of Cardiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    To assess reduced volumes of contrast agent on image quality for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) by using single-beat cardiac imaging with 320-slice CT. Forty consecutive male patients (mean age: 55.8 years) undergoing CCTA with body weight {<=}85 kg, heart rate {<=}65 bpm, and ejection fraction {>=}55% were included. Image acquisition protocol was standardized (120 kV, 400 mA, and prospective ECG-triggered single-beat nonspiral CCTA). Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups (G1: received 40 ml, G2: 50 ml, G3: 60 ml, G4: 70 ml). Groups were compared with respect to aortic attenuation, image noise, and image quality. CT values (mean {+-} standard deviation) in the aortic root were measured as 423 {+-} 38 HU in G1, and 471 {+-} 68, 463 {+-} 60, and 476 {+-} 78 HU in G2-4, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in attenuation among the groups (P > 0.068). All 40 CT datasets were rated diagnostic, and image noise and image quality were not statistically different among groups. Using 320-slice volume CT, diagnostic image quality can be achieved with 40 ml of contrast material in CCTA in patients with normal body weight, cardiac function, and low heart rate. (orig.)

  18. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Patel, Deesha A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Johnson, Jason M.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Shepherd, John A.; Wang, Jeff; Malkov, Serghei; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Palakal, Maya; Xiang, Jackie; Oh, Hannah; Horne, Hisani N.; Sprague, Brian L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (peri-lesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm2, median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40–65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent peri-lesional MD (P-trend=0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P-trendbreast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction. PMID:26645278

  19. Treatment of emphysema using bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil technology : an update on efficacy and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade several promising bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) treatments were developed and investigated. One of these treatments is BLVR treatment with coils. The advantage of this specific treatment is that it works independently of collateral flow, and also shows promise for pat

  20. Ossified materialism: introduction to the special volume on absolute reductions in materials throughput and emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akenji, L.; Bengtsson, M.; Bleiswitaz, R.; Tukker, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from papers in this special volume (SV), this introductory paper on absolute reductions argues that the magnitude, scope and urgency of the sustainability challenge require a drastic change in global civilisation, including a radical transformation of the institutional arrangements and socio

  1. Lung volume reduction coil treatment for patients with severe emphysema : a European multicentre trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deslee, Gaetan; Klooster, Karin; Hetzel, Martin; Stanzel, Franz; Kessler, Romain; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Witt, Christian; Blaas, Stefan; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Herth, Felix J. F.; Hetzel, Juergen; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background The lung volume reduction (LVR) coil is a minimally invasive bronchoscopic nitinol device designed to reduce hyperinflation and improve elastic recoil in severe emphysema. We investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of LVR coil treatment in a prospective multicentre cohort trial

  2. Lung volume reduction for severe emphysema: do we need a scalpel or a scope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Raemdonck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resectional lung volume reduction has proven to be superior to medical treatment in reducing dyspnoea and in increasing lung function, survival and quality of life in a very well selected, low risk group of hyperinflated patients with heterogeneous emphysema predominantly in the upper lobe. Nevertheless, this intervention is hampered by an important pulmonary (30% and cardiovascular (20% morbidity, mainly as a result of prolonged (>7 days air leak, and a 5% risk of death as a result of the surgical intervention. Results from ongoing randomised trials are awaited in order to determine whether less invasive, non-resectional lung volume treatment of emphysema via the bronchoscope using endobronchial valves, airway bypass stents or biological adhesives/heated water vapour will yield similar improvement with less morbidity and reduced mortality, compared with surgical resection. Furthermore, it is hoped that endoscopic lung volume reduction techniques may help patients with homogeneous emphysema currently excluded by most teams for the resectional procedure.

  3. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of h...

  4. Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil.

  5. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Desarda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient’s oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination.

  6. Thermodynamics of Condensed Phases: Formula Unit Volume, "V[subscript m]", and the Determination of the Number of Formula Units, "Z", in a Crystallographic Unit Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Formula unit (or molecular) volume, "V[subscript m]", is related to many thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, so that knowledge of "V[subscript m]" is useful in prediction of such properties for known and even hypothetical materials. The symbol "Z" represents the number of formula units in a crystallographic unit cell; "Z" thus…

  7. Adjuvant radiotherapy in stage I seminoma: Is there a role for further reduction of treatment volume?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Frank; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2005-03-01

    An analysis was performed to determine whether a cranial reduction of the portals to the T11/T12 junction instead of the common T10/T11 junction would alter the outcome of patients with stage I seminoma. Of 163 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed testicular seminoma referred to the authors' institution between April 1992 and April 1999, 80 patients with stage I seminoma were treated with cranially reduced para-aortic treatment fields reaching from the top of T12 to the bottom of L4. Median total dose was 20.0 Gy (range, 19.8-27.2 Gy). Patients were followed-up by the use of CT in regular intervals. After a median follow-up of 7.1 years (range, 4.1-11.1 years), four patients (5%) had relapsed resulting in an actuarial 5-year relapse-free survival of 95%. No patients relapsed within the cranially reduced treatment volume above the top of T12. The cranial reduction of the para-aortic treatment fields resulted in a median reduction of treatment volume of 16% (range, 13-21%). The achieved median reduction in treatment volume of 16% appears to be relevant and is not associated with an increased relapse rate. This approach is recommended in analogy to the surgical approach in NSGCT to further minimize the risk of radiation-related late effects.

  8. Long-term occupational stress is associated with regional reductions in brain tissue volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blix

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM and white matter (WM volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen - structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment.

  9. Increased oxygen pulse after lung volume reduction surgery is associated with reduced dynamic hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ciccolella, David; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Kohler, Malcolm; Criner, Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Stroke volume augmentation during exercise is limited in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients because of decreased preload from dynamic hyperinflation (DH). We hypothesised that oxygen pulse and pulse pressure (PP) improve following lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), and the magnitude of improvement correlates with reduction in DH. We compared 16 emphysema patients undergoing LVRS with six emphysema patients not undergoing LVRS. Oxygen pulse and PP were calculated from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests at baseline and 6 months. End-expiratory lung volume (EELV)/total lung capacity (TLC) represented DH. Comparisons were made between baseline and 6 months at metabolic isotimes (per cent maximal carbon dioxide production (V'(CO(2),max))). At baseline, the LVRS group was older with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s, but had similar hyperinflation to the non-LVRS group. At 6 months, oxygen pulse (50%, 75%, and 100% V'(CO(2),max)) and PP (50% and 75% V'(CO(2),max)) increased in the LVRS, but not in the non-LVRS group. Baseline functional residual capacity/TLC inversely correlated with resting oxygen pulse (r= -0.449, p=0.04). Decreased EELV/TLC correlated with increased oxygen pulse at 75% (r= -0.487, p=0.02) and 100% V'(CO(2),max) (r= -0.548, p=0.008). LVRS led to increased oxygen pulse and PP during exercise at metabolic isotimes 6 months following surgery. Reductions in DH correlated with increases in oxygen pulse during exercise. Reducing lung volume may improve stroke volume response to exercise by decreasing DH.

  10. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males.......06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction...

  11. Units of Instruction. Health Occupations Education. Volume I. [Teacher's Guide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Ten units on health occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: recording vital signs; job application and interview; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers; medical careers; medical ethics; medical terminology and abbreviations; medical asepsis; basic patient care (e.g., measuring and recording fluid…

  12. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  13. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  14. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  15. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  16. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The indication for breast reduction in a public welfare or an insurance paid setting depends on the severity of the subjective symptoms and the clinical evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of breast volume as an objective criterion to establish the indication...... for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...

  17. Lateral frontal cortex volume reduction in Tourette syndrome revealed by VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittfoth Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural changes have been found predominantly in the frontal cortex and in the striatum in children and adolescents with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. The influence of comorbid symptomatology is unclear. Here we sought to address the question of gray matter abnormalities in GTS patients with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM in twenty-nine adult actually unmedicated GTS patients and twenty-five healthy control subjects. Results In GTS we detected a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, but no regions demonstrating volume increases. By comparing subgroups of GTS with comorbid ADHD to the subgroup with comorbid OCD, we found a left-sided amygdalar volume increase. Conclusions From our results it is suggested that the left IFG may constitute a common underlying structural correlate of GTS with co-morbid OCD/ADHD. A volume reduction in this brain region that has been previously identified as a key region in OCD and was associated with the active inhibition of attentional processes may reflect the failure to control behavior. Amygdala volume increase is discussed on the background of a linkage of this structure with ADHD symptomatology. Correlations with clinical data revealed gray matter volume changes in specific brain areas that have been described in these conditions each.

  18. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  19. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without lifetime substance abuse......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...

  20. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D......) Approved fatal injury claims, and (C+D) Combined. RESULTS: 1 151 734 deliveries in 51 labor units and 1872 submitted claims were included. The incidence rate ratios of approved claims overall, of approved fatal injury claims, and of approved severe and fatal injuries combined increased significantly...

  1. Severe Emphysema Treated by Endoscopic Bronchial Volume Reduction with Lung Sealant (AeriSeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic lung volume reduction using lung sealant is a very new and innovative treatment option for patients with severe progressive and irreversible lung emphysema. A 55-year-old ex-smoker (60 pack years referred to our center because of severe lung emphysema with progressive worsening of the obstructive ventilator pattern and clinical condition. We detected collateral channels of this patient by using the Chartis system. Therefore, we decided to treat the advanced emphysema of our patient with endoscopic volume reduction using lung sealant (AeriSeal. The foam of lung sealant AeriSeal is instilled into the peripheral airways and alveoli where it polymerizes and functions as tissue glue on the lung surface in order to seal the target region to cause durable irreversible absorption atelectasis. The follow-up evaluation 12 weeks later showed improved lung function (increased FEV 1/partial oxygen pressure/peripheral oxygen saturation and a reduction of TLC and RV with improved quality of life. Correlation between changes in primary and secondary outcome measures in the lung function parameters and 6-minute-walking test before and 12 weeks after the application of lung sealant revealed significant reduction of hyperinflation and improvement both in the flow rates and in the physical capability of this patient.

  2. Brain volume reduction predicts weight development in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jochen; Walter, Martin; Mainz, Verena; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; von Polier, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Acute anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with marked brain volume loss potentially leading to neuropsychological deficits. However, the mechanisms leading to this brain volume loss and its influencing factors are poorly understood and the clinical relevance of these brain alterations for the outcome of these AN-patients is yet unknown. Brain volumes of 56 female adolescent AN inpatients and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were measured using MRI scans. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the impact of body weight at admission, prior weight loss, age of onset and illness duration on volume loss at admission and to analyse the association of brain volume reduction with body weight at a 1-year follow-up (N = 25). Cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM) and cortical white matter (WM) but not cerebellar GM or WM were associated with low weight at admission. Amount of weight loss, age of onset and illness duration did not independently correlate with any volume changes. Prediction of age-adjusted standardized body mass index (BMI-SDS) at 1-year follow-up could be significantly improved from 34% of variance explained by age and BMI-SDS at admission to 47.5-53% after adding cortical WM, cerebellar GM or WM at time of admission. Whereas cortical GM changes appear to be an unspecific reflection of current body weight ("state marker"), cortical WM and cerebellar volume losses seem to indicate a longer-term risk (trait or "scar" of the illness), which appear to be important for the prediction of weight rehabilitation and long-term outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Encephalitis, eastern equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, western equine Escherichia co//0157:H7 Gonorrhea Haemophilus influenzae , invasive...viral zoonosis caused by Sin Nombre virus and other New World hantaviruses which, in the United States, include Bayou virus, Black Creek Canal virus

  4. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in a single-lung transplant recipient with natal lung hyperinflation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, O; Rama, P; Allegue, M; Fernández, R; González, D; Borro, J M

    2010-06-01

    After single lung transplantation for emphysema native lung hyperinflation is a common complication that may cause respiratory failure. Herein we have reported satisfactory bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in a left single-lung transplant recipient with native lung hyperinflation, who suffered from Medical Research Council (MRC) class 3 dyspnea and chest pain. Three endobronchial valves (Zephyr; Emphasys Medical, Redwood, Calif, United States) were placed into the segmental bronchi of the right upper lobe, using videobronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Postoperative chest computed tomography revealed subsegmental atelectasis in that lobe. The clinical benefit was an improved MRC dyspnea class from 3 to 2, which was still present at 4 months after the procedure, although there were no remarkable changes in spirometric parameters.

  5. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  6. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills and Theory for Health Assistant. Volume I, Units 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This volume consists of the first four units of a basic core curriculum that is intended for all health workers. The units deal with the following topics: (1) the health care facility, the long-term care facility, the health team, and the nursing team; (2) verbal and nonverbal communication, written communication, human behavior, ethical behavior,…

  7. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills and Theory for Health Assistant. Volume 2, Units 5-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This volume consists of three units of a basic core curriculum that is intended for all health workers. Covered in the units are the following topics: (1) the body's need for food, the effect of food on the body, the five food groups, the six nutrients, and therapeutic diets; (2) general principles of asepsis, specific methods of maintaining…

  8. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iapichino, G; Gattinoni, L; Radrizzani, D; Simini, B; Bertolini, G; Ferla, L; Mistraletti, G; Porta, F; Miranda, DR

    Objective. Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of

  9. Superior temporal gyrus volume reduction and P300 in schizophrenia prior to treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayasu, Akira; Hokama, Hiroto; Ogura, Chikara; Ohta, Hirokazu; Arakaki, Hajime; Asato, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    Authors measured the superior temporal gyrus volume by 3D MRI imaging for the schizophrenics and simultaneously recorded the P300 component during the auditory odd-ball exercise. Subjects were 8 cases of schizophrenics and the sex- and age-matched healthy control adults. In schizophrenics, the superior temporal gyrus volume reduction was found. When the superior temporal gyrus was divided into two parts, the anterior part containing the primary auditory area, and the posterior part containing the planum temporale and the Wernicle speech area, the volume reduction of left side in the posterior part was remarkable. There was no difference in the latent time and the P300 amplitude between schizophrenics and healthy controls, suggesting that the superior temporal gyrus abnormalities will appear prior to P300 abnormalities. We could not find any correlation between findings of MRI and P300 and psychic symptoms. We discuss the possible contribution on the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the schizophrenia by simultaneous recordings of 3D MRI imaging and the event-related potentials. (K.H.)

  10. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  11. Quality of Life and Volume Reduction in Women with Secondary Lymphoedema Related to Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lanza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the quality of life (QOL as a predictor of volume reduction in women undergoing complex physical therapy (CPT for lymphoedema following breast cancer. Methods. Clinical trial in 57 women undergoing CPT. Results. At baseline, in measuring quality of life for the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire subscale of functionality, the worst scores for emotional function (55 points and better social function (89 points were observed. The symptom scales showed the worst pain averaged (66 points. The overall quality of life showed a low score (40 points. In the BR 23 module, low scores were observed in the field of future perspective (47 points. After treatment of lymphoedema, absolute reduction of excess volume between the upper limbs of 282 mL was observed, representing a reduction of 15%. No association was observed between the domains of quality of life and response to treatment of lymphoedema. Conclusion. This study included 57 women with advanced and chronic lymphoedema in early treatment with CPT and low scores for quality of life. The lymphoedema therapeutic response was not influenced by the QOL at the beginning of treatment.

  12. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  13. Gray Matter Volume Reduction Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Neuromyelitis Optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Qin, W; Li, Y; Fu, Y; Li, T; Shao, J; Yang, L; Shi, F-D; Yu, C

    2015-10-01

    Whether gray matter impairment occurs in neuromyelitis optica is a matter of ongoing debate, and the association of gray matter impairment with cognitive deficits remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volume reductions and their association with cognitive decline in patients with neuromyelitis optica. This study included 50 patients with neuromyelitis optica and 50 sex-, age-, handedness-, and education-matched healthy subjects who underwent high-resolution structural MR imaging examinations and a battery of cognitive assessments. Gray matter volume and cognitive differences were compared between the 2 groups. The correlations of the regional gray matter volume with cognitive scores and clinical variables were explored in the patients with neuromyelitis optica. Compared with healthy controls (635.9 ± 51.18 mL), patients with neuromyelitis optica (602.8 ± 51.03 mL) had a 5.21% decrease in the mean gray matter volume of the whole brain (P optica affected the frontal and temporal cortices and the right thalamus (false discovery rate correction, P optica (Alphasim correction, P optica had impairments in memory, information processing speed, and verbal fluency (P optica and is associated with cognitive impairment and disease severity in this group. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction is a treatment offered to patients with severe heterogenous emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perch, Michael; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Rychwicha-Kielek, Beata A; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Iversen, Martin; Siemsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Ole D; Haahr, Poul Erik

    2014-07-14

    Introduction of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction as a treatment for severe emphysema has been defined as an area of development by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority. We here present the rationale for treatment, in- and exclusion criteria, and ultimately the organization for assessment, treatment and follow-up in Denmark. The treatment aim is to lower dyspnoea. There is a national protocol for patient selection according to in- and exclusion criteria. Different commercial devices are available, but endobronchial valves have been the devices mostly applied. A national database has been established to evaluate cost-effectiveness.

  15. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  16. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema: A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, K.; Hacken, N. Ten; Franz, I.; Kerstjens, H.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Slebos, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction ({LVR}) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic {LVR} coil treatment has been show

  17. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  18. Obesity is associated with increased prostate growth and attenuated prostate volume reduction by dutasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Roberto L; Gerber, Leah; Moreira, Daniel M; Andriole, Gerald; Hamilton, Robert J; Fleshner, Neil; Parsons, J Kellogg; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-06-01

    Although obesity has been associated with larger prostate volumes (PV), few studies have actually investigated whether obesity enhances PV growth, especially among men using 5α-reductase inhibitors. To examine whether obesity is associated with enhanced PV growth measured by serial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) measurements. We conducted a secondary analysis of the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which was originally aimed at cancer risk reduction among high-risk men with a single negative prestudy biopsy. Per-protocol randomization to placebo or dutasteride and mandatory TRUS-guided biopsies at 2 yr and 4 yr. Percentage change in PV at 2 yr and 4 yr from baseline. We tested its association with baseline body mass index (BMI) groups of Obesity enhanced PV growth and attenuated PV reduction by dutasteride. The null interaction between obesity and dutasteride for PV change implies that the effect of obesity on dutasteride-treated men is likely a combination of dutasteride-driven PV reduction with obesity-driven PV growth rather than decreased dutasteride efficacy. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.

  19. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  20. Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema: Radiologic findings; Valutazione radiologica nell`intervento di riduzione del volume polmonare per enfisema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfioli, Claudio; Motta, Fabio; Bergonzi, Marco; Urani, Antonio; Montali, Giuseppe [Ospedale Generale `San Giuseppe`, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia; Varoli, Federico; Vergani, Contardo; Roviaro, Gian Carlo [Ospedale Generale `San Giuseppe`, Milan (Italy). Divisione di Chirurgia

    1997-04-01

    Aim of this work is to present and discuss the radiologic protocol they have developed for the preoperative assessment of patients with severe pulmonary emphysema candidate to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). The operation aims at improving respiratory mechanics and reducing small airway obstruction by removing variable amounts of emphysematous parenchyma. January to September, 1996, twelve patients were submitted to LVRS. Before surgery all patients were examined with standard chest radiographs during maximal inspiration and expiration, chest Computed Tomography (CT), High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) and air trapping quantitation on HRCT scans. Diaphragm and chest wall excursions, patterns, site and distribution of emphysema, as well as heterogeneity were investigated, Air trapping was quantitate with a dedicated software. Post-operative studies were carried out 2 months later in 6 patients and included: maximal inspiratory and expiratory chest radiographs and air trapping assessment on 3 standardized HRCT scans. All parameters considered improved in every patient. Radiologic studies proved to be of crucial importance for patient selection and LVRS planning. The diagnostic protocol adopted in their Hospital appears a valuable tool for both pre- and post-operative assessment of the patients candidate to LVRS.

  1. Extreme Hydrological Changes in the Western United States Drive Reductions in Water Supply by Mid Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Brianna; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi; Mei, Rui; Kendall, Donald; Pal, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    basins. Volumes for annual cumulative maximum runoff increase and in contrast decrease for annual cumulative minimum runoff. Intuitively, increased frequency of years with below historical average runoff put further strain on water supply. However, the escalating likelihood of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring the release of water from reservoirs, also potentially decreasing water availability. Significant reductions in snowpack and increases in extreme runoff necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Western United States.

  2. Does a volume reduction of the parietal lobe contribute to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Alfonso; Assogna, Francesca; Piras, Fabrizio; Di Battista, Maria Elena; Imperiale, Francesca; Chiapponi, Chiara; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Meco, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is as a brief, episodic absence or marked reduction of forward progression of the feet despite the intention to walk. Structural neuroimaging studies on FOG in PD using volumetric techniques yielded variable and partially conflicting findings, probably reflecting the heterogeneity and complexity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to further explore the differences in local gray matter (GM) volume in patients with PD with and without FOG by using Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM). We enrolled 26 patients (7 women and 19 men) with a diagnosis of PD in stable treatment with dopaminergic therapy. Thirteen patients classified as FOG+ were matched with thirteen non-freezer (FOG-) PD patients. All 26 participants underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment as well as a VBM analysis derived from T1 weighted 3T MRI. The patient groups did not significantly differ for age, disease duration, H&Y stage, UPDRS part-III or educational attainment. No significant differences of cognitive profile emerged. PD-FOG+ patients showed a pattern of relative GM atrophy in left posterior parietal gyrus compared with PD-FOG-. Our results suggest that a specific pattern of cortical volume reduction involving posterior parietal cortex contributes to the occurrence of FOG in PD. These data agree with the growing body of evidence considering the parietal posterior cortex as an associative area involved in spatial control of motor behavior, par-taking in response selection to sensory evaluation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Optimization Solutions for Improving the Performance of the Parallel Reduction Algorithm Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we research, analyze and develop optimization solutions for the parallel reduction function using graphics processing units (GPUs that implement the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, a modern and novel approach for improving the software performance of data processing applications and algorithms. Many of these applications and algorithms make use of the reduction function in their computational steps. After having designed the function and its algorithmic steps in CUDA, we have progressively developed and implemented optimization solutions for the reduction function. In order to confirm, test and evaluate the solutions' efficiency, we have developed a custom tailored benchmark suite. We have analyzed the obtained experimental results regarding: the comparison of the execution time and bandwidth when using graphic processing units covering the main CUDA architectures (Tesla GT200, Fermi GF100, Kepler GK104 and a central processing unit; the data type influence; the binary operator's influence.

  4. Inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic volumetry for lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Yuki; Chen, Fengshi; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of thoracic surgery, and a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry provides useful data on regional pulmonary function as well as the volume of individual lung lobes. We report herein a case of a 62-year-old man with severe emphysema who had undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to assess this technique as a tool for the evaluation of regional lung function and volume before and after LVRS. His postoperative pulmonary function was maintained in good condition despite a gradual slight decrease 2 years after LVRS. This trend was also confirmed by a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry. We confirm that a combination of inspiratory and expiratory 3D-CT volumetry might be effective for the preoperative assessment of LVRS in order to determine the amount of lung tissue to be resected as well as for postoperative evaluation. This novel technique could, therefore, be used more widely to assess local lung function.

  5. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach.

  6. Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2005-01-01

    In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.

  7. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  8. Dimensionality Reduction on Multi-Dimensional Transfer Functions for Multi-Channel Volume Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Suk; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Cone, Angela C.; Sosinsky, Gina E.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2011-01-01

    The design of transfer functions for volume rendering is a non-trivial task. This is particularly true for multi-channel data sets, where multiple data values exist for each voxel, which requires multi-dimensional transfer functions. In this paper, we propose a new method for multi-dimensional transfer function design. Our new method provides a framework to combine multiple computational approaches and pushes the boundary of gradient-based multi-dimensional transfer functions to multiple channels, while keeping the dimensionality of transfer functions at a manageable level, i.e., a maximum of three dimensions, which can be displayed visually in a straightforward way. Our approach utilizes channel intensity, gradient, curvature and texture properties of each voxel. Applying recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms reduces the high-dimensional data of the domain. In this paper, we use Isomap and Locally Linear Embedding as well as a traditional algorithm, Principle Component Analysis. Our results show that these dimensionality reduction algorithms significantly improve the transfer function design process without compromising visualization accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our new dimensionality reduction algorithms with two volumetric confocal microscopy data sets. PMID:21841914

  9. The Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy as a Prostate Volume Reduction before Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki,Kenta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available From September 2003 to December 2005, 188 patients who visited our hospital and allied institutions for the purpose of prostate brachytherapy were administrated hormonal therapy for volume reductions before brachytherapy. The pretreatment and posttreatment of prostate volume using a transrectal ultrasound volumetric study and the types and duration of hormonal therapy were analyzed. We administered 91 patients with Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH agonist, 49 patients with anti-androgen (bicaltamide/flutamide, and 48 patients with maximum androgen blockade (MAB. The duration of the hormonal therapy was 1-3 months for 49 patients, 4-6 months for 59 patients, 7-9 months for 40 patients, 10-12 months for 32 patients, and over 13 months for 8 patients. Before the initiation of hormonal therapy, the mean prostate volume was 35.12 ml (11.04-78.71 ml, and the average of prostate volume before and after hormonal therapy was 36.79 ml and 24.79 ml, respectively (a 32.4% reduction. The prostate volume reduction rate was 32.0% for the LH-RH agonist only, 18.1% for the anti-androgen only and 41.2% for the MAB. No statistically significant difference was observed for the duration of hormonal therapy between 3 groups. A three-month course of the neoadjuvant LH-RH agonist indicated a sufficient volume reduction effectiveness for a large prostate volume.

  10. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  11. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  12. 75 FR 29678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Reductions to Trip...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Reductions to Trip Limits for Five Groundfish Stocks... limits: 5,000 lb (2,268.0 kg) per trip for GB winter flounder; and 2,500 lb (1,134.0 kg) per trip for GB..., NMFS (Regional Administrator) to increase or decrease the trip limits for vessels in the common pool to...

  13. Lung volume reduction surgery for the management of refractory dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asad A; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the role of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for the management of refractory dyspnea and other debilitating conditions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recent studies, including a randomized trial comparing LVRS to medical therapy, are analyzed. LVRS plus optimal medical therapy is superior to medical therapy alone in treating certain subsets of patients with severe emphysema. In patients with predominantly upper lobe emphysema and low-exercise capacity, LVRS not only improves symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, but also is associated with improved survival. Furthermore, LVRS has recently been shown to be superior to medical therapy in improving other quality of life parameters, such as nutritional status, sleep quality, and the frequency of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in patients with severe emphysema. LVRS is an effective strategy in the treatment of properly selected patients with COPD, improving survival and quality of life, including exercise tolerance, dyspnea, oxygen requirement and functional status.

  14. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA)); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 543 raw coal samples collected from the Eastern Region of the United States. This is the first volume of a three-volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in- depth characterization of each sample are presented alphbetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Eastern Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. German Studies in the United States: Assessment and Outlook. Monatshefte Occasional Volume Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnes, Walter F. W., Ed.; Nollendorfs, Valters, Ed.

    This volume focuses on two principal aspects of German studies in the United States: (1) an assessment of the German-teaching profession from primary to graduate school, with attention to its "raison d'etre" in the present academic, social, and cultural situation, as well as its structures, aims, and personnel; and (2) strategies for survival and…

  16. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 2: Alaska Trees and Common Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr.

    This volume is the second in a series of atlases describing the natural distribution or range of native tree species in the United States. The 82 species maps include 32 of trees in Alaska, 6 of shrubs rarely reaching tree size, and 44 more of common shrubs. More than 20 additional maps summarize environmental factors and furnish general…

  17. Reduction in potassium concentration of stored red blood cell units using a resin filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chisa; Heitmiller, Eugenie S; Ness, Paul M; King, Karen E

    2010-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a serious complication of rapid and massive blood transfusion due to high plasma potassium (K) in stored red blood cell (RBC) units. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) was developed in Japan to remove K by exchanging with sodium (Na). We performed an in vitro evaluation of its efficacy and feasibility of use. Three AS-3 RBC units were filtered by each PAF using gravity; 10 PAFs were tested. Blood group, age, flow rate, and irradiation status were recorded. Total volume, K, Na, Cl, Mg, total Ca (tCa), RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma Hb were measured before and after filtering each unit. Ionized Ca (iCa), pH, and glucose were measured for some units. After filtration, the mean decrease in K was 97.5% in the first RBC unit, 91.2% in the second unit, and 64.4% in the third unit. The mean increases in Na, Mg, and tCa were 33.0, 151.4, and 116.1%, respectively. iCa and pH remained low; glucose was unchanged. RBC count, Hb, and Hct decreased slightly after filtration of first units; plasma Hb was unchanged. After filtration, there was no visual evidence of increased hemolysis or clot formation. The PAF decreased K concentration in stored AS-3 RBC units to minimal levels in the first and second RBC units. Optimally, one filter could be used for 2 RBC units. Although Na increased, the level may not be clinically significant. PAF may be useful for at-risk patients receiving older units or blood that has been stored after gamma irradiation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Interventional pulmonology for asthma and emphysema: bronchial thermoplasty and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Murgu, Septimiu D

    2014-12-01

    Emphysema and asthma are responsible for economic and social burden. Altering the natural course of these diseases is a field of intense research. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial showed that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) could significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality in properly selected patients. LVRS is seldom performed, however, due to the high morbidity associated with the surgery. Numerous bronchoscopic interventions have been introduced with the goal of providing the clinical benefits of LVRS without the surgical complications. Thus far, these modalities have not produced the results once hoped. However, through active modification of both technique and patient selection, the role of minimally invasive modalities in the treatment of emphysema continues to evolve. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a method of delivering controlled heat to airway mucosa with the goal of reducing airway smooth muscle mass and hence bronchoconstriction. In patients suffering from asthma who cannot achieve control with standard medical care, BT has been shown to be safe and improves symptoms, with long lasting benefit. BT does not seem to affect traditional markers of asthma severity such as forced expiratory volume in 1 second and questions remain regarding proper patient selection for this therapy and its true physiologic effects. This article is a review of bronchoscopic modalities for emphysema and asthma.

  19. Clinical study of simultaneous lung volume reduction surgery during resection of pulmonary or esophageal neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yi-jun; WANG Chao-yang; WANG Cheng-de; DONG Yao-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Background If the emphysema lesions are not symmetrical, unilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can be carried out on the more severe side. The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility and effects of LVRS performed simultaneously with resection of pulmonary and esophageal neoplasms.Methods Forty-five patients with pulmonary neoplasm and 37 patients with esophageal neoplasm were randomly assigned to group A or group B. In group A, LVRS was performed simultaneously on the same side as thoracotomy. In group B, only tumor resection was performed. The nonfunctional lung area was determined by preoperative chest computed tomography and lung ventilation/perfusion scan. The lung volume removed was about 20% to 30% of the lobes on one side. Preoperative and postoperative indexes including pulmonary function testing variables, arterial blood gas analysis variables, dyspnea scale, 6-minute walk distance, etc., were compared between the groups.Results There were no surgical deaths in this study. The postoperative forced vital capacity in 1 second, PaO_2, PaCO_2,dyspnea scale, and 6-minute walk distance were improved significantly in group A, whereas these indexes did not change or decreased slightly in group B.Conclusions For tumor patients who have associated emphysema, simultaneous LVRS not only increases the chance of receiving surgical therapy, but also improves the postoperative quality of life of the patient. LVRS has expanded thesurgical indication for tumor patients.

