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Sample records for units thunder basin

  1. 78 FR 56650 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Wyoming; Thunder Basin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... established control colonies to address human health and safety concerns around residences, as well as colony... Basin National Grassland Prairie Dog Amendment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... National Grassland Plan to modify Categories 1 and 2 of the 2009 Prairie Dog Management Strategy....

  2. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County..., LLC to vacate and relocate portions of Campbell County Road 69, Mackey Road, onto National Forest... Sections 29-31 of T. 43 N., R. 69 W., 6th Principal Meridian, Campbell County, Wyoming. DATES: Comments...

  3. Secondary lead poisoning in golden eagle and ferruginous hawk chicks consuming shot black-tailed prairie dogs, Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recreational shooting of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a common activity at Thunder Basin National Grassland (TSNG), Wyoming. The prairie dog...

  4. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

    2008-07-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  5. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  6. Modelling Digital Thunder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Petta, Catia; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    An educational model simulation of the sound produced by lightning in the sky has been employed to demonstrate realistic signatures of thunder and its connection to the particular structure of the lightning channel. Algorithms used in the past have been revisited and implemented, making use of current computer techniques. The basic properties of…

  7. Modelling Digital Thunder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Petta, Catia; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    An educational model simulation of the sound produced by lightning in the sky has been employed to demonstrate realistic signatures of thunder and its connection to the particular structure of the lightning channel. Algorithms used in the past have been revisited and implemented, making use of current computer techniques. The basic properties of…

  8. Modelling digital thunder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Petta, Catia; Riggi, Francesco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, and INFN, Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: Francesco.Riggi@ct.infn.it

    2009-01-15

    An educational model simulation of the sound produced by lightning in the sky has been employed to demonstrate realistic signatures of thunder and its connection to the particular structure of the lightning channel. Algorithms used in the past have been revisited and implemented, making use of current computer techniques. The basic properties of the mathematical model, together with typical results and suggestions for additional developments are discussed. The paper is intended as a teaching aid for students and teachers in the context of introductory physics courses at university level.

  9. Tibetan Traditional Strategies on Thunder and Lighting Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Frequent occurrence of thunder and lighting in Ti-bet inconveniences Tibetan people,even endangering their lives.However,Tibetans have accumulated rich experience to pre-vent injury from thunder and lighting.

  10. Preliminary catalog of the sedimentary basins of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Cahan, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred forty-four sedimentary basins (or groups of basins) in the United States (both onshore and offshore) are identified, located, and briefly described as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) data base in support of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration National Assessment Project (Brennan and others, 2010). This catalog of basins is designed to provide a check list and basic geologic framework for compiling more detailed geologic and reservoir engineering data for this project and other future investigations.

  11. Basin-scale recharge in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. F.; Duffy, C.; Eastoe, C.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Goodrich, D.; Hendrickx, J.; Hibbs, B.; Phillips, F.; Small, E.; Wilson, J.

    2003-04-01

    The major domestic water source in the arid southwestern United States is groundwater from alluvial basin aquifers. Accurate estimates of basin-scale groundwater recharge rates are a critical need for developing sustainable or "safe yield" groundwater pumping. Basin-scale recharge rates are typically estimated using inverse hydrologic modeling or geochemical tracers (e.g. chloride mass balance). These methods, while useful, have a high level of uncertainty and provide no information about the mechanisms of groundwater recharge. SAHRA - an NSF Science and Technology Center focused on the Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas - has developed an integrated research plan to address this problem. Our approach is two-fold. First we are investigating the "input" components that comprise basin-scale recharge: basin floor recharge, alluvial channel recharge, mountain front recharge, and mountain block recharge. Each component has unique spatial and temporal scales and thus requires distinct methods. Our research is aimed at understanding the factors (e.g. vegetation type, bedrock lithology, soil structure) that control recharge rates in each of these locations. With such an understanding one could then scale from point measurements to the basin-scale using remote sensing data. Our second approach is to employ isotopic tracers to determine water sources, groundwater ages and residence times of the groundwater and surface water "outputs"; these values can then be used to better calibrate recharge rates in groundwater models. By focusing our studies on two basins, the San Pedro River Basin in Arizona and the Rio Grande in New Mexico, we hope to develop a better understanding of the importance of different recharge pathways for basin-scale recharge and which methods are best suited for estimating basin-scale recharge.

  12. Mapping thunder sources by inverting acoustic and electromagnetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, J. B.; Arechiga, R. O.; Thomas, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method of locating current flow in lightning strikes by inversion of thunder recordings constrained by Lightning Mapping Array observations. First, radio frequency (RF) pulses are connected to reconstruct conductive channels created by leaders. Then, acoustic signals that would be produced by current flow through each channel are forward modeled. The recorded thunder is considered to consist of a weighted superposition of these acoustic signals. We calculate the posterior distribution of acoustic source energy for each channel with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion that fits power envelopes of modeled and recorded thunder; these results show which parts of the flash carry current and produce thunder. We examine the effects of RF pulse location imprecision and atmospheric winds on quality of results and apply this method to several lightning flashes over the Magdalena Mountains in New Mexico, USA. This method will enable more detailed study of lightning phenomena by allowing researchers to map current flow in addition to leader propagation.

  13. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  14. Waste storage potential of Triassic basins in southeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1976-07-01

    Triassic basins, elongated deep basins filled with sediments, extend from Nova Scotia to Florida. The geology of the basins is discussed for each state. Their potential for liquid waste storage is assessed. Seismic risk is among the factors evaluated. It is recommended that the shallow Triassic Florence basin in northeast South Carolina be studied. 10 fig. (DLC)

  15. Managing competing influences: risk acceptance in Operation Rolling Thunder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Managing Competing Influences: Risk Acceptance in Operation Rolling Thunder A Monograph by Major Benjamin C. Williams US Air Force School of...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 12-03-2017 2...REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing Competing Influences: Risk Acceptance in

  16. Statistical Comparisons of watershed scale response to climate change in selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John; Moradkhani, Hamid; Hay, Lauren; Markstrom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In an earlier global climate-change study, air temperature and precipitation data for the entire twenty-first century simulated from five general circulation models were used as input to precalibrated watershed models for 14 selected basins across the United States. Simulated daily streamflow and energy output from the watershed models were used to compute a range of statistics. With a side-by-side comparison of the statistical analyses for the 14 basins, regional climatic and hydrologic trends over the twenty-first century could be qualitatively identified. Low-flow statistics (95% exceedance, 7-day mean annual minimum, and summer mean monthly streamflow) decreased for almost all basins. Annual maximum daily streamflow also decreased in all the basins, except for all four basins in California and the Pacific Northwest. An analysis of the supply of available energy and water for the basins indicated that ratios of evaporation to precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to precipitation for most of the basins will increase. Probability density functions (PDFs) were developed to assess the uncertainty and multimodality in the impact of climate change on mean annual streamflow variability. Kolmogorov?Smirnov tests showed significant differences between the beginning and ending twenty-first-century PDFs for most of the basins, with the exception of four basins that are located in the western United States. Almost none of the basin PDFs were normally distributed, and two basins in the upper Midwest had PDFs that were extremely dispersed and skewed.

  17. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas... located near Port Angeles, Washington: Point 1: 48°07′24″ N, 123°25′32″ W; Point 2: 48°07′26″ N,...

  18. Analysis and discussion on anti-thunder scheme of wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Anti-thunder scheme of wind power generation system is discussed in this paper. Through the research and analysis on the harm of the thunder, division of lightning protection zone and lightning protection measures are put forward, which has a certain practical significance on the design and application of wind power generation system.

  19. Thickness of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that...

  20. Thickness of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin. The data are presented as ASCII text...

  1. Thickness of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin. The data are presented as ASCII text...

  2. Thickness of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the thickness, in feet, of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River basin. The data are presented as ASCII text files that...

  3. Altitude of the top of the basal confining unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the basal confining unit in the Powder River basin. The data are...

  4. Quasi-Static Analysis of LaRC THUNDER Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.

    2007-01-01

    An analytic approach is developed to predict the shape and displacement with voltage in the quasi-static limit of LaRC Thunder Actuators. The problem is treated with classical lamination theory and Von Karman non-linear analysis. In the case of classical lamination theory exact analytic solutions are found. It is shown that classical lamination theory is insufficient to describe the physical situation for large actuators but is sufficient for very small actuators. Numerical results are presented for the non-linear analysis and compared with experimental measurements. Snap-through behavior, bifurcation, and stability are presented and discussed.

  5. 'Thunder' - Shock waves in pre-biological organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Tauber, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical study of the gasdynamics and chemistry of lightning-produced shock waves in a postulated primordial reducing atmosphere. It is shown that the conditions are similar to those encountered in a previously performed shock-tube experiment which resulted in 36% of the ammonia in the original mixture being converted into amino acids. The calculations give the (very large) energy rate of about 0.4 cal/sq cm/yr available for amino acid production, supporting previous hypotheses that 'thunder' could have been responsible for efficient large-scale production of organic molecules serving as precursors of life.

  6. 'Thunder' - Shock waves in pre-biological organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Tauber, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical study of the gasdynamics and chemistry of lightning-produced shock waves in a postulated primordial reducing atmosphere. It is shown that the conditions are similar to those encountered in a previously performed shock-tube experiment which resulted in 36% of the ammonia in the original mixture being converted into amino acids. The calculations give the (very large) energy rate of about 0.4 cal/sq cm/yr available for amino acid production, supporting previous hypotheses that 'thunder' could have been responsible for efficient large-scale production of organic molecules serving as precursors of life.

  7. Unconventional Assessment Units in Burgos Basin Province, Sabinas Basin Province, Tampico-Misantla Basin Province, Northeast Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources....

  8. Groundwater quality in the Basin and Range Basin-Fill Aquifers, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers constitute one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 20 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 49 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  9. 75 FR 13253 - Plan Revision for Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Alpine, El Dorado, and Placer Counties, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... management plan (forest plan) and will also prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for this revised... Be Made The Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit is preparing an EIS to revise the current forest plan... Forest Service Plan Revision for Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Alpine, El Dorado, and Placer Counties...

  10. Timber resource statistics for the Willow block, Susitna River Basin multiresource inventory unit, Alaska, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore S. Setzer; Bert R. Mead; Gary L. Carroll

    1984-01-01

    A multiresource inventory of the Willow block, Susitna River basin inventory unit, was conducted in 1978. Statistics on forest area, timber volumes, and growth and mortality from this inventory are presented. Timberland area is estimated at 230,200 acres and net growing stock volume, mostly birch, at 231.9 million cubic feet. Net annual growth of growing stock is...

  11. Timber resource statistics for the Upper Susitna block, Susitna River basin multiresource inventory unit, Alaska, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead; Theodore S. Setzer; Gary L. Carroll

    1985-01-01

    A multiresource inventory of the Upper Susitna block, Susitna River basin inventory unit, was conducted in 1980. Statistics on forest area, timber volumes, and annual growth from this inventory are presented. Timberland area is estimated at 112,130 acres, and net growing stock volume, mostly hardwood, is 84.6 million cubic feet. Net annual growth of growing stock is...

  12. Timber resource statistics for the Beluga block, Susitna River basin multiresource inventory unit, Alaska, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Carroll; Theodore S. Setzer; Bert R. Mead

    1985-01-01

    A multiresource inventory of the Beluga block, Susitna River basin inventory unit, was conducted in 1980. Statistics on forest area, timber volumes, and growth and mortality from this inventory are presented. Timberland area is estimated at 131,740 acres and net growing stock volume, mostly hardwood, is 99.4 million cubic feet. Net annual growth of growing stock is...

  13. Timber resource statistics for the Talkeetna block, Susitna River basin multiresource inventory unit, Alaska, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore S. Setzer; Gary L. Carroll; Bert R. Mead

    1984-01-01

    A multiresource inventory of the Talkeetna block, Susitna River basin inventory unit, was conducted in 1979. Statistics on forest area, timber volumes, and growth and mortality from this inventory are presented. Timberland area is estimated at 562,105 acres and net growing stock volume, mostly hardwood, at 574.7 million cubic feet. Net annual growth of growing stock is...

  14. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corelations between the landslides and the morphological and functional units of slopes in the Transylvanian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. ROȘIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fluvial morphology in the Transylvanian Basin, in form of an alternation of water divides and valley corridors, indicates favourable conditions for the genesis of geomorphologic processes. Under this aspect two sections stand out within this type of processes: river beds and slopes. In this paper, the emphasis is on the processes, developed on slopes. Water erosion and mass movement processes can be observed on their surface. From all mass movement processes, the emphasis will be put on the landslides. They will be observed in correlation with the morphologic and functional units of the slopes from different regional units of Transylvanian Basin. Eight case studies were taken into consideration regarding this aspect. Thus, we noticed that landslides particularly develop in the median part of the slopes which is corresponding to the maximum processual dynamic and transfer unit.