  20. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  1. Developmentally Stable Whole-Brain Volume Reductions and Developmentally Sensitive Caudate and Putamen Volume Alterations in Those With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Mennes, Maarten; O'Dwyer, Laurence; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Rommelse, Nanda; Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. It has been linked to reductions in total brain volume and subcortical abnormalities. However, owing to heterogeneity within and between studies and limited sample sizes, findings on the neuroanato

  2. In vivo and in vitro characteristics of double units of RBCs collected by apheresis with a single in-line WBC-reduction filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarenko, N; Rose, M; Kowalsky, R J; Baston, R K; Brecher, M E; Elfath, M D; Whitley, P; Heminway, M; Holme, S

    2001-11-01

    A novel apheresis procedure for a blood separator (MCS+, Haemonetics) enables the collection of 2 WBC-reduced RBC units in a single donation by using one disposable set with one in-line WBC-reduction filter (RC2H, Pall Corp.). The objective of this study was to evaluate the filtration performance in connection with different prefiltration RBC storage conditions and with the in vitro and in vivo storage quality of the filtered units. Sixty-six 2-unit RBC collection and gravity-filtration procedures were completed at three sites, resulting in 132 RBC units. Filtration of the double RBC units was performed at room temperature (RT) within 8 hours of collection (n = 36) and under refrigeration (1-6 degrees C) for up to 24 hours (n = 10) and 72 hours (n = 20) before filtration. RBC quality was compared to that of nonfiltered apheresis RBC units (n = 10). Median filtration time was 6.5 and 14 minutes for units stored at RT and under refrigeration, respectively. All 132 RBC units had residual WBC counts <0.4 x 10(6). The refrigerated units showed a greater mean log reduction in WBCs: 5.06 +/- 0.16 (24 hour) and 4.74 +/- 0.48 (72 hour), respectively, than did RT units: 4.47 +/- 0.28 (p<0.05). RBC loss was less than 12 percent in all cases (mean, 7.8 +/- 1.8%). Minimal differences in volume were observed between the paired RBC units. In vitro RBC storage characteristics of the filtered units were as expected and similar to those of the nonfiltered units. For RBC units held at RT (n = 24), the mean in vivo 24-hour recovery was 81.8 +/- 8.4 percent (double-label). Satisfactory filter performance in terms of WBC removal and RBC loss was observed with all 66 procedures, irrespective of storage conditions before filtration.

  3. Optimizing Power Heterogeneous Functional Units for Dynamic and Static Power Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is the major constraint for modern microprocessor designs. In particular, static power consumption becomes a serious problem as the transistor size shrinks via semiconductor technology improvement. This paper proposes a technique that reduces the static power consumed by functional units. It exploits the activity rate of functional units and utilizes the power heterogeneous functional units. From detailed simulations, we investigate the conditions in which the proposed technique works effectively for simultaneous dynamic and static power reduction and find that we can reduce the total power by 11.2% if two out of four leaky functional units are replaced by leakless ones in the situation where the static power occupies half of the total power.

  4. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Gaetano; Gattinoni, Luciano; Radrizzani, Danilo; Simini, Bruno; Bertolini, Guido; Ferla, Luca; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Porta, Francesca; Miranda, Dinis R

    2004-02-01

    Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of risk-adjusted volume of activity specific for ICUs. Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Eighty-nine ICUs in 12 European countries. During a 4-month study period, 12,615 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinical statistics, severity at admission and a score of nursing complexity and workload were collected. Total volume of activity was defined as the number of patients admitted per bed per year, high-risk volume as the number of high-risk patients admitted per bed per year (selected combining of length of stay and severity of illness). A multi-step risk-adjustment process was planned. ICU volume corresponding both to overall [odds ratio (OR) 0.966] and 3,838 high-risk (OR 0.830) patients was negatively correlated with mortality. Relative mortality decreased by 3.4 and 17.0% for every five extra patients treated per bed per year in overall volume and high-risk volume, respectively. A direct relationship was found between mortality and the ICU occupancy rate (OR 1.324 and 1.351, respectively). Intensive care patients, whatever their level of risk, are best treated where more high-risk patients are treated. Moreover, the higher the ICU occupancy rate, the higher is the mortality.

  5. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Wilson, T E; Seifert, T; Secher, N H; Crandall, C G

    2010-09-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole-body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0.06). However, subsequent volume loading increased SV to 143 +/- 29 ml (P = 0.003). LBNP provoked a larger decrease in SV relative to the decrease in PCWP during heating (8.6 +/- 1.9 ml mmHg(1)) compared to normothermia (4.5 +/- 3.0 ml mmHg(1), P = 0.02). After volume loading while heat stressed, the reduction in the SV to PCWP ratio during LBNP was comparable to that observed during normothermia (4.8 +/- 2.3 ml mmHg(1); P = 0.78). These data support the hypothesis that a Frank-Starling mechanism contributes to compromised blood pressure control during simulated haemorrhage in heat-stressed individuals, and extend those findings by showing that volume infusion corrects this deficit by shifting the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve.

  6. Oxygen as a stimulant: Dramatic reduction of sewage sludge volumes; Sauerstoff als Stimulanz: Der Klaerschlammanfall laesst sich dramatisch verringern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croissant, B. [OWAS Odenwaelder Wasser- und Abwasser-Service GmbH, Erbach (Germany); Stark, O. [Stark-Consult, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Sludge volumes can be reduced significantly by optimising the biological processes in a sewage plant. During a trial period of eight months, a 45 percent reduction was achieved on average. Secondary effects were improved carbon and nitrate reduction. [German] Durch eine Optmierung der biologischen Prozesse in der Klaeranlage ist moeglich, den Ueberschussschlammanfall deutlich zu senken. Ueber einen Zeitraum von acht Monaten konnte der mittlere Schlammanfall um 45 Prozent reduziert werden. Sekundaere Effekte des Verfahrens waren eine verbesserte Kohlenstoffablauf- und Nitratablaufkonzentration. (orig.)

  7. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  8. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by endobronchial valve in advanced emphysema: the first Asian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park TS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tai Sun Park,1 Yoonki Hong,2 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang Young Oh,3 Sang Min Lee,3 Namkug Kim,3 Joon Beom Seo,3 Yeon-Mok Oh,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Sei Won Lee1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: Endobronchial valve (EBV therapy is increasingly being seen as a therapeutic option for advanced emphysema, but its clinical utility in Asian populations, who may have different phenotypes to other ethnic populations, has not been assessed.Patients and methods: This prospective open-label single-arm clinical trial examined the clinical efficacy and the safety of EBV in 43 consecutive patients (mean age 68.4±7.5, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 24.5%±10.7% predicted, residual volume 208.7%±47.9% predicted with severe emphysema with complete fissure and no collateral ventilation in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea.Results: Compared to baseline, the patients exhibited significant improvements 6 months after EBV therapy in terms of FEV1 (from 0.68±0.26 L to 0.92±0.40 L; P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (from 233.5±114.8 m to 299.6±87.5 m; P=0.012, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (from 3.7±0.6 to 2.4±1.2; P<0.001, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (from 65.59±13.07 to 53.76±11.40; P=0.028. Nine patients (20.9% had a tuberculosis scar, but these scars did not affect target lobe volume reduction or pneumothorax frequency. Thirteen patients had adverse events, ten (23.3% developed pneumothorax, which included one death due to tension pneumothorax.Conclusion: EBV therapy was as effective and safe in Korean

  9. Deduction of plastic work rate per unit volume for unified yield criterion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; LI Jing; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    A unified linear expression of plastic work rate per unit volume is deduced from the unified linear yield criterion and the associated flow rule. The expression is suitable for various linear yield loci in the error triangle between Tresca's and twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane. It exhibits generalization in which the different value of criterion parameter b corresponds to a specific linear formula of plastic work rate per unit volume. Finally, with the unified linear expression of plastic work rate and upper-bound parallel velocity field the strip forging without bulge is successfully analyzed and an analytical result is also obtained. The comparison with traditional solutions shows that when b=1/(1+(√3)) the result is the same as the upper bound result by Mises' yield criterion, and it also is identical to that by slab method with m=1, σ0=0.

  10. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction; Lungenemphysem. Bildgebung bei endoskopischer Lungenvolumenreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storbeck, B. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schroeder, T.H. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F. [LungenClinic Grosshansdorf (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology; Weber, C. [Amalie Sieveking-Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  11. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  12. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  14. Evaluation of patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery: Ancillary information available from computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverley, Joanne R.; Desai, Sujal R.; Wells, Athol U.; Koyama, Hiroshi; Eastick, Sian; Schmidt, Maria A.; Charrier, Clare L.; Gatehouse, Peter D.; Goldstraw, Peter; Pepper, John R.; Geddes, Duncan M.; Hansell, David M

    2000-01-01

    AIM: A number of imaging techniques have been used for the pre-operative assessment of patients for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). We evaluated whether data currently acquired from perfusion scintigrams and cine MR of the diaphragm are obtainable from high resolution CT (HRCT) of the thorax. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients taking part in a randomized controlled trial of LVRS against maximal medical therapy were evaluated. HRCT examinations (n= 30) were scored for (i) the extent and distribution of emphysema; (ii) the extent of normal pulmonary vasculature; and (iii) diaphragmatic contour, apparent defects and herniation. On scintigraphy, (n28), perfusion of the lower thirds of both lungs, as a proportion of total lung perfusion (LZ/T{sub PERF}), was expressed as a percentage of predicted values (derived from 10 normal control subjects). On cine MR (n= 25) hemidiaphragmatic excursion and coordination were recorded. RESULTS: Extensive emphysema was present on HRCT (60% {+-} 13.2%). There was strong correlation between the extent of normal pulmonary vasculature on HRCT and on perfusion scanning (r{sub s}= 0.85, P< 0.00005). Hemidiaphragmatic incoordination on MR was weakly associated with hemidiaphragmatic eventration on HRCT (P0.04). CONCLUSION: The strong correlation between lung perfusion assessed by HRCT and lung perfusion on scintigraphy suggests that perfusion scintigraphy is superfluous in the pre-operative evaluation of patients with emphysema for LVRS. Cleverley, J.R. (2000)

  15. [Effect of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on nutritional status in patients with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kushibe, Keiji; Takenaka, Hideaki; Hukuoka, Atsuhiko; Tamaki, Shinji; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2003-12-01

    The beneficial effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on pulmonary function and exercise performance has been established. However, the impact on nutritional status and prognosis has not been demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the changes in nutritional status in COPD patients undergoing bilateral thoracoscopic LVRS and also analyzed the relationship between nutritional status and postoperative complications and prognosis. After LVRS, body weight, fat-free mass (FFM) and caloric intake were significantly increased. Increase in FFM correlated significantly with improvement in exercise performance. In underweight patients before LVRS, the incidence of post-operative complications was significantly higher than in normal-weight patients, and a patient who was moderately-to-severely underweight (% ideal body weight nutritional status after LVRS contributes to improvement in exercise performance, and that preoperative nutritional status has a significant impact on postoperative morbidity and mortality. From our data, we concluded that preoperative nutritional assessment is an important part of the preoperative evaluation of LVRS, and that LVRS provides nutritional benefits for underweight patients with severe COPD.

  16. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms predict response to lung volume reduction surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMeo Dawn L

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT, marked variability in response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS was observed. We sought to identify genetic differences which may explain some of this variability. Methods In 203 subjects from the NETT Genetics Ancillary Study, four outcome measures were used to define response to LVRS at six months: modified BODE index, post-bronchodilator FEV1, maximum work achieved on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, and University of California, San Diego shortness of breath questionnaire. Sixty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in five genes previously shown to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility, exercise capacity, or emphysema distribution. Results A SNP upstream from glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1; p = 0.003 and a coding SNP in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1; p = 0.02 were each associated with change in BODE score. These effects appeared to be strongest in patients in the non-upper lobe predominant, low exercise subgroup. A promoter SNP in EPHX1 was associated with change in BODE score (p = 0.008, with the strongest effects in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity. One additional SNP in GSTP1 and three additional SNPs in EPHX1 were associated (p Conclusion Genetic variants in GSTP1 and EPHX1, two genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, were predictive of response to LVRS. These polymorphisms may identify patients most likely to benefit from LVRS.

  17. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth: A longitudinal study on orofacial skeletons and dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2008-10-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and

  18. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  19. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  1. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Impact of endoscopic lung volume reduction on right ventricular myocardial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pizarro

    Full Text Available Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR provides a minimally invasive therapy for patients with severe lung emphysema. As its impact on right ventricular (RtV function is undefined, we examined the extent of RtV functional changes following ELVR, as assessed by use of speckle tracking-based RtV deformation analysis.We enrolled 32 patients with severe emphysematous COPD scheduled for bronchoscopic LVR using endobronchial valves (Zephyr, PulmonX, Inc., comprising 16 matched clinical responders and 16 non-responders. Echocardiography was conducted one day prior to ELVR and at an eight-week postprocedural interval.Patients were predominantly of late middle-age (65.8 ± 8.7 yrs, male (62.5% and presented advanced COPD emphysema (means FEV1 and RV: 32.6% and 239.1% of predicted, respectively. After ELVR, RtV apical longitudinal strain improved significantly in the total study cohort (-7.96 ± 7.02% vs. -13.35 ± 11.48%, p = 0.04, whereas there were no significant changes in other parameters of RtV function such as RtV global longitudinal strain, TAPSE or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In responding patients, 6MWT-improvement correlated with a decrease in NT-proBNP (Pearson´s r: -0.53, p = 0.03. However, clinical non-responders did not exhibit any RtV functional improvement.ELVR beneficially impacts RtV functional parameters. Speckle tracking-based RtV apical longitudinal strain analysis allows early determination of RtV contractile gain and identification of clinical responsiveness.

  3. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  4. Full-scale biofilter reduction efficiencies assessed using portable 24-hour sampling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Neslihan; Janni, Kevin A

    2012-02-01

    Portable 24-hr sampling units were used to collect air samples from eight biofilters on four animal feeding operations. The biofilters were located on a dairy, a swine nursery, and two swine finishing farms. Biofilter media characteristics (age, porosity, density, particle size, water absorption capacity, pressure drop) and ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction efficiencies of the biofilters were assessed. The deep bed biofilters at the dairy farm, which were in use for a few months, had the most porous media and lowest unit pressure drops. The average media porosity and density were 75% and 180 kg/m3, respectively. Reduction efficiencies of H2S and NH3 (biofilter 1: 64% NH3, 76% H2S; biofilter 2: 53% NH3, 85% H2S) were close to those reported for pilot-scale biofilters. No N2O production was measured at the dairy farm. The highest H2S, SO2, NH3, and CH4 reduction efficiencies were measured from a flat-bed biofilter at the swine nursery farm. However, the highest N2O generation (29.2%) was also measured from this biofilter. This flat-bed biofilter media was dense and had the lowest porosity. A garden sprinkler was used to add water to this biofilter, which may have filled media pores and caused N2O production under anaerobic conditions. Concentrations of H2S and NH3 were determined using the portable 24-hr sampling units and compared to ones measured with a semicontinuous gas sampling system at one farm. Flat-bed biofilters at the swine finishing farms also produced low amounts of N2O. The N2O production rate of the newer media (2 years old) with higher porosity was lower than that of older media (3 years old) (P = 0.042).

  5. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  6. Estimation and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions from crude oil distillation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, M. [Departament d' Engingeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)]. E-mail: mamdouh.gadalla@urv.net; Olujic, Z. [Laboratory for Process Equipment, TU Delft, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Jobson, M. [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK (United Kingdom); Smith, R. [Centre for Process Integration, CEAS, The University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD, UK (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A simple model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO{sub 2} emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO{sub 2} emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export.

  7. Resonant Mode Reduction in Radiofrequency Volume Coils for Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a multimodal volume coil, only one mode can generate homogeneous Radiofrequency (RF field for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The existence of other modes may increase the volume coil design difficulties and potentially decreases coil performance. In this study, we introduce common-mode resonator technique to high and ultrahigh field volume coil designs to reduce the resonant mode while maintain the homogeneity of the RF field. To investigate the design method, the common-mode resonator was realized by using a microstrip line which was split along the central to become a pair of parallel transmission lines within which common-mode currents exist. Eight common-mode resonators were placed equidistantly along the circumference of a low loss dielectric cylinder to form a volume coil. Theoretical analysis and comparison between the 16-strut common-mode volume coil and a conventional 16-strut volume coil in terms of RF field homogeneity and efficiency was performed using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method at 298.2 MHz. MR imaging experiments were performed by using a prototype of the common-mode volume coil on a whole body 7 Tesla scanner. FDTD simulation results showed the reduced number of resonant modes of the common-mode volume coil over the conventional volume coil, while the RF field homogeneity of the two type volume coils was kept at the same level. MR imaging of a water phantom and a kiwi fruit showing the feasibility of the proposed method for simplifying the volume coil design is also presented.

  8. Reduction of heart volume during neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resectable esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haj Mohammad, Nadia; Kamphuis, Martijn; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Lutkenhaus, Lotte J; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; de Bruin-Bon, H A C M Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Bel, Arjan; Boekholdt, S Mathijs; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by surgery is considered curative intent treatment for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The aim was to establish hemodynamic aspects of changes in heart volume and to explore whether changes in heart volume resulted in cli

  9. A numerical study on localized volume reduction in elastic media: some insights on the mechanics of anticracks

    CERN Document Server

    Katsman, R; Scher, H

    2005-01-01

    Porous rocks, subjected to compressive stress, often undergo mechanical compaction via grain crushing and grain rearrangement, and chemical compaction by pressure solution. Such volume reduction processes are known to spontaneously localize under certain conditions, creating compaction and compacting shear bands, solution-seams, and stylolites. However the localization process is poorly understood. The formation and propagation of compaction bands has recently been studied using an elasto-plastic Spring Network Model [Katsman, Aharonov, and Scher, 2005]. In the current paper, the same technique was employed to systematically analyze localized volume reduction (LVR) defects and their interactions with the surrounding elastic media, i. e., the stress distribution around an LVR region. Simulation results show that LVR regions experience stress concentrations at their tips, reminiscent of Mode I cracks. However, aside from this similarity point, comparison of stress around LVR regions to stress around cracks reve...

  10. Influence of thyroid volume reduction on absorbed dose in 131I therapy studied by using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaur, Rahman; Sikander, M. Mirza; Waheed, Arshed; Nasir, M. Mirza; Waheed, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A simulation study has been performed to quantify the effect of volume reduction on the thyroid absorbed dose per decay and to investigate the variation of energy deposition per decay due to β- and γ-activity of 131I with volume/mass of thyroid, for water, ICRP- and ICRU-soft tissue taken as thyroid material. A Monte Carlo model of the thyroid, in the Geant4 radiation transport simulation toolkit was constructed to compute the β- and γ-absorbed dose in the simulated thyroid phantom for various values of its volume. The effect of the size and shape of the thyroid on energy deposition per decay has also been studied by using spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical models for the thyroid and varying its volume in 1-25 cm3 range. The relative differences of Geant4 results for different models with each other and MCNP results lie well below 1.870%. The maximum relative difference among the Geant4 estimated results for water with ICRP and ICRU soft tissues is not more than 0.225%. S-values for ellipsoidal, spherical and cylindrical thyroid models were estimated and the relative difference with published results lies within 3.095%. The absorbed fraction values for beta particles show a good agreement with published values within 2.105% deviation. The Geant4 based simulation results of absorbed fractions for gammas again show a good agreement with the corresponding MCNP and EGS4 results (±6.667%) but have 29.032% higher values than that of MIRD calculated values. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of the thyroid volume is found to have a substantial effect on the absorbed dose. Geant4 simulations confirm dose dependence on the volume/mass of thyroid in agreement with MCNP and EGS4 computed values but are substantially different from MIRD8 data. Therefore, inclusion of size/mass dependence is indicated for 131I radiotherapy of the thyroid.

  11. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G., E-mail: eggoes@terra.com.b [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I.C. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Pela, C.A.; Bruco, J.L. [Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [Center of Instrumentation, Dosimetry and Radioprotection, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Regional Blood Center of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Cell-Based Therapy, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  12. Study of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose in blood volumes irradiated using a teletherapy unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, E. G.; Nicolucci, P.; Nali, I. C.; Pelá, C. A.; Bruço, J. L.; Borges, J. C.; Covas, D. T.

    2010-06-01

    Blood irradiation can be performed using a dedicated blood irradiator or a teletherapy unit. A thermal device providing appropriate storage conditions during blood components irradiation with a teletherapy unit has been recently proposed. However, the most appropriated volume of the thermal device was not indicated. The goal of this study was to indicate the most appropriated blood volume for irradiation using a teletherapy unit in order to minimize both the dose heterogeneity in the volume and the blood irradiation time using these equipments. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the dose distribution in the blood volume irradiated using a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 therapy machine. The calculation of absorbed doses in the middle plane of cylindrical acrylic volumes was accomplished by a treatment planning system. Experimentally, we also used cylindrical acrylic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters to confirm the calculated doses. The data obtained were represented by isodose curves. We observed that an irradiation volume should have a height of 28 cm and a diameter of 28 cm and a height of 35 cm and a diameter of 35 cm, when the irradiation is to be performed by a linear accelerator and a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, respectively. Calculated values of relative doses varied from 93% to 100% in the smaller volume, and from 66% to 100% in the largest one. A difference of 5.0%, approximately, was observed between calculated and experimental data. The size of these volumes permits the irradiation of blood bags in only one bath without compromising the homogeneity of the absorbed dose over the irradiated volume. Thus, these irradiation volumes can be recommend to minimize the irradiation time when a teletherapy unit is used to irradiate blood.

  13. Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R A; Pride, N B; Thomas, E Louise; Fitzpatrick, J; Durighel, G; McCarthy, J; Morin, S X; Ind, P W; Bell, J D

    2010-06-01

    Restriction of total lung capacity (TLC) is found in some obese subjects, but the mechanism is unclear. Two hypotheses are as follows: 1) increased abdominal volume prevents full descent of the diaphragm; and 2) increased intrathoracic fat reduces space for full lung expansion. We have measured total intrathoracic volume at full inflation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 asymptomatic obese men [mean age 52 yr, body mass index (BMI) 35-45 kg/m2] and 7 control men (mean age 50 yr, BMI 22-27 kg/m2). MRI volumes were compared with gas volumes at TLC. All measurements were made with subjects supine. Obese men had smaller functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC-to-TLC ratio than control men. There was a 12% predicted difference in mean TLC between obese (84% predicted) and control men (96% predicted). In contrast, differences in total intrathoracic volume (MRI) at full inflation were only 4% predicted TLC (obese 116% predicted TLC, control 120% predicted TLC), because mediastinal volume was larger in obese than in control [heart and major vessels (obese 1.10 liter, control 0.87 liter, P=0.016) and intrathoracic fat (obese 0.68 liter, control 0.23 liter, P80% predicted (ON) was 26% predicted TLC. Mediastinal volume was similar in OR (1.84 liter) and ON (1.73 liter), but total intrathoracic volume was 19% predicted TLC smaller in OR than in ON. We conclude that the major factor restricting TLC in some obese men was reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation.

  14. Bulk Volume Reduction of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea (UK Due to Compaction, Petroleum Generation and Expulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Okiongbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of petroleum generation and expulsion on shale porosity is explored by evaluating the compaction of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF within the oil window using log data and shale samples from the KCF within the depth and temperature range of ~1.5-5.0 km and 90-157ºC, respectively. Petrophysical properties e.g porosity and pore-size distribution were measured, and permeability was calculated using empirical models based on the measured porosities. Transit-time values from the sonic logs recorded at depths in the wells were the cores were recovered were calibrated against the porosities determined from the core samples. Bulk geochemical parameters e.g., Total Organic Carbon (TOC, Hydrogen Index (HI were determined. The volume reduction in the KCF within the oil window due to petroleum generation and expulsion, and compaction due to loss of pore space was determined using the geochemical and log derived porosity data emplaced into empirical relations. Porosities above the oil window range from ~15-20%, but decreased to <5% at the end of the oil window. Pore-sizes decrease from ~11 nm to between 6-8 nm at the depth range of 1.5-5.0 km. Permeability decreased from 4.8 nD to ~0.095 nD. The quantitative estimations of volume reduction within the oil window indicate that for ~8.0wt% initial TOC sediment, a bulk volume reduction of 13% of the initial volume is due to oil expulsion, and ~12% is due to loss of pore space.

  15. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Ultrafiltration versus Diuretics Treatment Option for Overload Volume Reduction in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkoudah Ebrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diuretics are mainly used for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF, inadequate responses and complications have led to the use of extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF as an alternative strategy for reducing volume overloads in patients with ADHF. Objective: The aim of our study is to perform meta-analysis of the results obtained from studies on extracorporeal venous ultrafiltration and compare them with those of standard diuretic treatment for overload volume reduction in acute decompensated heart failure. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were systematically searched using a pre‑specified criterion. Pooled estimates of outcomes after 48 h (weight change, serum creatinine level, and all-cause mortality were computed using random effect models. Pooled weighted mean differences were calculated for weight loss and change in creatinine level, whereas a pooled risk ratio was used for the analysis of binary all-cause mortality outcome. Results: A total of nine studies, involving 613 patients, met the eligibility criteria. The mean weight loss in patients who underwent UF therapy was 1.78 kg [95% Confidence Interval (CI: −2.65 to −0.91 kg; p < 0.001 more than those who received standard diuretic therapy. The post-intervention creatinine level, however, was not significantly different (mean change = −0.25 mg/dL; 95% CI: −0.56 to 0.06 mg/dL; p = 0.112. The risk of all-cause mortality persisted in patients treated with UF compared with patients treated with standard diuretics (Pooled RR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.64–1.56; p = 0.993. Conclusion: Compared with standard diuretic therapy, UF treatment for overload volume reduction in individuals suffering from ADHF, resulted in significant reduction of body weight within 48 h. However, no significant decrease of serum creatinine level or reduction of all-cause mortality was observed.

  17. Quantifying volume reduction and peak flow mitigation for three bioretention cells in clay soils in northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Ryan J; Dorsey, Jay D; Hunt, William F

    2016-05-15

    Green infrastructure aims to restore watershed hydrologic function by more closely mimicking pre-development groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration (ET). Bioretention has become a popular stormwater control due to its ability to reduce runoff volume through these pathways. Three bioretention cells constructed in low permeability soils in northeast Ohio were monitored for non-winter quantification of inflow, drainage, ET, and exfiltration. The inclusion of an internal water storage (IWS) zone allowed the three cells to reduce runoff by 59%, 42%, and 36% over the monitoring period, in spite of the tight underlying soils. The exfiltration rate and the IWS zone thickness were the primary determinants of volume reduction performance. Post-construction measured drawdown rates were higher than pre-construction soil vertical hydraulic conductivity tests in all cases, due to lateral exfiltration from the IWS zones and ET, which are not typically accounted for in pre-construction soil testing. The minimum rainfall depths required to produce outflow for the three cells were 5.5, 7.4, and 13.8mm. During events with 1-year design rainfall intensities, peak flow reduction varied from 24 to 96%, with the best mitigation during events where peak rainfall rate occurred before the centroid of the rainfall volume, when adequate bowl storage was available to limit overflow.

  18. Brain Volume Reductions within Multiple Cognitive Systems in Male Preterm Children at Age Twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Reiss, Allan L.; Vohr, Betty; Watson, Christa; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Silbereis, John; Constable, R. Todd; Makuch, Robert W.; Ment, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To more precisely examine regional and subregional microstructural brain changes associated with preterm birth. Study design We obtained brain volumes from 29 preterm children, age 12 years, with no ultrasound scanning evidence of intraventricular hemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia in the newborn period, and 22 age- and sex-matched term control subjects. Results Preterm male subjects demonstrated significantly lower white matter volumes in bilateral cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, prefrontal cortex, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi compared with term male subjects. Gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and temporal lobe also were significantly reduced in preterm male subjects. Brain volumes of preterm female subjects were not significantly different from those of term female control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry results were not correlated with perinatal variables or cognitive outcome. Higher maternal education was associated with higher cognitive performance in preterm male subjects. Conclusions Preterm male children continue to demonstrate abnormal neurodevelopment at 12 years of age. However, brain morphology in preterm female children may no longer differ from that of term female children. The neurodevelopmental abnormalities we detected in preterm male subjects appear to be relatively diffuse, involving multiple neural systems. The relationship between aberrant neurodevelopment and perinatal variables may be mediated by genetic factors, environmental factors, or both reflected in maternal education level. PMID:18346506

  19. A History of Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder is Associated With Gray Matter Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Carl Johan; Petrovic, Predrag; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet the neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis remain obscure. In the last decade, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown differences in local gray matter volume between patients with different psychiatric syndromes and healthy controls. Few studies have focused on the symptoms, which these syndromes are constituted of. Here, we test the association between psychosis and gray matter volume by using a sample of 167 subjects with bipolar disorder, with and without a history of psychosis, and 102 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed on group level using a voxel-wise mass univariate analysis (Voxel-Based Morphometry). We found that patients with a history of psychosis had smaller gray matter volume in left fusiform gyrus, the right rostral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the left inferior frontal gyrus compared with patients without psychosis and with healthy controls. There was no volume difference in these areas between the no-psychosis group and healthy controls. These areas have previously been structurally and functionally coupled to delusions and hallucinations. Our finding adds further evidence to the probability of these regions as key areas in the development of psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Experimental Study ofa New Operative Procedure for Non-Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy-Overlapping Cardiac Volume Reduction Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗滨; 孟春营; 温定国; 松居喜朗; 安田庆秀

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess anewly devised procedure of cardiac volume reduction without resection of cardiac muscle and evaluated in experimental settings. Methods Ten beagle dogs underwent a rapid pacing leading to heart failure for 3 weeks and received the left ventricular reduction termed overlapping cardiac volume reduction operation (OLCVR) ,which consisted of a longitudinal incision in left ventricular (LV) free wall, sutures of the left marginal to the septal wall, and the right marginal to LV free wall.A slope of the linear preload recruitable stroke work relationship (Mw) , with a X - intercept (Vo) were calculated as the precise indicators of left ventricular systolic function. The constant of isovolumic pressure decay (Tau) and a peak filling rate (PFR) were also calculated as the indicators of LV diastolic function.Results LV end- diastolic dimensions was significantly reduced by OLCVR (43±2 to 25±1; mm).Fractional shortening was significantly improved by OLCVR (11±2 to 30±4;%). Mw (erg* cm-3* 103)was also significantly improved (21±2 to 33 ±3 (p<0. 001 ) ) , whereas Vo, Tau and PFR did not show significant changes. Conclusions The OLCVR significantly increased in the early LV systolic function without detrimental effects on diastolic function. This procedure may become a therapeutic option for end - stage cardiomyopathy.

  1. Evaluation on Waste Volume and Weight from Decommissioning of Kori Unit 1 Reactor Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yujeong; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Chang-Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the concept of cutting reactor vessel and container for decommissioning Kori unit 1 has been investigated. As a result of the investigation, it is found that cutting the reactor vessel into small pieces, especially for upper and bottom heads of the reactor vessel, is more effective to reduce total disposal volume generated from decommissioning. As a part of continuing efforts to prepare shut down of nuclear power plant, several researches have been conducted to establish plans to dispose decommissioning waste from nuclear power plants. When decommissioning nuclear power plant, most of radioactive waste is generated from primary side including a reactor vessel. Radioactive waste amounts generated from decommissioning is significantly affected by several factors, such as dismantling method, waste classification, reactor lifetime, disposal method and etc.