  16. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources.About 46.6 million people live in the SWPA study area, mostly in urban areas, but also in rural, agricultural communities that cultivate about 14.4 million acres of cropland. Other rural areas contain small communities with mining, retirement, or tourism/recreational-based economies. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the region are particularly dependent on good-quality groundwater supplies. In the year 2000, about 33.7 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of surface water was diverted from streams, and about 23.0 million acre-ft of groundwater was withdrawn from basin-fill aquifers in the SWPA study area. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area for 2000 were about 18.0 million acre-ft and 4.1 million acre-ft, respectively, and together account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Although irrigation and public supply are the primary uses of basin-fill aquifer withdrawals in the study area, water use varies locally by basin, and withdrawals for industrial, mining, and electric power generation also are substantial in some areas.

  17. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OuYang Yuhua; Yuan Ping

    2012-02-01

    In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. Twelve events on 15 August 2008 are selected as samples since some synchronizing information about them are obtained, such as lightning optical spectra, surface E-field changes, etc. By using digital filter and Fourier transform, thunder frequency spectra in observation location have been calculated. Then the two main propagation effects, finite amplitude propagation and attenuation by air, are calculated. Upon that we take the test thunder frequency spectra and work backward to recalculate the original frequency spectra near generation location. Thunder frequency spectra and the frequency distribution varying with distance are researched. According to the theories on plasma, the channel temperature and electron density are further calculated by transition parameters of lines in lightning optical spectra. Pressure and the average ionization degree of each discharge channel are obtained by using Saha equations, charge conservation equations and particle conservation equations. Moreover, the relationship between the peak frequency of each thunder and channel parameters of the lightning is studied.

  18. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  19. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  20. Integrated watershed-scale response to climate change for selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Ward-Garrison, D. Christian; Risley, John C.; Battaglin, William A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Chase, Katherine J.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Mastin, Mark C.; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.; Vining, Kevin C.; Walker, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the hydrologic response to different projected carbon emission scenarios of the 21st century using a hydrologic simulation model. This study involved five major steps: (1) setup, calibrate and evaluated the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model in 14 basins across the United States by local USGS personnel; (2) acquire selected simulated carbon emission scenarios from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; (3) statistical downscaling of these scenarios to create PRMS input files which reflect the future climatic conditions of these scenarios; (4) generate PRMS projections for the carbon emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and (5) analyze the modeled hydrologic response. This report presents an overview of this study, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the carbon emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations.

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. ABQ ThunderBird Cup v3.0 Alpha Worksop: Workshop Analysis 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilmore, Katrina [Paine College, Augusta, GA (United States); Russ, Joshua [Voorhees College, Denmark, SC (United States); Carter, Aliyah [Norfolk State Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The ThunderBird Cup v3.0 (TBC3) program falls under the Minority Serving Institution Pipeline Program (MSIPP) that aims to establish a world-class workforce development, education and research program that combines the strengths of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and national laboratories to create a K-20 pipeline of students to participate in cybersecurity and related fields.

  3. Energy harvesting efficiency optimization via varying the radius of curvature of a piezoelectric THUNDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Wang, Zengmei; Soroush, Mahmoudiandehkordi; Abedini, Amin

    2016-09-01

    In this work the energy harvesting performance of a piezoelectric curved energy generator (THin layer UNimorph DrivER (THUNDER)) is studied via experimental and analytical methods. The analytical model of the THUNDER is created based on the linear mechanical electrical constitutive law of the piezoelectric material, the linear elastic constitutive law of the substrate, and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. With these linear modal functions, the Rayleigh-Ritz approach was used to obtain the reduced mechanical-electrical coupled modulation equations. The analytical model is verified by the experimental results. Both the experimental and analytical results of the THUNDER’s AC power output, DC power output with Rectifier Bridge and a capacitor, as well as the power output with a microcontroller energy harvesting circuit are reported. Based on the theoretical model, the analytical solution of the DC power is derived in terms of the vibration amplitude, frequency, and the electrical load. To harvest energy from low-frequency vibration source by a piezoelectric generator requires the piezoelectric device possessing low resonance frequency and good flexibility. The THUNDER developed by Langley Research Center exhibits high power when it is used as an energy generator and large displacement when it is used as an actuator. Compared to the less flexible PZT, although THUNDER is more difficult to model, THUNDER has better vibration absorption capacity and higher energy recovery efficiency. The effect of the THUNDER’s radius of curvature on energy harvesting efficiency is mainly investigated. We set the THUNDER’s radius of curvature as a dynamic tuning parameter which can tune the piezoelectric generators’ frequency with the source excitation frequency.

  4. Contrasting basin architecture and rifting style of the Vøring Basin, offshore mid-Norway and the Faroe-Shetland Basin, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpfer, Kateřina; Hinsch, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The Vøring and the Faroe-Shetland basins are offshore deep sedimentary basins which are situated on the outer continental margin of the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Both basins are underlain by thinned continental crust whose structure is still debated. In particular the nature of the lower continental crust and the origin of high velocity bodies located at the base of the lower crust are a subject of discussion in recent literature. Regional interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, combined with well data, suggest that both basins share several common features: (i) Pre-Cretaceous faults that are distributed across the entire basin width. (ii) Geometries of pre-Jurassic strata reflecting at least two extensional phases. (iii) Three common rift phases, Late Jurassic, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. (iv) Large pre-Cretaceous fault blocks that are buried by several kilometres of Cretaceous and Cenozoic strata. (iii). (v) Latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene inversion. (vi) Occurrence of partial mantle serpentinization during Early Cretaceous times, as proposed by other studies, seems improbable. The detailed analysis of the data, however, revealed significant differences between the two basins: (i) The Faroe-Shetland Basin was a fault-controlled basin during the Late Jurassic but also the Late Cretaceous extensional phase. In contrast, the Vøring Basin is dominated by the late Jurassic rifting and subsequent thermal subsidence. It exhibits only minor Late Cretaceous faults that are localised above intra-basinal and marginal highs. In addition, the Cretaceous strata in the Vøring Basin are folded. (ii) In the Vøring Basin, the locus of Late Cretaceous rifting shifted westwards, affecting mainly the western basin margin, whereas in the Faroe-Shetland Basin Late Cretaceous rifting was localised in the same area as the Late Jurassic phase, hence masking the original Jurassic geometries. (iii) Devono-Carboniferous and Aptian/Albian to Cenomanian rift phases

  5. Geologic history and hydrogeologic units of intermontane basins of the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, L.K.; Briar, David W.; Clark, David W.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program is a series of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to analyze regional ground-water systems that compose a major portion of the Nation’s water supply (Sun, 1986). The Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins is one of the study regions in this national program. The main objectives of the RASA studies are to: (1) describe the ground-water systems as they exist today, (2) analyze the known changes that have led to the system's present condition, (3) combine results of previous studies in a regional analysis, where possible, and (4) provide means by which effects of future ground-water development can be estimated.The purpose of this study, which began in 1990, was to increase understanding of the hydrogeology of the intermontane basins of the Northern Rocky Mountains area. This report is Chapter Cofa three-part series and describes the quality of ground-water and surface water in the study area. Chapter A (Tück and others, 1996) describes the geologic history and generalized hydrogeologic units. Chapter B (Briar and others, 1996) describes the general distribution of ground-watcrlcwels in basin-fill deposits,Water-quality data illustrated in this report represent the distribution of concentrations and composition of dissolved solids in ground-water and surface water in the intermontane areas. The chemistry of ground and surface water in the intermontane areas is influenced by the chemical and physical nature of the rocks in the basin deposits of the valleys and surrounding bedrock in the mountains.

  6. Pre-mesozoic palinspastic reconstruction of the eastern great basin (Western United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M; Christie-Blick, N

    1989-09-29

    The Great Basin of the western United States has proven important for studies of Proterozoic and Paleozoic geology [2500 to 245 million years ago (Ma)] and has been central to the development of ideas about the mechanics of crustal shortening and extension. An understanding of the deformational history of this region during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time (245 Ma to the present) is required for palinspastic reconstruction of now isolated exposures of older geology in order to place these in an appropriate regional geographic context. Considerable advances in unraveling both the crustal shortening that took place during Mesozoic to early Cenozoic time (especially from about 150 to 50 Ma) and the extension of the past 37 million years have shown that earlier reconstructions need to be revised significantly. A new reconstruction is developed for rocks of middle Proterozoic to Early Cambrian age based on evidence that total shortening by generally east-vergent thrusts and folds was at least 104 to 135 kilometers and that the Great Basin as a whole accommodated approximately 250 kilometers of extension in the direction 287 degrees +/- 12 degrees between the Colorado Plateau and the Sierra Nevada. Extension is assumed to be equivalent at all latitudes because available paleomagnetic evidence suggests that the Sierra Nevada experienced little or no rotation with respect to the extension direction since the late Mesozoic. An estimate of the uncertainty in the amount of extension obtained from geological and paleomagnetic uncertainties increases northward from +/-56 kilometers at 36 degrees 30N to (-87)(+108) kilometers at 40 degrees N. On the basis of the reconstruction, the original width of the preserved part of the late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian basin was about 150 to 300 kilometers, about 60 percent of the present width, and the basin was oriented slightly more north-south with respect to present-day coordinates.

  7. NEW OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE DATA IN THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW-ITALY: UNCONFORMITY-BOUNDED STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH BASIN-MODIFICATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMO ROSSI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the regional stratigraphy around the Alps-Apennines junction during late Eocene-Miocene. The basin-fill architecture and its relation to changes in structural style were deciphered through the integration of subsurface and outcrop data on the basis of seismic- and sequence-stratigraphy principles, respectively.During late Eocene-Oligocene, the study area hosted a mosaic of partially interconnected sub-basins, and the Torino Hill area marked the junction towards the western apex of the Southern Alps foredeep (Gonfolite Basin. Since the latest Oligocene, the uplift of the north-verging Monferrato arc provided the separation from the adjacent Gonfolite Basin and the Tertiary Piedmont Basin behaved as a larger and more regularly subsiding thrust-top basin.The upper Eocene-Miocene successions record a long-term, major transgressive-regressive cycle, consisting of seven large-scale unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units, whose stacking pattern was controlled by changes in the rate of tectonic subsidence and whose boundaries were generated by basin-modification phases. During the Oligocene-lower Miocene deepening-upward sequence set, the marginal marine systems show a marked diachronism associated with  the SW-ward change of coastal onlap, punctuated by drowning-platform unconformities generated in relation to basinward tilting and high-angle synsedimentary faults.  The maximum transgression coincides with the late Burdigalian tectonic space creation phase, when a basinwide, highly efficient turbidite system was deposited. The middle-upper Miocene progradation, punctuated by forced regression pulses, was driven by the inversion and uplift of the southern basin margin, so that a northward shift and progressive narrowing of the turbidite depocentre occurred. 

  8. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  9. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  10. Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management: A Case Study of Comparison between the United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gang-yan

    2007-01-01

    This note compares institutional arrangements for water resources management in two river basins, namely, those of the Susquehanna River in the United States and the Yangtze River in China. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is composed of the US federal government and the three states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland through which the Susquehanna River passes. Under the authority of the Susquehanna River Basin Compact, the Commission deals with water resources problems throughout its vast drainage area. In contrast, the Changjiang(Yangtze River) Water Resources Commission (CWRC) lacks relative effectiveness in mobilizing provincial governments in transboundary water resources management.

  11. Physical properties by geologic unit in the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    ambient magnetic field (McElhinny, 1973). Remanent components that are generally aligned with or opposite to the present-day Earth’s field are considered to have normal or reversed polarity, respectively. The remanent component is determined from paleomagnetic laboratory measurements of oriented samples, none of which are reported here. However, the remanent components for volcanic units in the southern San Luis Basin are known to be significant, and commonly dominate the total magnetization (Grauch and Keller, 2004).References:Blakely, R.J., 1995, Potential theory in gravity and magnetic applications:  Cambridge University Press, 441 p.Grauch, V.J.S., and Keller, G.R., 2004, Gravity and aeromagnetic expression of tectonic and volcanic elements of the southern San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook 55, p. 230–243.Hansen, R.O., Racic, L., and Grauch, V J.S., 2005, Magnetic methods in near-surface geophysics, in Butler, D. K., ed., Near-surface Geophysics: Investigations in Geophysics No. 13, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, p. 151–175.Koning, D., and Mansell, M.M., 2011, Regional geologic map of north-central New Mexico:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 62, Plate 2, p. 150.McElhinny, M.W., 1973, Paleomagnetism and plate tectonics, Cambridge, Mass., Cambridge University Press, 358 p.Read, A.S., Thompson, R.A., and Mansell, M.M., 2004, Generalized geologic map—southern San Luis Basin:  New Mexico Geological Society Guidebok 55, Plate 2, p. 114.

  12. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  13. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. Maps showing ground-water units and withdrawal, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mikels, John

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water units and withdrawal in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  16. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... in Wyoming. The line would be constructed on wood or steel H-frame structures for most of its length with possibly some steel monopole structures in the Rapid City area. The structures would be 65 to 75... of transmission line Require a 125 foot right-of-way Construction of wood or steel H-frame...

  17. Cool-Season Moisture Delivery and Multi-Basin Streamflow Anomalies in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevich, Steven B.

    Widespread droughts can have a significant impact on western United States streamflow, but the causes of these events are not fully understood. This dissertation examines streamflow from multiple western US basins and establishes the robust, leading modes of variability in interannual streamflow throughout the past century. I show that approximately 50% of this variability is associated with spatially widespread streamflow anomalies that are statistically independent from streamflow's response to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The ENSO-teleconnection accounts for approximately 25% of the interannual variability in streamflow, across this network. These atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the most spatially widespread variability are associated with the Aleutian low and the persistent coastal atmospheric ridge in the Pacific Northwest. I use a watershed segmentation algorithm to explicitly track the position and intensity of these features and compare their variability to the multi-basin streamflow variability. Results show that latitudinal shifts in the coastal atmospheric ridge are more strongly associated with streamflow's north-south dipole response to ENSO variability while more spatially widespread anomalies in streamflow most strongly relate to seasonal changes in the coastal ridge intensity. This likely reflects persistent coastal ridge blocking of cool-season precipitation into western US river basins. I utilize the 35 model runs of the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESMLE) to determine whether the model ensemble simulates the anomalously strong coastal ridges and extreme widespread wintertime precipitation anomalies found in the observation record. Though there is considerable bias in the CESMLE, the CESMLE runs simulate extremely widespread dry precipitation anomalies with a frequency of approximately one extreme event per century during the historical simulations (1920 - 2005). These extremely widespread dry events

  18. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  19. Quasi-Static Analysis of Round LaRC THUNDER Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.

    2007-01-01

    An analytic approach is developed to predict the shape and displacement with voltage in the quasi-static limit of round LaRC Thunder Actuators. The problem is treated with classical lamination theory and Von Karman non-linear analysis. In the case of classical lamination theory exact analytic solutions are found. It is shown that classical lamination theory is insufficient to describe the physical situation for large actuators but is sufficient for very small actuators. Numerical results are presented for the non-linear analysis and compared with experimental measurements. Snap-through behavior, bifurcation, and stability are presented and discussed.

  20. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over the closure of public-supply wells because of ground-water contamination has led the State Water Board to establish the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. With the aid of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the program goals are to enhance understanding and provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where ground water is an important source of drinking water. The Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit covers an area of approximately 2,079 square miles (mi2) across four hydrologic study areas in the San Joaquin Valley. The four study areas are the California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) defined Tracy subbasin, the CADWR-defined Eastern San Joaquin subbasin, the CADWR-defined Cosumnes subbasin, and the sedimentologically distinct USGS-defined Uplands study area, which includes portions of both the Cosumnes and Eastern San Joaquin subbasins. Seventy ground-water samples were collected from 64 public-supply, irrigation, domestic, and monitoring wells within the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Thirty-two of these samples were collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area, 17 in the Tracy Basin study area, 10 in the Cosumnes Basin study area, and 11 in the Uplands Basin study area. Of the 32 samples collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin, 6 were collected using a depth-dependent sampling pump. This pump allows for the collection of samples from discrete depths within the pumping well. Two wells were chosen for depth-dependent sampling and three samples were collected at varying depths within each well. Over 350 water-quality field parameters, chemical constituents, and microbial constituents were analyzed and are reported as concentrations and as detection frequencies, by compound classification as well as for individual constituents, for the Northern San Joaquin Basin study unit as a whole and for each individual study area

  1. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  2. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  3. 龙雷之火犀烛%Discussion on Dragon-thunder Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the Dragon-thunder fire is always confused with Dragon-fire, ministerial fire, yin-fire and lesser-fire. Understanding these terminologies by comparing their meanings will be good for traditional Chinese medicine theory learners.The result showed that the meanings of the Dragon-thunder fire discussed by different scholars were distinguished, and their meanings were partly same or not with Dragon-fire, ministerial fire, yin-fire and lesser-fire.The way to understand the true meaning of this term can start with the concept, nature, treatment and pathogenesis.%龙雷之火自古与龙火、相火、阴火,少火等名词术语混淆不清,本文通过术语涵义辨析为中医理论学习者厘清彼此间联系。笔者发现各个医家所论述的龙雷之火内涵多有不同,且其内涵与龙火、相火、阴火、少火部分相同或不同,理解各医家所论述龙雷之火的内涵可从概念、性质、治法,病机四方面入手。

  4. Yellowstone River Basin study unit boundary, National Water-Quality Assessment Program, scale 1:100,000, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  5. Digital Polygon Model Grid of the Hydrogeologic Framework of Bedrock Units for a Simulation of Groundwater Flow for the Lake Michigan Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeologic framework for the Lake Michigan Basin model was developed by grouping the bedrock geology of the study area into hydrogeologic units on the basis...

  6. Racial Identification and Audience in "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" and "The Watsons Go to Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jani L.

    2010-01-01

    Multiethnic children's literature addresses multiple audiences, providing different reading experiences and benefits for each. Using critical race theory as an interpretive tool, this article examines how two African American historical fiction novels, Mildred Taylor's "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" and Christopher Paul Curtis's "The Watsons Go to…

  7. 78 FR 71543 - Special Local Regulation; Tavares Winter Thunder Vintage Race Boat Regatta, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tavares Winter Thunder...

  8. Ace Basin National Wildlife Refuge (Combahee Unit) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Ernest F. Hollings Ace Basin National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  2. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing 3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999).The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  5. Delimiting Evolutionarily Significant Units of the Fish, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), from the Orinoco and Amazon River Basins with Insight on Routes of Historical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria Doris; Andrade-López, Juana; Farias, Izeni P; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Piaractus brachypomus is an economically important for human consumption both in commercial fisheries and aquaculture in all South American countries where it occurs. In recent years the species has decreased in abundance due to heavy fishing pressure. The species occurs in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but lack of meristic differences between fishes from the 2 basins, and extensive migration associated with reproduction, have resulted in P. brachypomus being considered a single panmictic species. Analysis of 7 nuclear microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and COI), and body shape variables demonstrated that each river basin is populated by a distinct evolutionarily significant unit (ESU); the 2 groups had an average COI divergence of 3.5% and differed in body depth and relative head length. Historical connection between the 2 basins most probably occurred via the Rupununi portal rather than via the Casiquiare canal. The 2 ESUs will require independent fishery management, and translocation of fisheries stocks between basins should be avoided to prevent loss of local adaptations or extinction associated with outbreeding depression. Introductions of fishes from the Orinoco basin into the Putumayo River basin, an Amazon basin drainage, and evidence of hybridization between the 2 ESUs have already been detected.

  6. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart R of... - Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary Coordinates A Appendix A to Subpart R of Part 922 Commerce and... Preserve Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 45°12′25.5″ 83°23′18.6″ 2 45°12′25.5″ 83°00′00″...

  7. Hybrid inversion method for equivalent electric charge of thunder cloud based on multi-station atmospheric electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Hongyan; ZHANG; Qiang; JI; Xinyuan; XU; wei

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the hybrid method to inverse the equivalent electric charge of thunder cloud based on the data of multi-station atmospheric electric field. Firstly,the method combines the genetic algorithm( GA) and New ton method through the mosaic hybrid structure. In addition,the thunder cloud equivalent charge is inversed based on the forw ard modeling results by giving the parameters of the thunder cloud charge structure. Then an ideal model is built to examine the performance compared to the nonlinear least squares method. Finally,a typical thunderstorms process in Nanjing is analyzed by Genetic-New ton algorithm with the help of weather radar. The results show the proposed method has the strong global searching capability so that the problem of initial value selection can be solved effectively,as well as gets the better inversion results. Furthermore,the mosaic hybrid structure can absorb the advantages of tw o algorithms better,and the inversion position is consistent with the strongest radar echo.The inversion results find the upper negative charge is small and can be ignored,w hich means the triple-polarity charge structure is relatively scientific,w hich could give some references to the research like lightning forecasting,location tracking.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variability of dissolved methylmercury in two stream basins in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brigham, Mark E.; Button, Daniel T.; Chasar, Lia C.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Lowery, Mark A.; Journey, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    We assessed methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations across multiple ecological scales in the Edisto (South Carolina) and Upper Hudson (New York) River basins. Out-of-channel wetland/floodplain environments were primary sources of filtered MeHg (F-MeHg) to the stream habitat in both systems. Shallow, open-water areas in both basins exhibited low F-MeHg concentrations and decreasing F-MeHg mass flux. Downstream increases in out-of-channel wetlands/floodplains and the absence of impoundments result in high MeHg throughout the Edisto. Despite substantial wetlands coverage and elevated F-MeHg concentrations at the headwater margins, numerous impoundments on primary stream channels favor spatial variability and lower F-MeHg concentrations in the Upper Hudson. The results indicated that, even in geographically, climatically, and ecologically diverse streams, production in wetland/floodplain areas, hydrologic transport to the stream aquatic environment, and conservative/nonconservative attenuation processes in open water areas are fundamental controls on dissolved MeHg concentrations and, by extension, MeHg availability for potential biotic uptake.

  9. Population genetics and management units of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Nicholas, F W

    2009-08-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into Australia on several occasions and are now the dominant fish in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the continent's largest river system. In this study, variability at 14 microsatellite loci was examined in C. carpio (n = 1037) from 34 sites throughout the major rivers in the MDB, from 3 cultured populations, from Prospect Reservoir in the Sydney Basin and from Lake Sorrell in Tasmania. Consistent with previous studies, assignment testing indicated that the Boolara, Yanco and koi strains of C. carpio are present in the MDB. Unique to this study, however, the Prospect strain was widely distributed throughout the MDB. Significant genetic structuring of populations (Fisher's exact test, AMOVA and distribution of the different strains) amongst the MDB sub-drainages was detected, and was strongly associated with contemporary barriers to dispersal and population history. The distributions of the strains were used to infer the history of introduction and spread of C. carpio in the MDB. Fifteen management units are proposed for control programmes that have high levels of genetic diversity, contain multiple interbreeding strains and show no evidence of founder effects or recent population bottlenecks.

  10. Altitude of the top of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Williston...

  11. Altitude of the top of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Williston...

  12. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Mei, Xiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Zhang, Xu; Lv, Min; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2015-10-20

    Triptolide and celastrol are two main active compounds isolated from Thunder God Vine with the potent anticancer activity. However, the anticancer effect of triptolide in combination with celastrol is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of triptolide with celastrol synergistically induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS accumulation in cancer cells. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine dramatically blocked the apoptosis induced by co-treatment with triptolide and celastrol. Treatment with celastrol alone led to the decreased expressions of HSP90 client proteins including survivin, AKT, EGFR, which was enhanced by the addition of triptolide. Additionally, the celastrol-induced expression of HSP70 and HSP27 was abrogated by triptolide. In the nude mice with xenograft tumors, the lower-dose combination of triptolide with celastrol significantly inhibited the growth of tumors without obvious toxicity. Overall, triptolide in combination with celastrol showed outstanding synergistic anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this beneficial combination may offer a promising treatment option for cancer patients.

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  14. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments in Selected Major River Basins of the Conterminous United States: Contact Time, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average contact time, in units of days, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others,...

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  17. FORAMINIFERAL CHARACTERISATION OF MID-UPPER JURASSIC SEQUENCES IN THE WESSEX BASIN (UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELISSA J. OXFORD

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of foraminifera in the characterisation of sequences (systems tracts, maximum flooding surfaces, etc. has developed over the last decade. Much of this work has been based in the Cenozoic successions of the Gulf of Mexico, although there is a growing application of such data in the Middle East and the North Sea Basin. The easiest surface to characterise has been the maximum flooding surface with its high diversity and high(er abundance faunas; the characterisation of individual systems tracts has been less successful. Using the well-known mid-Upper Jurassic successions of the Dorset coastal sections, we have investigated a number of high resolution (parasequences for their foraminiferal content. Using data of foraminiferal diversity and standing crops from a range of modern substrates we have investigated the potential faunas available after deposition, taphonomy, compaction, groundwater dissolution and modern weathering. By understanding the processes involved we have identified the key foraminiferal features of typical mid-Upper Jurassic sequences and indicated how this work may help in the correlation of successions in North Dorset and Normandy.

  18. Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sahabi units in the Sirt Basin, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shawaihdi, M. H.; Mozley, P. S.; Boaz, N. T.; Salloum, F.; Pavlakis, P.; Muftah, A.; Triantaphyllou, M.

    2016-06-01

    A revision of the nomenclature of lithostratigraphic units of Neogene strata at As Sahabi, northeast Libya, is presented, based on new fieldwork conducted during 2006-2008. The Sahabi units are correlated across the Ajdabya Sheet (NH 34-6) in northeastern Libya. Major conclusions are: (1) Miocene (Langhian through Messinian) strata are predominantly carbonate and should be referred to as formation "M"; (2) A local unconformity of Miocene (early Messinian) age overlies strata of the formation "M"; (3) This unconformity is overlain by Messinian gypsiferous sand and mud (formerly formation "P" and partially member "T"), which are designated as the "lower member" (gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (4) The "lower member" is overlain by sand and mud of late Messinian age (formerly partially member "T" and members "U1", "UD", and "U2") in a generally fining-upwards sequence, and are designated as the "upper member" (non-gypsiferous) of the Sahabi Formation; (5) The latest Miocene sand and mud of the "upper member" are capped by an unconformity that is correlated with the regression and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis and with Eosahabi Channel cutting; (6) The unconformity is overlain by Pliocene medium, coarse, and pebbly sands, which are referred to as the Qarat Weddah Formation (formerly Garet Uedda Formation); (7) The Pliocene sands of Qarat Weddah Formation are overlain by carbonate soil (calcrete) of Late Pliocene age, which is referred to as formation "Z" (formerly member "Z"). The major outcome of this study is a revised stratigraphic description and nomenclature of the Sahabi units that helps to provide a formal and unified context for understanding paleontological discoveries in northeastern Libya, which will serve to facilitate a broader correlation of the Sahabi units with their equivalents elsewhere in Africa and in Europe and Asia.