  2. Relationships among Ionic Lattice Energies, Molecular (Formula Unit) Volumes, and Thermochemical Radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. Donald B.; Roobottom, Helen K.; Passmore, Jack; Glasser, Leslie

    1999-08-01

    The linear generalized equation described in this paper provides a further dimension to the prediction of lattice potential energies/enthalpies of ionic solids. First, it offers an alternative (and often more direct) approach to the well-established Kapustinskii equation (whose capabilities have also recently been extended by our recent provision of an extended set of thermochemical radii). Second, it makes possible the acquisition of lattice energy estimates for salts which, up until now, except for simple 1:1 salts, could not be considered because of lack of crystal structure data. We have generalized Bartlett's correlation for MX (1:1) salts, between the lattice enthalpy and the inverse cube root of the molecular (formula unit) volume, such as to render it applicable across an extended range of ionic salts for the estimation of lattice potential energies. When new salts are synthesized, acquisition of full crystal structure data is not always possible and powder data provides only minimal structural information-unit cell parameters and the number of molecules per cell. In such cases, lack of information about cation-anion distances prevents use of the Kapustinskii equation to predict the lattice energy of the salt. However, our new equation can be employed even when the latter information is not available. As is demonstrated, the approach can be utilized to predict and rationalize the thermochemistry in topical areas of synthetic inorganic chemistry as well as in emerging areas. This is illustrated by accounting for the failure to prepare diiodinetetrachloroaluminum(III), [I(2)(+)][AlCl(4)(-)] and the instability of triiodinetetrafluoroarsenic(III), [I(3)(+)][AsF(6)(-)]. A series of effective close-packing volumes for a range of ions, which will be of interest to chemists, as measures of relative ionic size and which are of use in making our estimates of lattice energies, is generated from our approach.

  3. Mid-term effects of lung volume reduction surgery on pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-ming; WU Wen; LI Xia; Jonson Bjorn; YANG Wen-lan; JIANG Ge-ning; DING Jia-an; ZHENG Wei; LIU Wen-zeng; WANG Ying-min; GAO Bei-lan; JIANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Now lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has become one of the most effective methods for the management of some cases of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the mid-term effects of LVRS on pulmonary function in patients with severe COPD.Methods Ten male patients with severe COPD aged 38-70 years underwent LVRS and their pulmonary function was assessed before, 3 months and 3 years after surgery. The spirometric and gas exchange parameters included residual volume, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, diffusion capacity for CO, and arterial blood gas. A 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) test was performed.Results As to preoperative assessment, most spirometric parameters and 6MWD were significantly improved after 3 months and slightly 3 years after LVRS. Gas exchange parameters were significantly improved 3 months after surgery,but returned to the preoperative levels after 3 years.Conclusions LVRS may significantly improve pulmonary function in patients with severe COPD indicating for LVRS.Mid-term pulmonary function 3 years after surgery can be decreased to the level at 3 months after surgery. Three years after LVRS, lung volume and pulmonary ventilation function can be significantly improved, but the improvement in gas exchange function was not significant.

  4. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea.

  5. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  6. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  7. Validation of a reaction volume reduction protocol for analysis of Y chromosome haplotypes targeting DNA databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Crovella, S; Santos, S M; Rabêlo, K C N; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Junior, A F Caldas; Porto, G G; Campello, R I C; Antunes, A A; Queiroz, R A; Souza, S M

    2017-04-28

    The use of Y chromosome haplotypes, important for the detection of sexual crimes in forensics, has gained prominence with the use of databases that incorporate these genetic profiles in their system. Here, we optimized and validated an amplification protocol for Y chromosome profile retrieval in reference samples using lesser materials than those in commercial kits. FTA(®) cards (Flinders Technology Associates) were used to support the oral cells of male individuals, which were amplified directly using the SwabSolution reagent (Promega). First, we optimized and validated the process to define the volume and cycling conditions. Three reference samples and nineteen 1.2 mm-diameter perforated discs were used per sample. Amplification of one or two discs (samples) with the PowerPlex(®) Y23 kit (Promega) was performed using 25, 26, and 27 thermal cycles. Twenty percent, 32%, and 100% reagent volumes, one disc, and 26 cycles were used for the control per sample. Thereafter, all samples (N = 270) were amplified using 27 cycles, one disc, and 32% reagents (optimized conditions). Data was analyzed using a study of equilibrium values between fluorophore colors. In the samples analyzed with 20% volume, an imbalance was observed in peak heights, both inside and in-between each dye. In samples amplified with 32% reagents, the values obtained for the intra-color and inter-color standard balance calculations for verification of the quality of the analyzed peaks were similar to those of samples amplified with 100% of the recommended volume. The quality of the profiles obtained with 32% reagents was suitable for insertion into databases.

  8. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  9. Radar Derived Spatial Statistics of Summer Rain. Volume 2; Data Reduction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, T. G.; Kropfli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Data reduction and analysis procedures are discussed along with the physical and statistical descriptors used. The statistical modeling techniques are outlined and examples of the derived statistical characterization of rain cells in terms of the several physical descriptors are presented. Recommendations concerning analyses which can be pursued using the data base collected during the experiment are included.

  10. What the Research Tells Us: Class Size Reduction. Information Capsule. Volume 1001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule examines the background and history in addition to research findings pertaining to class size reduction (CSR). This Capsule concludes that although educational researchers have not definitively agreed upon the effectiveness of CSR, given its almost universal public appeal, there is little doubt it is here to stay in some…

  11. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  12. Poor man medical pneumoplasty: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with hot saline versus dissolved doxycycline as a neoteric remedy of pulmonary emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Abumossalam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction by hot saline and dissolved doxycycline comes into sight to be a safe and feasible profile with an acceptable outcome that presents an attractive substitute to COPD patients who are physiologically friable.

  13. Support for immigration reduction and physician distrust in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L Samson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health research indicates that physician trust in the United States has declined over the last 50 years. Paralleling this trend is a decline in social capital, with researchers finding a negative relationship between immigration-based diversity and social capital. This article examines whether physician distrust is also tied to immigration-based diversity and declining social capital. Methods: Data come from the 2012 General Social Survey, one of the gold standards of US public opinion surveys, using a national probability sample of 1080 adult US respondents. Key measures included support for reducing levels of immigration to the United States and multiple measures of physician trust. Results: The results of ordinary least squares regressions, using survey weights, indicate that support for reducing immigration is positively linked to physician distrust, bringing physician distrust into the orbit of research on diversity and declining social capital. Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, race, nativity, conservatism, unemployed status, lack of health insurance, and self-rated health. Furthermore, analyses of a subset of respondents reveal that measures of general trust and some forms of institutional trust do not explain away the association between support for immigration reduction and physician distrust, though confidence in science as an institution appears relevant. Conclusion: Consistent with diversity and social capital research, this article finds that an immigration attitude predicts physician distrust. Physician distrust may not be linked just to physician–patient interactions, the structure of the health care system, or health policies, but could also be tied to declining social trust in general.

  14. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  15. Design Report of Volume Reduction and Handling Equipment of ACPF Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K. C.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; You, G. S.; Youn, J. S

    2007-01-15

    For the efficient disposal of wastes from the ACPF (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility), hot cell filter press equipment, vacuum press equipment of compatible wastes and hot cell auxiliary crane were developed. The filter press equipment installed in hot cell is pneumatically driven and remotely operated. In order to avoid the contamination of hot cell by dust particles from filters being compressed, it is designed to compress filters with them put into the basket of the solid wastes cask. The performance test showed that the height of a filter was reduced by more than 75% and a basket could contain up to four compressed filters. The vacuum press equipment reduces the volume of the plastic bag containing compatible wastes such as cloth, plastic film and paper by vacuumizing the bag. It consists of the vacuum pump, the suction and HEPA filters and the manual pneumatic valve, and is designed to be easily handled and managed. Through the performance test, it is observed that the volume of wastes was reduced to a third. Also an additional crane of 300 kg capacity was manufactured and installed in the ACP hot cell to handle the salt ingot wastes container located where the overhead crane is not accessible. This report presenting the details of the design, manufacturing and performance of these equipment will be used as technical materials for the operation of the facility and the development of equipment.

  16. Reduction of the cerebrovascular volume in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasset, Fanchon; Ouellet, Mélissa; Tremblay, Cyntia; Julien, Carl; Do, Tuan Minh; Oddo, Salvatore; LaFerla, Frank; Calon, Frédéric

    2009-03-01

    Combined evidence from neuroimaging and neuropathological studies shows that signs of vascular pathology and brain hypoperfusion develop early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the functional implication of these abnormalities, we have studied the cerebrovascular volume and selected markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in 11-month-old 3 x Tg-AD mice, using the in situ brain perfusion technique. The cerebrovascular volume of distribution of two vascular space markers, [3H]-inulin and [14C]-sucrose, was significantly lower (-26% and -27%, respectively; p diazepam was similar between 3xTg-AD mice and controls, suggesting no difference in the functional integrity of the BBB. We also report a 32% increase (p < 0.001) in the thickness of basement membranes surrounding cortical microvessels along with a 20% increase (p < 0.05) of brain collagen content in 3xTg-AD mice compared to controls. The present data indicate that the cerebrovascular space is reduced in a mouse model of Abeta and tau accumulation, an observation consistent with the presence of cerebrovascular pathology in AD.

  17. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  18. Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD AND#8211; An Updated Review of Surgical and Endoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional medical management of emphysema using bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents has a limited benefit in patients having advanced hyperinflation of lungs due to destruction of elastic tissue. The natural course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has been shown to be altered by only smoking cessation and oxygen therapy so far. The lung volume reduction surgery is viewed as another modality to change the natural history of emphysema in recent years. For patients with more generalized emphysema, resection of lung parenchyma improves elastic recoil and chest wall mechanics. An extensive literature search has demonstrated that carefully selected patients of emphysema (i.e. upper lobe predominant disease, low exercise capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1 and DLco and #8804; 20% of predicted receive benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and physiologic response following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS. The resurgent interest in LVRS and National Emphysema Treatment Trial findings for emphysema have stimulated a range of innovative methods, to improve the outcome and reduce complications associated with current LVRS techniques. These novel approaches include surgical resection with compression/banding devices, endobronchial blockers, sealants, obstructing devices and valves and endobronchial bronchial bypass approaches. Experimental data and preliminary results are becoming available for some of these approaches. Most of the published studies so far have been uncontrolled and unblinded. Overall, extensive research in the near future will help to determine the potential clinical applicability of these new approaches to the treatment of emphysema symptoms. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 249-257

  19. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  20. High-Throughput Spheroid Screens Using Volume, Resazurin Reduction, and Acid Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P; Grabowska, Anna M; Garnett, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Mainstream adoption of physiologically relevant three-dimensional models has been slow in the last 50 years due to long, manual protocols with poor reproducibility, high price, and closed commercial platforms. This chapter describes high-throughput, low-cost, open methods for spheroid viability assessment which use readily available reagents and open-source software to analyze spheroid volume, metabolism, and enzymatic activity. We provide two ImageJ macros for automated spheroid size determination-for both single images and images in stacks. We also share an Excel template spreadsheet allowing users to rapidly process spheroid size data, analyze plate uniformity (such as edge effects and systematic seeding errors), detect outliers, and calculate dose-response. The methods would be useful to researchers in preclinical and translational research planning to move away from simplistic monolayer studies and explore 3D spheroid screens for drug safety and efficacy without substantial investment in money or time.

  1. Pancreas volume reduction and metabolic effects in Japanese patients with severe obesity following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Akira; Sasaki, Akira; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Baba, Shigeaki; Ando, Taro; Kajiwara, Takashi; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2017-03-17

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between the metabolic effect after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in morbidly obese Japanese patients, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and improved pancreatic steatosis (PS). The study enrolled 27 morbidly obese Japanese patients who were undergoing LSG. Their clinical and metabolic effects were evaluated at baseline and six months after LSG. Pancreas volume (PV), pancreatic attenuation (PA), and splenic attenuation (SA) were measured using a 64-row computed tomography (CT). Changes in PV, PA-SA, and PA/SA were evaluated. The mean body-weight loss, body mass index loss, and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were -34.4 kg (p < 0.001), -11.0 kg/m(2) (p < 0.001), and 43.7%, respectively. The mean PV was 96.7 mL at baseline, and it decreased six months after LSG (-16.3mL, p < 0.001). The mean PA significantly increased six months after LSG (9.5 HU, p < 0.001). PA-SA (-23.2 HU vs. -13.3 HU, p = 0.003), and PA/SA (0.54 vs. 0.73, p < 0.001) also significantly increased six months after LSG. In T2DM patients, decreased PV correlated with decreased fasting blood sugar, decreased insulin, and reduced liver volume. In conclusion, PV significantly decreased after LSG in morbidly obese Japanese patients, and that decrease correlated with improvements in PS. In addition, PS plays an important role of development and progression of insulin resistance and T2DM.

  2. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP. Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p 3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  3. X-ray powder diffraction characterization of the large-volume unit cell of the M8 murataite polytype

    OpenAIRE

    MAKI, Ryosuke S. S.; Morgan, Peter E. D.; Suzuki, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    We have used conventional X-ray powder diffraction to study one of the largest volume inorganic mixed oxide unit-supercell structures done so far. This necessitated some small-angle X-ray scattering-like observations at low angles from

  4. Elevated HbA1c Levels Are Associated with the Blunted Autonomic Response Assessed by Heart Rate Variability during Blood Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Miho; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2016-10-01

    A high glycemic status increases the risk for autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular failure. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in the autonomic response and cardiovascular dynamics and the association between the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and autonomic response during blood volume reduction. The study population consisted of 26 preoperative participants who were scheduled for autologous blood donation (200-400 mL of whole blood) for intraoperative or postoperative use. These participants without circulatory, respiratory, or brain disease and diabetes mellitus were grouped according to their HbA1c levels: blood pressure (BP) and analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation throughout blood donation. During blood volume reduction, which was about 10% of the circulating blood volume, the BP and heart rate varied within normal ranges in both groups. The high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, significantly decreased and increased with the progression of blood volume reduction, respectively, in the HbA1c blood volume reduction only in the HbA1c blood volume reduction.

  5. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  6. Volume reduction outweighs biogeochemical processes in controlling phosphorus treatment in aged detention systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Asmita; Shukla, Sanjay; Annable, Michael D.; Hodges, Alan W.

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater detention areas (SDAs) play an important role in treating end-of-the-farm runoff in phosphorous (P) limited agroecosystems. Phosphorus transport from the SDAs, including those through subsurface pathways, are not well understood. The prevailing understanding of these systems assumes that biogeochemical processes play the primary treatment role and that subsurface losses can be neglected. Water and P fluxes from a SDA located in a row-crop farm were measured for two years (2009-2011) to assess the SDA's role in reducing downstream P loads. The SDA treated 55% (497 kg) and 95% (205 kg) of the incoming load during Year 1 (Y1, 09-10) and Year 2 (Y2, 10-11), respectively. These treatment efficiencies were similar to surface water volumetric retention (49% in Y1 and 84% in Y2) and varied primarily with rainfall. Similar water volume and P retentions indicate that volume retention is the main process controlling P loads. A limited role of biogeochemical processes was supported by low to no remaining soil P adsorption capacity due to long-term drainage P input. The fact that outflow P concentrations (Y1 = 368.3 μg L- 1, Y2 = 230.4 μg L- 1) could be approximated by using a simple mixing of rainfall and drainage P input further confirmed the near inert biogeochemical processes. Subsurface P losses through groundwater were 304 kg (27% of inflow P) indicating that they are an important source for downstream P. Including subsurface P losses reduces the treatment efficiency to 35% (from 61%). The aboveground biomass in the SDA contained 42% (240 kg) of the average incoming P load suggesting that biomass harvesting could be a cost-effective alternative for reviving the role of biogeochemical processes to enhance P treatment in aged, P-saturated SDAs. The 20-year present economic value of P removal through harvesting was estimated to be 341,000, which if covered through a cost share or a payment for P treatment services program could be a positive outcome for both

  7. NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON WATER GUIDE BEARING OF HYDRO-GENERATOR UNIT USING FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the consideration of the geometry of tilting pad journal bearing, a new form of the Reynolds equation was derived in this article. The film thickness, the squeeze motion of the journal and the rotation motion of the pad were explicitly contained in the equation. Based on this equation, together with the equilibrium equation of pad pivot, the water guide bearing used in the Gezhouba 10 F hydro-generator unit was numerically researched. The new Reynolds equation for the lubricating film was solved using Finite Volume (FV) discretization, Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iteration method and C++ code are included. According to the numerical solution, and the stability of the film and the influences of the film thickness, the journal squeeze effect and the pad rotation effect on film force were discussed. The results indicate that the squeeze effect can not be neglected, although the rotation effect is negligible for both low-speed and high-speed bearings, so the computing time could be greatly reduced.

  8. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 2-Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations reported herein is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of three reactor critical configurations for the Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3. This unit and cycle were chosen because of the relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) the unit had a significantly long downtime of 2.7 years during the middle of cycle (MOC) 3, and (2) the core consisted entirely of burned fuel at the MOC restart. The first benchmark critical calculation was the MOC restart at hot, full-power (HFP) critical conditions. The

  9. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    The aminoglycoside kanamycin is a commonly used antibiotic, but unfortunately it is oto- and nephrotoxic in large doses. The negative effects are thought to be due to the formation of free radicals which is why strong antioxidants and iron chelators like 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) are of great...... interest. This study estimates cellular quantitative changes in the utricular macula of mice following systemic treatment with kanamycin alone or in combination with DHB. The animals were injected with either saline, kanamycin or kanamycin+DHB for 15 days and perfusion fixed three weeks after last...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  10. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT: a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppen Marc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted, and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and

  11. Sonoporation with Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT®) induces transient tumour volume reduction in a subcutaneous xenograft model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotopoulis, Spiros; Stigen, Endre; Popa, Mihaela; Safont, Mireia Mayoral; Healey, Andrew; Kvåle, Svein; Sontum, Per; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Gilja, Odd Helge; McCormack, Emmet

    2017-01-10

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the deadliest cancers with survival averaging only 3months if untreated following diagnosis. A major limitation in effectively treating PDAC using conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic agents, is inadequate drug delivery to the target location, predominantly due to a poorly vascularised, desmoplastic tumour microenvironment. Ultrasound in combination with ultrasound contrast agents, i.e., microbubbles, that flow through the vasculature and capillaries can be used to disrupt such mechanical barriers, potentially allowing for a greater therapeutic efficacy. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as sonoporation. In an attempt to improve the efficacy of sonoporation, novel microbubble formulations are being developed to address the limitation of commercially produced clinical diagnostic ultrasound contrast agents. In our work here we evaluate the ability of a novel formulation; namely Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT®) to improve the therapeutic efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, longitudinally in a xenograft model of PDAC. Results indicated that ACT® bubbles alone demonstrated no observable toxic effects, whilst ACT® in combination with paclitaxel can transiently reduce tumour volumes significantly, three days posttreatment (p=0.0347-0.0458). Quantitative 3D ultrasound validated the calliper measurements. Power Doppler ultrasound imaging indicated that ACT® in combination with paclitaxel was able to transiently sustain peak vasculature percentages as observed in the initial stages of tumour development. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in tumour vasculature percentage at the end of treatment. The high vascular percentage correlated to the transient decrease and overall inhibition of the tumour volumes. In conclusion, ACT® improves the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel in a PDAC xenograft model allowing for transient tumour volume reduction and sustained tumour vasculature

  12. Harm Reduction Unit of the City of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil: An Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harm Reduction Unit (HRU in Santo André (São Paulo State was created to improve the health of people who either live or work on the streets: drug users, commercial sex workers (male and female, men who have sex with men, sexually exploited adolescents, transsexuals, transvestites, lesbians, and women working in brothels. This project was undertaken to evaluate the HRU from the perspective of its users. A semi-structured interview was administered to nineteen users from different segments of the populations served by the unit. The major weaknesses of the HRU were felt to be its inconsistent presence in some areas and the absence of psychologists to provide follow-up care. The unit was seen as promoting better health, increased use of condoms, reduction in drug usage, increased access and use of health care services, and less sharing of equipment used in drug consumption. Users see the HRU as a sympathetic presence whose ongoing work provides them with a sense of security and protection. The impact of the HRU went beyond harm reduction; users reported transformative changes such as increased awareness of their social rights and knowledge about how those rights can be demanded. Users had been given new tools to face their problems and seek access to education, work, and housing. Key words: harm reduction, illegal drugs, health service evaluation, social problems

  13. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 3-Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors. The analysis methodology selected for all the calculations in this report is based on the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of two reactor critical configurations for Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted a direct comparison of criticality calculations using the utility-calculated isotopics with those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4

  14. Automated detection of masses on whole breast volume ultrasound scanner: false positive reduction using deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuya; Muramatsu, Chisako; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer screening with mammography and ultrasonography is expected to improve sensitivity compared with mammography alone, especially for women with dense breast. An automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) provides the operator-independent whole breast data which facilitate double reading and comparison with past exams, contralateral breast, and multimodality images. However, large volumetric data in screening practice increase radiologists' workload. Therefore, our goal is to develop a computer-aided detection scheme of breast masses in ABVS data for assisting radiologists' diagnosis and comparison with mammographic findings. In this study, false positive (FP) reduction scheme using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was investigated. For training DCNN, true positive and FP samples were obtained from the result of our initial mass detection scheme using the vector convergence filter. Regions of interest including the detected regions were extracted from the multiplanar reconstraction slices. We investigated methods to select effective FP samples for training the DCNN. Based on the free response receiver operating characteristic analysis, simple random sampling from the entire candidates was most effective in this study. Using DCNN, the number of FPs could be reduced by 60%, while retaining 90% of true masses. The result indicates the potential usefulness of DCNN for FP reduction in automated mass detection on ABVS images.

  15. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theilig D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Theilig,1 Felix Doellinger,1 Alexander Poellinger,1 Vera Schreiter,1 Konrad Neumann,2 Ralf-Harto Hubner31Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Biometrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Pneumology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyBackground: The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition.Purpose: The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change.Results: The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P=0.008. The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P=0.009. Subgroup

  16. 75 FR 44924 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Reduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Reduction and Trawl Gear Restriction AGENCY: National..., Northeast (NE) Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator) to increase or decrease the trip limits for vessels in... common pool sub-ACL prior to April 30, 2011, would require drastic trip limit reductions and/or...

  17. Effectiveness of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using unilateral endobronchial valve: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Miyoung Choi,1 Worl Suk Lee,1 Min Lee,1 Kyeongman Jeon,2 Seungsoo Sheen,3 Sanghoon Jheon,4 Young Sam Kim5 1National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR can be suggested as an alternative for surgical lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema patients. This article intends to evaluate by systematic review the safety and effectiveness of BLVR using a one-way endobronchial valve.Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, as well as eight domestic databases up to December 2013, was performed. Two reviewers independently screened all references according to selection criteria. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criterion was used to assess quality of literature. Data from randomized controlled trials were combined and meta-analysis was performed. Results: This review included 15 studies. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference [MD]=6.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.31–10.11. Six-minute walking distance (MD=15.66, 95% CI: 1.69–29.64 and cycle workload (MD=4.43, 95% CI: 1.80–7.07 also improved. In addition, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score decreased (MD=4.29, 95% CI: -6.87 to -1.71 in the intervention group

  18. An overview of distribution of births in United States hospitals in 2008 with implications for small volume perinatal units in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the distribution of births among United States (U.S.) hospitals in 2008 as part of the background for the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses' Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units. Descriptive analysis of birth volumes in U.S. hospitals using American Hospital Association Annual Survey: 2008. U.S. hospitals providing obstetric (OB) services were identified based on information in any of three fields: OB services, OB beds, or number of births. Data were verified via telephone and/or website for the top 100 hospitals based on volume, hospitals with "Healthcare System" as part of their names, hospitals reporting births but no OB service, and hospitals reporting births. Hospitals with births were queried regarding nurse staffing. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Approximately 3,265 U.S. hospitals offered OB services in 2008. The top 500 hospitals based on volume (15.3%) accounted for almost one half (47.4%) of births, the top 1,000 for 69.2%, and the remaining 2,265 for 30.8%. Fourteen percent of hospitals with births in 2008 reported discontinuing OB services in 2010, in part due to lack of physician coverage and costs. Most hospitals (n=159, 72.3%) with births routinely maintained two OB-skilled nurses in-house in 2010. U.S. births are unevenly distributed among hospitals; 15% have a disproportionate share of nearly one half of all births. Most hospitals (69.4%) are operating medium- to small-volume OB units. Most hospitals (72.3%) with births annually reported currently meeting minimum staffing guidelines. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007–2010 analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007–2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA‐LO ® Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes ...

  20. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  1. Analysis of Orbital Volume Measurements Following Reduction and Internal Fixation Using Absorbable Mesh Plates and Screws for Patients With Orbital Floor Blowout Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Do Heon; Choi, Won; Hwang, Jae Ha; Kim, Kwang Seog; Lee, Sam Yong

    2017-08-22

    Hinge-shaped fractures are common type of orbital floor blowout fractures, for which reduction and internal fixation is ideal. Nonetheless, orbital floor reconstruction using alloplastic materials without reducing the number of bone fragments is the most frequently used procedure. Therefore, this study analyzed and compared the outcomes between open reduction and internal fixation using absorbable mesh plates and screws, and orbital floor reconstruction, by measuring the orbital volume before and after surgery. Among patients with orbital floor blowout fractures, this study was conducted on 28 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation, and 27 patients who underwent orbital floor reconstruction from December 2008 to September 2015. The mechanism of injury, ophthalmic symptoms before and after surgery, and the degree of enophthalmos were examined; subsequently, the volumes of the affected and unaffected sides were measured before and after surgery based on computed tomography images. This study compared the degree of recovery in the correction rate of the orbital volume, ophthalmic symptoms, and enophthalmos between the 2 groups. The patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation, and the patients who underwent orbital floor reconstruction showed average correction rates of 100.36% and 105.24%, respectively. Open reduction and internal fixation showed statistically, significantly superior treatment outcomes compared with orbital floor reconstruction. The ophthalmic symptoms and incidence of enophthalmos completely resolved in both groups. For orbital floor blowout fractures, open reduction and internal fixation using absorbable mesh plates and screws was a feasible alternative to orbital floor reconstruction.

  2. Commercial Application of the MIP-CGP Technology for Olefin Reduction in FCC Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The refinery of Yanshan Petrochemical Company has twice retrofitted a 2.0-Mt/a RFCC unit with the MIP-CGP technology aimed at maximization ofisoparaffins/clean gasoline and increased output ofpropylene. By modi-fying the riser reactor with addition of the second reaction zone coupled with an added external catalyst cooler outside the regenerator and adoption of the CGP catalyst to control the cracking depth the refiners have realized the target of reducing olefin content in gasoline and increasing the yield of LPG. The results of retrofitting the RFCC unit have revealed that after revamp of FCC unit the yield of LPG was increased by 7.31%, the conversion rate was increased by 9.06%, and the total liquid yield was decreased by 0.3%. After revamp of the RFCC unit the olefin content in gasoline was reduced by 19.5 v%, and the RON rating of gasoline was increased by 0.7 units to meet the demand of Beijing municipality for manufacture of the Olympic clean gasoline.

  3. Planning, Designing, Building, and Moving a Large Volume Maternity Service to a New Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Heather; Legorreta, Kimberly; Maher, Mary Ann; Lavin, Melanie M

    Our health system recognized the need to update facility space and associated technology for the labor and birth unit within our large volume perinatal service to improve the patient experience, and enhance safety, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. When an organization decides to invest $30 million dollars in a construction project such as a new labor and birth unit, many factors and considerations are involved. Financial support, planning, design, and construction phases of building a new unit are complex and therefore require strong interdisciplinary collaboration, leadership, and project management. The new labor and birth unit required nearly 3 years of planning, designing, and construction. Patient and family preferences were elicited through consumer focus groups. Multiple meetings with the administrative and nursing leadership teams, staff nurses, nurse midwives, and physicians were held to generate ideas for improvement in the new space. Involving frontline clinicians and childbearing women in the process was critical to success. The labor and birth unit moved to a new patient tower in a space that was doubled in square footage and geographically now on three separate floors. In the 6 months prior to the move, many efforts were made in our community to share our new space. The marketing strategy was very detailed and creative with ongoing input from the nursing leadership team. The nursing staff was involved in every step along the way. It was critical to have champions as workflow teams emerged. We hosted simulation drills and tested scenarios with new workflows. Move day was rehearsed with representatives of all members of the perinatal team participating. These efforts ultimately resulted in a move time of ~5 hours. Birth volumes increased 7% within the first 6 months. After 3 years in our new space, our birth volumes have risen nearly 15% and are still growing. Key processes and roles responsible for a successful build, efficient and safe move

  4. 24 CFR 882.512 - Reduction of number of units covered by contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.512 Reduction of number of... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION...

  5. Agricultural Mechanics Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Volume 15, Number 4. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Hunter, Bill

    This instructor's guide is intended for use in teaching the agricultural mechanics unit of a plant science core curriculum. Covered in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: arc welding (following safety procedures, controlling distortion, selecting and caring for electrodes, identifying the material to be welded, and welding…

  6. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  7. Hypophosphatemia on the intensive care unit: individualized phosphate replacement based on serum levels and distribution volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.; Blans, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Mulkens, C.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia occurs in about 25% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, a safe and validated phosphate replacement protocol is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an individualized phosphate replacement regimen. DESIGN: Fifty consecutive intensive care unit patie

  8. Evaluation of the Synthoil process. Volume III. Unit block flow diagrams for a 100,000 barrel/stream day facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Edwards, M.S.; Ulrich, W.C.

    1977-06-01

    This volume consists of individual block flowsheets for the various units of the Synthoil facility, showing the overall flows into and out of each unit. Material balances for the following units are incomplete because these are proprietary processes and the information was not provided by the respective vendors: Unit 24-Claus Sulfur Plant; Unit 25-Oxygen Plant; Unit 27-Sulfur Plant (Redox Type); and Unit 28-Sour Water Stripper and Ammonia Recovery Plant. The process information in this form was specifically requested by ERDA/FE for inclusion in the final report.

  9. International and United States documents on oceans law and policy. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.N. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Volume 2 of the five-volume series continues the major international documents of Volume 1 relating to ocean issues. It groups the documents under three major headings: Cooperative agreements for port regulation and development, Living resources, and Environmental protection. The Living resources section is further divided into Coastal fisheries, Anadromous species, Highly migratory species, and Marine Mammals. Subdivisions under the Environmental protection section are General principles, Regional protection, Vessel-source pollution, Ocean dumping, Land-based pollution, Civil liability and compensation, and Endangered species. The title page for each document includes full citations, although some documents have been edited. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven sections under Environmental protection.

  10. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Freeman, III, Richard F.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  11. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  12. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  13. The volumes and value of non-timber forest products harvested in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Non-timber forest products [NTFPs] originate from plants and fungi that are harvested from natural, manipulated or disturbed forests. NTFPs may include fungi, moss, lichen, herbs, vines, shrubs, or trees. People harvest the products for many reasons, including personal, recreational and spiritual uses, as well as commercial gain. The assessment of volumes and values is...