  19. Transition of vegetation states positively affects harvester ants in the Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Joseph D.; Pilliod, David; Arkle, Robert; Rachlow, Janet L.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Wiest, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystems such that new ecological states are reached, but less is known about how these transitions influence animal populations. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems are experiencing state changes because of fire and invasion by exotic annual grasses. Our goal was to study the effects of these state changes on the Owyhee and western harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex salinusOlsen and P. occidentalis Cresson, respectively). We sampled 358 1-ha plots across the northern Great Basin, which captured unburned and burned conditions across 1 −≥31 years postfire. Our results indicated an immediate and consistent change in vegetation states from shrubland to grassland between 1 and 31 years postfire. Harvester ant occupancy was unrelated to time since fire, whereas we observed a positive effect of fire on nest density. Similarly, we discovered that fire and invasion by exotic annuals were weak predictors of harvester ant occupancy but strong predictors of nest density. Occupancy of harvester ants was more likely in areas with finer-textured soils, low precipitation, abundant native forbs, and low shrub cover. Nest density was higher in arid locations that recently burned and exhibited abundant exotic annual and perennial (exotic and native) grasses. Finally, we discovered that burned areas that received postfire restoration had minimal influence on harvester ant occupancy or nest density compared with burned and untreated areas. These results suggest that fire-induced state changes from native shrublands to grasslands dominated by non-native grasses have a positive effect on density of harvester ants (but not occupancy), and that postfire restoration does not appear to positively or negatively affect harvester ants. Although wildfire and invasion by exotic annual grasses may negatively affect other species, harvester ants may indeed be one of the few winners among a myriad of losers linked to vegetation state changes within

  20. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  1. Continued transmission of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a wash hand basin tap in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, M I; Bradley, C W; Tracey, J; Oppenheim, B

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen, colonizing hospital water supplies including taps and sinks. We report a cluster of P. aeruginosa acquisitions during a period of five months from tap water to patients occupying the same burns single room in a critical care unit. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultured from clinical isolates from four different patients was indistinguishable from water strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Water outlets in critical care may be a source of P. aeruginosa despite following the national guidance, and updated guidance and improved control measures are needed to reduce the risks of transmission to patients.

  2. Age, distribution, and stratigraphic relationship of rock units in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 5 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    relationships between hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, we compiled a database consisting of more than 13,000 well picks and of one-mile resolution seismic grids. Both the well picks and the seismic grids characterize the depths to the top of key stratigraphic units. This database formed the basis of subsequent numerical modeling efforts, including the construction of a three- dimensional geologic model (Hosford Scheirer, this volume, chapter 7) and simulation of the petroleum systems in space and time (Peters, Magoon, Lampe, and others, this volume, chapter 12). To accomplish this modeling, we synthesized the age, geographic distribution, lithology, and petroleum characteristics of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks in the basin. The results of that synthesis are presented in this paper in the form of new stratigraphic correlation columns for the northern, central, and southern San Joaquin Valley (fig. 5.1; note that all figures are at the back of this report, following the References Cited). The stratigraphic relationships and ages published here draw heavily on published and unpublished studies of the San Joaquin Basin. The stratigraphy presented in each of the columns necessarily idealizes the subsurface geology over a relatively large area, instead of representing the specific geology at an individual well, oil and gas field, or outcrop. In this paper we present the background rationale for defining the geographic divisions of the basin (inset map, fig. 5.1), the paleontological time scales used for assigning absolute ages to rock units (figs. 5.2 and 5.3), and the supporting maps illustrating the geographic distribution of each rock type included in the stratigraphic column (figs. 5.4 through 5.64).

  3. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  4. 75 FR 74678 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Colorado and Wyoming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... statement (DEIS). In addition, the agency gives notice of this environmental analysis and decision making process so that interested and affected people know how they may participate and contribute to the final decision. When developing an invasive plant management strategy it is critical to consider all available...

  5. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... constructed on wood or steel H-frame structures for most of its length with possibly some steel monopole structures in the Rapid City area. The structures would be 65 to75 feet tall and the line would require a...-way. Construction of wood or steel H-frame structures 65-75 feet in height. This proposal...

  6. Carboniferous sediment dispersal in the Appalachian-Ouachita juncture: Provenance of selected late Mississippian sandstones in the Black Warrior Basin, Mississippi, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Alsleben, Helge

    2016-08-01

    The Black Warrior Basin is one of several Carboniferous foreland basins along the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt in the southeastern United States. Sediment dispersal within the Black Warrior Basin has been a long-debated topic because of a complex tectonic history and the potential interaction between the Appalachian and Ouachita orogenic belts, as well as far field sediment sources. Three dispersal patterns have been proposed, including dispersal routes from the craton, dispersal via the Appalachian foreland, and dispersal from the arc side of the Ouachita suture, but sediment dispersal in the Black Warrior Basin remains inconclusive. In this study, sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology are used to document the provenance and potential dispersal patterns for selected Mississippian sandstone units in the Black Warrior Basin, Missouri, USA. Results show that the majority of the Lewis, Evans, Sanders, and Carter sandstones are sublitharenite to mature quartzarenite and fall within the Cratonic Interior field on Q-F-L diagrams. U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of the Lewis, Sanders, and Carter sandstones show that there are four distinctive age clusters, including a prominent Paleozoic age cluster (~ 350-500 Ma), a broad Grenville age cluster (~ 900-1350 Ma), and two minor age clusters of the Granite-Rhyolite (~ 1360-1600 Ma) and the Yavapai-Mazatzal (~ 1600-1800 Ma) provinces. All Mississippian sandstones have similar age distributions except for the Lewis sandstone, which lacks zircon grains from the Superior province (>~2500 Ma). Based on the compositional maturity, similarity of age distributions, and changes of relative abundance among different age groups, we conclude that the Late Mississippian sandstone units analyzed during this study were derived from the Laurussian craton and the northern part of the Appalachian foreland through a major axial drainage that occupied the Mississippi Valley Graben.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Basin Characteristics, 2002 Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents basin characteristics for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). These characteristics are reach catchment shape index, stream density, sinuosity, mean elevation, mean slope and number of road-stream crossings. The source data sets are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) RF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011) and the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files (U.S. Census Bureau,2006). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  9. Regional and Local Controls on the Distribution of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M. F.; Blewitt, G.; Faulds, J. E.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Great Basin (GB) of the western United States, geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C can be classified into two main categories (magmatic and amagmatic) according to the presence or absence of shallow magmatic heat sources. Magmatic systems are restricted to the margins of the GB where they are closely associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, whereas amagmatic systems occur over a large portion of the Great Basin interior and are not spatially associated with young silicic volcanism. A tabulation of temperature gradients for known geothermal systems in the world confirms research by others indicating that both magmatic and amagmatic systems occur within areas of high temperature gradients and high heat flow. However, high heat flow alone is not sufficient to explain the abundance of high-temperature geothermal activity in the GB interior. While the distribution of favorable host rocks likely plays a role, active crustal tectonics appears instrumental in explaining patterns of geothermal activity. At a detailed scale, Quaternary faults control the location of most geothermal systems in the GB. However, hundreds of Quaternary faults are distributed throughout the GB, and most do not host high-temperature geothermal resources. Spatial statistical analysis demonstrates that high-temperature geothermal systems (more than 150 C) are preferentially associated with NE-striking Quaternary faults, which in turn are oriented roughly perpendicular to the current direction of crustal extension in the western GB. Maps of active crustal extension rates in the GB, derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity measurements and estimated slip rates on Quaternary faults, correlate well with the distribution of high-temperature geothermal systems and help explain why some faults with lower slip rates or unfavorable orientations don't host geothermal activity. Many geothermal systems in the GB occur in a broad transitional region

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Madera, Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera and Chowchilla Subbasins (Madera-Chowchilla study unit) of the San Joaquin Valley Basin was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in California's Central Valley region in parts of Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems in California. The primary aquifer system within each study unit is defined by the depth of the perforated or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Madera-Chowchilla study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 35 wells during April-May 2008 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of natural factors and human activities affecting groundwater quality. The primary aquifer system is represented by the grid wells, of which 90 percent (%) had depths that ranged from about 200 to 800 feet (ft) below land surface and had depths to the top of perforations that ranged from about 140 to 400 ft below land surface. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. "Papa Said That One Day I Would Understand": Examining Child Agency and Character Development in "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" Using Critical Corpus Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstaff, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the issue of child agency in Mildred D. Taylor's 1976 novel "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" using a critical corpus linguistics framework based on Halliday's systemic functional linguistics. The novel has long received praise for its portrayal of child agency in a hostile racist society as well as its depiction of a…

  13. Groundwater-quality data in the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2014-2015: Results from the California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater samples from 95 domestic wells in Tulare and Kings Counties, California in 2014-2015. The wells were sampled for the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project’s assessment of the quality of groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply. Domestic wells commonly are screened at shallower depths than are public-supply wells. The Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit includes the Kaweah, Tule, and Tulare Lake subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin and adjacent areas of the Sierra Nevada. The study unit was divided into equal area grid cells and one domestic well was sampled in each cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, noble gases, tritium, carbon-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon, stable isotopic ratios of water and dissolved nitrate, and microbial indicators.These data support the following publication:Fram, M.S., 2017, Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and Adjacent Highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3001, 4 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20173001.

  14. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  15. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  16. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-01-01

    Emergingcontaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the UnitedStates. The objective of this study was to evaluate pointsources of ECs along the ColoradoRiver, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the ColoradoRiver Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log Dow values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the ColoradoRiver) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments for Major River Basins...

  18. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Surficial Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  19. Drainage Basins Used for Assessing Trends in Concentration of Pesticides in Streams of the United States, 1992-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of drainage basin boundaries for 212 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream sites sampled in the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA)...

  20. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse E.; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (recharged at high elevation in the fractured bedrock and has been extensively modified by water-rock reactions (increasing F and Sr, decreasing 14C) over long timescales (up to 35,000 years BP). Distinct solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  1. Amendment to the Record of Decision for the On-Post Operable Unit, Rocky Mountain Arsenal Federal Facility Site: Section 36 Lime basin Remediation and Basin F Principal Threat Soil Remediation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This decision document amends the remedy decision for the Section 36 Lime Basins (Lime Basins) and Basin F Principal Threat (PT) Soil projects of the Rocky Mountain...

  2. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  3. Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United States, Part 3-A, Ohio River Basin except Cumberland and Tennessee River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Paul R.; Gamble, Charles R.

    1965-01-01

    This report presents a means of determining the probable magnitude and frequency of floods of any recurrence interval from 1.1 to 50 years at most points on streams in the Ohio River basin except Cumberland and Tennessee River basins. Curves are defined that show the relation between the drainage area and the mean annual flood in eight hydrologic areas, and composite frequency curves define the relation of a flood of any recurrence interval from 1.1 to 50 years to the mean annual flood. These two relations are based upon gaging-station records having 10 or more years of record not materially affected by storage or diversion, and the results obtainable from them will represent the magnitude and frequency of natural floods within the range and recurrence intervals defined by the base data. The report also contains a compilation of flood records at all sites in the area at which records have been collected for 5 or more consecutive years. As far as was possible at each location for which discharge has been determined, the tabulations include all floods above a selected base. Where only gage heights have been obtained or where the data did not warrant computation of peach discharges above a selected base, only annual peaks are shown. The maximum known flood discharges for the streamflow stations and miscellaneous points except Ohio River main stem stations, together with areal floods of 10- and 50-year recurrence intervals, are plotted against the size of drainage area for each flood region and hydrologic area to provide a convenient means of judging the frequency of the maximum known floods that have been recorded for these points.