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  15. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  18. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 43, Number 53. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    VII Drug-resi stant Streptococcus pneumoniae In the United States, the prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) has increased...hospitals indicate the proportion of invasive disease (bacteremia and meningitis) caused by penicillin -resistant pneumococci ranges from 3% to 30% and shows...from noncritical care units, suggesting that vancomy- cin-resistant enterococci are spreading from their focus in ICUs. Pneumonia of unknown etiology

  19. The Impact of Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Emphysema on Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients With Severe COPD Assessed for Lung Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutou, Afroditi K; Zoumot, Zaid; Nair, Arjun; Davey, Claire; Hansell, David M; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is a pathophysiologic hallmark of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of emphysema distribution on DH during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe COPD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among severe COPD patients who underwent thoracic high-resolution computed tomography, full lung function measurements and maximal CPET with inspiratory manouvers as assessment for a lung volume reduction procedure. ΔIC was calculated by subtracting the end-exercise inspiratory capacity (eIC) from resting IC (rIC) and expressed as a percentage of rIC (ΔIC%). Emphysema quantification was conducted at 3 predefined levels using the syngo PULMO-CT (Siemens AG); a difference >25% between best and worse slice was defined as heterogeneous emphysema. Fifty patients with heterogeneous (62.7% male; 60.9 ± 7.5 years old; FEV1% = 32.4 ± 11.4) and 14 with homogeneous emphysema (61.5% male; 62.5 ± 5.9 years old; FEV1% = 28.1 ± 10.3) fulfilled the enrolment criteria. The groups were matched for all baseline variables. ΔIC% was significantly higher in homogeneous emphysema (39.8% ± 9.8% vs.31.2% ± 13%, p = 0.031), while no other CPET parameter differed between the groups. Upper lobe predominance of emphysema correlated positively with peak oxygen pulse, peak oxygen uptake and peak respiratory rate, and negatively with ΔIC%. Homogeneous emphysema is associated with more DH during maximum exercise in COPD patients.

  20. [Noise in intensive care units. Noise reduction by modification of gas humidification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, P W; Stuttmann, R; Doehn, M

    1997-10-01

    Today, noise pollution is an evident and ubiquitous problem even in intensive care units. Noise can disturb the physiological and psychological balance in patients and staff. Especially intubated patients and those breathing spontaneously through a T-piece are exposed to the noise emitted by the nebuliser used to humidity the respiratory gas. This may make patients feel uncomfortable. To reduce noise pollution in the ICU a modified T-piece has been developed and investigated. In order to heat and humidity the respiratory gas a Conchaterm III unit (Kendall company) and a thermo flow cylinder (De Vilbiss company) is necessary. While respiratory gas is flowing, water is sucked out of the heated thermoflow cylinder and nebulised according to the Venturi-Bernoulli principle. To adjust the oxygen concentration of the respiratory gas a plastic ring must be turned to either close (98% oxygen) or open a valve allowing room air to mix (40% oxygen). Noise pollution of the unit varies with admixture of room air. With a new device--a special oxygen-air mixing chamber--the oxygen concentration of the respiratory gas can be adjusted outside the thermoflow cylinder, hardly producing any noise pollution. Therefore the principle of nebulisation could be changed to humidification. A thermoflow cylinder without the nebulisation unit allows the respiratory gas to flow through the thermoflow cylinder over heated and evaporating water, hardly causing any noise pollution. In both types of T-pieces the temperature of the respiratory gas is controlled and corrected by the Conchaterm unit. As the result of these modifications, noise pollution has been reduced from 70 dB(A) to 55 dB(A). In the modified T-piece, the quality of humidification has been evaluated with a fresh gas flow of 22 l/min and at a gas temperature of 37 degrees C, not only collecting condensed water but also lost water. The modified T-piece allows a physiological humidification of the respiratory gas. The modified T

  1. Comparing Generic Drug Markets in Europe and the United States: Prices, Volumes, and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G; McKEE, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets. Policymakers are assessing how they can save money through generic drugs. We compared generic drug prices and market shares in 13 European countries, using data from 2013, to assess the amount of variation that exists between countries. To place these results in context, we reviewed evidence from recent studies on the prices and use of generics in Europe and the United States. We also surveyed peer-reviewed studies, gray literature, and books published since 2000 to (1) outline existing generic drug policies in European countries and the United States; (2) identify ways to increase generic drug use and to promote price competition among generic drug companies; and (3) explore barriers to implementing reform of generic drug policies, using a historical example from the United States as a case study. The prices and market shares of generics vary widely across Europe. For example, prices charged by manufacturers in Switzerland are, on average, more than 2.5 times those in Germany and more than 6 times those in the United Kingdom, based on the results of a commonly used price index. The proportion of prescriptions filled with generics ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom. By comparison, the United States has historically had low generic drug prices and high rates of generic drug use (84% in 2013), but has in recent years experienced sharp price increases for some off-patent products. There are policy

  2. Bone marrow response in treated patients with Gaucher disease: evaluation by T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and correlation with reduction in liver and spleen volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terk, M.R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; LAC/USC Imaging Science Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dardashti, S. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Liebman, H.A. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Purpose. To determine whether T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images can demonstrate response in the marrow of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and to determine whether a relationship exists between liver and spleen volume reductions and visible marrow changes.Patients. Forty-two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease were evaluated on at least two occasions. Thirty-two patients received ERT. Of these patients, 15 had a baseline examination prior to the initiation of ERT. The remaining 10 patients did not receive ERT.Design. T1-weighted and gradient recalled echo (GRE) coronal images of the femurs and hips were obtained. Concurrently, liver and spleen volumes were determined using contiguous breath-hold axial gradient-echo images. T1-weighted images of the hips and femurs were evaluated to determine change or lack of change in the yellow marrow.Results. Of the 32 patients receiving ERT, 14 (44%) demonstrated increased signal on T1-weighted images suggesting an increase in the amount of yellow marrow. If only the 15 patients with a baseline examination were considered, the response rate to ERT was 67%. Using Student's t-test a highly significant correlation (P<0.005) was found between marrow response and reduction in liver and spleen volume.Conclusions. Marrow changes in patients receiving ERT can be detected by T1-weighted images. This response correlated with reductions in visceral volumes (P<0.0005). (orig.)

  3. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Suto, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k{sub eff} of 1. 0040{+-}0.0005.

  4. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  5. Reduction of indoor particles concentration using re-circulating filtration units in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Karottki, Gabriela D.;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The indoor environment contributes significantly to the total exposure to air pollution because of the many hours spent here, quantity of sources and low ventilation....... This exposure can be reduced by using re-circulating filtration units, limiting the impact of outdoor pollution penetration, indoor emissions and decomposition of dust on heated surfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing the indoor particulate concentration, by means of specially...

  6. Predicting the probability and volume of postwildfire debris flows in the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Rupert, M.G.; Michael, J.A.; Rea, A.H.; Parrett, C.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical models to estimate the probability of occurrence and volume of postwildfire debris flows can be quickly implemented in a geographic information system (GIS) to generate debris-flow hazard maps either before or immediately following wildfires. Models that can be used to calculate the probability of debris-flow production from individual drainage basins in response to a given storm were developed using logistic regression analyses of a database from 388 basins located in 15 burned areas located throughout the U.S. Intermountain West. The models describe debris-flow probability as a function of readily obtained measures of areal burned extent, soil properties, basin morphology, and rainfall from short-duration and low-recurrence-interval convective rainstorms. A model for estimating the volume of material that may issue from a basin mouth in response to a given storm was developed using multiple linear regression analysis of a database from 56 basins burned by eight fires. This model describes debris-flow volume as a function of the basin gradient, aerial burned extent, and storm rainfall. Applications of a probability model and the volume model for hazard assessments are illustrated using information from the 2003 Hot Creek fire in central Idaho. The predictive strength of the approach in this setting is evaluated using information on the response of this fire to a localized thunderstorm in August 2003. The mapping approach presented here identifies those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and thus provides information necessary to prioritize areas for postfire erosion mitigation, warnings, and prefire management efforts throughout the Intermountain West.

  7. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    just enough alignment in the organism passively along the field lines. Many animals, such as insects, fish, birds , reptiles , and mammals , have been...STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM 1989 PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT UNIVERSAL ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. VOLUME III of III Program Director, UES Program Manager , AFOSR...Bldg. Assigned: Flight Dynamics Laboratory Wilberforce, OH 45384 (513) 376-6435 Dagmar Fertl Degree: BS Texas A&M Univ. Specialty: Biology Wildlife

  8. Accomplishing Shipyard Work for the United States Navy: Institutions, Systems and Operations. Volume 3. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    operations research, advanced energy sources and propulsion technologies, nuclear physics, marine biology , maritime law, and ship financing. The...ductivity and reducing its production costs. 17 ()Determine whether -the industry c~ i achieve by FY 17 alevel of productivity that will allow reduction

  9. Reduction in MRSA environmental contamination with a portable HEPA-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, T C; Fox, P C

    2006-05-01

    There is renewed interest in the hospital environment as a potentially important factor for cross-infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtration unit (IQAir Cleanroom H13, Incen AG, Goldach, Switzerland) at reducing MRSA environmental surface contamination within a clinical setting. The MRSA contamination rate on horizontal surfaces was assessed with agar settle plates in ward side-rooms of three patients who were heavy MRSA dispersers. Contamination rates were measured at different air filtration rates (60-235 m(3)/h) and compared with no air filtration using Poisson regression. Without air filtration, between 80% and 100% of settle plates were positive for MRSA, with the mean number of MRSA colony-forming units (cfu)/10-h exposure/plate ranging from 4.1 to 27.7. Air filtration at a rate of 140 m(3)/h (one patient) and 235 m(3)/h (two patients), resulted in a highly significant decrease in contamination rates compared with no air filtration (adjusted rate ratios 0.037, 0.099 and 0.248, respectively; P contamination within patient isolation rooms, and this may prove to be a useful addition to existing MRSA infection control measures.

  10. 重度肺气肿的内镜下肺减容治疗技术%Application of endoscopic lung volume reduction technique in severe emphysema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟晶; 郭述良; 贾晋伟; 李一诗

    2013-01-01

    慢性阻塞性肺病(chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases,COPD)在世界范围的发病率和死亡率占主要因素.COPD发展至重度肺气肿阶段时严重影响患者生活质量.内镜肺减容术(endoscopic lung volume reduction,ELVR)是通过支气管镜技术使过度充气的肺叶产生不张,疗效较传统的内科治疗更为确切,与外科肺减容术相比,ELVR以其微创,操作相对简单,并发症和死亡率降低等优点,引起了世界医学界的广泛研究.目前国内外研究较多的内镜下肺减容技术主要包括支气管内单向活瓣技术(one-way endobronchial valves,EBV)、气道旁路支架(airway bypass stents,ABS)、聚合物肺减容术(polymeric lung volume reduction,PLVR)、经支气管镜热蒸汽消融术(bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation,BTVA)和肺减容弹簧圈(lung volume reduction coil,LVRC)等5种.本文将就上述内镜肺减容技术作一综述.%Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.Once the disease develops into severe emphysema,it seriously affects the patients' life quality.Endoscopic lung volume reduction(ELVR) with bronchoscopic techniques to bring about atelectasis of the hyperinflated lobe has been developed and studied widely over the past decade,because it has a better clinical effect than the traditional medicine treatment.The techniques have the advantages of minimally invasive and simple with less complications and lower mortality compared to the open surgical approach.Nowadays the most commonly used ELVR techniques include one-way endobronchial valves (EBV),airway bypass stents (ABS),polymeric lung volume reduction (PLVR),bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) and lung volume reduction coil (LVRC).In this paper the ELVR techniques are reviewed.

  11. Reduction in Design Stability Number of Monolayer Armour Units for Singular Conditions of Projects in Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Juan Donini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of concrete single layer of breakwaters is based on the application of design coefficients obtained in laboratory tests, primarily two-dimensional and under controlled conditions. With the experience of more than 30 years in structures of this type in the world, it is important to compare the values of stability numbers used in the design with those who are in breakwaters as built. In this paper, update and increase the data collected with respect to previous publications, developing an analysis of particular situations in which the amour layer stability coefficients are reduced. A series of Accropode® and Core-LocTM recommendations concerning the design elements is also made. Also there are conclusions related to increases in the volume and the reduction in the number of blocks needed for different numbers of stability proposed.

  12. Reduction of Hospital Physicians' Workflow Interruptions: A Controlled Unit-Based Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weigl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly interruptive clinical environments may cause work stress and suboptimal clinical care. This study features an intervention to reduce workflow interruptions by re-designing work and organizational practices in hospital physicians providing ward coverage. A prospective, controlled intervention was conducted in two surgical and two internal wards. The intervention was based on physician quality circles - a participative technique to involve employees in the development of solutions to overcome work-related stressors. Outcome measures were the frequency of observed workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions by fellow physicians and nursing staff were significantly lower after the intervention. However, a similar decrease was also observed in control units. Additional interviews to explore process-related factors suggested that there might have been spill-over effects in the sense that solutions were not strictly confined to the intervention group. Recommendations for further research on the effectiveness and consequences of such interventions for professional communication and patient safety are discussed.

  13. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Production Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; Mullinix, Mark K.

    This curriculum guide, part of a plant science core curriculum, consists of materials for use in teaching a unit on fruit and vegetable production. Provided in the first part of the guide are a list of objectives, a bibliography, and a competency profile. The remainder of the guide consists of 11 lessons dealing with the following topics: planning…

  15. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  16. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  17. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  18. Food and Nutrition. Volume II. Units VI-VIII: Fruit, Fats, Vegetables, Legumes, Grains, Meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honse, Elizabeth Linsenbardt

    These instructional materials are intended as a guide for the instructor of a secondary home economics course in food and nutrition. Topics covered in the three units are time, energy, and resource management; selection, care, preparation, and storage of food (seven lessons on dairy foods; fats and oils; cereals and breads; fruits and vegetables;…

  19. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume 2, Student's Text, Part I. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This fifth unit in the SMSG junior high mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics: rational numbers and coordinates; equations; scientific notation, decimals, and the metric system; constructions, congruent triangles, and the Pythagorean property; relative error; and real numbers. (DT)

  20. Structured Ordinary Least Squares: A Sufficient Dimension Reduction approach for regressions with partitioned predictors and heterogeneous units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Li, Bing

    2017-06-01

    In many scientific and engineering fields, advanced experimental and computing technologies are producing data that are not just high dimensional, but also internally structured. For instance, statistical units may have heterogeneous origins from distinct studies or subpopulations, and features may be naturally partitioned based on experimental platforms generating them, or on information available about their roles in a given phenomenon. In a regression analysis, exploiting this known structure in the predictor dimension reduction stage that precedes modeling can be an effective way to integrate diverse data. To pursue this, we propose a novel Sufficient Dimension Reduction (SDR) approach that we call structured Ordinary Least Squares (sOLS). This combines ideas from existing SDR literature to merge reductions performed within groups of samples and/or predictors. In particular, it leads to a version of OLS for grouped predictors that requires far less computation than recently proposed groupwise SDR procedures, and provides an informal yet effective variable selection tool in these settings. We demonstrate the performance of sOLS by simulation and present a first application to genomic data. The R package "sSDR," publicly available on CRAN, includes all procedures necessary to implement the sOLS approach. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  2. United States Air Force High School Apprenticeship Program: 1989 Program Management Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    an engineer. Basically, within these 9 weeks, Mr. Burgess told me how to become an engineer, crossing every obstacle , and what to expect once I...with engineers and 1’d like to be one of those who are employed with the government. With this experience I also learned that there are obstacles both...of the data from each metric will be shown step by step. Some of the reduction involves only basic algebra, while others touch upon some trigonometry

  3. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program 1989. Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Modeling Techniques 127 Degradation of the Renal Peritubular Dr. Thomas Lockwood Basement Membrane in Relation to Toxic Nephropathy of Fuels of... lithium are very reactive metals and may be ignited with a match. Beryllium and boron are difficult to ignite, requir- ing relatively large temperatures...velocity, pressure and temperature of the ex- plosive composition. 6. Lithium /Ammonium Perchlorate Compositions. The use of lithium as the reductant with

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  5. Information as Power: An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    DPKO). The DPKO Best Practices Unit ( BPU ) “…has begun to generate the sort of timely, mission-analytic reporting that UN Headquarters, operations...and mission contributors have long needed.”15 “The BPU not only provides a repository for lessons learned but also facilitates their incorporation...the Department of State’s Office of the Coordinator for Stability and Reconstruction (S/CRS), USAID, USIP, CSIS, NIJ, and the UN’s DPKO- BPU . Also

  6. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    level. Secondly, the Gibbs free energy at a given location in the sample is taken to be comprised of two main contributions: the free energy per unit...ise tneab Itre ldt bs ofidth vv)tc, l ,ecto e sCin trw C’narv e hasi Proab. em ofeaccowies toihte r ptheent i stu o yn" o fase zero> mTy e

  7. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1995. Volume 44/No. 53

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Encephalitis, eastern equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, western equine Escherlchia co//0157:H7 Gonorrhea Haemophilus influenzae , invasive...now recognized as a pan-American viral zoonosis caused by Sin Nombre virus and other New World hantaviruses. The identi- fied rodent reservoirs for...H7 Haemophilus influenzae , invasive Area Chlamydia*t Cholera NETSSS PHLIS1 Gonorrhea 1’ United States 477,638 23 2,139 1,531 392,848 1,180 New

  8. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program 1986. Program Technical Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Building 410 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. Bolling AFB, DC 20332 6l1O2F 33(. 5 11. TITLE (Inclusde Security Clasification ) us...H Byfr *(.. *’i ~rvs Vari ance arlu jt s A~ :i Z. 1r _ _:_F ’easureamerts cf EEG Act i vi t Y, �. 4,, Carie . f.R. G3. anrd ;:rost, .£.*"QSil

  9. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadhoob, Abdulraoof; Ohlsson, Arne

    2015-01-30

    Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are subjected to stress, including sound of high intensity. The sound environment in the NICU is louder than most home or office environments and contains disturbing noises of short duration and at irregular intervals. There are competing auditory signals that frequently challenge preterm infants, staff and parents. The sound levels in NICUs often exceed the maximum acceptable level of 45 decibels (dB), recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Hearing impairment is diagnosed in 2% to 10% of preterm infants versus 0.1% of the general paediatric population. Noise may cause apnoea, hypoxaemia, alternation in oxygen saturation, and increased oxygen consumption secondary to elevated heart and respiratory rates and may, therefore, decrease the amount of calories available for growth. Elevated levels of speech are needed to overcome the noisy environment in the NICU, thereby increasing the negative impacts on staff, newborns, and their families. High noise levels are associated with an increased rate of errors and accidents, leading to decreased performance among staff. The aim of interventions included in this review is to reduce sound levels to 45 dB or less. This can be achieved by lowering the sound levels in an entire unit, treating the infant in a section of a NICU, in a 'private' room, or in incubators in which the sound levels are controlled, or reducing the sound levels that reaches the individual infant by using earmuffs or earplugs. By lowering the sound levels that reach the neonate, the resulting stress on the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and endocrine systems can be diminished, thereby promoting growth and reducing adverse neonatal outcomes. Primary objectiveTo determine the effects of sound reduction on growth and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of neonates. Secondary objectives1. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on short-term medical outcomes (bronchopulmonary

  12. Large reductions in urban black carbon concentrations in the United States between 1965 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Preble, Chelsea V.; Hadley, Odelle L.; Bond, Tami C.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term pollutant concentration trends can be useful for evaluating air quality effects of emission controls and historical transitions in energy sources. We employed archival records of coefficient of haze (COH), a now-retired measure of light-absorbing particulate matter, to re-construct historical black carbon (BC) concentrations at urban locations in the United States (U.S.). The following relationship between COH and BC was determined by reinstating into service COH monitors beside aethalometers for two years in Vallejo and one year in San Jose, California: BC (μg m-3) = 6.7COH + 0.1, R2 = 0.9. Estimated BC concentrations in ten states stretching from the East to West Coast decreased markedly between 1965 and 1980: 5-fold in Illinois, Ohio, and Virginia, 4-fold in Missouri, and 2.5-fold in Pennsylvania. Over the period from the mid-1960s to the early 2000s, annual average BC concentrations in New Jersey and California decreased from 13 to 2 μg m-3 and 4 to 1 μg m-3, respectively, despite concurrent increases in fossil fuel consumption from 1.6 to 2.1 EJ (EJ = 1018 J) in New Jersey and 4.2 to 6.4 EJ in California. New Jersey's greater reliance on BC-producing heavy fuel oils and coal in the 1960s and early 1970s and subsequent transition to cleaner fuels explains why the decrease was larger in New Jersey than California. Patterns in seasonal and weekly BC concentrations and energy consumption trends together indicate that reducing wintertime emissions - namely substituting natural gas and electricity for heavy fuel oil in the residential sector - and decreasing emissions from diesel vehicles contributed to lower ambient BC concentrations. Over the period of study, declining concentrations of BC, a potent and short-lived climate warming pollutant, contrast increasing fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S. Declining BC emissions may have had the benefit of mitigating some atmospheric warming driven by increased CO2 emissions with

  13. Digraph Matrix Analysis for systems interactions at Indian Point Unit 3. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.J.; Prassinos, P.G.; Lappa, D.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Patenaude, C.J.; Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Fromme, D.C.; Hershberger, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the Indian Point Plant, Unit 3 (IP-3) for adverse systems interactions using DMA. The primary objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of DMA in finding systems interactions. To this end a parallel study was funded at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The results of this study and the BNL study will then be compared by NRC to the results of a similar study performed by the Power Authority of the State of New York. A secondary objective of this study was to determine systems interactions in selected combinations of safety systems at IP-3. 24 refs., 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Air Force materials with polution potential include jet fuel, deicer, different pesticides and Aqueous Fire Fighting Foam (AFFF). Spills and leakage...L AD-Ai66 178 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM 1/11 1985 TECHNICAL RE..(U) UNIVERSAL ENERGY SYSTEMS INC DAYTON OH R C DARRAH...EIIIIEEEIIIEEE 36 Ml ROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NtATIONdAL "URI4 OF SVAOAS - 963 -A j AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEAfjCH-- ;’’UNITEP.STATES A11R.-FORG

  15. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  16. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  17. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  18. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70), Walk (n = 54), and Walk Plus (n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003), while stress (p < 0.001), and loneliness (p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p < 0.01) and indirectly, through decreased stress (-0.10, p = 0.02), predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  19. Effect of nocturnal sound reduction on the incidence of delirium in intensive care unit patients: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Ineke; van Iterson, Mat; Maaskant, Jolanda

    2017-08-01

    Delirium in critically-ill patients is a common multifactorial disorder that is associated with various negative outcomes. It is assumed that sleep disturbances can result in an increased risk of delirium. This study hypothesized that implementing a protocol that reduces overall nocturnal sound levels improves quality of sleep and reduces the incidence of delirium in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. This interrupted time series study was performed in an adult mixed medical and surgical 24-bed ICU. A pre-intervention group of 211 patients was compared with a post-intervention group of 210 patients after implementation of a nocturnal sound-reduction protocol. Primary outcome measures were incidence of delirium, measured by the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and quality of sleep, measured by the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Secondary outcome measures were use of sleep-inducing medication, delirium treatment medication, and patient-perceived nocturnal noise. A significant difference in slope in the percentage of delirium was observed between the pre- and post-intervention periods (-3.7% per time period, p=0.02). Quality of sleep was unaffected (0.3 per time period, p=0.85). The post-intervention group used significantly less sleep-inducing medication (pdelirium in ICU patients was significantly reduced after implementation of a nocturnal sound-reduction protocol. However, reported sleep quality did not improve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  1. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  2. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  3. Localized gray matter volume reductions in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis and first episode for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Suga, Motomu; Takano, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideyuki; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Koike, Shinsuke; Yahata, Noriaki; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested an important role for Broca's region and its right hemisphere counterpart in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, owing to its roles in language and interpersonal information processing. Broca's region consists of the pars opercularis (PO) and the pars triangularis (PT). Neuroimaging studies have suggested that they have differential functional roles in healthy individuals and contribute differentially to the pathogenesis of schizophrenic symptoms. However, volume changes in these regions in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) or first-episode schizophrenia (FES) have not been clarified. In the present 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study, we separately measured the gray matter volumes of the PO and PT using a reliable manual-tracing volumetry in 80 participants (20 with UHR, 20 with FES, and 40 matched controls). The controls constituted two groups: the first group was matched for age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, and intelligence quotient to UHR (n=20); the second was matched for those to FES (n=20). Compared with matched controls, the volume of the bilateral PT, but not that of the PO, was significantly reduced in the subjects with UHR and FES. The reduced right PT volume, which showed the largest effect size among regions-of-interest in the both UHR and FES groups, correlated with the severity of the positive symptoms also in the both groups. These results suggest that localized gray matter volume reductions of the bilateral PT represent a vulnerability to schizophrenia in contrast to the PO volume, which was previously found to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The right PT might preferentially contribute to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms.

  4. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  5. HPA-axis function and grey matter volume reductions: imaging the diathesis-stress model in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, I; Crossley, N A; Day, F; Stone, J; Tognin, S; Mondelli, V; Howes, O; Valmaggia, L; Pariante, C; McGuire, P

    2016-05-03

    The onset of psychosis is thought to involve interactions between environmental stressors and the brain, with cortisol as a putative mediator. We examined the relationship between the cortisol stress response and brain structure in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Waking salivary cortisol was measured in 22 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 17 healthy controls. Grey matter volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. The relationship between the stress response and grey matter volume was investigated using voxel-based analyses. Our predictions of the topography of cortisol action as a structural brain modulator were informed by measures of brain glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptor distribution obtained from the multimodal neuroanatomical and genetic Allen Brain Atlas. Across all subjects, reduced responsivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was correlated with smaller grey matter volumes in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex and in the hippocampus. This relationship was particularly marked in the UHR subjects in the right prefrontal, left parahippocampal/fusiform and parietal cortices. The subgroup that subsequently developed psychosis showed a significant blunting of HPA stress response, observed at trend level also in the whole UHR sample. Altered responses to stress in people at high risk of psychosis are related to reductions in grey matter volume in areas implicated in the vulnerability to psychotic disorders. These areas may represent the neural components of a stress vulnerability model.

  6. Leito de drenagem: sistema natural para redução de volume de lodo de estação de tratamento de água Draining beds: natural system for sludge volume reduction in the water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali Laguna Achon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs tem funcionamento semelhante a uma indústria e podem em diversas etapas gerar resíduos que, na maioria das ETAs, são lançados nos corpos d’água sem tratamento. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de Leitos de Drenagem, para o desaguamento de lodo, provenientes de ETAs de ciclo completo que empregam sulfato de alumínio e cloreto de polialumínio (PACl, como coagulantes. Analisou-se as características, a drenagem e secagem dos amostras de lodo e característica do drenado. Os Leitos de Drenagem mostraram-se eficientes para desaguamento e redução de volume de lodo de ETA, de forma natural, sem consumo de energia ou adição de produtos químicos. Obteve-se, aos sete dias, reduções da ordem de 87 % em volume para os lodos de PACl e 83 % para o lodo de Sulfato de Alumínio e teor de sólidos totais 28% e 31% respectivamente.In this work the performance of Draining Beds for sludge dewatering was assessed. The sludge was provided from full cycle Water Treatment Plants (WTPs that employ aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl as coagulants. The characteristics, drainage and drying of samples of sludge and characteristic of drained were analysed. The Draining Beds were shown to be efficient for dewatering and sludge volume reduction in the WTP, in a natural way, without energy consumption or adding of chemical products. On the seventh day, it was possible to obtain reduction around 87% in volume for PACl sludge and 83% for the aluminum sulfate sludge and total solids content of 28 and 31% respectively.

  7. 支气管镜肺减容现状和展望%Current status and prospects of lung volume reduction surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙沁莹; 林冰

    2013-01-01

    The application of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction has recently been explored as safer alternatives to LVRS for treating advanced emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores,6MWT distance (6MWD) ,quality of life (SCRQ) are more frequent findings than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, short hospital length of stay and few complications such as COPD exacerbation, peumonia, pneumo-thorax. The field of bronrhoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.%外科肺减容手术治疗重度肺气肿术后病死率较高,适应证少,不适宜临床推广.支气管镜肺减容术通过支气管镜下的技术操作,简便、安全,有望替代外科肺减容术治疗重度肺气肿.目前研究比较有效的方法有支气管腔内单向阀、生物胶、蒸汽消融和肺减容线圈.支气管镜肺减容术治疗重度肺气肿,可以明显改善气促指数、6 min步行距离及生活质量(SGRQ)评分等主观指标,但对于评价该项技术有效性的客观指标如肺功能指标及运动耐力仅有部分改善.采用该项技术安全性好,住院时间短,极少出现危及生命的严重并发症,可能出现的并发症包括慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重、肺炎和气胸.下一步需开展前瞻性的随机对照研究,证实支气管镜肺减容术的确切疗效.

  8. Brazil - Poverty Reduction, Growth, and Fiscal Stability in the State of Ceara : A State Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Although the State of Ceara, in Brazil, is a model of good economic, and fiscal performance given its poverty status, recent analysis show poverty remains severe, in spite of significant reductions over the last decade. The combination of good governance, and sound fiscal management, industrial promotion, and public investments have been successful, but the report questions whether differe...

  9. Echocardiographic image tracker with a speckle adaptive noise reduction filter for the automatic measurement of the left atrial volume curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, Kenya; Chono, Tomoaki; Tabata, Tomotsugu; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Sata, Masataka

    2014-05-01

    Since tracking accuracy in left atrial (LA) images decreases due to low image quality around the LA in the apical view, a practical tracking method for LA images has not yet been proposed. The aim of this study was to assess an accurate and high-speed LA volume tracking (LAVT) method for the automatic measurement of LA volume (LAV) curves. We used three approved protocols in this study: (i) LAV curves were measured by LAVT on computer-simulated images; (ii) in 20 healthy volunteers, we assessed the feasibility and accuracy of this method compared with expert's measurements; and (iii) echocardiography and multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging were performed on the same day in 20 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. On computer-simulated images, mean absolute percentage LAVT error in one cardiac cycle was 3% in filtered images and 16% in original images. In 20 healthy volunteers, there are strong correlations between LAVT and the expert's LA measurements (LA maximum volume; R = 0.93, P images with 20 patients, an excellent correlation was obtained between LAVs using echocardiography and MDCT (R = 0.98, P mean) and narrow limits of agreement (+15% of the mean). The mean time required for the LAVT analysis was 1.8 min, for the MDCT analysis was 35.8 min, and for the manual echocardiographic analysis was 14.0 min. This LAVT method is fast, valid, accurate, and reproducible for determining LAV in both simulated images and the clinical setting.

  10. The relationship of 16 underage drinking laws to reductions in underage drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, J C; Fisher, D A; Voas, R B; Blackman, K; Tippetts, A S

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification ( p underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction ( p underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths.

  11. Current health care system policy for vulnerability reduction in the United States of America: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenfels, Edward J

    2002-04-01

    To raise questions about how the United States of America, which spends 1.3 trillion dollars on health care, conducts cutting-edge biomedical research, has the most advanced medical technology, and trains a cadre of highly competent health professionals cares for the most vulnerable members of its population. Relevant statistical data were extrapolated from the most current statistical sources and research reports, and assessed in terms of existing practices and policies. The data clearly demonstrated that particular population cohorts -- the elderly, the poor, new immigrants, the homeless, the HIV-positive, and substance abusers -- were especially vulnerable to illness and its consequences. Since American medicine, despite all of its science, technology, and clinical competence, operates in a non-system, there is currently no efficacious approach to vulnerability reduction. To turn health care in the U.S. into a high quality, comprehensive, and cost-effective system, government officials, health care planners, and medical practitioners must address a series of fundamental social, economic, and political issues. What other countries, like those in South Eastern Europe, can learn from this is not to duplicate these mistakes.

  12. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and "Regulatory Scaffolding": Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-06-30

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or "responsive" approach that introduces regulatory "scaffolds" to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry's willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  13. Harm reduction or women's rights? Debating access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L L; Erdman, Joanna N; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James

    2007-12-01

    This article compares the ethical pivot points in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States. These include women's right to be informed about the contraceptive method and its mechanism of action, pharmacists' conscientious objection concerning the dispensing of emergency contraceptive pills, and rights and equality of access to the method, especially for poor women and minorities. In both countries, arguments in support of expanding access to the pills were shaped by two competing orientations toward health and sexuality. The first, "harm reduction," promotes emergency contraception as attenuating the public health risks entailed in sex. The second orientation regards access to pills as a question of women's right to engage in nonprocreative sex and to choose from among all reproductive health-care options. The authors contend that arguments for expanding access to emergency contraceptive pills that frame issues in terms of health and science are insufficient bases for drug regulation; ultimately, women's health is also a matter of women's rights.