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province (067) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Rice, C.A.; Stricker, G.D.; Warden, A.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C1/(C2 + C3) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane ??13C and ??D, carbon dioxide ??13C, and water ??D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO2 reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO2 reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane ??13C is distributed along the basin margins where ??D is also depleted, indicating that both CO2-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and decrease of methane composition of the coal-bed gas. Other geologic factors, such as

  9. 北京地区干湿雷暴数值试验对比研究%Comparative Analysis on Numerical Test between Dry Thunder Storm and Moist Thunder Storm in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文龙; 王迎春; 崔晓鹏; 王婷婷

    2011-01-01

    Using various conventional and unconventional observation data a comparative analysis on the two thunder storm cases occurred on 6 Aug 2007 and 23 Aug 2008 respectively was conducted with WRF model cloud resolving scale numerical simulations and sensitivity simulations.The first case was considered as a typical local rain storm caused directly by a single cell,and the second as a dry thunder storm with little rainfall.The results showed:(1) In the first case,the interaction between the weak cold air from the meso-α scale trough at upper level and the moist warm air in the west side of the subtropical high provided the environment of the convective rain storm.In the second case,the thunder storm occurred in the dry environment with relative humidity lower than 30% but without warm and moist advection,and the surface cold front was the main forcing factor to trigger the thunder storm.(2) With vertical shear,the moisture acted as the key factor to trigger the moist or dry storm.(3) In the simulation of the first case,it was noticed that the remarkable rainfall,the wind convergence,the cold pool with-1 ℃ and the outflow appeared after 30 min integration,and the enhanced rainfall center,cold pool with-3 ℃,outflow with 14 m·s-1 appeared after 60 min,and the simulation reproduced a single cell with heavy rainfall.While in the second case,there were no noticeable rainfall,cold pool and outflow during the simulation,which basically was consistent with the observation analysis.(4) The sensitivity simulations implied that the moist and the dry thunder storm weather could be interconvertible if their moisture condition was exchanged.%使用多种常规、非常规观测资料,结合WRF模式云尺度数值模拟和敏感性试验,对2007年8月6日和2008年8月23日发生在北京地区的两次强雷暴天气过程进行观测和数值模拟对比研究,前一过程为孤立单体雷暴造成的局地强降水过程,后一过程为干雷暴

  10. Evaluation of potential reservoir units in a basin axial turbidite system in Gertrud Graben; Vurdering af potentielle reservoirenheder i et bassinaksialt viftesystem i Gertrud Graven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, E.; Gregersen, U.; Rasmussen, R.; Ineson, J.; Dybkjaer, K.; Johannessen, P.; Andersen, P.

    1998-10-01

    This report contains a number of papers and reports, prepared within the Danish Energy Research Program-96 project: `Evaluation of the potential reservoir units in the basinal fan system in Gertrud Graben`. The articles and reports describe the geologic basis for the potential Upper Jurassic sandstone sediments in the Gertrud Graben, the Danish Central Graben. The subjects cover structural conditions, possible source areas for coarse clastic sediments, age of the sediments, various geophysical methods for lithological correlations, and diagenesis in sandstone of the Late Volgian - Early Ryazanian. (EG)

  11. South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) Units Delineated by Measures of Surface Roughness: Implications for the History and Evolution of the Basin as Seen by Data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Cahill, J. T.; Whelley, P.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of SPA contains a range of morphologic units, from smooth plains and mare basalts to rough, ancient, terrains. Recent data, particularly from LRO provide unique measures of SPA surface properties. With each new dataset, the differences between the interior of SPA and its surroundings become more, or in some cases less, clearly defined. Here we explore recent datasets that offer insight into surface roughness at a variety of scales and assess implications for the origins of units across SPA. Identifying the origin of units in SPA is critical for identifying future sampling sites that address the science goal of determining the age of SPA. The unique interior of SPA relative to the rest of the Moon is demonstrated by Mini-RF and LOLA derived products. Mini-RF data shows that the interior of SPA has a slightly higher average Circular Polarization Ratio than nearly any other terrain on the Moon, with the exception of the interior of the Orientale Basin. Cahill et al. [2014,Icarus] note that the average interior CPR value of SPA is similar but slightly higher than the mid-latitude farside highlands, suggesting that both are enhanced in blocks at the surface and near subsurface (to depths CPR, and other high resolution measures of surface roughness within SPA will be used to infer, delineate morphologic terrains, and distinguish volcanic and impact-generated units.

  12. An Analysis of the Parody in the Thundering Person and Discourse%雷人雷语中的仿拟修辞简论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学修

    2014-01-01

    新时期以来在网络媒体以及其他媒体中不断涌现出许多令人耳目一新或者是匪夷所思的“雷人雷语”。文章通过最近几年以来的雷人雷语语料分析,从仿拟修辞的角度阐述了雷人雷雨仿拟的基本形式、具体内容以及仿拟的特点。%Since the new period the network media and other media constantly are bringing many fresh or strange language as thundering person and discourse. The paper analyzed the thundering person and dis⁃course in recent years, elaborated from the perspective of rhetoric"parody”the basic form of parody, specific content and the characteristics of the parody.

  13. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Tree Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent tree canopy from the Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents tree canopy percentage for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Canopy Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Imperviousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the mean percent impervious surface from the Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Dataset 2001, (LaMotte and Wieczorek, 2010), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents imperviousness for the conterminous United States for 2001. The Imperviousness Layer of the National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002;Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used

  17. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  18. Ecosystem effects in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Chapter L in 2011 Floods of the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Allen, Yvonne C.; Couvillion, Brady R.; McKee, Karen L.; Vervaeke, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Mississippi River flood in the Lower Mississippi River Basin was one of the largest flood events in recorded history, producing the largest or next to largest peak streamflow for the period of record at a number of streamgages on the lower Mississippi River. Ecosystem effects include changes to wetlands, nutrient transport, and land accretion and sediment deposition changes. Direct effects to the wetland ecosystems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin were minimized because of the expansive levee system built to pass floodwaters. Nutrients carried by the Mississippi River affect water quality in the Lower Mississippi River Basin. During 2011, nutrient fluxes in the lower Mississippi River were about average. Generally, nutrient delivery of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers contributes to the size of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on available limited post-flood satellite imagery, some land expansion in both the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya River Deltas was observed. A wetland sediment survey completed in June 2011 indicated that recent sediment deposits were relatively thicker in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River (Birdsfoot) Delta marshes compared to marshes farther from these rivers.

  19. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  20. Classification of coalbed methane enrichment units in Qinshui basin%沁水盆地煤层气富集单元划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚; 李树刚; 丁洋

    2013-01-01

    The paper has studied tectonic dynamical conditions, thermal dynamical conditions and hydraulic condi-tions influencing coalbed methane enrichment in Qinshui basin. Coalbed methane enrichment units have been di-vided based on tectonic dynamical conditions in Qinshui basin and combined with thermal dynamical conditions and hydraulic conditions. The results show that there are four geological tectonic units and nine coalbed methane enrichment units in Qinshui basin, the two more favorable areas and three favorable areas of coalbed methane ex-ploitation have been affirmed by possible recovery assessment. Coalbed methane enrichment has resulted from combined action of tectonic dynamical conditions, thermal dynamical conditions and hydraulic conditions as well as time-space configuration, the reasonable combination of tectonic dynamical conditions, thermal dynamical con-ditions and hydraulic conditions could have formed the best zone for coalbed methane exploitation.%通过分析研究影响沁水盆地煤层气富集的构造动力条件、热动力条件和水动力条件,进而以沁水盆地形成的构造动力条件为基础,结合热动力条件和水动力条件,对沁水盆地煤层气富集单元进行划分。研究结果表明:沁水盆地可以划分为4个地质构造单元、9个煤层气富集区,并通过可采性评价,确定了2个煤层气开发有利区和3个较有利区;煤层气富集是构造动力条件、热动力条件和水动力条件综合作用以及时空匹配的结果,这3个条件的合理配置才能形成煤层气开发的有利区块。

  1. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  2. 基于雷声到达时间差的单站闪电通道三维定位系统%A Single-Station-Based 3D Lightning Channel Imaging System Using Differential Arrival Time of Thunder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章涵; 王道洪; 吕伟涛; 孟青; 张义军

    2012-01-01

    Single-station-based three-dimensional lightning channel imaging system,which uses the differential time of arrival of thunder,has been developed.The system consists of a small-size microphone array,a data collection and storage system.The microphone array is consisted of four microphones which work at a frequency range from 15 to 20 kHz.Thunder signals recorded by different microphones are processed by the cross-correlation analysis to obtain the differential time of arrival at different microphones,and the direction the thunder propagation is calculated by using the least square method.The distance from the thunder source to the array is determined by the time interval between the arrival of the electromagnetic signal and the thunder.Then the three-dimensional thunder sources are obtained by combining the direction and distance of thunder.The thunder signal of a rocket-triggered lightning comparing with 8 return strokes was recorded by this system,and the lightning channel imaging results have been compared with the photographs observed by a high-speed camera.The thunder source and photograph are found to agree fairly well,which indicates that the system developed in this study is feasible and can be used as a convenient lightning channel 3D imaging tool.%利用麦克风阵列采集雷声信号,设计了一套由麦克风阵列和便携式数据采集存储设备组成的单站闪电通道三维定位系统,采用CCF相关函数法计算了雷声脉冲信号到达不同麦克风的时间差,通过最小二乘法获得声源的方向角和仰角信息,并结合声源与麦克风阵列的距离定位声源的三维位置。对一次包括8次回击的人工触发闪电过程进行了观测,得到多个声源点的三维定位信息。系统的定位结果与高速摄像的观测结果具有较好的一致性,定位方法合理、可行,为进一步研发便携式闪电通道三维定位系统奠定了基础。

  3. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The thick (???8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high d34S values (-11.6 to 40.8%, derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, and by markedly radiogenic Pb isotopes ( 207Pb/204Pb derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits. Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and radiogenic Pb from sedimentary pyrite, and volatiles acquired from deeper crustal or mantle sources. In the central and eastern Great Basin, the wide distribution and high density of small to mid-sized vein, replacement, and skarn intrusion-related metal deposits in lower Paleozoic rocks that contain TDS sedimentary pyrite S and Pb reflect (1) prolific Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary magmatism, (2) a regional, substrate reservoir of S and Pb in

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  5. Altitude of the top of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the middle Fort Union hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River...

  6. Altitude of the top of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the Upper Hell Creek hydrogeologic unit in the Powder River...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wind River Basin Province (035) Assessment Units Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  8. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: NLCD 2001 Land Use and Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of land use and land cover from the National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (LaMotte, 2008), compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for 2001. The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5) and the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins.

  9. Assessment of goods and valuation of ecosystem services (AGAVES) San Pedro River Basin, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius; Kepner, William; Goodrich, David

    2010-01-01

    A consortium of federal, academic, and nongovernment organization (NGO) partners have established a collaborative research enterprise in the San Pedro River Basin to develop methods, standards, and tools to assess and value ecosystem goods and services. The central premise of ecosystem services research is that human condition is intrinsically linked to the environment. Human health and well-being (including economic prosperity) depend on important supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural services that we derive from our surrounding ecosystems. The AGAVES project is intended as a demonstration study for incorporating ecosystem services information into resource management policy and decisionmaking. Accordingly, a nested, multiscale project design has been adopted to address a range of stakeholder information requirements. This design will further facilitate an evaluation of how well methods developed in this project can be transferred to other areas.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  11. 袁河流域水环境管理中控制单元的划分研究%Division of Control Units in Water Environmental Management in Yuanhe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昆国; 王涛; 张萌; 陈宏文

    2012-01-01

    以江西省袁河流域为例,介绍了控制单元划分的原则和方法,初步提出了控制单元的命名方法,同时还探讨了控制单元划分的尺度和等级问题.根据划分结果,袁河流域自上游而下共划分为5个控制单元,依次为芦溪控制单元、袁州区控制单元、仙女湖控制单元、新余控制单元和樟树控制单元,这样的划分模式既保证了小流域的完整性,又为袁河流域水质目标管理提供了实施单元.%With Yuanhe River Basin in Jiangxi Province as the example, the principle and method of control units division were introduced, and the nomenclature of control unit was proposed tentatively,in addition,the dimension and grade of control unit were also discussed. According to the results,five control units were divided along Yuanhe River from up-stream to down-stream,I. E. Luxi control unit,Yuanzhouqu control unit, Xiannvhu control unit,Xinyu control unit and Zhangshu control unit. The divided pattern of control unit in Yuanhe River Basin not only kept the integrity of sub -basin,but also provided implementation unit for water quality target management.

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system. The depth of the primary aquifer system for the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was delineated by the depths of the screened or open intervals of wells in the State of California’s database of public-supply wells. Two types of assessments were made: a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and an understanding assessment that made evaluations of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors representing characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  14. Status of groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units, 2005-08: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study units are located in California's Central Valley and include parts of Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Solano, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The three study units were designated to provide spatially-unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in three parts of the Central Valley hydrogeologic province, as well as to provide a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality regionally and statewide. Samples were collected in 2005 (Southern Sacramento Valley), 2006 (Middle Sacramento Valley), and 2007-08 (Northern Sacramento Valley). The GAMA studies in the Southern, Middle, and Northern Sacramento Valley were designed to provide statistically robust assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer systems that are used for drinking-water supply. The assessments are based on water-quality data collected by the USGS from 235 wells in the three study units in 2005-08, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, referred to as primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the CDPH database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The status of the current quality of the groundwater resource was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units, 2006-2007--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The three study units are located in the Sierra Nevada region of California in parts of Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Madera, Tulare, and Kern Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project was designed to provide statistically robust assessments of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer systems used for drinking water. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) for each study unit are defined by the depth of the screened or open intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of wells used for municipal and community drinking-water supply. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. The assessments for the Tahoe-Martis, Central Sierra, and Southern Sierra study units were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 132 wells in the three study units during 2006 and 2007 and water-quality data reported in the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations divided by benchmark concentrations) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those

  16. The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary unit in the Gulf of Mexico: Large-scale oceanic basin response to the Chicxulub impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, J. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Snedden, J.

    2013-12-01

    The prevailing theory for the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event cites the Chicxulub asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula as the catalyst for the global climatologic and ecologic crisis. This theory has been corroborated by a multitude of K-Pg boundary deposits observed globally in both boreholes and outcrops. The change in character of these deposits with proximity to the crater, from a millimeter-scale clay layer to a hectometer-scale carbonate sequence, supports a causal link between the boundary unit and the asteroid impact. Due to its passive marine setting and proximity to the Chicxulub crater, the Gulf of Mexico is the premier locale in which to study the near-field geologic effect of a massive bolide impact. Until recently, investigation of the K-Pg boundary deposit within the Gulf has been largely confined to outcrops and boreholes on the periphery of the basin due to the difficulty of observation of the boundary unit in the deep water. However, hydrocarbon exploration in the past decade has yielded significant borehole and seismic data that can be used to better understand the deep-water response to the impact and to gain a comprehensive regional understanding impact-related processes in the Gulf. Based on roughly 100 offshore and 300 onshore Cretaceous well penetrations, the K-Pg boundary is interpreted to range from a strictly erosional surface in shallow-water and coastal regimes to a mass transport deposit up to ~400 meters thick. Depth-converted seismic data throughout the Gulf corroborate such thicknesses and reveal that the deposit is virtually ubiquitous throughout the deep water. For the first time, the K-Pg boundary deposit has been tied from the central Gulf to the Chicxulub crater, further establishing a causative link between the two. Biostratigraphic data in wells confirm the age of the deposit and document the presence of the 'K-Pg boundary cocktail.' Seismic data reveals areas of extensive debris flows and slump deposits on

  17. Description of chronostratigraphic units preserved as channel deposits and geomorphic processes following a basin-scale disturbance by a wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2017-10-11

    The consequence of a 1996 wildfire disturbance and a subsequent high-intensity summer convective rain storm (about 110 millimeters per hour) was the deposition of a sediment superslug in the Spring Creek basin (26.8 square kilometers) of the Front Range Mountains in Colorado. Spring Creek is a tributary to the South Platte River upstream from Strontia Springs Reservoir, which supplies domestic water for the cities of Denver and Aurora. Changes in a superslug were monitored over the course of 18 years (1996–2014) by repeat surveys at 18 channel cross sections spaced at nearly equal intervals along a 1,500-meter study reach and by a time series of photographs of each cross section. Surveys were not repeated at regular time intervals but after major changes caused by different geomorphic processes. The focus of this long-term study was to understand the evolution and internal alluvial architecture of chronostratigraphic units (defined as the volume of sediment deposited between two successive surveys), and the preservation or storage of these units in the superslug. The data are presented as a series of 18 narratives (one for each cross section) that summarize the changes, illustrate these changes with photographs, and provide a preservation plot showing the amount of each chronostratigraphic unit still remaining in June 2014.The most significant hydrologic change after the wildfire was an exponential decrease in peak discharge of flash floods caused by summer convective rain storms. In response to these hydrologic changes, all 18 locations went through an aggradation phase, an incision phase, and finally a stabilization phase. However, the architecture of the chronostratigraphic units differs from cross section to cross section, and units are characterized by either a laminar, fragmented, or hybrid alluvial architecture. In response to the decrease in peak-flood discharge and the increase in hillslope and riparian vegetation, Spring Creek abandoned many of the

  18. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  19. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  20. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit; analysis of available data on nutrients, suspended sediments, and pesticides, 1972-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc James; Grady, S.J.; Trench, E.C.; Flanagan, S.M.; Nielsen, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    -water nutrient and pesticide data were compiled from several Federal and State agencies, primarily the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Connecticut Department of Health Services. Nutrient data were available for several thousand wells; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen was the most commonly reported constituent. Most wells with nutrient data are in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Relative to nutrient data in ground and surface water, pesticide data are less common. Pesticide data were available for slightly more than 200 surface-water sites and less than 500 wells; about 95 percent of the wells are completed in stratified-drift or till aquifers. Data for 81 pesticide compounds were available in various data bases. 2,4-D and silvex were the most commonly detected herbicides in surface water and dieldrin and diazinon were the most commonly detected insecticides. Most surface-water pesticide samples and detections are from bed sediment, but much of the data are not recent. Ethylene dibromide (EDB), a soil fumigant used in tobacco farming was detected in 268 well in a 50 square-mile area of north-central Connecticut; EDB contamination also was detected in wells in Massachusetts. Atrazine, an herbicide commonly used in corn farming, commonly was detected in wells installed in tilled agricultural fields. Corn herbicides were commonly detected in the northern par( of the study unit, although the sampling has been less frequent than in the southern part of the study unit. Pesticides were seldom detected in public-supply wells in Connecticut. Urban sites with relatively high population densities and high concentrations of dischargers were characterized by having the highest nutrient concentrations and loads when adjusted for differences in drainage area or population. Particularly, the Pequabuck, Naugatuck, and Quinnipiac River Basins were characterized by high nutrient concentrations--median total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 3.3 to 4.2 mg

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  3. Energy Return on Energy Invested for Tight Gas Wells in the Appalachian Basin, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Sell

    2011-10-01

    Indiana County, Pennsylvania are useful for constructing an EROI model of United States natural gas production, which suggests a peak in the EROI of gas production, has already occurred twice in the past century.

  4. The rare earth element geochemistry on surface sediments, shallow cores and lithological units of Lake Acıgöl basin, Denizli, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoglu, Murat; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The sediments in Lake Acıgöl, located in SW Anatolia, Turkey, were formed under tectono-sedimentary events. REE geochemical investigations of the Lake Acıgöl sediments, from surface and shallow core sediments at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) are presented to clarify the characteristics of REE and the nature of source rocks in the lake sediments' and to deduce their paleoenvironmental proxies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these sediments are shown as light enrichment in LREE and flat HREE with a negative Eu anomaly that is close to the continental collision basin (CCB) in its profile; this is not comparable with PAAS and UCC. Inorganic detrital materials control the REE characteristics of the Lake Acıgöl sediments and these sediments were accumulated in oxic and dysoxic depositional conditions and/or at passive margins derived from oceanic island arc rocks. They were affected by low chemical weathering, either at the original source or during transport, before deposition under arid or subtropical humid climatic conditions. In addition, we used GIS techniques (such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) to investigate the spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the REEs from the lake surface sediments in Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units. GIS techniques showed that the lithological units (e.g., Hayrettin Formation) north of Lake Acıgöl have high REE contents; however, Eu/Eu∗ values were higher in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units, and that refers to a negative Eu-anomaly. Therefore, Lake Acıgöl sediments are derived from the weathered products, mainly from local, highly basic bedrock around the lake from the Archean crust. The chronology of Lake Acıgöl sediment was conducted using the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Using the CRS methods for the calculation of sedimentation rate, we obtained a 0.012 g/cm2/year value which is an

  5. Thunder God Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... us ... 66954 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tgvine ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/NON-DISPLAY (Supplements page) ... us ... 66954 ... https:// ...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak-Hosston Formation Assessment Units, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. Five-year evaluation of habitat remediation in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron: Comparison of constructed reef characteristics that attract spawning lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Johnson, James; He, Ji; Dingledine, Natalie; Adams, Janice; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of aquatic habitats has motivated construction and research on the use of artificial reefs to enhance production of fish populations. However, reefs are often poorly planned, reef design characteristics are not evaluated, and reef assessments are short-term. We constructed 29 reefs in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, in 2010 and 2011 to mitigate for degradation of a putative lake trout spawning reef. Reefs were designed to evaluate lake trout preferences for height, orientation, and size, and were compared with two degraded natural reefs and a high-quality natural reef (East Reef). Eggs and fry were sampled on each reef for five years post-construction, and movements of 40 tagged lake trout were tracked during three spawning seasons using acoustic telemetry. Numbers of adults and spawning on the constructed reefs were initially low, but increased significantly over the five years, while remaining consistent on East Reef. Adult density, egg deposition, and fry catch were not related to reef height or orientation of the constructed reefs, but were related to reef size and adjacency to East Reef. Adult lake trout visited and spawned on all except the smallest constructed reefs. Of the metrics used to evaluate the reefs, acoustic telemetry produced the most valuable and consistent data, including fine-scale examination of lake trout movements relative to individual reefs. Telemetry data, supplemented with diver observations, identified several previously unknown natural spawning sites, including the high-use portions of East Reef. Reef construction has increased the capacity for fry production in Thunder Bay without apparently decreasing the use of the natural reef. Results of this project emphasize the importance of multi-year reef assessment, use of multiple assessment methods, and comparison of reef characteristics when developing artificial reef projects. Specific guidelines for construction of reefs focused on enhancing lake trout spawning are suggested.

  8. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  9. Water-quality, biological, and physical-habitat conditions at fixed sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, National Water-Quality Assessment Study Unit, October 1998-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program comprises 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Data were collected at eight fixed sites to provide baseline information in areas where no development has taken place, urbanization or logging have occurred, or the effects of recreation are increasing. Collection of water-quality, biology, and physical-habitat data began in October 1998 and ended in September 2001 (water years 1999-2001). The climate for the water years in the study may be categorized as slightly cool-wet (1999), slightly warm-wet (2000), and significantly warm-dry (2001). Total precipitation was near normal during the study period, and air temperatures ranged from modestly cool in water year 1999 to near normal in 2000, and to notably warm in 2001. Snowmelt runoff dominates the hydrology of streams in the Cook Inlet Basin. Average annual flows at the fixed sites were approximately the same as the long-term average annual flows, with the exception of those in glacier-fed basins, which had above-average flow in water year 2001. Water temperature of all streams studied in the Cook Inlet Basin remained at 0 oC for about 6 months per year, and average annual water temperatures ranged from 3.3 to 6.2 degrees Celsius. Of the water-quality constituents sampled, all concentrations were less than drinking-water standards and only one constituent, the pesticide carbaryl, exceeded aquatic-life standards. Most of the stream waters of the Cook Inlet Basin were classified as calcium bicarbonate, which reflects the underlying geology. Streams in the Cook Inlet Basin draining areas with glaciers, rough mountainous terrain, and poorly developed soils have low concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon compared with concentrations of these same constituents in streams in lowland or urbanized areas. In streams draining relatively low-lying areas, most of the suspended sediment

  10. Evapotranspiration units in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range Carbonate-rock Aquifer System (BARCAS) study...

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: STATSGO Soil Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006)....

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  13. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - WATER_QUALITY_STATISTICS_EPA_IN: Water Quality Monitoring and Data Summaries Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WATER_QUALITY_STATISTICS_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and edited by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Points represent...

  14. Sediment Types - SEDIMENT_INVENTORY_EPA_IN: National Sediment Inventory (NSI) and Data Summaries in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS 3 (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SEDIMENT_INVENTORY_EPA_IN is a point shapefile from the National Sediment Inventory developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and edited by Bernardin, Lochmueller...

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins...

  16. Dam Inventory - DAMS_1996_EPA_IN: Inventory of Dams in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — DAMS_1996_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and clipped by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Clips were performed using the...

  17. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  18. Classification and features of single-well flow units in a carbonate reservoir - Taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zifei; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Lingli; Li, Jianxin; Zhao, Wenqi; Sun, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the carbonate reservoirs has always been a challenge to geological exploration, while reasonable classification of flow units is the bottleneck in this exploitation. While taking the NT oil field at the eastern edge of Pre-Caspian Basin as an example, this paper proposes the classification of flow units into five categories based on previous flow-unit classification theory and actual oilfield features by using the pore throat radius at the mercury injection saturation of 35% as the main judging criterion. In this paper, the features of various flow units have also been analyzed. The type-I flow units, mainly found in dolomite and algal reef limestone reservoirs, have the highest production capacity. Given the existence of corrosion and dolomitization, they are mainly fracture-cave composite reservoirs or fracture pore reservoirs. As far as the type-I flow units are concerned, the flow index is > 1.42 for KT-I stratum and > 1.55 for KT-II stratum. The production capacity and reservoir quality of type-II-IV flow units would decline in turn. The type-V flow units are argillaceous limestone, with a very low production capacity and a flow index being 0.01-0.05 for KT-I and 0.03-0.05 for KT-II.

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed Study Unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed (BEAR) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit comprises two study areas (Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed) in southern California in San Bernardino County. The GAMA-PBP is conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA BEAR study was designed to provide a spatially balanced, robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater from the primary aquifer systems in the two study areas of the BEAR study unit. The assessment is based on water-quality collected by the USGS from 38 sites (27 grid and 11 understanding) during 2010 and on water-quality data from the SWRCB-Division of Drinking Water (DDW) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by springs and the perforation intervals of wells listed in the SWRCB-DDW water-quality database for the BEAR study unit.This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resource as of 2010 by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the BEAR study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers. Bear Valley study area and the Lake Arrowhead Watershed study area were also compared statistically on the basis of water-quality results and factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality.Relative concentrations (RCs

  20. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment in streams, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stream water-quality data from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit (Study Unit) from 1995 through 1998 was used to describe the distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment; and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on reported concentrations, loads, and yields. During the study period, streamflows generally were near to greater than average. Agricultural land cover, particularly on tile-drained soils, had the most substantial influence on nutrients, chlorophyll a, and suspended sediment in the Study Unit. The greatest concentrations and yields of total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved nitrite nitrogen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment were measured in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils. Total nitrogen yields also were about 6 times greater in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils than in a stream representing agricultural land cover on naturally welldrained soils.