  14. Evaluation of virus reduction efficiency in wastewater treatment unit processes as a credit value in the multiple-barrier system for wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    The virus reduction efficiency of each unit process is commonly determined based on the ratio of virus concentration in influent to that in effluent of a unit, but the virus concentration in wastewater has often fallen below the analytical quantification limit, which does not allow us to calculate the concentration ratio at each sampling event. In this study, left-censored datasets of norovirus (genogroup I and II), and adenovirus were used to calculate the virus reduction efficiency in unit processes of secondary biological treatment and chlorine disinfection. Virus concentration in influent, effluent from the secondary treatment, and chlorine-disinfected effluent of four municipal wastewater treatment plants were analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, and the probabilistic distributions of log reduction (LR) were estimated by a Bayesian estimation algorithm. The mean values of LR in the secondary treatment units ranged from 0.9 and 2.2, whereas those in the free chlorine disinfection units were from -0.1 and 0.5. The LR value in the secondary treatment was virus type and unit process dependent, which raised the importance for accumulating the data of virus LR values applicable to the multiple-barrier system, which is a global concept of microbial risk management in wastewater reclamation and reuse.

  15. Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

  16. Archaeal community structure in leachate and solid waste is correlated to methane generation and volume reduction during biodegradation of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-02-01

    Duplicate carefully-characterized municipal solid waste (MSW) specimens were reconstituted with waste constituents obtained from a MSW landfill and biodegraded in large-scale landfill simulators for about a year. Repeatability and relationships between changes in physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics taking place during the biodegradation process were evaluated. Parameters such as rate of change of soluble chemical oxygen demand in the leachate (rsCOD), rate of methane generation (rCH4), rate of specimen volume reduction (rVt), DNA concentration in the leachate, and archaeal community structures in the leachate and solid waste were monitored during operation. The DNA concentration in the leachate was correlated to rCH4 and rVt. The rCH4 was related to rsCOD and rVt when waste biodegradation was intensive. The structures of archaeal communities in the leachate and solid waste of both simulators were very similar and Methanobacteriaceae were the dominant archaeal family throughout the testing period. Monitoring the chemical and microbial characteristics of the leachate was informative of the biodegradation process and volume reduction in the simulators, suggesting that leachate monitoring could be informative of the extent of biodegradation in a full-scale landfill.

  17. The influence of volume and intensive care unit organization on hospital mortality in patients admitted with severe sepsis: a retrospective multicentre cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, L.; Keizer, N.F. de; Peek, N.; Scheffer, G.J.; Voort, P.H. van der; Jonge, E. de

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of annual volume and factors related to intensive care unit (ICU) organization on in-hospital mortality among patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the database of the

  18. LIFAC demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2. Final report, Volume 1 - public design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report discusses the demonstration of LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s (RP&L) Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North American (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and several other organizations including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Final Report Volume 1: Public Design is to consolidate, for public use, all design and cost information regarding the LIFAC Desulfurization Facility at the completion of construction and startup.

  19. Anomalously large formula unit volume and its effect on the thermal behavior of LiBF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny; Zemva, Boris

    2006-02-09

    The crystal structure of LiBF4 has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. LiBF4 crystallizes as a merohedral twin in the trigonal space group P3(1)21 with a=4.892(5) A, c=11.002(12) A, V=228.0(4) A3, and Z=3 at 200 K. The twin is generated by a 2-fold rotation about the [10] direction. The lithium cation is coordinated by four fluorine atoms in a distorted tetrahedral manner, wherein two Li-F distances of 1.862(5) and 1.846(5) A are observed. The formula unit volume (FUV=V/Z) of 77.9 A3 for LiBF4 at 298 K is considerably larger than 72.7 A3 for NaBF4 and 72.5 A3 for AgBF4, despite the smaller size of Li+, indicating loose ionic packing of LiBF4. The thermodynamic evaluation of the decomposition temperature for LiBF4 was performed using the empirical relationship between the standard entropy and the FUV obtained. The results indicate that the large FUV of LiBF4 contributes to its higher decomposition temperature compared to that of LiPF6.

  20. Comparison the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Proper nutritional support is one of the important caring aspects in patients who were hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Although the several studies have been done concerning the selection of proper nutrition method for patients, but there is no agreement on this issue. The aim of current study was the compare the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.  Materials and Method: The current clinical trial was conducted on patients who were hospitalized in intensive care unit in Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, 2013. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned into two groups of 25 people of intervention and control. Nutrition was done through infusion pump in intervention group and by bolus in control group. Gastric residual volume and diarrhea was assessed each four hours for four days. Data were gathered through checklist and were analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential statistics including independent T-test, Fisher's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA.  Results: The results showed that the mean of gastric residual volume in control group was more than the intervention group on the third day (p=0.04. Also, the mean of gastric residual volume did not show significant difference at different times in intervention group, but the mean of gastric residual volume was significantly increased in control group at different times (p=0.04. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between two groups concerning the diarrhea frequency.  Conclusion: In nutritional support with continuous infusion method, gastric residual volume was not increased and gastric emptying rate was not diminished. Therefore, this method can be used as an appropriate nutritional support in intensive care unit.

  1. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Sodium Intake and Reduction Among Adult Consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Cogswell, Mary E; John, Katherine; Creel, Stephanie; Ayala, Carma

    2017-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among U.S. adults Design. A cross-sectional survey was used. The study was set in the United States in 2012. Participants were 6122 U.S. adults. Sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were measured. Chi-squared tests were used to determine differences in sodium-related knowledge, attitude, and behaviors by respondent characteristics; multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between selected respondent characteristics and health professional advice, reported action, or knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (adjusted for all other respondent characteristics). About three-fourths of respondents answered eating too much sodium is "somewhat" or "very" harmful to their health. Twenty-six percent reported receiving health professional advice, and 45% reported taking action to reduce their sodium intake. The prevalence of reported action was highest among adults receiving advice, those with hypertension, blacks, and those aged ≥65 years. Sixty-two percent who reported action agreed that most of their sodium comes from processed or restaurant foods. Of those reporting action, the most common tactics to reduce sodium intake were checking nutrition labels, using other spices than salt, and choosing low-sodium foods; requesting lower-sodium options when eating out was the least common tactic. Results suggest almost half of adults overall and the vast majority of those receiving health professional advice are taking some action to watch or reduce sodium intake. Although a substantial proportion report using recommended tactics to lower intake, many are not using the most effective tactics. In order to reach the general population, health communication messages could be simpler and focus on the most effective tactics to reduce sodium intake. Furthermore, health professionals can help reduce sodium intake by discussing the benefits of sodium reduction

  4. Dead space reduction by Kolobow's endotracheal tube does not justify the waiving of volume monitoring in small, ventilated lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proquitté, Hans; Wendel, Rena; Roehr, Charles C; Wauer, Roland R; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2014-12-01

    In ventilated preterm infants the flow sensor contributes significantly to the total apparatus dead space, which may impair gas exchange. The aim of the study was to quantify to which extent a dead space reduced Kolobow tube (KB) without flow sensor improves the gas exchange compared with a conventional ventilator circuit with flow sensor [Babylog 8000 (BL)]. In a cross-over trial in 14 tracheotomized, surfactant-depleted (saline lavage) and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (age space of BL and KB including the endotracheal tube were 3.0 and 1.34 mL. Despite a 50 % apparatus dead space reduction with KB compared to BL statistically significant improvements were only observed for body weights monitoring.

  5. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 5 - North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit for the negative reactivity of the depleted (or spent) fuel isotopics is desired, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods against spent fuel critical configurations. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology selected for all calculations reported herein was the codes and data provided in the SCALE-4 code system. The isotopic densities for the spent fuel assemblies in the critical configurations were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence of the SCALE-4 system. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code module was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from the SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required by the SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of the cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of each case. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all the calculations. This volume of the report documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. This unit and cycle were chosen for a previous analysis using a different methodology because detailed isotopics from multidimensional reactor calculations were available from the Virginia Power Company. These data permitted comparison of criticality calculations directly using the utility-calculated isotopics to those using the isotopics generated by the SCALE-4 SAS2H

  6. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 4-Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using relevant and well-documented critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors. The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SCALE-4 SAS2H analytical sequence. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code family was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for all calculations. This volume of the report documents a reactor critical calculation for GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) during hot, zero-power startup testing for the beginning of cycle 5. This unit and cycle were selected because of their relevance in spent fuel benchmark applications: (1) cycle 5 startup occurred after an especially long downtime of 6.6 years; and (2) the core consisted primarily

  7. Defectivity and particle reduction for mask life extension, and imprint mask replication for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Keiji; Sakai, Fumio; Sato, Chiaki; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Takabayashi, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hattori, Tadashi; Hiura, Mitsuru; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Azuma, Hisanobu; Iwanaga, Takehiko; Choi, Jin; Aghili, Ali; Jones, Chris; Irving, J. W.; Fletcher, Brian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2016-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers. Additionally, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask chuck flatness simulation results were also performed and demonstrate that residual image placement errors can be reduced to as little as 1nm.

  8. Lung volume reduction in pulmonary emphysema from the radiologist's perspective; Lungenvolumenreduktion beim Lungenemphysem aus der Sicht des Radiologen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellinger, F.; Poellinger, A. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Huebner, R.H. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine/Infectious and Respiratory Diseases; Kuhnigk, J.M. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Medical Image Computing

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of ''collateral ventilation'' has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results.

  9. Early treatment volume reduction rate as a prognostic factor in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Shin; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between early treatment response to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and survival outcome in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive CRT between January 2009 and December 2012. Patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy regimen of etoposide/carboplatin (n = 15) or etoposide/cisplatin (n = 32) and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy at a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 46 to 64 Gy). Early treatment volume reduction rate (ETVRR) was defined as the percentage change in gross tumor volume between diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and simulation CT for adaptive RT planning and was used as a parameter for early treatment response. The median dose at adaptive RT planning was 36 Gy (range, 30 to 43 Gy), and adaptive CT was performed in 30 patients (63.8%). With a median follow-up of 27.7 months (range, 5.9 to 75.8 months), the 2-year locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The mean diagnostic and adaptive gross tumor volumes were 117.9 mL (range, 5.9 to 447 mL) and 36.8 mL (range, 0.3 to 230.6 mL), respectively. The median ETVRR was 71.4% (range, 30 to 97.6%) and the ETVRR >45% group showed significantly better OS (p < 0.0001) and LRPFS (p = 0.009) than the other group. ETVRR as a parameter for early treatment response may be a useful prognostic factor to predict treatment outcome in LS-SCLC patients treated with CRT.

  10. A Review of the Availability of Primary Scientific and Technical Documents within the United States, Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James L.

    Volume I of this three-volume final report contains a summary of the objectives and results of a study conducted by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS), to determine the availability of the scientific and technical primary literature which the user identifies through the use of secondary services…

  11. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  12. User's guide for PRISIM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit 1: Volume 2, Program for regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit One (ANA-1). This document, Volume 2, describes how the PRA information available in Version 2.0 of PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM, regulators can both access PRA information and modify the information to assess the impact these changes may have on plant safety. Each volume is a stand-alone document.

  13. The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From – To) December 2013 – April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and...Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The problem of suicide among our military members is one of growing concern for military commanders and political leaders alike

  14. [Optimization of blood gas analysis in intensive care units : Reduction of preanalytical errors and improvement of workflow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieninger, M; Zech, N; Mulzer, Y; Bele, S; Seemann, M; Künzig, H; Schneiker, A; Gruber, M

    2015-05-01

    partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in both groups compared to the results when analyzing the samples immediately (118.4 vs. 148.6 mmHg in the control group and 115.3 vs. 123.7 mmHg in the intervention group). When using standard syringes the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was significantly lower (40.5 vs. 38.3 mmHg) whereas no alterations were seen when using the labeled syringes. The implementation of a new BGA system with labeled syringes and automated processing of the specimens was possible without any difficulties under daily clinical routine conditions in this 10-bed intensive care unit (ICU). A gain of time could not be measured but a reduction in preanalytical errors using the labeled syringes with automated processing was found. Delayed analysis of blood samples can lead to significant changes in pO2 and pCO2 depending on the type of syringe used.

  15. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung;

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  16. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Application of Residual-Based EWMA Control Charts for Detecting Faults in Variable-Air-Volume Air Handling Unit System

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Wang

    2016-01-01

    An online robust fault detection method is presented in this paper for VAV air handling unit and its implementation. Residual-based EWMA control chart is used to monitor the control processes of air handling unit and detect faults of air handling unit. In order to provide a level of robustness with respect to modeling errors, control limits are determined by incorporating time series model uncertainty in EWMA control chart. The fault detection method proposed was tested and validated using re...

  18. Statistics for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater runoff best management practices (BMPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to indicate the risk for stormwater concentrations, flows, and loads to be above user-selected water-quality goals and the potential effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce such risks. SELDM models the potential effect of mitigation measures by using Monte Carlo methods with statistics that approximate the net effects of structural and nonstructural best management practices (BMPs). In this report, structural BMPs are defined as the components of the drainage pathway between the source of runoff and a stormwater discharge location that affect the volume, timing, or quality of runoff. SELDM uses a simple stochastic statistical model of BMP performance to develop planning-level estimates of runoff-event characteristics. This statistical approach can be used to represent a single BMP or an assemblage of BMPs. The SELDM BMP-treatment module has provisions for stochastic modeling of three stormwater treatments: volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment. In SELDM, these three treatment variables are modeled by using the trapezoidal distribution and the rank correlation with the associated highway-runoff variables. This report describes methods for calculating the trapezoidal-distribution statistics and rank correlation coefficients for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater BMPs and provides the calculated values for these variables. This report also provides robust methods for estimating the minimum irreducible concentration (MIC), which is the lowest expected effluent concentration from a particular BMP site or a class of BMPs. These statistics are different from the statistics commonly used to characterize or compare BMPs. They are designed to provide a stochastic transfer function to approximate

  19. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the Western United States: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Evelyn L. Bull; Jane L. Hayes; Barbara C. Wales

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes available information on the effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments on terrestrial wildlife and invertebrates in dry coniferous forest types in the West. We focused on thinning and/or prescribed fire studies in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii),...

  20. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  1. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration`s 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  2. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration's 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO[sub 2] emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO[sub 2] emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO[sub 2] emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  3. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  4. A process for containment removal and waste volume reduction to remediate groundwater containing certain radionuclides, toxic metals and organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L.P.; Killey, D.R.W.; Vijayan, S.; Wong, P.C.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-09-01

    A project to remove groundwater contaminants by an improved treatment process was performed during 1990 October--1992 March by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the United States Department of Energy, managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The goal was to generate high-quality effluent while minimizing secondary waste volume. Two effluent target levels, within an order of magnitude, or less than the US Drinking Water Limit, were set to judge the process effectiveness. The program employed mixed waste feeds containing cadmium, uranium, lead, iron, calcium, strontium-85-90, cesium-137, benzene and trichlorethylene in simulated and actual groundwater and soil leachate solutions. A combination of process steps consisting of sequential chemical conditioning, cross-flow microfiltration and dewatering by low temperature-evaporation, or filter pressing were effective for the treatment of mixed waste having diverse physico-chemical properties. A simplified single-stage version of the process was implemented to treat ground and surface waters contaminated with strontium-90 at the Chalk River Laboratories site. Effluent targets and project goals were met successfully.

  5. cuGWAM: Genome-wide association multifactor dimensionality reduction using CUDA-enabled high-performance graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Kim, Kyunga; Lee, Sungyoung; Park, Taesung

    2012-01-01

    Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method has been widely applied to detect gene-gene interactions that are well recognized as playing an important role in understanding complex traits. However, because of an exhaustive analysis of MDR, the current MDR software has some limitations to be extended to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with a large number of genetic markers up to approximately 1 million. To overcome this computational problem, we developed CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) based genome-wide association MDR (cuGWAM) software using efficient hardware accelerators, cuGWAM has better performance than CPU-based MDR methods and other GPU-based methods.

  6. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  7. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  8. Variation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization for epithelial ovarian cancer at high volume hospitals in the United States and associated survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M

    2017-06-01

    To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/year) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%-55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23-55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5-17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and HR 0.85 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The United States Remains Unprepared for Oil Import Disruptions. Volume II. Detailed Review of Current Emergency Programs and Alternative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-29

    Conservation Act ERA Economic Regulatory Administration ERDO Emergency Reserve Drawdown Obligation ESS Emergency Sharing System ESSD Emergency Strategies and...a fraction of the base period volume. Each prime supplier (a refiner or wholesaler who first transports gasoline into a State) generally must use a...that State. Each prime supplier must set aside 5 percent of supply for this purpose. 1/See U.S. General Accounting Office, "Gasoline Allocation A Chaotic

  10. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Diesel Deep Creek 19,200 Hydro-Turbine Unit 1 9,600 Hydro 2 9,600 Hydro Piney 28,800 Hydro-Turbine Unit 1 9,600 Hydro 2 9,600 Hydro 3 9,600 Hydro Warrior ...Major Interconnections Interconnections With Max Tie kVA Tie Voltage, kV Metropolitan Edison Company 75 115 44 230 Niagara Mohawk Company 480 230 83 115...reference "The Grand River Reservoir Project: Impact on Wildlife," Grand River Committee, Ohio Chapter of the Wildlife Society (August, 1971). The basin

  11. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  12. Several clinical interests regarding lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema: meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We aim to address several clinical interests regarding lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS for severe emphysema using meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods Eight RCTs published from 1999 to 2010 were identified and synthesized to compare the efficacy and safety of LVRS vs conservative medical therapy. One RCT was obtained regarding comparison of median sternotomy (MS and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. And three RCTs were available evaluating clinical efficacy of using bovine pericardium for buttressing, autologous fibrin sealant and BioGlue, respectively. Results Odds ratio (95%CI, expressed as the mortality of group A (the group underwent LVRS versus group B (conservative medical therapies, was 5.16(2.84, 9.35 in 3 months, 3(0.94, 9.57 in 6 months, 1.05(0.82, 1.33 in 12 months, respectively. On the 3rd, 6th and 12th month, all lung function indices of group A were improved more significantly as compared with group B. PaO2 and PaCO2 on the 6th and 12th month showed the same trend. 6MWD of group A on the 6th month and 12th month were improved significantly than of group B, despite no difference on the 3rd month. Quality of life (QOL of group A was better than of group B in 6 and 12 months. VATS is preferred to MS, due to the earlier recovery and lower cost. And autologous fibrin sealant and BioGlue seems to be the efficacious methods to reduce air leak following LVRS. Conclusions LVRS offers the more benefits regarding survival, lung function, gas exchange, exercise capacity and QOL, despite the higher mortality in initial three postoperative months. LVRS, with the optimization of surgical approach and material for reinforcement of the staple lines, should be recommended to patients suffering from severe heterogeneous emphysema.

  13. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume II, Individual Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  14. A Survey of Science Teaching in Public Schools of the United States (1971), Volume 1, Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Fred R.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to collect "bench mark" data on the teaching of science that could serve as a basis of comparison for trend analysis. The information obtained in this survey presents a description of science teaching practices and selected science teacher characteristics in the United States. Descriptive information…

  15. Reduction of adult fingers visualized on pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs after radiation technologist and PICU staff radiation safety education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, J.R.; Duncan, M.D.; Burbridge, B.E., E-mail: jentynan@hotmail.com [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    A recent publication from our centre revealed a disturbing finding of a significant incidence of adult fingers seen on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs. This is inappropriate occupational exposure to diagnostic radiation. We hypothesized that the incidence of adult fingers on PICU chest radiographs would decline after radiation safety educational seminars were given to the medical radiation technologists and PICU staff. The present study's objectives were addressed by using a pretest-posttest design. Two cross-sectional PICU chest radiograph samples, taken before and after the administration of radiation safety education for our medical radiation technologists and PICU staff, were compared by using a {chi}{sup 2} test. There was a 61.2% and 76.9% reduction in extraneous adult fingers, directly exposed to the x-ray beam and those seen in the coned regions of the film, respectively, on PICU chest radiographs (66.7% reduction overall). This reduction was statistically significant ({chi}2 = 20.613, P < .001). Limiting unnecessary occupational radiation exposure is a critical issue in radiology. There was a statistically and clinically significant association between radiation safety education and the decreased number of adult fingers seen on PICU chest radiographs. This study provides preliminary evidence in favour of the benefit of radiation safety seminars. (author)

  16. Can a partial volume edge effect reduction algorithm improve the repeatability of subject-specific finite element models of femurs obtained from CT data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Eran; Herblum, Ryan; Beek, Maarten; Joskowicz, Leo; Liebergall, Meir; Mosheiff, Rami; Whyne, Cari

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of patient-specific finite element (FE) modelling is dependent on the ability to provide repeatable analyses. Differences of inter-operator generated grids can produce variability in strain and stress readings at a desired location, which are magnified at the surface of the model as a result of the partial volume edge effects (PVEEs). In this study, a new approach is introduced based on an in-house developed algorithm which adjusts the location of the model's surface nodes to a consistent predefined threshold Hounsfield unit value. Three cadaveric human femora specimens were CT scanned, and surface models were created after a semi-automatic segmentation by three different experienced operators. A FE analysis was conducted for each model, with and without applying the surface-adjustment algorithm (a total of 18 models), implementing identical boundary conditions. Maximum principal strain and stress and spatial coordinates were probed at six equivalent surface nodes from the six generated models for each of the three specimens at locations commonly utilised for experimental strain guage measurement validation. A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was conducted to determine inter-operator variability and the impact of the PVEE-adjustment algorithm. The average inter-operator difference in stress values was significantly reduced after applying the adjustment algorithm (before: 3.32 ± 4.35 MPa, after: 1.47 ± 1.77 MPa, p = 0.025). Strain values were found to be less sensitive to inter-operative variability (p = 0.286). In summary, the new approach as presented in this study may provide a means to improve the repeatability of subject-specific FE models of bone obtained from CT data.

  17. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-19

    This volume of the 4-volume ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data bases. It includes an explanation of the data-base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters document the specific-technology-cost specifications. Boiler technologies (conventional coal steam, conventional natural gas and oil in the steam-service sector, black liquor and wood boilers, and space-heat service sector) and non-boiler conventional technologies (natural gas non-boiler, oil-fired non-boiler, coal-fired non-boiler technologies and non-boiler primary system costs) are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III, Fossil Energy Technologies, covers atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, low-Btu gasification of coal, and medium-Btu gasification. Chapter IV, Cogeneration and Self-Generation Technologies, covers the steam service sector, machine-drive service sector, and electrolytic service sector. Solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies) are covered in Chapter V, while Chapter VI covers conservation technologies. (MCW)

  18. The effect of atmospheric sulfate reductions on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis in the United States during 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Washenfelder, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been shown to influence the global carbon sink by increasing the fraction of diffuse light, which increases photosynthesis over a greater fraction of the vegetated canopy. Between 1995 and 2013, U.S. SO2 emissions declined by over 70%, coinciding with observed AOD reductions of 3.0 ± 0.6% yr-1 over the eastern U.S. In the Community Earth System Model (CESM), these trends cause diffuse light to decrease regionally by almost 0.6% yr-1, leading to declines in gross primary production (GPP) of 0.07% yr-1. Integrated over the analysis period and domain, this represents 0.5 Pg C of omitted GPP. A separate upscaling calculation that used published relationships between GPP and diffuse light agreed with the CESM model results within 20%. The agreement between simulated and data-constrained upscaling results strongly suggests that anthropogenic sulfate trends have a small impact on carbon uptake in temperate forests due to scattered light.

  19. Seismic hazard methodology for the Central and Eastern United States: Volume 1: Part 2, Methodology (Revision 1): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.K.; Veneziano, D.; Van Dyck, J.; Toro, G.; O' Hara, T.; Drake, L.; Patwardhan, A.; Kulkarni, R.; Keeney, R.; Winkler, R.

    1988-11-01

    Aided by its consultant, the US Geologic Survey (USGS), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed ''Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States.'' This topical report was submitted jointly by the Seismicity Owners Group (SOG) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in July 1986 and was revised in February 1987. The NRC staff concludes that SOG/EPRI Seismic Hazard Methodology as documented in the topical report and associated submittals, is an acceptable methodology for use in calculating seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). These calculations will be based upon the data and information documented in the material that was submitted as the SOG/EPRI topical report and ancillary submittals. However, as part of the review process the staff conditions its approval by noting areas in which problems may arise unless precautions detailed in the report are observed. 23 refs.

  20. KC-46A Formal Training Unit (FTU) and First Main Operating Base (MOB 1) Beddown EIS. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    support a1rcraft operations and pHot and personnel training • ht UMI O~f’t EIS, the USAF ldet~titJ.s AltUS AF8 as the PTI~ fened A#etnAtfv• for liH! FTV...Frequency, commonly perceived as pitch, is the number of times per second the sound causes air molecules to oscillate . Frequency is measured in units of

  1. Complications as indicators of quality assurance after 401 consecutive colorectal cancer resections: the importance of surgeon volume in developing colorectal cancer units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Guruprasad S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low incidence of colorectal cancer in India, coupled with absence of specialized units, contribute to lack of relevant data arising from the subcontinent. We evaluated the data of the senior author to better define the requirements that would enable development of specialized units in a country where colorectal cancer burden is increasing. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 401 consecutive colorectal resections from a prospective database of the senior author. In addition to patient demographics and types of resections, perioperative data like intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, complications, re-operation rates and hospital stay were recorded and analyzed. Results The median age was 52 years (10-86 years. 279 were males and 122 were females. The average duration of surgery was 220.32 minutes (range 50 - 480 min. The overall complication rate was 12.2% (49/401 with a 1.2% (5/401 mortality rate. The patients having complications had an increase in their median hospital stay (from 10.5 days to 23.4 days and the re-operation rate in them was 51%. The major complications were anastomotic leaks (2.5% and stoma related complications (2.7%. Conclusions This largest ever series from India compares favorably with global standards. In a nation where colorectal cancer is on the rise, it is imperative that high volume centers develop specialized units to train future specialist colorectal surgeons. This would ensure improved quality assurance and delivery of health care even to outreach, low volume centers.

  2. Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri [Volumes 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway along the Lower Missouri River to rehabilitate ecosystem functions in the channel and flood plain. Considerable uncertainty inevitably accompanies ecosystem restoration efforts, indicating the benefits of an adaptive management approach in which management actions are treated as experiments, and results provide information to feed back into the management process. The Overton Bottoms North Unit of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge is a part of the Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Project. The dominant management action at the Overton Bottoms North Unit has been excavation of a side-channel chute to increase hydrologic connectivity and to enhance shallow, slow current-velocity habitat. The side-channel chute also promises to increase hydrologic gradients, and may serve to alter patterns of wetland inundation and vegetation community growth in undesired ways. The U.S. Geological Survey's Central Region Integrated Studies Program (CRISP) undertook interdisciplinary research at the Overton Bottoms North Unit in 2003 to address key areas of scientific uncertainty that were highly relevant to ongoing adaptive management of the site, and to the design of similar rehabilitation projects on the Lower Missouri River. This volume presents chapters documenting the surficial geologic, topographic, surface-water, and ground-water framework of the Overton Bottoms North Unit. Retrospective analysis of vegetation community trends over the last 10 years is used to evaluate vegetation responses to reconnection of the Overton Bottoms North Unit to the river channel. Quasi-experimental analysis of cottonwood growth rate variation along hydrologic gradients is used to evaluate sensitivity of terrestrial vegetation to development of aquatic habitats. The integrated, landscape-specific understanding derived from these studies illustrates the value of scientific information in design and management of rehabilitation projects.

  3. Therapeutic effect of insulin in reduction of critical illness polyneuropathy and Myopathy in pediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nemat BILAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Karimzadeh P, Torabian S, Damadi S, Khaje A. Comparison of Intravenous Midazolam Drip with Intermittent Intravenous Diazepam in The Treatment of Refractory Serial Seizures in Children. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 15-19.ObjectiveHyperglycemia may occur in the patients affected by any kind of critical illness.This complication makes an adverse effect on the clinical outcome of thesepatients by causing polyneuropathy and myopathy. It has been recently shownthat treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin administration significantly reducesthe prevalence of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM andon the other hand reduces the demand for long-term mechanical ventilation inthe patients admitted to the ICU for more than 1 week. The aim of this studywas to determine the therapeutic effect of insulin in reducing the incidence ofCIPNM in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU.Materials & MethodsIn this study, we recruited 30 patients admitted to the PICU of Tabriz PediatricHospital. The incidence of CIPNM following hyperglycemia was evaluated inthese patients. The patients were categorized into two groups. In the case group,blood sugar was controlled in the range of 140-180mg/dl by administration of0.05 unit per kilogram body weight of insulin as drip protocol in an hour and inthe control group, placebo was used. Consequently, the incidence of CIPNM,duration of PICU and duration of mechanical ventilation were comparedbetween the two groups.ResultsThe incidence of CIPNM and duration of PICU stay and mechanical ventilationwere significantly reduced in the patients treated with insulin compared to thecontrol group.ConclusionThis study shows that blood sugar control decreases the incidence of CIPNM.ReferencesVan den Berghe G. Insulin therapy in critical illness. Can J Diabetes. 2004;28(1:43-9.Bolton CF, Gilbert JJ, Hahn AF, Sibbald WJ.Polyneuropathy in critically ill patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

  4. The association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes: a cost-volume-profit analysis of cardiac catheter unit services in Ramallah Hospital, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Samer F K; Younis, Mustafa Mike Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of willingness-to-pay and patient attributes in relation to the multi-service cost-volume-profit structure of a cardiac catheter unit in Ramallah Hospital. This article contributes to the literature by providing primary evidence on patient willingness-to-pay, by identifying the specific break-even parameters of three hospital cardiac catheter unit service types (diagnosis, balloon, and pacemaker), and by demonstrating the cross-subsidization of patient income groups that is inherent in the existing hospital rate structure. Our results provide information useful for (1) evidence-based policy making with respect to hospital rate setting and cross-subsidies of patient income groups; (2) the advancement of hospital management, by demonstrating the estimated variable and fixed cost parameters and the impact of patient revenue mix on the profitability of cardiac catheter unit services; and (3) the advancement of theory, by documenting the relationship of patient demand and the cost of supply in a multi-patient-group, multi-service hospital setting.

  5. Analysis, design, fabrication and testing of the mini-Brayton rotating unit (Mini-BRU). Volume 1: Text and tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    A 500 to 2100 watt power output Mini-Brayton Rotating Unit (Mini-BRU)was analyzed, designed, fabricated and tested. Performance and test data for the various components is included. Components tested include the 2.12 in. diameter compressor, the 2.86 in. diameter turbine, the Rice alternator and the cantilevered foil-type journal and thrust bearings. Also included are results on the fabrication of a C-103 turbine plenum/nozzle assembly and on offgassing of the organic materials in the alternator stator.

  6. A Study of United States Army Family Housing Standardized Plans (PX-0001-5-0835). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    New Mexico . Arizona and part of Wyoming to its territory. The westward movement of settlers, fur traders and fortune seekers added to Army mobilization...such as old mission structures. The 1856 AnnuMa Report of the Secretary of War stated that the posts in Texas and New Mexico were on rented land and that...Plan Nos: 172; 2-624 3pl . J-4 Basic unit built as a double set of 1902 quarters. The pantry has been eliminated and the kitchen wing is no longer

  7. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1992 High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 14. Rome Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    LabView program. Optical Power Measurements For measuring the output power of the laser, an UDT model 370 optometer with a 2500 integrating sphere will be...used. The optometer will be continually taking measurements of the laser’s output power and will periodically be asked for a reading. LabView Program...power meter. The first program is "UDT 370 Optometer Setup". This allows the user to set the unit of measure, the wavelength to be measured, and the

  8. Thyroid volume reduction following radioiodine therapy in patients with autonomous goitre and Graves` disease; Volumenreduktion der Schilddruese nach Radiojodtherapie bei Patienten mit Schilddruesenautonomie und Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Otte, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Klink, J.E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Aim: It is well known that radioiodine therapy (RITh) leads to a significant thyroid volume reduction (TVR). But until now only little data has been presented due to the course of time and the extent of TVR. Method: Therefore the data of 33 patients with Graves` disease (GD), 36 patients with multifocal (MAG) and 31 with solitary (SAG) autonomous goitre were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the patients showed a highly significant (p<0.001) TVR, which continued up to 1 year after RITh. Receiving equal effective radiation doses, the extent of TVR was significantly greater for GD than for MAG. This difference developed within six weeks up to 3 months after RITh. Conclusion: This observation suggests that the underlying thyroid disease affects the therapeutic effect of RITh and may be partially explained by the total suppression of non-autonomous thyroid tissue in AG at the time of RITh. In patients with SAG with a 1.7 times higher effective radiation dose than in MAG relative TVR was about 1.6 times stronger in SAG than in MAG. This demonstrates a direct relation between the effective radiation dose and the extent of the TVR after RITh. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es ist bekannt, dass die Radiojodtherapie (RJTh) zu einer relvanten Schilddruesenvolumenreduktion (SVR) fuehrt. Bisher wurden jedoch nur vereinzelt systematische Daten zum zeitlichen Verlauf und quantitativen Ausmass der SVR veroeffentlicht. Methode: Daher fuehrten wir eine retrospektive Auswertung der Daten von 33 Patienten mit Morbus Basedow (MB), 36 Patienten mit multifokaler (MFA) und 31 mit unifokaler (UFA) Autonomie der Schilddruese durch. Ergebnisse: Fuer alle Patientengruppen ergab sich eine hochsignifikante (p<0,001) SVR, welche sich bis ein Jahr nach RJTh signifikant fortsetzte. Obwohl die effektive Herddosis nicht signifikant verschieden war, war das Ausmass der SVR fuer Patienten mit MB signifikant groesser als fuer Patienten mit MFA. Dieser Unterschied war bereits innerhalb der ersten 6

  9. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.

  10. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  11. Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a simple insulin infusion protocol in a large volume cardiac surgery unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Inpatient hyperglycemia management is essential, but difficult to achieve especially in a large volume cardiac surgery setup, thus necessitating use of nurse-led insulin protocols. A rapid flux of nurses dealing with a huge workload has been a cause for traditionally not using nurse-led protocols in most Indian institutes. The challenges we faced were to have a simple protocol for the nurses to accept it without compromising on glycemic control. Therefore, this observational study was planned to measure the efficacy and safety of the insulin infusion protocol in cardiac surgery patients. Materials and Methods: Insulin protocol was implemented, using seven fixed columns of infusion with the nurse making decisions to initiate and titrate doses based on simple rules. Blood glucose (BG data captured from blood gas analyzers (glucometrics in the intervention group (i.e., after protocol implementation were compared to control group (i.e., before the protocol implementation. Results: The mean BG for the first 48 h was lower in the intervention group as compared to control group, without an increase in the episodes of hypoglycemia. The nurses found the protocol easy to understand, less time-consuming and there was no protocol deviation over 8 months after implementation. Conclusion: A small change in the process, allowing nurses to titrate insulin doses based on some rules and having seven fixed columns of insulin infusion rates, improved glycemic control and efficiency.

  12. Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a simple insulin infusion protocol in a large volume cardiac surgery unit in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Beena; Mithal, Ambrish; Carvalho, Pravin; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Inpatient hyperglycemia management is essential, but difficult to achieve especially in a large volume cardiac surgery setup, thus necessitating use of nurse-led insulin protocols. A rapid flux of nurses dealing with a huge workload has been a cause for traditionally not using nurse-led protocols in most Indian institutes. The challenges we faced were to have a simple protocol for the nurses to accept it without compromising on glycemic control. Therefore, this observational study was planned to measure the efficacy and safety of the insulin infusion protocol in cardiac surgery patients. Insulin protocol was implemented, using seven fixed columns of infusion with the nurse making decisions to initiate and titrate doses based on simple rules. Blood glucose (BG) data captured from blood gas analyzers (glucometrics) in the intervention group (i.e., after protocol implementation) were compared to control group (i.e., before the protocol implementation). The mean BG for the first 48 h was lower in the intervention group as compared to control group, without an increase in the episodes of hypoglycemia. The nurses found the protocol easy to understand, less time-consuming and there was no protocol deviation over 8 months after implementation. A small change in the process, allowing nurses to titrate insulin doses based on some rules and having seven fixed columns of insulin infusion rates, improved glycemic control and efficiency.

  13. U.S. Job Creation Due to Nuclear Power Resurgence in The United States — Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine M. Plowman

    2004-11-01

    The recent revival of interest in nuclear power is causing a reexamination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current U.S. industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. This study was conducted to provide an initial estimate of jobs to be gained in the U.S. through the repatriation of the nuclear manufacturing industry. In the course of the study, related job categories were also modeled to provide an additional estimate of the potential expansion of existing industries (i.e., plant construction and operations) in conjunction with the repatriation of manufacturing jobs.

  14. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  15. Engineering aspects and hardware verification of a volume producable solid oxide fuel cell stack design for diesel auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Michael; Reinert, Andreas; Mai, Björn Erik; Kuznecov, Mihail

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack module is presented that is designed for operation on diesel reformate in an auxiliary power unit (APU). The stack was designed using a top-down approach, based on a specification of an APU system that is installed on board of vehicles. The stack design is planar, modular and scalable with stamped sheet metal interconnectors. It features thin membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), such as electrolyte supported cells (ESC) and operates at elevated temperatures around 800 °C. The stack has a low pressure drop in both the anode and the cathode to facilitate a simple system layout. An overview of the technical targets met so far is given. A stack power density of 0.2 kW l -1 has been demonstrated in a fully integrated, thermally self-sustaining APU prototype running with diesel and without an external water supply.

  16. Survey of Technology with Possible Applications to United States Coast Guard Buoy Tenders. Volume 1. Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    performance. Zig - zag tests show SWATH ships have half the overshoot of conventional ships. At slow speeds, the widely separated propulsion units aid...Ii S2 2-13 C, Lb 0 00 2-14 ’rkpl I% -W N~ louw W ME ’ K’.MM w~~b Af’- w~t W pw -.J 1 W ’W SS U. C ’U . 2-15 Mill ll WRII9PqWWmWIK"-wPFll7TW W.F K...Evaluation of a Compound Cycle Engine for Shipboard Gensets," Report No. DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-1886. 6.19 Mills , R.G., "Innovative Technology on Steam

  17. 秦山核电基地放射性废物减容技术研究%Research on Radioactive Waste Volume Reduction Technology in Qinshan Nuclear Power Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康云鼎

    2012-01-01

    分析秦山核电基地放射性废物的现状及其处理与贮存方式,主要研究针对蒸残液固化物、可压缩废物和废树脂3类产生量较大的固体废物的减容技术.研究表明秦山核电基地的放射性废物还有很大的减容空间,并提出增加秦山核电基地固体废物贮存时间5a以上的减容方案,可有效缓解废物贮存库容的压力.%The paper analyzes the present situation of radioactive wastes in Qinshan nuclear power base and its processing and storage, and focuses on the volume reduction technology for large number of solid wastes including steamed residual liquid condensates, compressible waste and waste resin. Research shows that there is great potential for volume reduction of radioactive wastes in Qinshan nuclear power base, and the volume reduction scheme is provided. With the proposed scheme, the storage capacity for solid wastes in Qinshan nuclear power base can be increased by more than 5 years, which will effectively relieve the pressure for waste storage capacity.

  18. Attributing Accelerated Summertime Warming in the Southeast United States to Recent Reductions in Aerosol Burden: Indications from Vertically-Resolved Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika G. Tosca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the southeast United States cooled, in direct contrast with widespread global and hemispheric warming. While the existing literature is divided on the cause of this so-called “warming hole,” anthropogenic aerosols have been hypothesized as playing a primary role in its occurrence. In this study, unique satellite-based observations of aerosol vertical profiles are combined with a one-dimensional radiative transfer model and surface temperature observations to diagnose how major reductions in summertime aerosol burden since 2001 have impacted surface temperatures in the southeast US. We show that a significant improvement in air quality likely contributed to the elimination of the warming hole and acceleration of the positive temperature trend observed in recent years. These reductions coincide with a new EPA rule that was implemented between 2006 and 2010 that revised the fine particulate matter standard downward. Similar to the southeast US in the twentieth century, other regions of the globe may experience masking of long-term warming due to greenhouse gases, especially those with particularly poor air quality.

  19. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.; Scotti, K. S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order.

  20. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Janecka

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations.

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattie, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  3. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  4. Data regarding hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, published, and publicly available data regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States are scarce. The objective of this data series is to publish data related to hydraulic fracturing in the public domain. The spreadsheets released with this data series contain derivative datasets aggregated temporally and spatially from the commercial and proprietary IHS database of U.S. oil and gas production and well data (IHS Energy, 2011). These datasets, served in 21 spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format, outline the geographical distributions of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells (including well drill-hole directions) as well as water volumes, proppants, treatment fluids, and additives used in hydraulic fracturing treatments in the United States from 1947 through 2010. This report also describes the data—extraction/aggregation processing steps, field names and descriptions, field types and sources. An associated scientific investigation report (Gallegos and Varela, 2014) provides a detailed analysis of the data presented in this data series and comparisons of the data and trends to the literature.

  5. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-10

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  6. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  9. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  11. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Siddharth, Bharat; Choudhury, Arin; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Menon, Ramesh; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Talwar, Sachin; Choudhary, Shiv; Airan, Balram

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections (NIs) in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a) evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b) identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU). After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6%) developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) accounted for most of the infections (44.2%) followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%), bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%), urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9%) and infections from combined sources (29.8%). Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  13. Reduction of [Cp*Sb]4 with Subvalent Main-Group Metal Reductants: Syntheses and Structures of [(L(1) Mg)4 (Sb4 )] and [(L(2) Ga)2 (Sb4 )] Containing Edge-Missing Sb4 Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Krüger, Julia; Wölper, Christoph; Nizovtsev, Anton S; Schulz, Stephan

    2017-02-16

    [Cp*Sb]4 (Cp*=C5 Me5 ) reacts with [L(1) Mg]2 and L(2) Ga with formation of [(L(1) Mg)4 (μ4 ,η(1:2:2:2) -Sb4 )] (L(1) =iPr2 NC[N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 1) and [(L(2) Ga)2 (μ,η(2:2) -Sb4 )] (L(2) =HC[C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 2). The cleavage of the Sb-Sb and Sb-C bonds in [Cp*Sb]4 are the crucial steps in both reactions. The formation of 1 occurred by elimination of the Cp* anion and formation of Cp*MgL(1) , while 2 was formed by reductive elimination of Cp*2 and oxidative addition of L(2) Ga to the Sb4 unit. 1 and 2 were characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their bonding situation was studied by quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Analysis of Waste Gas Volume and Pollutants Reduction Potential for Cement Industry in China%我国水泥工业废气量减排与污染物减排潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅; 刘宇; 王凡; 都基峻; 张凡; 石应杰

    2015-01-01

    水泥工业是颗粒物等大气污染物排放量较大的行业,因排放标准中颗粒物等污染物浓度限值已非常严格,依靠加严标准减排污染物的空间已经越来越小,标准减排难以使水泥工业实现更高的减排目标。水泥生产多个工序会排放废气,在排放标准限值不变的条件下,各类废气的排放总量决定了颗粒物等污染物的排放总量。通过实例分析得出利用窑头余风再循环、减少窑头喂煤一次风比例和分解炉喂煤风机的风量可实现高温废气量的减排,利用窑头窑尾低温废热进行烘干物料可实现低温烘干废气量的减排,将常温废气作为水泥窑窑头和分解炉煤粉的助燃空气可实现常温废气量的减排,进一步分析了通过废气量减排可实现颗粒物等污染物的减排量。%Cement industry yields a large air pollution emission including particulate matters.As the particulate concentration limits in the industrial emission standard has been very strict, it leaves smaller and smaller space to further reduce the pollutant emission by setting stricter standard limits.Therefore, the emission reduction by standard has been difficult to make cement industry to achieve a higher reduction target.There are several processes in cement production that emit waste gases.Under the same emission standard limits, the total emissions of various pollutants will be determined by the total waste gas volumes of various kinds.Through case studies, it was shown that the kiln end afterwinds could be recycled to reduce the primary air ratio in kiln end coal feeding and the coal-feeding fan air volume in calcining combustors, so as to realize reduction of high-temperature waste gas volume. The cement kiln end low-temperature waste heat could be used to dry materials and thus realize reduction of waste gas volume in low-temperature drying.The room-temperature exhaust gas could be used as pulverized coal combustion air

  15. Efficacy evaluation of retrospectively applying the Varian normal breathing predictive filter for volume definition and artifact reduction in 4D CT lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ciaran; Rock, Luke; Skourou, Christina

    2014-05-08

    Phase-based sorting of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) datasets is prone to image artifacts due to patient's breathing irregularities that occur during the image acquisition. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the Varian normal breathing predictive filter (NBPF) as a retrospective phase-sorting parameter in 4D CT. Ten 4D CT lung cancer datasets were obtained. The volumes of all tumors present, as well as the total lung volume, were calculated on the maximum intensity projection (MIP) images as well as each individual phase image. The NBPF was varied retrospectively within the available range, and changes in volume and image quality were recorded. The patients' breathing trace was analysed and the magnitude and location of any breathing irregularities were correlated to the behavior of the NBPF. The NBPF was found to have a considerable effect on the quality of the images in MIP and single-phase datasets. When used appropriately, the NBPF is shown to have the ability to account for and correct image artifacts. However, when turned off (0%) or set above a critical level (approximately 40%), it resulted in erroneous volume reconstructions with variations in tumor volume up to 26.6%. Those phases associated with peak inspiration were found to be more susceptible to changes in the NBPF. The NBPF settings selected prior to exporting the breathing trace for patients evaluated using 4D CT directly affect the accuracy of the targeting and volume estimation of lung tumors. Recommendations are made to address potential errors in patient anatomy introduced by breathing irregularities, specifically deep breath or cough irregularities, by implementing the proper settings and use of this tool.

  16. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 3. Appendix D. Design and Costs. Appendix E. Geotechnical. Appendix F. Real Estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    DESCRIPTION QUNTIT UNITS UNIT PI MOTCT M T TOT A MOUNT, 11. Reach C excavation (dike) 7.350 CY 88.00 $58,800 30.0% 817,640 576,440 dumped granular 17,250...there is no definitive method of determining whether the sandfill will remain during the design storm, anSPN and as a result the conservative approach

  17. Application of reburn techniques for NOx reduction to cogeneration prime movers. Volume 1. Rich-burn engine application. Final report, June 1984 to July 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.A.; Lips, H.; Kuby, W.C.

    1989-03-01

    The report describes the results of a design and experimental program to develop a post-combustion NOx control technique for gas-fired I.C. engines and gas turbines as applied to cogeneration. Emissions and performance data of both rich-burn and lean-burn engines were used to develop a conceptual reburner design to be placed between an engine and a waste heat boiler. This reburner design was then modeled for testing in a 100,000 Btu/hr subscale test facility. Parametric testing achieved 50 percent NOx reduction at a fuel fraction of 30 percent for rich-burn and mid-O2 range engine exhausts. Lean-burn NOx reductions were limited to 35 percent at the same fuel fraction. With the addition of a NiO catalyst in the rich zone, NOx reductions of up to 90 percent were achieved in the subscale testing. A full-scale system was designed, fabricated, and tested on a 150 kW Caterpillar engine. NOx reductions of 40 to 50 percent were achieved without a catalyst; reductions of up to 75 percent were achieved with a NiO catalyst.

  18. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and “Regulatory Scaffolding”: Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Magnusson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or “responsive” approach that introduces regulatory “scaffolds” to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry’s willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  19. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and “Regulatory Scaffolding”: Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or “responsive” approach that introduces regulatory “scaffolds” to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry’s willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry. PMID:26133973

  20. Environment-friendly Dredging with Geotextile Tubes for Dewatering and Volume Reduction of Sediments in Lake and Reservoir%环保疏浚联合土工管袋用于湖库底泥的脱水减容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松; 魏新庆; 王立彤

    2011-01-01

    The engineering case of using environment-friendly dredging with geotextile tubes for dredging, dewatering and volume reduction of sediments in Hangu Sewage Reservoir is introduced. It mainly includes design of environment-friendly dredging, preparation of dewatering and volume reduction site, selection of the geotextile tubes, filling of geotextile tubes, dosing of the flocculant and so on.Through the design and whole process practice of this engineering, the design parameters and process of environment-friendly dredging with geotextile tubes for dewatering and volume reduction of sediments in lake and reservoir are found to lay the foundation for its large-scale application in the future.%介绍了汉沽污水库现场试验工程采用环保疏浚联合土工管袋的方式,对底泥进行清淤和脱水减容的工程实例,主要内容包括环保疏浚设计、脱水减容场地准备、土工管袋选型、土工管袋充填、絮凝剂投加等.通过对本工程的设计和全过程跟踪实践,摸索出环保疏浚联合土工管袋用于湖库底泥脱水减容的设计参数和操作流程,为今后规模化应用奠定了基础.

  1. Lowering bronchoaspiration rate in an acute stroke unit by means of a 2 volume/3 texture dysphagia screening test with pulsioximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, D; Sagales, M; Cobo, M; Homs, I; Serra, J; Pou, M; Perez, G; Pujol, G; Tantinya, S; Bao, P; Aloy, A; Sabater, R; Gendre, J; Otermin, P

    During acute stroke, 30% of all patients present dysphagia and 50% of that subgroup will experience bronchoaspiration. Our aim was to compare mortality and bronchoaspiration rates associated with the water test compared to those associated with a 2 volume/3 texture test controlled with pulse oximetry (2v/3t-P test) in our stroke unit. Over a 5-year period, we performed a prospective analysis of all consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients hospitalised in the Stroke Unit. Dysphagia was evaluated using the water test between 2008 and 2010 (group 0 or G0), and the 2v/3t-P test (group 1 or G1) between 2011 and 2012. We analysed demographic data, vascular risk factors, neurological deficit on the NIHSS, aetiological subtype according to TOAST criteria, clinical subtype according to the Oxfordshire classification, prevalence of dysphagia, percentage of patients with bronchoaspiration, and mortality. We examined 418 patients with acute stroke (G0=275, G1=143). There were significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the percentage of patients with TACI (17% in G0 vs. 29% in G1, P=.005) and median NIHSS score (4 points in G0 vs. 7 points in G1, P=.003). Since adopting the new swallowing test, we detected a non-significant increase in the percentage of dysphagia (22% in G0 vs. 25% in G1, P=.4), lower mortality (1.7% in G0 vs. 0.7% in G1, P=.3) and a significant decrease in the bronchoaspiration rate (6.2% in G0 vs. 2.1% in G1, P=.05). Compared to the water test used for dysphagia screening, the new 2v/3t-P test lowered bronchoaspiration rates in acute stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling effective viscosity reduction behaviour of solid suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei En-Bo; Ji Yan-Ju; Zhang Jun

    2012-01-01

    Under a simple shearing flow,the effective viscosity of solid suspensions can be reduced by controlling the inclusion particle size or the number of inclusion particles in a unit volume.Based on the Stokes equation,the transformation field method is used to model the reduction behaviour of effective viscosity of solid suspensions theoretically by enlarging the particle size at a given high concentration of particles.With a lot of samples of random cubic particles in a unit cell,our statistical results show that at the same higher concentration,the effective viscosity of solid suspensions can be reduced by increasing the particle size or reducing the number of inclusion particles in a unit volume.This work discloses the viscosity reduction mechanism of increasing particle size,which is observed experimentally.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  5. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  6. Contrast volume reduction using third generation dual source computed tomography for the evaluation of patients prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Daniel O. [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Arnold, Martin; Klinghammer, Lutz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Hell, Michaela M.; Muschiol, Gerd; Gauss, Soeren; Achenbach, Stephan; Marwan, Mohamed [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), Erlangen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hoffmann, Udo [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chronic renal failure is common in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). CT angiography is recommended and provides crucial information prior to TAVI. We evaluated the feasibility of a reduced contrast volume protocol for pre-procedural CT imaging. Forty consecutive patients were examined with prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition using a novel third-generation dual-source CT system; 38 ml contrast agent was used. Image quality was graded on a visual scale (1-4). Contrast attenuation was measured at the level of the aortic root and at the iliac bifurcation. Mean patient age was 82 ± 6 years (23 males; 58 %). Mean attenuation/average image quality was 285 ± 60 HU/1.5 at the aortic annulus compared to 289 ± 74 HU/1.8 at the iliac bifurcation (p = 0.77/p = 0.29). Mean estimated effective radiation dose was 2.9 ± 0.3 mSv. A repeat acquisition was necessary in one patient due to image quality. Out of the 35 patients who underwent TAVI, 31 (89 %) patients had no or mild aortic regurgitation. Thirty-two (91 %) patients were discharged successfully. Pre-procedural CTA with a total of 38 ml contrast volume is feasible and clinically useful, using third-generation dual-source CT, allowing comprehensive imaging for procedural success. (orig.)

  7. Curcumin and sertraline prevent the reduction of the number of neurons and glial cells and the volume of rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Rashidian-Rashidabadi, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress induces morphological changes in the neurons of several brain regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is involved in variety of behavioral tasks, including learning and memory. Our previous work showed that stress impaired function. The present work extends the earlier work to study mPFC in stressed and non-stressed rats with or without sertraline or curcumin treatments using stereological methods. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and curcumin is the main ingredient of turmeric with neuroprotective effects. In this study, 42 male rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: stress + distilled water, stress + olive oil, stress + curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), stress + sertraline (10 mg/kg/day), curcumin, sertraline, and control groups. After 56 days, the right mPFC was removed. The volume of mPFC and its subdivisions and the total number of neurons and glia were estimated. The results showed ~8%, ~8%, and 24% decrease in the volume of the mPFC and its prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions, respectively. However, the anterior cingulated cortex remained unchanged. Also, the total number of the neurons and glial cells was significantly reduced (11% and 5%, respectively) in stress (+distilled water or olive oil) group in comparison to the non-stressed rats (Psertraline and stress + curcumin groups in comparison to the non-treated stressed rats (Psertraline could prevent the stress-induced changes in mPFC.

  8. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn, Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 7. Appendix J. Feasibility Study and EIS/EIR Comments and Responses. Section A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    TRAPELO ROAD Paul Murphl WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS, 02254-9149 AMr CmmO o,, Lou DropSi T-.VWe DEAR M.WILSON: TOM MCC.A0ft FAavrdal S , ye, Joe DiDomiciao...Shepardson EOEA/MEPA Unit Philps wLighting QxnJUL 13A L 0mm1Lvm. MA01 I CUDDY, LYNCH, MANZI & BIXBY AToaNm AT LAw ONs FINANCL. CENT= BosTON, MAuScACsKUs

  9. SU-E-T-13: A Comparative Dosimetric Study On Radio-Dynamic Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Treatment: Strategies for Bone Marrow Dose and Volume Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wang, B; Dong, Z; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ge, W; Xu, L [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radio-dynamic therapy (RDT) is a potentially effective modality for local and systemic cancer treatment. Using RDT, the administration of a radio-sensitizer enhances the biological effect of high-energy photons. Although the sensitizer uptake ratio of tumor to normal tissue is normally high, one cannot simply neglect its effect on critical structures. In this study, we aim to explore planning strategies to improve bone marrow sparing without compromising the plan quality for RDT treatment of pelvic cancers. Methods: Ten cervical and ten prostate cancer patients who previously received radiotherapy at our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, nine plans were created using the Varian Eclipse treatmentplanning-system (TPS) with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT delivery techniques containing various gantry angle combinations and optimization parameters (dose constraints to the bone marrow). To evaluate the plans for bone marrow sparing, the dose-volume parameters V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, and V40 for bone marrow were examined. Effective doseenhancement factors for the sensitizer were used to weigh the dose-volume histograms for various tissues from individual fractions. Results: The planning strategies had different impacts on bone marrow sparing for the cervical and prostate cases. For the cervical cases, provided the bone marrow constraints were properly set during optimization, the dose to bone marrow sparing was found to be comparable between different IMRT and VMAT plans regardless of the gantry angle selection. For the prostate cases, however, careful selection of gantry angles could dramatically improve the bone marrow sparing, although the dose distribution in bone marrow was clinically acceptable for all prostate plans that we created. Conclusion: For intensity-modulated RDT planning for cervical cancer, planners should set bone marrow constraints properly to avoid any adverse damage, while for prostate cancer one can carefully select gantry

  10. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  11. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Yuji; Shibayama, Kentaro; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Berdejo, Javier; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Makkar, Raj R; Shiota, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Reduction in mitral regurgitation (MR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has previously been reported. However, the hemodynamic effects of TAVR in patients with MR have not been previously evaluated. We analyzed 571 patients who underwent TAVR from December 2010 to December 2013. We studied 20 patients with moderate or severe preprocedural functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) who also had a follow-up transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination between 90 and 360 days (median 213 days) after TAVR (Significant FMR Group). We also studied age- and gender-matched 20 patients with mild or lesser MR (Nonsignificant MR Group). Left ventricular functional measurements were assessed using echocardiography before and after TAVR. Left ventricular outflow tract stroke volume measurements using pulsed-wave Doppler (SVLVOT ) were calculated as a representative of systolic forward flow, and stroke volume by the Simpson's method (SVSimpson ) was calculated as a parameter of degree of LV contraction. MR grade improved in 22 of 40 patients after TAVR. In both groups, BNP level decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction increased, and SVLVOT increased after TAVR. SVSimpson increased in the Nonsignificant MR Group and remained unchanged in the Significant FMR Group. Vena contracta width of MR (MRVC) decreased in the Significant FMR Group. Using multivariable analysis in the Significant FMR Group, the increase in SVLVOT significantly correlated with the decrease in MRVC (P FMR. In these patients, increase in SVLVOT after TAVR was associated with decrease in severity of MR. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-05-28

    SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.

  13. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Dam Density and Storage Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the dam density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on National...

  14. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  15. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  16. Environmental assessment: Reduction of public use and over-the-sand vehicle impacts at Holgate Unit, Barnegat Division, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment proposes to restrict public use and the operation of over-the-sand vehicles at the Holgate Unit, Barnegat Division, Edwin B. Forysthe...

  17. Changes of pulmonary function and quality of life in mid-term after lung volume reduction surgery%肺减容术后中期肺功能变化和生活质量评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 石开虎; 吴君旭; 徐盛松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the mid-term changes of pulmonary function and quality of life in the patients with emphysema who have undergone lung volume reduction surgery.Methods 44 subjects with severe emphysema underwent single or double lung volume reduction surgery through thoracoscope.There were 33 male and 11 female in the population analyzed with an age range of 46 to 70 years old.The mean age of the patients was (65.2-± 6.0) years.The pulmonary function and quality of life evaluation were determined over 3 time periods:prior to surgery,12 months postsurgery,and 24 months postsurgery Pulmonary function measurement project including the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1),FEV 1% of predicted value,residual volume (RV),RV % of predicted value,partial pressure of oxygen(PO2),partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2),life quality evaluation performed in the form of questionnaire,including whether under anhelation,satisfactory sleep,living by self-care,participating in household duties,taking part in social work,whether to have a good mental state and have a hobby.Results There was 1 death of 44 patients from respiratory failure.43 patients recovered smoothly.4 cases were lost to follow-up.In 39.patients with follow-up,1 patient succumbed to cerebrovascular at 13 months after surgery.The other 38 cases compared with the preoperative at 12 and 24 months postsurgery,postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) increased,P < 0.05,residual gas volume (RV) decreased,P < 0.05,partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increased,P < 0.05,partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) decreased,P < 0.05,meanwhile,the quality of life has improved significantly.Conclusion Lung volume reduction surgery in patients with severe obstructive emphysema can improve pulmonary function and quality of life.And its effect would not disappeared in the short term.%目的 对接受肺减容手术的重度阻塞性肺气肿患者,进行术后肺功能中期随访,以

  18. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  20. Proceedings of the second United Nations symposium on the development and use of geothermal resources held at San Francisco, California, May 20--29, 1975. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The 299 papers in the Proceedings are presented in three volumes and are divided into twelve sections, each section dealing with a different aspect of geothermal energy. Rapporturs' summaries of the contents of each section are grouped together in Vol. 1 of the Proceedings; a separate abstract was prepared for each summary. Volume 1 also contains ninety-eight papers under the following section headings: present status of resources development; geology, hydrology, and geothermal systems; and geochemical techniques in exploration. Separate abstracts were prepared for ninety-seven papers. One paper was previously abstracted for ERA and appeared as CONF-750525--17. (LBS)

  1. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  2. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  3. Evaluation on Energy-saving and Emission Reduction of Pneumatic Induced Draft Fan of 600 MW Coal-fired Units%600 MW燃煤机组汽动引风机节能减排评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂才; 徐齐胜; 吴婕; 马晓茜; 彭晓为; 余岳溪

    2014-01-01

    针对大型燃煤机组改造项目,将给水泵汽轮机驱动引风机的方式应用于600 MW燃煤机组,对其节能减排效果进行评估和分析。计算和分析结果表明:相比于电动机驱动方式,给水泵汽轮机驱动方式具有减少厂用电量、降低供电煤耗、提高发电厂收益、减少污染物排放等优点,其中在亚临界压力机组上应用的节能减排效果最佳。%In the large coal-fired units transformation,the driving mode of induced draft fan of feed pump steam turbine is applied to 600 MW coal-fired units.The effect of energy-saving and emission reduction is evaluated.The calculation and anal-ysis results show that the driving mode,compared to electric driving mode,can reduce auxiliary power consumption,coal consumption for power supply,improve benefit of power plant and reduce pollutant emissions.The application of this mode in subcritical units is more significant in energy-saving and emission reduction.

  4. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 7. Performance Evaluation of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU): reverse Osmosis (RO) Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    sieve theory of Schultz and Asunmaa; (5) the dynamic pore theory of Hoenn and co-workers; and (6) various water-clustering theories.46 The same general...globular structure. 46 This led to the barrier models of Schultz and Asunmaa, and Hoenn and co-workers. In the case of the Hoenn model, the 40 Volume 7

  5. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 16. Arnold Engineering Development Center. Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory. Wilford Hall Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Laboratory: AEDC/ North Jackson St. Vol-Page No: 16- 1 Tullahoma Nigh School Tullahoma, TN 37388-0000 Bowlby , Andrea Laboratory: PL/GP Mudge Way Vol-Page No...January 1982. New York: Scientific American, Inc. 2. Charles Hirsch. Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows, Volumes 1 & 2. Chichester: John

  6. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  7. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  8. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  9. Planning, Designing, Building, and Moving a Large Volume Maternity Service to a New Labor and Birth Unit: Commentary and Experiences of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonBehren, Diane; Killion, Molly M; Burke, Carol; Finkelmeier, Betsy; Zamora, Brigit

    Three teams of perinatal expert nurses participated in planning and designing a new maternity unit, operationalizing the move to the new space, and evaluating care processes and workflows after the move. The hospitals involved were University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital, Prentice Women's Hospital of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare in Chicago, IL, and Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida Hospital for Women. Although each team discussed specific details and lessons learned, there is remarkable consistency among the experiences of these teams and with the discussion of the process by the team at Mercy Hospital St. Louis published in this issue of MCN The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing. Extensive planning, flexibility, involving key stakeholders, evaluating and simulating workflows, and adequate staffing and patient safety on move-day were reported to be essential to success. Reevaluation after settling in to the new unit and making changes as needed were discussed. Being part of the leadership team involved in planning and moving to a new maternity unit in what was likely a once-in-a-lifetime experience was viewed as a career highlight. Their commentary adds to what is known about planning and designing new maternity units, moving into the new space, and adjusting unit operations and care after making the new unit home.