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. Clinical study on prescription thunder fire moxibustion treatment of rheumatoid arthritis%组方雷火灸治疗类风湿关节炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜永; 王焕娟; 郭亚薇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨组方雷火灸治疗类风湿关节炎的疗效。方法采用组方雷火灸对确诊为类风湿关节炎的45例患者进行治疗,根据疗效评价标准对患者的治疗效果进行评价。结果临床缓解 5例,显效30例,有效7例,无效3 例,总有效率93.3%。结论组方雷火灸疗法对于类风湿关节炎症状的缓解有明显的辅助疗效,具有广泛应用的价值。%Objective: to investigate the therapeutic effect of rheumatoid arthritis treated withprescription thunder fire moxibustion. Methods: Using prescription thunder fire moxibustion fortreatment of 45 cases diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis patients, according to the patients to evaluate the therapeutic effect of curative effect evaluation standard. Results:The clinicalremission in 5 cases, 30 cases markedly effective, effective 7 cases, invalid 3 cases, the total efficiency of 93.3%. Conclusion: The method is thunder fire moxibustion therapy has obvious auxiliary curative effect for the relief of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and has widely application value.

  3. Geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming, and descriptions of new stratigraphic units in the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and Paleocene Fort Union Formation, eastern Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming-Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, J.D.; Hettinger, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Peach Orchard Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. In addition, four lithostratigraphic units were named: the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation, and the China Butte, Blue Gap, and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation.

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Base-Flow Index, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean base-flow index expressed as a percent, compiled for every catchment of MRB_E2RF1 catchments of Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  5. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Level 3 Nutrient Ecoregions, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of each level 3 nutrient ecoregion in square meters compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs,...

  6. K/Ar chronologies of tephra units from the Middle Jurassic Sundance, and Late Early Cretaceous Mowry and Shell Creek Formations, Big Horn Basin, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Meyer, E. E.; Johnson, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Middle Jurassic Sundance and Late Early Cretaceous Shell Creek and Mowry Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, contain an extensive record of altered tephra. These tephra are likely related to contemporary volcanic activity in the Sierra Nevada and various Coast Range terranes to the west and provide valuable chronometric control on the sedimentary record within a portion of the Sevier-aged and later Cordilleran foreland basin. In addition, several of these altered tephra (bentonites) provide a valuable economic resource. Despite the prominence of these strata across the basin, few isotopic ages have been reported to date. Here we present new K/Ar ages on biotite phenocrysts from those tephra occurrences as a chronometric check on samples that contained zircons with significant Pb loss, that preclude more precise U/Pb age determinations. A bulk biotite sample extracted from an altered tuff in the Lower Sundance Formation gives an age of 167.5 × 5 Ma. This tuff occurs just above a dinosaur track-bearing peritidal sequence. Bulk biotite ages from the lower Shell Creek Formation give an age of 100.3 × 3 Ma and are statistically indistinguishable from biotite grains dated at 103.1 × 3 Ma extracted from the economically important 'Clay Spur' bentonite found at the top of the Mowry Shale. This work provides important new chronometric constraints on a portion of the Medial Jurassic to Late Early Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, and may be useful in understanding the regional tectonics that helped shape the development of the Sevier foreland basin and Western Interior Seaway.

  7. 松辽盆地营城组火山岩冷却单元及地层结构分析%Volcanic Cooling Unit and Analysis of Stratigraphic Architecture of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程日辉; 任延广; 沈艳杰; 许中杰

    2012-01-01

    火山岩冷却单元的识别是火山岩地层和岩相研究的重要环节.松辽盆地东南缘露头区和徐家围子断陷营城组火山岩剖面的剖析显示,冷却单元主要存在4种主要的单元类型:碎屑岩型、熔岩型、碎屑岩+熔岩型和熔岩+碎屑岩型.碎屑岩型和熔岩型是端元类型,分别反映蒸汽喷发和岩浆喷发的作用过程;碎屑岩+熔岩型是基本组合单元类型,反映蒸汽—岩浆喷发的连续作用过程;熔岩+碎屑岩型属于改造的或特殊机制的类型.冷却单元本身及其堆叠具有相的意义,是火山岩地层的基本成因地层单元,因此成为解释火山岩地层结构、了解形成与保存过程的重要基础.通过火山岩冷却单元识别与叠置分析,构建了松辽盆地徐家围子断陷营城组一段的地层结构.%The reorganization of volcanic cooling unit is a key to analyze volcanic stratigraphy am litho-facies. The study of the sections of Yingcheng Formation in Songliao basin shows that there an four types of cooling unit including pyroclastic, lava, pyroclastic + lava and lava + pyroclastic in th< outcrop of the southeast margin and Xujiaweizi fault depression. The type of pyroclastic is an end uni reflecting the processes of hydro explosion. The type of lava is another end unit reflecting the processe: of magma effusion. The type of pyroclastic + lava is a basic unit reflecting the consequent processes o hydro-magma eruption. The type of lava + pyroclastic is a reformed or special unit. Cooling unit itsel and its stacking contain meaning of litho-facies. The cooling unit is a genetic stratigraphic unit ii volcanic stratigraphy, which is fundamental to learn architecture, forming and preservation of volcanii strata. The recognition of volcanic cooling units and analysis of superimposition give a stratigraphii architecture of the First Member, Yingcheng Formation in Xujiaweizi of Songliao basin.

  8. Method research of the risk zoning of thunder and lightning and its application over Anhui province%雷电灾害风险区划方法研究及其在安徽省的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程向阳; 谢五三; 王凯; 田红

    2012-01-01

    Under the guideline of the natural disaster system theory and assessment of natural disaster risk theory, using meteorological, geo-information, social and economic, thunder and lightning disaster data, combined with statistical method, disaster analysis and expert evaluation method, this paper aims at the method of the risk zoning of thunder and lightning, and establishes the quantitative relation between the assessment indexes and the risk zoning of thunder and lightning, based on the GIS platform, considering the disaster-inducing factors, environment of breeding disasters and hazard-bearing bodies. In this way, the paper formulates a relatively complete technology system of the risk zoning of thunder and lightning which deserves being popularized. The results of risk zoning in Anhui province show that the high risk of thunder and lighting is mainly located in cities with relatively higher economic level as well as the mountainous regions with higher altitude above the sea in the south of Anhui, while the low risk is mainly located in Huaibei area.%本文根据自然灾害系统理论和自然灾害风险评估理论,利用气象资料、地理信息数据、社会经济数据以及雷电灾情等数据,采用统计方法、灾情解析、专家打分等方法,从致灾因子、孕灾环境、承灾体方面,研究雷电灾害风险评估及区划方法,建立起评价指标与风险评估的定量关系,形成了较完整的雷电灾害风险评估及区划技术方法体系,具有很好的应用推广价值.对安徽省雷电灾害风险区划表明:高风险区主要位于经济水平较高的城市以及皖南山区高海拔地区,而低风险区主要位于淮北地区,与灾情验证情况吻合.

  9. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  10. Trends In Nutrient and Sediment Concentrations and Loads In Major River Basins of the South-Central United States, 1993-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebich, Richard A.; Demcheck, Dennis K.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment data collected at 115 sites by Federal and State agencies from 1993 to 2004 were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine trends in concentrations and loads for selected rivers and streams that drain into the northwestern Gulf of Mexico from the south-central United States, specifically from the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf Basins. Trends observed in the study area were compared to determine potential regional patterns and to determine cause-effect relations with trends in hydrologic and human-induced factors such as nutrient sources, streamflow, and implementation of best management practices. Secondary objectives included calculation of loads and yields for the study period as a basis for comparing the delivery of nutrients and sediment to the northwestern Gulf of Mexico from the various rivers within the study area. In addition, loads were assessed at seven selected sites for the period 1980-2004 to give hydrologic perspective to trends in loads observed during 1993-2004. Most study sites (about 64 percent) either had no trends or decreasing trends in streamflow during the study period. The regional pattern of decreasing trends in streamflow during the study period appeared to correspond to moist conditions at the beginning of the study period and the influence of three drought periods during the study period, of which the most extreme was in 2000. Trend tests were completed for ammonia at 49 sites, for nitrite plus nitrate at 69 sites, and for total nitrogen at 41 sites. For all nitrogen constituents analyzed, no trends were observed at half or more of the sites. No regional trend patterns could be confirmed because there was poor spatial representation of the trend sites. Decreasing trends in flow-adjusted concentrations of ammonia were observed at 25 sites. No increasing trends in concentrations of ammonia were noted at any sites. Flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate decreased at 7

  11. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  12. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  13. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  14. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  15. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  16. A ground-water model of the upper San Pedro Basin from the Mexico-United States International Boundary to Fairbank, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A definition of the hydrologic system of the upper San Pedro basin was obtained by developing a numerical ground-water model to evaluate a conceptual model of the system. Information on hydraulic properties of the basin fill, recharge from bordering mountain ranges, discharge by evapotranspiration, and exchange of water between aquifer and stream was available from previous measurements or estimates. The steady-state calibration procedure and subsequent transient simulations demonstrated that the original conceptualization can be reasonably simulated. An analysis of model sensitivity to increases and decreases in certain hydraulic properties indicated a low sensitivity to aquifer anisotropy and a low to moderate sensitivity to stream leakance and evapotranspiration rate. An analysis to investigate the effects of generalizing aquifer conductivity and recharge showed that flow components and water-level response to stress could be simulated adequately but that steady-state water-level conditions could not. During equilibrium conditions, recharge to and discharge from the basin was about 16,500 acre-feet per year. Modeling results indicated that by 1978 the storage depletion rate had reached 5,600 acre-feet per year resulting from a ground-water withdrawal rate of 10,500 acre-feet per year. (USGS)

  17. The most important water management questions concerning the river basin unit Weser. EG water management guidelines; Die wichtigsten Wasserbewirtschaftungsfragen in der Flussgebietseinheit Weser. EG-Wasserrahmenrichtlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    The most important water management questions concerning the river basin Weser are the following: The salt load of Werra and Weser due to tha actual and former potash mining, the load due to anthropogenic nutrient input, and the disturbance of the watercourses. It is extremely important to discuss not only these questions but also their interdependence and relations. The fish is identified as an efficient indicator of the water quality, esp. migrating species that require different watercourse structures. In order to fulfill the requirements of a sustainable and integrative protection of the resources the water management strategies have do be comprehensive with respect to the discussed questions.

  18. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  19. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  20. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  1. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.

  2. Progress and delivery of health care in Bhutan, the Land of the Thunder Dragon and Gross National Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Pelzom, Dorji; Gibbons, Robert V

    2011-06-01

    The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan is rapidly changing, but it remains relatively isolated, and it tenaciously embraces its rich cultural heritage. Despite very limited resources, Bhutan is making a concerted effort to update its health care and deliver it to all of its citizens. Healthcare services are delivered through 31 hospitals, 178 basic health unit clinics and 654 outreach clinics that provide maternal and child health services in remote communities in the mountains. Physical access to primary health care is now well sustained for more than 90% of the population. Bhutan has made progress in key health indicators. In the past 50 years, life expectancy increased by 18 years and infant mortality dropped from 102.8 to 49.3 per 1000 live births between 1984 and 2008. Bhutan has a rich medical history. One of the ancient names for Bhutan was 'Land of Medicinal Herbs' because of the diverse medicinal plants it exported to neighbouring countries. In 1967, traditional medicine was included in the National Health System, and in 1971, formal training for Drungtshos (traditional doctors) and sMenpas (traditional compounders) began. In 1982, Bhutan established the Pharmaceutical and Research Unit, which manufactures, develops and researches traditional herbal medicines. Despite commendable achievements, considerable challenges lie ahead, but the advances of the past few decades bode well for the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Paleomagnetic Evidence From Volcanic Units of Valsequillo Basin for the Laschamp Geomagnetic Excursion, and Implications for Early Human Occupation in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Martin Del Pozzo, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Soler, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in Valsequillo basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al., Quaternary Science Reviews doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev, 2005). The ash has been dated to 40 ka by means of optically stimulated luminescence analysis. This was held as new evidence that America was colonized earlier. We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis of 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities, and nineteen standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data yield evidence that both volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced at during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka. This interpretation indicates that Valsequillo probably remains one of the sites of early human occupation in the Americas, producing evidence of early arrival.

  4. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study on volcanic units of the Valsequillo Basin: implications for early human occupation in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Pozzo, Ana Lillian Martin-Del; Rocha-Fernandez, Jose Luis; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Soler-Arechalde, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al, 2005). The ash has been dated at 40 ka by optically stimulated luminescence analysis, thereby providing new evidence that America was colonized earlier than the Clovis culture (about 13.5 Ma). We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis on 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities and 19 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data provide evidence that both the volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka.

  5. Sedimentological study of the Meirama Tertiary basin - an example of a sedimentary basin over a strike-slip fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monge Ganuzas, C.