  10. Pressing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash Bricks for Landfill Volume Reduction%生活垃圾焚烧飞灰压制砌块与减容填埋技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新才; 赵由才; 周雄; 张骏; 夏发发; 陈善平; 全学军

    2016-01-01

    The construction speed of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI )is currently faster than that of hazardous waste landfill in China,so that the disposal of MSWI fly ash becomes a pressing problem of the day.In comparison with other technologies,the chemical stabilization is applied widely,while still consume plenty of chelating agent and landfill volume.Restriction from total volume and service life of hazardous waste landfill,it is urgent to find a novel,economical and efficient technology for quick disposal of MSWI fly ash.In this study,the fly ash was pressed at high hydraulic load to reduce considerably both the volume and the quantity of chelating agents so that remarkably extend the service life of landfill.It was shown that the volume can be reduced over 60 %and the heavy metals leaching concentration of MSWI bricks was down obviously after pressing,which indicated the usage of chelating agent can be reduced by 30% ~70%.A novel volume reduction landfill process was proposed,the investment and benefit were evaluated.The service life can be prolonged for more than one to two times.The direct cost for the disposal of fly ash could be decreased by 200 RMB/t (not including the investment of equipment).The MSWI fly ash bricks were of regular shape and tight texture,which can avoid the dust in conventional landfill,promote automation, improve management and efficiency.%目前我国生活垃圾焚烧厂的建设速度远远超过危险废物填埋场的建设速度,大量的飞灰亟待安全处置。相对于其他处置技术,化学稳定化填埋被广泛应用,但需耗费大量重金属螯合剂以及填埋场库容,且满足技术规范的危废填埋场的填埋能力和使用年限均受限制。针对以上问题,对生活垃圾焚烧飞灰砌块减容潜力、重金属降低浸出进行研究,分析了飞灰压制砌块-减容填埋的可行性,并进行工艺设计,初步确定了工艺投入和综合效益。结果表明:生活垃

  11. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  12. 低温等离子减容术治疗儿童扁桃体肥大78例%Effects of Coblation Tonsil Volume Reduction for Tonsillar Hypertrophy in 78 Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明金; 郑灵; 王宏伟; 陈康; 王东升; 欧阳进; 黄茜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of coblation tonsil volume reduction for tonsillar hypertrophy in children. Methods The study was designed to review the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications in 78 children patients undergoing coblation-assisted subtotal tonsillectomy.All the 78 patients had chronic tonsillar hypertrophy.The lowest SaO2 ( LSaO2 ) levels were compared between preoperative and postoperative periods. Results All of the 78 children were cured.They were followed up for 6-12 months after operation.The tonsil volume decreased by two-thirds, including 56 cases of gradeⅠand 22 cases of normal size.Patients’ snore noise was significantly reduced in 47 cases and disappeared in 31 cases.Their LSaO2 levels increased obviously after operation [(89.5 ±7.2)%vs.(81.7 ±8.5)%;t=19.375, P=0.000]. Conclusions Coblation tonsil volume reduction gives less tissue damage and postoperative complications and is safe and effective.Moreover, it preserves the immunity functions from the tonsils.It is optimal for children with chronic tonsillar hypertrophy.%目的:探讨低温等离子减容术治疗儿童扁桃体肥大的疗效。方法2007年10月~2012年10月对78例单纯扁桃体肥大儿童在全麻下使用美国Arthrocare公司低温等离子手术系统(Ⅱ型)和一次性Reflex刀头,在扁桃体内打孔,使扁桃体容积减少,比较患儿术前1周与术后6个月最低血氧饱和度( LSaO2)的变化。结果78例随访6~12个月,扁桃体体积缩小2/3以上,其中缩至Ⅰ度56例,缩至正常大小22例,患儿鼾声明显减小47例,鼾声消失31例。最低血氧饱和度由术前(81.7±8.5)%提高到术后(89.5±7.2)%(t=19.375,P=0.000)。结论低温等离子减容术治疗儿童扁桃体肥大,不损伤儿童的免疫力,安全、创伤小,特别适合婴幼儿时期扁桃体过度肥大。

  13. Combinations of Intervention Treatments Resulting in 5-Log10-Unit Reductions in Numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 Organisms in Apple Cider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Ingham, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35°C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at −20°C; 4 h at 4°C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35°C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4°C, 2 h at 25°C, or 1 h at 35°C or 6 h at 35°C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35°C, and SA plus 4 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35°C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement. PMID:10223981

  14. Prostate cancer treated with image-guided helical TomoTherapy {sup registered} and image-guided LINAC-IMRT. Correlation between high-dose bladder volume, margin reduction, and genitourinary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, Sonia; Wendt, Thomas G. [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Schwedas, Michael; Salz, Henning [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section of Medical Physics, Jena (Germany); Foller, Susan [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Urology, Jena (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We compared different image-guidance (IG) strategies for prostate cancer with high-precision IG intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using TomoTherapy {sup registered} (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) and linear accelerator (LINAC)-IMRT and their impact on planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction. Follow-up data showed reduced bladder toxicity in TomoTherapy patients compared to LINAC-IMRT. The purpose of this study was to quantify whether the treatment delivery technique and decreased margins affect reductions in bladder toxicity. Setup corrections from 30 patients treated with helical TomoTherapy and 30 treated with a LINAC were analyzed. These data were used to simulate three IG protocols based on setup error correction and a limited number of imaging sessions. For all patients, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was documented and correlated with the treatment delivery technique. For fiducial marker (FM)-based RT, a margin reduction of up to 3.1, 3.0, and 4.8 mm in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, could be achieved with calculation of a setup correction from the first three fractions and IG every second day. Although the bladder volume was treated with mean doses of 35 Gy in the TomoTherapy group vs. 22 Gy in the LINAC group, we observed less GU toxicity after TomoTherapy. Intraprostate FMs allow for small safety margins, help decrease imaging frequency after setup correction, and minimize the dose to bladder and rectum, resulting in lower GU toxicity. In addition, IMRT delivered with TomoTherapy helps to avoid hotspots in the bladder neck, a critical anatomic structure associated with post-RT urinary toxicity. (orig.) [German] Wir haben im Rahmen der Prostatakarzinombehandlung verschiedene bildgefuehrte (IG) Strategien der hochpraezisen intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) unter Einsatz der Tomotherapie (TomoTherapy {sup registered}, Accuray Inc., Madison

  15. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  16. ADOLESCENTS IN TWO SOCIETIES--PEERS, SCHOOL, AND FAMILY IN THE UNITED STATES AND DENMARK. FINAL REPORT. VOLUMES I AND II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANDEL, DENISE B.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO EXAMINE THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE UPON ADOLESCENTS OF PEERS AND FAMILIES, (2) TO COMPARE THESE INFLUENCES IN TWO SOCIETIES, THE UNITED STATES AND DENMARK, AND (3) TO DESCRIBE THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATION OF ADOLESCENT SUBCULTURES IN THE TWO SOCIETIES. DATA WERE COLLECTED ON ALL STUDENTS IN THREE AMERICAN…

  17. 小型超高压设备创新设计与应用%Weight reduction and miniaturization of ultra-high pressure unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾培起

    2011-01-01

    小型超高压设备的轻量化和小型化,不仅关系到设备的材料消耗和产品成本,而且关系到用户的方便性及其推广应用.本文介绍了小型超高压食品加工设备(10 L以下)的结构创新设计,应用有限元分析优化设备结构,在参数优化、材料处理等方面提出改进技术措施,研制出专利技术产品,并且提出规模化生产和产业化的具体方案.%The small quantification and miniaturization of small-size ultra-high pressure unit is not only concerned with the expenditure of materials of the equipment and cost of the products but also with the convenience of the users and its diffusion and application. This paper deals with the technological measures and related patent technologies which involves the design of the structure, finite element analysis, optimization of the parameter, the treatment of the materials of the small-size ultra-high pressure unit (under 10 litres). At the same time, some concrete projects of its mass and large scale production and industrialization are also put forward.

  18. Reduction of catheter-associated bloodstream infections through procedures in newborn babies admitted in a university hospital intensive care unit in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Silva Resende

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CA-BSI is the most common nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units. There is evidence that care bundles to reduce CA-BSI are effective in the adult literature. The aim of this study was to reduce CA-BSI in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit by means of a care bundle including few strategies or procedures of prevention and control of these infections. METHODS: An intervention designed to reduce CA-BSI with five evidence-based procedures was conducted. RESULTS: A total of sixty-seven (26.7% CA-BSIs were observed. There were 46 (32% episodes of culture-proven sepsis in group preintervention (24.1 per 1,000 catheter days [CVC days]. Neonates in the group after implementation of the intervention had 21 (19.6% episodes of CA-BSI (14.9 per 1,000 CVC days. The incidence of CA-BSI decreased significantly after the intervention from the group preintervention and postintervention (32% to 19.6%, 24.1 per 1,000 CVC days to 14.9 per 1,000 CVC days, p=0.04. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of more than 3 antibiotics and length of stay >8 days were independent risk factors for BSI. CONCLUSIONS: A stepwise introduction of evidence-based intervention and intensive and continuous education of all healthcare workers are effective in reducing CA-BSI.

  19. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins at the Neurovascular Unit Supports Reduction and Reoxidation of Iron for Transport Through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhart, Annette; Skjørringe, Tina; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix;

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms for iron transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remain a controversy. We analyzed for expression of mRNA and proteins involved in oxidation and transport of iron in isolated brain capillaries from dietary normal, iron-deficient, and iron-reverted rats. The expression...... was also investigated in isolated rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) and in immortalized rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells grown as monoculture or in hanging culture inserts with defined BBB properties. Transferrin receptor 1, ferrireductases Steap 2 and 3, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1...... cells provide the machinery for receptor-mediated uptake of ferric iron-containing transferrin. Ferric iron can then undergo reduction to ferrous iron by ferrireductases inside endosomes followed by DMT1-mediated pumping into the cytosol and subsequently cellular export by ferroportin. The expression...

  20. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  1. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1. Primary model documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Roger E.; Herod, J. Steven; Andrews, Gwen L.; Budzik, Philip M.; Eissenstat, Richard S.; Grossmann, John R.; Reiner, Gary M.; Roschke, Thomas E.; Shulman, Michael J.; Toppen, Timothy R.; Veno, William R.; Violette, Daniel M.; Smolinski, Michael D.; Habel, Deborah; Cook, Alvin E.

    1979-10-01

    ISTUM is designed to predict the commercial market penetration of various energy technologies in the industrial sector out to the year 2000. It is a refinement and further development of Market Oriented Program Planning Study task force in 1977. ISTUM assesses the comparative economic competitiveness of each technology and competes over 100 energy technologies - conventionals, fossil/energy, conservation, cogeneration, solar, and geothermal. A broad overview of the model, the solution of the model, and an in-depth discussion of strength and limitations of the model are provided in Volume I. (MCW)

  2. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  3. Intelligent Control of Air Compressor Unit Volume%空压机组气量调节的智能控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎章杰

    2016-01-01

    Air compressor is one of the important equipment in cement plant whose power consumption is very large and has a long running time, so it is of vital importance to optimize working condition of air compressor unit. In view of the air compressor unit in cement factory, a kind of new intelligent control method of gas regulation was designed, which can achieve a wide range of automatic stepless adjustment of the air compressor unit displacement according to the user's actual air demand, ensure the compressor system pipe network pressure and make full use of the stability of the displacement.%空压机是水泥厂的主要耗电设备之一,其运行时间长,耗电量大,故对空压机组进行工况优化是至关重要的。针对水泥厂空压机组,设计出一种新的气量调节的智能控制方法,使空压机组的排气量能根据用户的实际需气量实现大范围的自动无级调节,保证压缩机组排气量的充分利用和系统管网压力稳定。

  4. Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzebio Beli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

  5. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Oh Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  6. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  7. Geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic characterization of Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in the southwestern United States and their implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, Alexandra

    Travertines are freshwater carbonates that precipitate from carbonic groundwater due to the degassing of CO2. Travertine deposits are often situated along faults that serve as conduits for CO2-charged groundwater and their geochemistry often records mixing of deeply-derived fluids and volatiles with shallow meteoric water. Travertines are surface expressions of dynamic mantle processes related to the tectonic setting. This dissertation includes four chapters that focus on different aspects of travertine formation and their scientific value. They are excellent, although underestimated, diagnostic tools for climatology, hydrology, tectonics, geochemistry, geomicrobiology, and they can inform carbon sequestration models. Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur in an extensional tectonic stress regime on the southeastern Colorado Plateau and along the Rio Grande rift. They accumulated above fault systems during episodes of high hydraulic head in confined aquifers, increased regional volcanic activity, and high input of mantle-derived volatiles such as CO 2 and He. Stable isotope and trace element geochemistry of travertines is controlled by groundwater geochemistry as well as the degassing of CO 2. The geochemical composition allows for distinguishing different travertine facies and evaluating past groundwater flow. The travertine deposits in New Mexico are interpreted to be extinct CO2 fields due to the large volumes that accumulated and in analogy to the travertine deposits in Arizona that are associated with an active CO2-gas field. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems that bypassed regional cap rocks and they provide important insight into the migration of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface. The volume of travertine can be used to infer the integrated CO2 leakage along a fault system over geologic time. This leakage is estimated as: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon

  8. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  9. At the crossroads: Hazard assessment and reduction of health risks from arsenic in private well waters of the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic (As) hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimistic bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research.

  10. At the Crossroads: Hazard Assessment and Reduction of Health Risks from Arsenic in Private Well Waters of Northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimism bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research. PMID:25466685

  11. A Multifaceted Approach to Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the Intensive Care Unit With an Emphasis on "Stewardship of Culturing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Katherine M; Kovacs, Christopher S; Fatica, Cynthia; Einloth, Colette; Neuner, Elizabeth A; Guzman, Jorge A; Kaiser, Eric; Menon, Venu; Castillo, Leticia; Popovich, Marc J; Manno, Edward M; Gordon, Steven M; Fraser, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications. OBJECTIVE To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture. METHODS A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared. RESULTS The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:186-188.

  12. Effect of irradiation gamma to reduction colony counting-units in Jerked Beef; Efeito da irradiacao gama na reducao da carga microbiana em Jerked Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.A.; Solidonio, E.G.; Vicalvi, M.C.V.; Colaco, W., E-mail: evelyne_solidonio@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Microbiologia do Solo; Silva, G.R.; Sena, K.X.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Antibioticos. Lab. de Farmacos e Estudos Antimicrobianos

    2013-08-15

    The increasing meat production triggered the need to develop preservation techniques, and between them salting is the most common. From the twentieth century another method of conservation was now being applied irradiation, treatment terminal used in the packaged product. The most salted meat consumed in Brazil is the Jerked Beef that differs to Jerky from that having higher moisture content and ripening faster. The objective of this study was to determine by counting colonies, the effectiveness of irradiation in reducing to the colony-forming units per grams (CFU/g). Three batches were obtained with three samples weighing 500g each. Under sterile conditions, the meat was cut and weighed generating sub-samples which were assigned to the control group and the radiation source for irradiating with cobalt-60 (dose rate 6,619 kGy/h). We used doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The sub-samples were added to an Erlenmeyer with sterile distilled water, and were left to stand having forming a water desalting. Aliquots of these waters were plated and incubated. The results were for the control group ranged from 5.0x10{sup 5} to 5.0x10{sup 16} CFU /g, at a dosage of 2kGy was 1.7x10{sup 5} to 1.1x10{sup 12} CFU /g, at a dosage of 4kGy 0 to 9.0x10{sup 10} CFU/g and the dose of from 6kGy was 0 to 1.3x10{sup 5} CFU /g. In the final analysis it was found that all lots were presented contamination upon which would be allowed in the order of 5.0x10{sup 3}.For the reducing CFU/g the doses 4kGy and 6kGy were the most effective. (author)

  13. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  14. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H. [EQE, International, Irvine, CA (United States); Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S. [NTS Engineering, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  15. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Impact of different leaf velocities and dose rates on the number of monitor units and the dose-volume-histograms using intensity modulated radiotherapy with sliding-window technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Clemens F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT using sliding window technique utilises a leaf sequencing algorithm, which takes some control system limitations like dose rates (DR and velocity of the leafs (LV into account. The effect of altering these limitations on the number of monitor units and radiation dose to the organs at risk (OAR were analysed. Methods IMRT plans for different LVs from 1.0 cm/sec to 10.0 cm/sec and different DRs from 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min for two patients with prostate cancer and two patients with squamous cell cancer of the scalp (SCCscalp were calculated using the same "optimal fluence map". For each field the number of monitor units, the dose volume histograms and the differences in the "actual fluence maps" of the fields were analysed. Results With increase of the DR and decrease of the LV the number of monitor units increased and consequentially the radiation dose given to the OAR. In particular the serial OARs of patients with SCCscalp, which are located outside the end position of the leafs and inside the open field, received an additional dose of a higher DR and lower LV is used. Conclusion For best protection of organs at risk, a low DR and high LV should be applied. But the consequence of a low DR is both a long treatment time and also that a LV of higher than 3.0 cm/sec is mechanically not applicable. Our recommendation for an optimisation of the discussed parameters is a leaf velocity of 2.5 cm/sec and a dose rate of 300–400 MU/min (prostate cancer and 100–200 MU/min (SCCscalp for best protection of organs at risk, short treatment time and number of monitor units.

  17. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  18. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer : reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Liesbeth; Busz, D. M.; Paardekooper, G. M. R. M.; Beukema, J. C.; Jager, P. L.; Van der Jagt, E. J.; van Dam, G. M.; Groen, H.; Plukker, J. Th. M.; Langendijk, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    P>Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in

  19. Advances research on bronchoscopic lung volume reduction surgery for obstructive airway diseases%内科肺减容术在慢性阻塞性肺疾病最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢栓栓; 王昌惠

    2013-01-01

    阻塞性呼吸道疾病是多种疾病组成的,但它们都可因炎症导致气道狭窄,从而导致呼吸做功增加.由于其患病人数多,病死率高,严重影响患者的劳动能力和生活质量.不同群体的哮喘、慢性支气管炎和肺气肿最佳治疗策略应该是多方面的,如高危肺气肿患者应包括药物学和非药物方法以及手术治疗.回顾当前支气管镜介入水平,近十年其发展目标是更好地控制哮喘症状和缓解由于不适合肺减容手术的肺气肿患者症状,由此可见,新型支气管镜技术针对气道阻塞性疾病治疗有很大帮助.%Obstructivepulmonary disease is composed of a variety of diseases,nevertheless,they are able to induce the airway narrow and result in increase of work of breathing force.The incidence and mortality are high,which seriously influence the patients' ability to work and quality of life.There are many optimal treatment strategies of asthma,chronic bronchitis,and emphysema in different groups,such as pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods as well as surgery for high-risk patients with emphysema.In recent decades,the development objective of bronchoscopic intervention is to better control asthma symptoms and relieve symptoms of patients with emphysema who are not suitable for the lung volume reduction surgery.This demonstrates that new bronchoscopic techniques will be helpful for treatment of airway obstruction disease in future.

  20. Dewatering and Volume Reduction of Heavy Metal-contaminated Sediments in Lake and Reservoir Using Geotextile Tubes%重金属污染底泥的土工管袋高效脱水减容研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景辉; 刘朝辉; 西伟力; 王旭东; 董晶; 毕涛; 王文茜

    2011-01-01

    基于环保疏浚过程中湖库重金属污染底泥的特点,研究了土工管袋处理技术脱水减容重金属污泥的效果.通过试验筛选和优化,获得了土工管袋脱水效果最佳的重金属螯合钝化调质剂ECO-DEMETAL及其最佳添加量.通过容量为25 L的小袋脱水试验研究发现,脱水7d后污泥含固率由5%提高到70%左右,污泥脱水后重金属浸出毒性的检测结果远优于《生活垃圾填埋场污染控制标准》( GB 16889-2008)的指标要求.通过土工管袋1:1现场扩大试验,获得了容量为1 000 m3的大型土工管袋污泥脱水工程应用经验,脱水效果非常理想,含固率>50%,重金属钝化效果也完全满足填埋造岛资源化处置的环保要求.%Based on characters of heavy metal-contaminated sediments in lake and reservoir during environment-friendly dredging, the dewatering and volume reduction of heavy metal-contaminated sediments with geotextile tubes were studied. A conditioner, known as ECO-DEMETAL for heavy metal che-lation and passivation with the optimal dewatering efficiency of geotextile tubes as well as its optimal dosage were obtained by selection and optimization experiments. The dewatering result of 25 L geotextile tube show that the solid content of sludge is increased from 5% to 70% within 7 days, and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure ( TCLP) result meets to the requirement of the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site for Domestic Waste ( GB 16889 -2008). Dewatering experiments in pilot scale were carried out for verification of dewatering performance of 1 000 m geotextile tube. The pilot results show that the dewatering efficiency is ideal, the solid content of sludge is more than 50% , and the passivation effect of heavy metals also meets the environmental requirement in landfdl resource disposal for island creation.

  1. Volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realised in ENEA centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUTREX plant); Campagne di trattamento di rifiuti radioattivi solidi a bassa attivita` provenienti dagli impianti pilota di ritrattamento EUREX ed ITREC dell`ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gili, M. [ENEA, Saluggia (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1995-09-15

    The volume reduction and conditioning campaigns, upon low level solid waste drums, realized between 1989 and 1993 in the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Trisaia (ITREC plant) and Saluggia (EUREX plant), by the mean of supercompactation, and cement immobilization inside over packs, are hereby described. The operational techniques and the equipments used, the whole volume reduction factors obtained and some final considerations over this solid rad wastes treatment procedure are shown. This method, where correctly operated and coupled to an accurate radiological characterization, permits to save space for the waste storage in the short period and to obtain final manufacts, certified suitable for shallow burial disposal, according to Italian technical guide no. 26.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  4. An approach of attribute reduction based on FCM and its application in fault diagnosis on turbo-generator unit%FCM属性约简方法在汽轮机故障诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓轩; 纪建伟; 原忠虎

    2011-01-01

    Fuzzy c-means(FCM) clustering method is applied to discretizing continuous attributes of turbo-generator unit faults by the analysis of spatial distribution of pattern datasets. The attribute reduction algorithm for rough set(RS) is utilized to optimize original feature vectors of turbo-generator unit faults, eliminate redundant information and extract essential information of feature vectors. Fault diagnosis model based on support vector machine(SVM) is built up according to the reduced feature vectors. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the accuracy and real-time performance of fault diagnosis, decrease the number of test items and accordingly cut down the cost of fault diagnosis on turbo-generator unit.%文章通过汽轮机故障样本数据的空间分布状态分析,基于模糊c均值(FCM)聚类方法实现故障征兆参数属性的离散化处理;采用粗糙集(RS)属性约简方法对原始特征向量进行优化,去除冗余特征,提取特征向量的本质信息;基于约简后的特征向量建立支持向量机(SVM)故障诊断模型.实验结果表明,该文所提出的方法不仅可以提高故障诊断的准确性和实时性,还可以减少故障检测项目,降低故障诊断成本.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  6. CO{sub 2} reduction: potential of heat pumps when used together with combined heat and power units; Potentiel energetique des pompes a chaleur combinees au couplage chaleur-force. Pour une reduction maximale des emissions de CO{sub 2} et pour une production de courant fossile avec reduction des emissions de CO{sub 2} en Suisse - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognon, F.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the potential of using heat pumps in combination with Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units as a replacement for fossil-fuel fired heating units in Switzerland. The electrical power produced by the CHP units can be used to provide power for the drives of heat pump systems. The author states that the fossil fuel consumption and the resulting emissions of carbon dioxide can be halved using this combination. Also, even more efficient systems using power produced in larger combined-cycle power generation are discussed. Further examples of how fossil-fired power generation in combination with heat pumps can not only replace fossil-fuelled heating systems but also provide additional electricity too are given. This overview includes figures on the potential of such combined systems.

  7. Pilot Unit for Mining Waste Reduction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Veiko; Rahe, Tiit; Närep, Erki; Väizene, Vivika; da Costa, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Oil shale mining is a crucially important industry for the Estonian economy. More than 85 percent of electricity in Estonia is produced from oil shale. The oil shale deposit is located in North-East Estonia. The oil shale bed descends three meters per kilometer to the south. The oil shale seam contains interlayered limestone. Some limestone will be used as low class aggregate, but the rest of it is the waste rock of oil shale and is stored in waste rock heaps. Crushing, separating and samplin...

  8. Cirurgia redutora de volume pulmonar: critérios de seleção de pacientes no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS: criteria for selecting patient in Antonio Pedro Hospital, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Fred Behrsin

    2003-09-01

    mais de um fator mórbido a contra-indicar o seu procedimento. A maioria dos pacientes com critérios para CRVP, a recusa, com receio do procedimento ou após programas de reabilitação pulmonar. O critério mais significativo que indicou CRVP em um paciente operado foi a presença de enfisema heterogênio bilateral nos lobos superiores.BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (CPOD is an important problem in Brazil and other countries. The clinical treatment of ambulatory patients is now reasonably standardized. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS is an alternative of surgical treatment of emphysema (aside from lung transplantation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse patient selection criteria for LVRS. METHODS: This study was carried out using a sample of 31 patients referred to and given assistance to at the Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outpatient Ward Antonio Pedro Hospital, who were evaluated to check whether or not they could be eligible for LVRS. Aiming at evaluating the major criteria for eligibility for LVRS, the patients underwent a protocol including standardized anamnesis and physical examination, spirometry with maximum inspiratory and expiratory flow volume curves associated with post-bronchodilatator test, room air arterial blood gases, a six-minute walking test, plain chest roentgenograms and left lateral chest roentgenograms, high-resolution chest computed tomographic scans and lung perfusion scans. Statistical analysis was conducted with description of data proportions. RESULTS: Contraindications to surgery included chronic bronchitis (29% or nine patients, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 more than 80 percent predicted (13% or four patients, negative consent for surgery (10% or three patients, fibrosis pattern, severe depression and bronchiectasis (two patients each one, solitary pulmonary nodule, severe obesity, severe bullous emphysema, pulmonary hipertension, pulmonary resection history

  9. 分期双侧单孔胸腔镜肺减容术的临床分析%Staged Bilateral Single-port Thoracoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Surgery: A Clinical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淼; 潘雪峰; 张辉

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估分期双侧单孔胸腔镜肺减容术(LVRS)治疗慢性阻塞性肺气肿(COPE)的可行性及疗效.方法 回顾性分析2013年1月至2014年6月东南大学附属徐州市中心医院11例双侧COPE合并肺大泡的男性患者行分期双侧单孔胸腔镜LVRS的临床资料,年龄(60.27±12.11)岁.采用腔镜切割缝合器(Endo-GIA)切除过度充气的肺大泡组织,用4-0 Prolene线连续缝合加固切缘并涂抹生物蛋白胶.比较患者术前、单侧术后3个月与双侧术后3个月的肺功能、血气分析、6分钟步行距离(6-MWD)及生活质量(SF-36量表评分).结果 无围术期死亡病例,术后胸腔引流管留置时间(9.09±1.31)d,住院时间(15.73±2.75)d.术后持续肺漏气5例次,肺部感染7例次,均治愈.单侧或双侧术后3个月肺功能、动脉血氧分压、6-MWD及生活质量均较术前改善,而单侧与双侧LVRS术后比较无差异.结论 分期双侧单孔胸腔镜LVRS可改善COPE患者的近期生活质量.%Objective To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of staged bilateral single-port thoracoscopic lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema (COPE).Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of eleven male patients with bilateral COPE and bullae in Xuzhou Central Hospital Affiliated to Southeast University from January 2013 through June 2014.All the patients underwent staged bilateral single-port thoracoscopic LVRS with their age of 60.27± 12.11 years.The hyperinflated bullae were resected using endoscopic staplers (Endo-GIA),followed by continuous suture and biological glue for reinforcement of the margin.Besides,the pulmonary function,blood gas assay,6-minute walk distance (6-MWD),and life quality evaluated by short form 36 Health survey questionnaire (SF-36) were recorded before and after LVRS respectively.Results All the patients survived after surgery.Chest tube drainage time was 9.09±1.31 days

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  11. Effects of Polymer Parameters on Drag Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Abbas Mohammad

    The effects of polymer parameters on fluid drag reduction using polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyacrylamide (PAM), guar gum (GG) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were investigated. Due to the unavailability of high molecular weight (MW) water-soluble polymers having narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD), an aqueous preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system capable of fractionating over wide MW ranges was constructed. An online low shear viscometer, coupled to the SEC, measured the instantaneous intrinsic viscosity of the eluting polymer solution and, therefore, served as a MW detector since Mark-Houwink "K" and "a" values for all four polymers were known. With the aid of the viscometer, the SEC system was calibrated. The preparative nature of the chromatography system allowed the collection of large volumes of nearly monodisperse fractions (MWD SEC approach allowed drag reduction (DR) experiments using well-characterized, narrowly dispersed polymer solutions under controlled tube flow conditions. Correlations of drag reduction performance with primary polymer parameters (i.e., concentration, intrinsic viscosity ((eta)), volume fraction (c(eta)), number of chain links (N), and combinations thereof) were used to test the validity of several theoretical DR models. Walsh's energy model, as well as the Deborah argument, did not completely account for drag reduction behavior under all experimental conditions. Within each of the flexible or rigid polymer groups, the extensional viscosity model was successful in correlating c(eta) N with DR under all turbulent conditions. However, it failed to account for the differences in chemical structure between the two polymer groups. However, when the cellulosic repeat unit was used instead of the carbon-carbon bond as the chain link for the rigid polymers (GG and HEC), all DR versus c (eta) N curves under all turbulent conditions collapsed into a single function. This has been predicted by the recent "yo-yo" model of

  12. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer: reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability: PET/CT improves esophageal target definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, L M A; Busz, D M; Paardekooper, G M R M; Beukema, J C; Jager, P L; Van der Jagt, E J; van Dam, G M; Groen, H; Plukker, J Th M; Langendijk, J A

    2010-08-01

    Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in patients with esophageal cancer in terms of geographic misses and inter-observer variability in volume definition. In 28 esophageal cancer patients, gross, clinical and planning tumor volumes (GTV; CTV; PTV) were defined on planning CT by three radiation oncologists. After software-based emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) fusion, tumor delineations were redefined by the same radiation-oncologists. Concordance indexes (CCI's) for CT and PET/CT based GTV, CTV and PTV were calculated for each pair of observers. Incorporation of PET/CT modified tumor delineation in 17/28 subjects (61%) in cranial and/or caudal direction. Mean concordance indexes for CT-based CTV and PTV were 72 (55-86)% and 77 (61-88)%, respectively, vs. 72 (47-99)% and 76 (54-87)% for PET/CT-based CTV and PTV. Paired analyses showed no significant difference in CCI between CT and PET/CT. Combining FDG-PET and CT may improve target volume definition with less geographic misses, but without significant effects on inter-observer variability in esophageal cancer.

  13. Volume control device for digital signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    A digital volume control device comprises a logic unit for volume control of digital input signals. Successively supplied m-bits words with maximally k bits active, derived from the output signals of or supplied by a volume control (4) with a quantizer (5) element the filtered m-bits workds are

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 3: Internal Events Appendices I and J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, D.; Staple, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probablistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143.

  16. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome VI: La Colombie, les Etats-Unis, le Mexique, Porto Rico at les traites internationaux (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume VI: Colombia, the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and International Treaties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Colombia, the United States federal and some state governments (California, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New York), Mexico, and Puerto Rico, and those relating to international…

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 3, Appendices O--T. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Volume 3 contains the following appendices: Appendix O, Second Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix P, Third Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix Q, ABB Analysis of Air Preheaters-Final Report; Appendix R, ABB Corrosion Analysis Study; Appendix S, SRI Waste Stream Impacts Study; and Appendix T, Economic Evaluation.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  20. Setting goals for drug policy: harm reduction or use reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, J P; Reuter, P

    1997-09-01

    Historically, United States drug policy has focused on use reduction; harm reduction is a prominent alternative. This paper aims to provoke and inform more debate about the relative merits of these two. Since harm is not necessarily proportional to use, use reduction and harm reduction differ. Both terms are somewhat ambiguous; precisely defining them clarifies thinking and policy implications. Measures associated with use reduction goals are poor; those associated with harm reduction are even worse. National goals influence the many decentralized individuals who collectively make drug policy; clearly enunciating goals makes some policy choices transparent and goals serve a variety of purposes besides guiding programmatic decisions. We recommend that the overall objective be to minimize the total harm associated with drug production, distribution, consumption and control. Reducing use should be seen as a principal means of attaining that end.

  1. Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT, Pediatric Lens of the Eye Dose Reduction Using Siemens Care kV, & Designing Quality Assurance of a Cesium Calibration Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Kenneth

    Project 1: Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT: Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine if using large numbers of Metal-Oxide-Semiconducting-Field-Effect Transistors, MOSFETs, effects the results of dosimetry studies done with pediatric phantoms due to the attenuation properties of the MOSFETs. The two primary focuses of the study were first to experimentally determine the degree to which high numbers of MOSFET detectors attenuate an X-ray beam of Computed Tomography (CT) quality and second, to experimentally verify the effect that the large number of MOSFETs have on dose in a pediatric phantom undergoing a routine CT examination. Materials and Methods: A Precision X-Ray X-Rad 320 set to 120kVp with an effective half value layer of 7.30mm aluminum was used in concert with a tissue equivalent block phantom and several used MOSFET cables to determine the attenuation properties of the MOSFET cables by measuring the dose (via a 0.18cc ion chamber) given to a point in the center of the phantom in a 0.5 min exposure with a variety of MOSFET arrangements. After the attenuating properties of the cables were known, a GE Discovery 750 CT scanner was employed using a routine chest CT protocol in concert with a 10-year-old Atom Dosimetry Phantom and MOSFET dosimeters in 5 different locations in and on the phantom (upper left lung (ULL), upper right lung (URL), lower left lung (LLL), lower right lung (LRL), and the center of the chest to represent skin dose). Twenty-eight used MOSFET cables were arranged and taped on the chest of the phantom to cover 30% of the circumference of the phantom (19.2 cm). Scans using tube current modulation and not using tube current modulation were taken at 30, 20, 10, and 0% circumference coverage and 28 MOSFETs bundled and laid to the side of the phantom. The dose to the various MOSFET locations in and on the chest were calculated and the image quality was accessed in several of these situations by

  2. Clinical Efifcacy of Unilateral Lung Volume Reduction Surgery for Intractable Pneumothorax With Severe Emphysema%探讨单侧肺减容手术治疗难治性气胸合并重度肺气肿的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨单侧肺减容手术治疗难治性气胸合并重度肺气肿的疗效。方法56例难治性气胸合并重度肺气肿患者进行单侧肺减容手术治疗,统计患者的治疗效果。结果所有患者均成功完成手术,患者治疗后PaO2、FVC、FEV1与治疗前相比明显较高(P<0.05),PaCO2、TLC与治疗前相比明显较低(P<0.05)。结论单侧肺减容手术能有效改善患者血气状况及肺功能,可在难治性气胸合并重度肺气肿患者中运用。%Objective To explore the efficacy of unilateral lung volume reduction surgery for intractable pneumothorax with severe emphysema. Methods 56 cases of patients with intractable pneumothorax with severe emphysema received unilateral lung volume reduction surgery, the patients’ treatment effects were analyzed. Results All patients successfully completed surgery, PaO2, FVC and FEV1 of patients compared with before treatment was signiifcantly higher (P<0.05), PaCO2 and TLC were signiifcantly lower (P<0.05). Conclusion The unilateral lung volume reduction surgery can improve blood gas status and lung function, and it can be used in patients with intractable pneumothorax and severe emphysema.

  3. First investigation at elevated pressures to confirm the exact nature of the gated electron-transfer systems: volume profiles of the gated reduction reaction and nongated reverse oxidation reaction involving a [Cu(dmp)2(solvent)]2+/[Cu(dmp)2]+ couple (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Sumitaka; Noda, Kyoko; Yamane, Ryouhei; Kishikawa, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hideo D

    2007-02-19

    Redox reactions involving the [Cu(dmp)2]2+/+ couple (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in acetonitrile were examined at elevated pressures up to 200 MPa. Activation volumes were determined as -8.8 and -6.3 cm3 mol-1 for the reduction cross-reaction by [Co(bipy)3]2+ (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and for the oxidation cross-reaction by [Ni(tacn)2]3+ (tacn = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane), respectively. The activation volume for the hypothetical gated mode of the self-exchange reaction estimated from the reduction cross-reaction was -13.9 cm3 mol-1, indicating extensive electrostrictive rearrangement of solvent molecules around the CuII complex during the change in the coordination geometry before the electron-transfer step. On the other hand, the activation volume for the self-exchange reaction estimated from the oxidation cross-reaction was -2.7 +/- 1.5 cm3 mol-1. Although this value was within the range that can be interpreted by the concept of the ordinary concerted process, from theoretical considerations it was concluded that the reverse (oxidation) cross-reaction of the gated reduction reaction of the [Cu(dmp)2(CH3CN)]2+/[Cu(dmp)2]+ couple proceeds through the product excited state while the direct self-exchange reaction between [Cu(dmp)2(CH3CN)]2+ and [Cu(dmp)2]+ proceeds through an ordinary concerted process.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  5. Factors influencing the difference between forecasted and actual drug sales volumes under the price-volume agreement in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Euna; Kim, Jini; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed factors contributing to increases in the actual sales volumes relative to forecasted volumes of drugs under price-volume agreement (PVA) policy in South Korea. Sales volumes of newly listed drugs on the national formulary are monitored under PVA policy. When actual sales volume exceeds the pre-agreed forecasted volume by 30% or more, the drug is subject to price-reduction. Logistic regression assessed the factors related to whether drugs were the PVA price-reduction drugs. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log-link assessed the factors influencing the increase in actual volumes compared to forecasted volume in the PVA price-reduction drugs. Of 186 PVA monitored drugs, 34.9% were price-reduction drugs. Drugs marketed by pharmaceutical companies with previous-occupation in the therapeutic markets were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than drugs marketed by firms with no previous-occupation. Drugs of multinational pharmaceutical companies were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than those of domestic companies. Having more alternative existing drugs was significantly associated with higher odds of being PVA price-reduction drugs. Among the PVA price-reduction drugs, the increasing rate of actual volume compared to forecasted volume was significantly higher in drugs with clinical usefulness. By focusing the negotiation efforts on those target drugs, PVA policy can be administered more efficiently with the improved predictability of the drug sales volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  7. Performance of Two Cloud-Radiation Parameterization Schemes in the Finite Volume General Circulation Model for Anomalously Wet May and June 2003 Over the Continental United States and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.; Lin, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    An objective assessment of the impact of a new cloud scheme, called Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) (together with its radiation modules), on the finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) was made with a set of ensemble forecasts that invoke performance evaluation over both weather and climate timescales. The performance of McRAS (and its radiation modules) was compared with that of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM3) cloud scheme (with its NCAR physics radiation). We specifically chose the boreal summer months of May and June 2003, which were characterized by an anomalously wet eastern half of the continental United States as well as northern regions of Amazonia. The evaluation employed an ensemble of 70 daily 10-day forecasts covering the 61 days of the study period. Each forecast was started from the analyzed initial state of the atmosphere and spun-up soil moisture from the first-day forecasts with the model. Monthly statistics of these forecasts with up to 10-day lead time provided a robust estimate of the behavior of the simulated monthly rainfall anomalies. Patterns of simulated versus observed rainfall, 500-hPa heights, and top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation were recast into regional anomaly correlations. The correlations were compared among the simulations with each of the schemes. The results show that fvGCM with McRAS and its radiation package performed discernibly better than the original fvGCM with CCM3 cloud physics plus its radiation package. The McRAS cloud scheme also showed a reasonably positive response to the observed sea surface temperature on mean monthly rainfall fields at different time leads. This analysis represents a method for helpful systematic evaluation prior to selection of a new scheme in a global model.

  8. Mechanism of Reduction Action of Unsaturated Polyester Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reduction action mechanism of the unsatrurated polyester resin reducer is analysed by the free space volume theory.Through measuring the reduction magnitude in each phase of solidification,the authors predicted the rate of reduction is in concordance with the results from experiments.From this we presented corresponding solutions to different causes of the reduction action of the unsaturated polyester resin.

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 2, Appendices A--N. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Appendix A, Example Material Safety Data Sheet; Appendix B, Initial Site Characterization Test Results; Appendix C, Testing Proposal, Southern Research Institute; Appendix D, Example Laboratory Catalyst Test Protocol; Appendix E, Detailed Coal Analysis Data; Appendix F, Standard Methods-QA/QC Document; Appendix G, Task No. 1 Commissioning Tests; Appendix H, Task No. 2 Commissioning Tests; Appendix I, First Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix J, Second Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix K, Third Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix L, Fourth Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; Appendix M, Fifth Parametric Sequence Spreadsheets; and Appendix N, First Series-Manual APH Tests.

  10. Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI

    2007-01-01

    The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  12. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  13. LIQUID PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH (III & IV) DEMONSTRATION IN THE LAPORTE ALTERNATIVE FUELS DEVELOPMENT UNIT. Final Topical Report. Volume I/II: Main Report. Task 1: Engineering Modifications (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration) and Task 2: AFDU Shakedown, Operations, Deactivation (Shut-Down) and Disposal (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1999-06-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch technology was successfully demonstrated in DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. Earlier work at LaPorte, with iron catalysts in 1992 and 1994, had established proof-of-concept status for the slurry phase process. The third campaign (Fischer-Tropsch III), in 1996, aimed at aggressively extending the operability of the slurry reactor using a proprietary cobalt catalyst. Due to an irreversible plugging of catalyst-wax separation filters as a result of unexpected catalyst fines generation, the operations had to be terminated after seven days on-stream. Following an extensive post-run investigation by the participants, the campaign was successfully completed in March-April 1998, with an improved proprietary cobalt catalyst. These runs were sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., and Shell Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (SSFI). A productivity of approximately 140 grams (gm) of hydrocarbons (HC)/ hour (hr)-liter (lit) of expanded slurry volume was achieved at reasonable system stability during the second trial (Fischer-Tropsch IV). The productivity ranged from 110-140 at various conditions during the 18 days of operations. The catalyst/wax filters performed well throughout the demonstration, producing a clean wax product. For the most part, only one of the four filter housings was needed for catalyst/wax filtration. The filter flux appeared to exceed the design flux. A combination of use of a stronger catalyst and some innovative filtration techniques were responsible for this success. There was no sign of catalyst particle attrition and very little erosion of the slurry pump was observed, in contrast to the Fischer-Tropsch III operations. The reactor operated hydrodynamically stable with uniform temperature profile and gas hold-ups. Nuclear density and differential pressure measurements indicated somewhat higher than expected gas hold-up (45 - 50 vol%) during Fischer

  14. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen; Nielsen, Viveque E; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The effect of (131)I therapy amplification by recombinant human (rh) TSH prestimulation in very large goiters has not been evaluated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (22 females; age range 37-87 yr) with a large multinodular goiter (median...... the reduction of very large goiters by more than 50%, compared with (131)I therapy alone, but at the expense of more adverse effects after therapy. Our data suggest that rhTSH stimulation may work through mechanisms that go beyond the increase in thyroid (131)I uptake...

  15. Adventures in Law and History. Volume I: Native Americans, the Spanish Frontier, and the Gold Rush. A Law and Civic Education Curriculum for Upper Elementary Grades with Units on Rules and Laws, Property, and Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; Degelman, Charles; Doggett, Keri; Hayes, Bill

    This is volume one of a two-volume civics curriculum on law and effective citizenship for upper-elementary students. The lessons, set in American historical eras, engage students in cooperative-learning activities, role plays, simulations, readers theater, stories, and guided discussions, which introduce and reinforce law-related and civic…

  16. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  17. Roles of AQP5/AQP5-G103D in carbamylcholine-induced volume decrease and in reduction of the activation energy for water transport by rat parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Keitaro; Seo, Yoshiteru; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Karabasil, Mileva Ratko; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Nakahari, Takashi; Hosoi, Kazuo

    2012-10-01

    In order to assess the contribution of the water channel aquaporin-5 (AQP5) to water transport by salivary gland acinar cells, we measured the cell volume and activation energy (E (a)) of diffusive water permeability in isolated parotid acinar cells obtained from AQP5-G103D mutant and their wild-type rats. Immunohistochemistry showed that there was no change induced by carbamylcholine (CCh; 1 μM) in the AQP5 detected in the acinar cells in the wild-type rat. Acinar cells from mutant rats, producing low levels of AQP5 in the apical membrane, showed a minimal increase in the AQP5 due to the CCh. In the wild-type rat, CCh caused a transient swelling of the acinus, followed by a rapid agonist-induced cell shrinkage, reaching a plateau at 30 s. In the mutant rat, the acinus did not swell by CCh challenge, and the agonist-induced cell shrinkage was delayed by 8 s, reaching a transient minimum at around 1 min, and recovered spontaneously even though CCh was persistently present. In the unstimulated wild-type acinar cells, E (a) was 3.4 ± 0.6 kcal mol(-1) and showed no detectable change after CCh stimulation. In the unstimulated mutant acinar cells, high E (a) value (5.9 ± 0.1 kcal mol(-1)) was detected and showed a minimal decrease after CCh stimulation (5.0 ± 0.3 kcal mol(-1)). These results suggested that AQP5 was the main pathway for water transport in the acinar cells and that it was responsible for the rapid agonist-induced acinar cell shrinkage and also necessary to keep the acinar cell volume reduced during the steady secretion in the wild-type rat.

  18. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  1. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  2. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  3. 纤维支气管镜肺减容术治疗绵羊肺气肿模型的实验研究%Treatment of pulmonary emphysema sheep model through bronchoscopic lung volume reduction:an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志军; 路武杰; 滕伟; 郭俊华; 黄志昂; 王红燕; 靳建军; 王静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨经纤支镜射频置管建立气道旁路肺减容术治疗绵羊肺气肿模型的有效性及优越性.方法:将16只6月龄雌性绵羊随机分为A、B2组,木瓜蛋白酶方法建立肺气肿模型.A组经纤支镜射频建立气道旁路并放置支架,2组均给予内科治疗.分别测2组绵羊术前和术后24 h、4、8周的第1秒用力呼气容积(forced expiratory volume in one second,FEV10),且进行比较,A组定期行胸部CT检查,2组动物治疗8周均予以处死,行病理学检查.结果:①成功复制绵羊肺气肿动物模型16只,A组术中、术后无并发症出现;②A组胸部CT示术后4周及8周,在治疗区均出现肺容积缩小,出现肺不张表现;③2组不同时间点FEV10水平差异有统计学意义(F时间=1 352.409,P=0.000),2种治疗手段效果差异有统计学意义(F组间=5 004.278,P=0.000),治疗手段和时间之间有交互作用(F交互=1 325.058,P=0.000);④病理示A组治疗区见肺泡萎陷区,非治疗区域见肺气肿,肺泡萎陷区见粒细胞和淋巴细胞浸润;B组见肺气肿的肺泡组织.结论:该技术治疗绵羊肺气肿模型具有有效性及优越性.

  4. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  5. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  6. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL GRAMMATICAL…

  7. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  8. Childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship of depression with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; van Velzen, L.; Schmaal, L.; van der Graaf, Y.; van der Wee, N.; van Tol, M. -J.; Penninx, B.; Geerlings, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Childhood maltreatment (CM) may modify the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and hippocampal volume reduction. To disentangle the impact of MDD and CM on hippocampal volume we investigated the association between MDD and hippocampal volume in persons with and without a

  9. Coexistência das síndromes de Capgras e Frégoli associadas à redução de volume frontotemporal e hiperintensidades em substância branca cerebral Coexistence of Capgras and Frégoli syndromes associated to frontotemporal volume reduction and cerebral white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizela Turkiewicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Transtornos delirantes de identificação são condições nas quais os pacientes identificam de maneira patologicamente equivocada pessoas, lugares, objetos ou eventos. Esses transtornos têm sido categorizados em quatro diferentes subtipos: Capgras, Frégoli, intermetamorfose e síndrome do duplo subjetivo. Tais síndromes podem estar presentes em diferentes transtornos psiquiátricos, como esquizofrenia e transtornos do humor, bem como em diferentes doenças neurológicas, como Alzheimer, Parkinson, lesões cerebrais traumáticas ou vasculares. OBJETIVOS: Descrever e discutir um caso de coexistência entre as síndromes de Capgras e Frégoli em uma paciente com esquizofrenia paranoide e com alterações cerebrais. MÉTODOS: Entrevista psiquiátrica e ressonância magnética de crânio. RESULTADOS: A paciente apresentava hiperintensidades periventriculares em aquisição flair e de substância branca subcortical concentradas principalmente na região frontotemporal direita, bem como perda do volume da região frontotemporal bilateral. DISCUSSÃO: As alterações descritas podem representar substrato orgânico das síndromes dos transtornos delirantes de identificação. Os delírios nas síndromes de Capgras e Frégoli podem ocorrer como resultado de uma desconexão têmporo-límbica-frontal direita, resultando em uma impossibilidade de associar memórias prévias a novas informações, levando consequentemente a alterações na capacidade de reconhecimento. Ademais, uma perda do volume de tais regiões cerebrais também pode desempenhar papel importante no desenvolvimento de tais síndromes delirantes de identificação.BACKGROUND: Delusional misidentification syndromes are conditions in which the patients pathologically misidentify people, places, objects or events. They have been categorized in four subtypes: Capgras, Frégoli, intermetamorphosis and subjective double syndromes. Such syndromes may be present in patients with

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  12. Proceedings of the 1982 Army Science Conference Held at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on 15-18 June 1982. Volume II. Principal Authors H through N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    J. Phys. D) 1, 1183 (1968). 8. F.E. Allison, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2111 (1965). 9. H.A. Monterrubio, thesis " Analisis de los Resultados Experlzmentales...capabilities. First, individual skill training traditionally has had a low priority in units; unit commanders expect to receive qualified school-trained person ...ionizing radiation to which a person has been exposed can be reliably ascertained by the measurement of some biolog ical parameter. We ae currently

  13. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome V: l'Algerie, l'Autriche, la Chine, le Danemark, la Finlande, la Hongrie, l'ile de Malte, le Maroc, la Norvege, la Nouvelle-Zelande, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni, la Tunisie, la Turquie, l'ex-URSS (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume V: Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, the former USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, and the former Soviet Union. The laws concern official languages,…

  14. 76 FR 60511 - Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Offshore Units. The policy is currently found in Chapter 16 of the Marine Safety Manual, Volume III. The... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Chapter 16 of Volume III of the Marine Safety...

  15. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  17. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  18. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... now! Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: Risks Archives Treatment risk reduction garments surgery obesity infection blood pressure trauma morbid obesity body weight ...

  19. Shear-induced Volume Decrease in MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm2 resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ~ 20 – 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (~ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 μM Hg2+ significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 μM DIDS, or 100 μM Gd3+ suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K+ and Cl− channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca2+ independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca2+ level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model. PMID:22759987

  20. AMHARIC BASIC COURSE. UNITS 51-60, READER, GLOSSARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE FIRST 10 UNITS OF THIS SECOND VOLUME OF THE AMHARIC BASIC COURSE FOLLOW THE SAME GENERAL FORMAT OF THE PREVIOUS VOLUME IN PRESENTING FURTHER BASIC SENTENCES, DRILLS, AND NARRATIVES. AT THE END OF UNIT 60, AMHARIC ORTHOGRAPHY IS INTRODUCED. SUCCEEDING UNITS, COMPRISING THE READER, ARE WRITTEN IN AMHARIC SCRIPT ONLY. THE GLOSSARY, WHICH IS…

  1. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Jong, Pim A. de; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleys, Ronald L.A.W. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Buls, Nico; Mey, Johan de [UZ Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    To analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels using unenhanced prospectively ECG-triggered protocols. Tube voltage was 120 kV and tube current differed between protocols. CT data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and reduced dose CT data with IR. CCS was quantified with Agatston scores, calcification mass and calcification volume. Differences were analysed with the Friedman test. Fourteen hearts showed coronary calcifications. Dose reduction with FBP did not significantly change Agatston scores, calcification volumes and calcification masses (P > 0.05). Maximum differences in Agatston scores were 76, 26, 51 and 161 units, in calcification volume 97, 27, 42 and 162 mm{sup 3}, and in calcification mass 23, 23, 20 and 48 mg, respectively. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes with significant differences for one vendor (P < 0.05). Median relative differences between reference FBP and reduced dose IR for Agatston scores remained within 2.0-4.6 %, 1.0-5.3 %, 1.2-7.7 % and 2.6-4.5 %, for calcification volumes within 2.4-3.9 %, 1.0-5.6 %, 1.1-6.4 % and 3.7-4.7 %, for calcification masses within 1.9-4.1 %, 0.9-7.8 %, 2.9-4.7 % and 2.5-3.9 %, respectively. IR resulted in increased, decreased or similar calcification masses. CCS derived from standard FBP acquisitions was not affected by radiation dose reductions up to 80 %. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes. (orig.)

  2. Studies in the carbothermic reduction of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Bharat B.; Pande, Anita R.; Gokarn, Ashok N.

    1992-10-01

    Phosphogypsum has been reduced in the solid state by active charcoal both in the presence and absence of catalysts. Kinetic data could be fitted to the modified volume reaction model. Mixed catalysts like potassium dichromate were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily. This result could be fruitfully employed during reduction with industrial coke also.

  3. Simulation for volume reduction of site remediation at UCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A characterization survey, sufficient time, and a proper budget are required after decommissioning work to carry out a final survey in preparing for an unexpected contamination. In this study, the optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the hop spot concept which was suggested in MARSSIM and geo statistics methods. The objective of any remedial action is to reduce the risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. The project period was extended twice for the initial planning because of the unexpected soil contamination under the UCP building. The importance of the characterization survey and optimization of site remediation cannot be overestimated in the decommissioning project. In order to provide a reliable cost and schedule for site remediation, it requires optimization methods as well as appropriate data processing techniques. The optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the spatial analysis with the hot spot concept in MARSSIM. The combined methods of the hot spot concept in MARSSIM and geo statistics method pave a way to optimization of the site remediation.

  4. Volume reduction of solid waste by biological conversion of cellulosics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1981-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that the types of cellulosic wastes generated at ORNL can be effectively degraded in an anaerboic bioreactor. The rate and extent of anaerobic microbial digestion of blotter paper, cloth, sanitary napkins, and pine sawdust in various types and sizes of bench-scale anaerobic bioreactors are described. Preliminary tests indicate that the resulting digests are amenable to incorporation into hydrofracture grouts.

  5. Aircraft Configuration Noise Reduction. Volume 3. Computer Program Source Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    PKCPALA]ICN IS ULt .m[NC (ti ,IXtA4t7-3 PHBNAC 451 IF( fG0R.NE.J)G;XP=YNO P~3N( 5 WITt(f6,475tlJ (iPT9I=1121),GHP PHBNAL 453 4755 F-LRMA( :x, 22HO ) Gf ClND...BANOS.ABU( . C BCF = THE ARRAY OF BAND CEN\\TER FRECUENCIES. AbSOKP I b C T =AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IN’ DEGREES FARENHEIT ABSUtRP 17 C AdSOt(P 18 C OUTPUT

  6. Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : An Expert Panel Recommendation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Rabe, Klaus F.; Shah, Pallav L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition comprising a constellation of disorders from chronic bronchitis, airflow obstruction through to emphysema. The global burden of COPD is estimated at more than 6% of the population. The standard of care is based on a combination

  7. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume I. Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-10

    Platyhelminthes : Trematoda). This point somewhat coun- ters the idea of this population’s viability. Partially reviewed by Fuller (1974), Nearctic...materials. phylogeny ( phylogenies ), phylogenetic--the history of the evolu- tion of a taxon. PL--United States federal Public Law. plankter (plankters...infestation with flukes, a group of parasitic flatworms ( Platyhelminthes : Trematoda). UM -- Upper Mississippi. Unionicolidae, unionicolid -- the

  8. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1: primary model documentation, Book 2, Chapters IV, V, VI, and VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, R.E.; Herod, J.S.

    1978-06-19

    The Industrial Sector Technology Use Model provides a single framework for integrating all of the information and analysis into a set of predictions of industrial energy use. Given this volume of information which must be considered, this requires a set of computerized engineering-economic models. The design of these models is the subject of Chapter IV. The environmental factors in ISTUM are developed and presented in Chapter V. Chapter VI discusses the work accomplished by DATA Resources, Inc. in support of the ISTUM. A glossary, briefly defining special terms used in the ISTUM documentation, is given in Chapter VII. (MCW)

  9. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 Volume 2-Calculations Performed in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm III, RT

    2002-05-29

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the US during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the computational benchmarks and for those experimental benchmarks that the US and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  10. Vowel Reduction in Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirai; Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the result that vowel reduction occurs in Japanese and vowel reduction is the part of the language universality.Compared with English,the effect of the vowel reduction in Japanese is relatively weak might because of the absence of stress in Japanese.Since spectral vowel reduction occurs in Japanese,various types of researches would be possible.

  11. Substantial and reversible brain gray matter reduction but no acute brain lesions in ultramarathon runners: experience from the TransEurope-FootRace Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possible formation of brain edema or new lesions were explored by repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies. Methods A total of 15 runners signed an informed consent to participate in this study of planned brain scans before, twice during, and about 8 months after the race. Because of dropouts, global gray matter volume analysis could only be performed in ten runners covering three timepoints, and in seven runners who also had a follow-up scan. Scanning was performed on three identical 1.5 T Siemens MAGNETOM Avanto scanners, two of them located at our university. The third MRI scanner with identical sequence parameters was a mobile MRI unit escorting the runners. Volumetric 3D datasets were acquired using a magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE sequence. Additionally, diffusion-weighted (DWI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging was performed. Results Average global gray matter volume as well as body weight significantly decreased by 6% during the race. After 8 months, gray matter volume returned to baseline as well as body weight. No new brain lesions were detected by DWI or FLAIR imaging. Conclusions Physiological brain volume reduction during aging is less than 0.2% per year. Therefore a volume reduction of about 6% during the 2 months of extreme running appears to be substantial. The reconstitution in global volume measures after 8 months shows the process to be reversible. As possible mechanisms we discuss loss of protein, hypercortisolism and hyponatremia to account for both substantiality and reversibility of gray matter volume reductions. Reversible brain volume reduction during an ultramarathon suggests that extreme running might serve as a model to investigate

  12. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in fi

  13. Development of limb volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  14. A Fuzzy Optimization Model for Allocation of Generated Energy Among Coal-Fired Units With Targets of Energy Saving and Emission Reduction%节能减排目标下燃煤机组电量分配模糊优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 于超

    2012-01-01

    电力工业是节能减排的重点行业,“以大代小”成为电力行业节能减排和结构调整的重要手段。以煤耗量和二氧化碳排放量最小为目标,建立节能减排下燃煤火电机组电量分配优化模型,并通过定义目标隶属度函数将目标模糊化,采用满意度指标将双目标问题转化为单目标问题进行求解。算例分析表明:建立的优化模型能够在满足煤耗和排放量最小的目标下合理分配机组发电量;相比计划电量分配模式,节能减排模式下100MW及以下煤耗高、污染重的小机组被分配电量减少、煤耗低、污染小的大机组被分配电量增多。通过与单目标模型比较,该双目标优化模型可以更好地兼顾到煤耗和排放目标的统一,为电力节能减排政策制定提供更准确的定量分析依据。%Power sector is the key industry to pursue the policy of energy saving and emission reduction, and "replacing the low-capacity generation units with high-capacity ones" becomes the important manner to implement energy-saving and emission reduction in power sector. Taking the minimum coal consumption and the least emission of carbon dioxide as objects, a optimization model for the allocation of generated energy among coal-fired units with targets of energy saving and emission reduction is built and by mean of defining the membership functions of the two objects respectively the objects are fuzzified; then by use of satisfaction index the dual object problem is solved by turning the dual object problem into single object problems. Case analysis results show that the built model can rationally allocate generated energy among coal-fired units under the condition of satisfying the objects of minimum coal consumption and least emission of carbon dioxide; comparing with the planned allocation mode of generated energy, less generated energy is allocated to low-capacity coal-fired units with rated capacity of

  15. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  16. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  17. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Articulation of affordability con- straints, with acquired/estimated parametric understanding of impacts; • Data synthesis with more com- plete...in four phases (see Figure 1). For this MORS AA CoP meeting, a working group was assigned to each phase with a synthesis group respon- sible for...Washington, DC. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog. php ?record_id=14682. United Nations. 2005. World Confer ence on Disaster Reduction, Jan

  18. Local reduction in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaler, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    A conventional wisdom about the progress of physics holds that successive theories wholly encompass the domains of their predecessors through a process that is often called "reduction." While certain influential accounts of inter-theory reduction in physics take reduction to require a single "global" derivation of one theory's laws from those of another, I show that global reductions are not available in all cases where the conventional wisdom requires reduction to hold. However, I argue that a weaker "local" form of reduction, which defines reduction between theories in terms of a more fundamental notion of reduction between models of a single fixed system, is available in such cases and moreover suffices to uphold the conventional wisdom. To illustrate the sort of fixed-system, inter-model reduction that grounds inter-theoretic reduction on this picture, I specialize to a particular class of cases in which both models are dynamical systems. I show that reduction in these cases is underwritten by a mathematical relationship that follows a certain liberalized construal of Nagel/Schaffner reduction, and support this claim with several examples. Moreover, I show that this broadly Nagelian analysis of inter-model reduction encompasses several cases that are sometimes cited as instances of the "physicist's" limit-based notion of reduction.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  20. Improvement of flue gas selective catalytic reduction technology and equipment for propane dehydrogenation (PDH) unit%丙烷脱氢装置烟气脱硝技术与设备改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘唯奇; 张国甫; 高海见; 陈金锋

    2016-01-01

    为降低烟气中的氮氧化物含量,采用丹麦托普索公司催化剂和工艺技术,在烟气余热锅炉内增加脱硝段,以满足达标排放的目的.并与工程公司合作,优化脱硝注氨系统的工艺流程,减少氨水消耗量,降低氨逃逸浓度.技术与设备改进后,烟色得到改善,烟气中的NOx含量大幅降低,同时氨水消耗量低于设计值,产生了良好的环境效益和经济效益.%The NOx concentration in the flue gas is reduced for standardized emission by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor installed in the waste heat boiler.The catalyst and reactor design are provided by De