    1987-01-01

    The sedimentary basin of Meirama (Coruna, N.W. Spain), is developed over a strike slip fault of regional extent, whose movements controlled in the past the character and sedimentation processes there and determined the basin morphology and the deformation suffered by the sediments. The sedimentary register at Meirama is represented by one essentially lignitiferous unit and three other terrigenous-detrital. The nature and facies shown by the sediments are not constant within one unit and depend fundamentally on the source area for each unit, either the metasediments of Ordes (Ordenes) Serie (S-Se marginal basin) or the granodiorite of Xalo unit (N-NW marginal basin).

  6. Mesozoic units in SE Rhodope (Bulgaria): new structural and petrologic data and geodynamic implications for the Early Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, N.; Stampfli, G.

    2003-04-01

    In the southeastern Rhodope, both in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece, Mesozoic low-grade to non-metamorphic units, together with similar units in the eastern Vardar zone, were designated as the Circum-Rhodope Belt (CRB) that fringes the Rhodope high-grade metamorphic complex. In the Bulgarian southeastern Rhodope, Mesozoic units show a complicated tectono-stratigraphy underlaid by amphibolite-facies basement units. The basement sequence includes a lower orthogneiss unit with eclogite and meta-ophiolite lenses overlain by an upper marble-schist unit, presumably along a SSW-directed detachment fault as indicated by shear sense indicators. The Mesozoic sequence starts with greenschist units at the base, overlaying the basement along the tectonic contact. Mineral assemblages such as actinolite-chlorite-white mica ± garnet in schists and phyllites indicate medium greenschist facies metamorphism. Kinematic indicators in the same unit demonstrate a top-to-the NNW and NNE shear deformation coeval with metamorphism, subparallel to NW-SE to NE-SW trending mineral elongation lineation and axis of NW vergent small-scale folds. The greenschist unit is overlain by tectonic or depositional contact of melange-like unit that consists of diabases with Lower Jurassic radiolarian chert interlayers, Upper Permian siliciclastics and Middle-Upper Triassic limestones found as blocks in olistostromic member, embedded in Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous turbiditic matrix. The uppermost sedimentary-volcanogenic unit is represented by andesito-basalt lavas and gabbro-diorites, interbedded with terrigeneous-marl and tufaceous sediments that yield Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) fossils, related to the Late Cretaceous back-arc magmatic activity to the north in Sredna Gora zone. Petrologic and geochemical data indicates sub-alkaline and tholeiitic character of the greenschists and ophiolitic basaltic lavas, and the latter are classified as low-K and very low-Ti basalts with some boninitic affinity

  7. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  8. A review of basin morphology and pool hydrology of isolated ponded wetlands: implications for seasonal forest pools of the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Robert T. Brooks

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal forest pools (SFPs) are geographically- and hydrologically- isolated ponded wetlands, in that they are topographically isolated from other surface waters. SFPs occur commonly throughout the temperate forests of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada. SFPs are ephemeral in occurrence, typically drying annually. The regular drying of SFPs excludes fish...

  9. The use of handheld radiometry for the identification of stratigraphic characteristics of Paraiba Basin units; A aplicacao da radiometria autoportada na identificacao de caracteristicas estratigraficas nas unidades da Bacia Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ebenezer Moreno de; Villar, Heldio Pereira; Lima, Ricardo de Andrade [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    A study on the use of radiometric techniques for the identification of stratigraphic characteristics of Paraiba Basin units was carried out with handheld instrumentation. The area chosen ran from north Pernambuco to south Paraiba. The presence of radioactive material had been previously determined. For this work a portable scintillometer was fixed to the door of a vehicle, on the outside, with the probe directed downwards. Background radiation was measured as 40 cps (counts per second). The scintillometer has an alarm which sounds whenever the measured count rate rises above a pre-established figure, 100 cps in the present case. Monitoring then proceeded manually. In sites where the count rate was much higher than 100 cps, the probe was lowered to the soil surface. Local coordinates were obtained by GPS. Therefore, an isoradioactivity map of the area could be drawn. The comparison between this map and local geological charts showed significant correlation between observed count rates and geologic formations. Low count rates were indicative of the Barreiras formation, whereas the highest rates were obtained for the Gramame formation (with urano-phosphatic lythotypes). It is concluded that handheld radiometry is a useful tool in geological charting, is special in areas where stratigraphic units have been masked by environmental changes and human activities. (author)

  10. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  11. Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal gold-silver deposits in the northern Great Basin, western United States: Characteristics, distribution, and relationship to Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous important Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal Au-Ag deposits are present in the northern Great Basin. Most deposits are spatially and temporally related to two magmatic assemblages: bimodal basalt-rhyolite and western andesite. These magmatic assemblages are petrogenetic suites that reflect variations in tectonic environment of magma generation. The bimodal assemblage is a K-rich tholeiitic series formed during continental rifting. Rocks in the bimodal assemblage consist mostly of basalt to andesite and rhyolite compositions that generally contain anhydrous and reduced mineral assemblages (e.g., quartz + fayalite rhyolites). Eruptive forms include mafic lava flows, dikes, cinder and/or spatter cones, shield volcanoes, silicic flows, domes, and ash-flow calderas. Fe-Ti oxide barometry indicates oxygen fugacities between the magnetite-wustite and fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffers for this magmatic assemblage. The western andesite assemblage is a high K calc-alkaline series that formed a continental-margin are related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the western coast of North America. In the northern Great Basin, most of the western andesite assemblage was erupted in the Walker Lane belt, a zone of transtension and strike-slip faulting. The western andesite assemblage consists of stratovolcanoes, dome fields, and subvolcanic plutons, mostly of andesite and dacite composition. Biotite and hornblende phenocrysts are abundant in these rocks. Oxygen fugacities of the western andesite assemblage magmas were between the nickel-nickel oxide and hematite-magnetite buffers, about two to four orders of magnitude greater than magmas of the bimodal assemblage. Numerous low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits in the bimodal assemblage include deposits in the Midas (Ken Snyder), Sleeper, DeLamar, Mule Canyon, Buckhorn, National, Hog Ranch, Ivanhoe, and Jarbidge districts; high-sulfidation gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits are absent. Both high- and low

  12. Geologic Evolution of the Schiaparelli Impact Basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaret, S. J.; Albin, E. F.

    2002-09-01

    Situated in the eastern Terra Meridiani region of the Martian cratered uplands is an ancient 470-km diameter basin called Schiaparelli. In this investigation, Viking Orbiter image mosaics were used as a base to create a detailed geologic map of this impact structure. High resolution Global Surveyor MOC and MOLA data provided information for the interpretation of individual map units. The basin rim (Br) separates distinct sets of interior and exterior units. Within the basin, the following units are found: a) [Im] interior mountain (inner peak ring), b) [Ih] interior hilly material (fallback ejecta), c) [Irp] interior ridged plains (lava flows), and d) [Isp] interior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). The exterior basin units include: a) [Cu] cratered upland material (target material), b) [Em] exterior mountain (basin ring) c) [Cd] cratered dissected material (continuous ejecta), d) [Erp] exterior ridged plains (lava flows), and e) [Esp] exterior smooth plains (lacustrine deposits). These findings provide clues about the geologic history of Schiaparelli basin.

  13. Advanced stimulation technology deployment program: Unocal Corporation, Dakota and Mesaverde formations, Rincon Unit, San Juan Basin. Topical report, June 1995-February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.A.; Weijers, L.; Minner, W.A.

    1996-06-01

    Pinnacle Technologies successfully deployed AST to numerous engineers from Unocal. Unocal estimated an 11% reduction in completion costs after implementing AST on their hydraulic fracture treatments in the Rincon Unit, New Mexico, resulting in a total cost savings of $850,000 on 25 wells. Despite the poorer geology of the newly completed wells, well productivity was equivalent to the older wells with `conventional` fracture treatment designs. Pressure build-up tests also confirmed the improved fracture treatment results: propped fractures of AST-treatments appeared at least twice as long as fractures from conventional treatments, even though completion costs have been reduced.

  14. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  15. Deep permeable fault-controlled helium transport and limited mantle flux in two extensional geothermal systems in the Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amlan; Person, Mark; Hofstra, Albert; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Cohen, Denis; Sabin, Andrew; Unruh, Jeff; Zyvoloski, George; Gable, Carl W.; Crossey, Laura; Karlstrom, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relative importance of deeply circulating meteoric water and direct mantle fluid inputs on near-surface 3He/4He anomalies reported at the Coso and Beowawe geothermal fields of the western United States. The depth of meteoric fluid circulation is a critical factor that controls the temperature, extent of fluid-rock isotope exchange, and mixing with deeply sourced fluids containing mantle volatiles. The influence of mantle fluid flux on the reported helium anomalies appears to be negligible in both systems. This study illustrates the importance of deeply penetrating permeable fault zones (10-12 to 10-15 m2) in focusing groundwater and mantle volatiles with high 3He/4He ratios to shallow crustal levels. These continental geothermal systems are driven by free convection.

  16. Evidence of morphological discrete units in an endemic fish, the rostrum dace (Leuciscus burdigalensis Valenciennes 1844, within a small river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulet N.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The rostrum dace is a rheophilous Cyprinid fish endemic to some French catchments. Particularly vulnerable to its habitat degradation, the rostrum dace appears to be a patrimonial species. Morphometric features were used to identify populations in a heavily impounded river, the Viaur River. A total of 176 fish, spread over 7 stations, were photographed and then released. A linear discriminant analysis correctly classified more than 80% of the individuals. Significant relationships were found between the morphological differences and (i the geographical distance, and (ii the number of artificial barriers (i.e. dams and weirs between the stations. These results show that discrete dace morphological units occur in the Viaur River and therefore suggest a fragmentation of the population. Although further investigations (e.g. genetics, life history traits, etc. are necessary to refine these results, conservation measures should be undertaken to preserve this endemic species in the Viaur River.

  17. 雷火灸和穴位埋线治疗黄褐斑的临床效果%Clinical efficacy of catgut embedding combined with thunder-fire moxibustion in treatment of melasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈陆泉; 曲剑华; 朱慧婷

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨雷火灸和穴位埋线治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效.方法 选择北京同仁医院针灸门诊黄褐斑患者82例,按随机数字表法将患者分为试验组42例和对照组40例.试验组采用雷火灸和穴位埋线治疗,对照组采用常规针灸治疗.经过8周治疗后进行临床疗效比较.结果 试验组总有效率97.6%(41/42),痊愈率23.8%(10/42);对照组总有效率72.5%(29/40),痊愈率15.0%(6/40).两组疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 雷火灸和穴位埋线是一种比普通针刺更有效的治疗黄褐斑的方法.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of treating melasma by catgut embedding combined with thunder-fire moxibustion and acupuncture.Methods Between September 2011 to December 2012,82 cases of melasma patients in Acupuncture Department of Tongren Hospital were randomly recruited into test group (42 cases) and control group (40 cases).Test group was treated by catgut embedding combined with thunder-fire moxibustion and other 40 cases of control group were treated by common acupuncture.Then therapy effects were observed 8 weeks after treatments.Results In test group,general efficient rate of 42 cases was 97.6%,cure rate was 23.8%;in control group,general efficient rate of 40 cases was 72.5%,and cure rate was 15%.By statistical analysis,the effect of the test group was obviously higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions The treatment of melasma by catgut embedding combined with thunder fire moxibustion achieves more effective outcomes than common acupuncture.

  18. Thunder fire makes improve rheumatism bi-complex tujia medical clinical curative effect analysis pain%雷火神针改善土家医风湿病痹痛临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芳胜; 潘永华; 杨新; 李志国; 王小军; 彭涛; 裴林

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察雷火神针改善土家医风湿病痹痛的疗效.方法:将120例土家医风湿病患者随机分成治疗组65例和对照组55例,治疗组采用雷火神针治疗,对照组口服布洛芬缓释片治疗.观察比较两组临床疗效与症状体征改善情况.结果:总有效率治疗组为89.2%,对照组为90.9%,两组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但治疗组在改善疼痛指数、肿胀指数、压痛指数、握力指数、部位指数等5个方面情况,效果较对照组为优(P<0.05).结论:土家医雷火神针治疗风湿痹痛在缓解疼痛、消除肿胀方面有较好的疗效.%Objective: to observe the thunder fire makes improve medical rheumatism bi-complex tujia the curative effect of pain. Methods: 120 cases of patients were randomly divided into medical rheumatism tujia people 65 cases in treatment group and control group 55 cases, the treatment group using thunder fire treatment group makes oral ibuprofen HuanShiPian treatment. Observe compare two sets of clinical curative effect and improve symptoms and signs. Results: the total effective rate of treatment group is 89.2% group and 90.9 percent, two groups of comparisons, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05), but the treatment group was better pain index, swelling index, tenderness index, index, the site index grip,five aspects for optimal effect relatively controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: the tujia medical thunder fire attack pain in treating rheumatism makes relieve pain and eliminate swelling aspects has good effect.

  19. Thunder-fire moxibustion combined with gabapentin in the treatment of 60 postherpetic neuralgia cases%雷火灸合并加巴喷丁治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛60例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 王强; 任凯芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical effect by thunder-fire moxibustion combined with gabapentin in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Methods A total of 60 PHN patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. The treatment group received thunder-fire moxibustion combined with gabapentin for treatment, and the control group received gabapentin by oral administration. Curative effects of the two groups were observed. Results The treatment group had cure rate as 73% (22/30) and total effective rate as 97% (29/30), and those in the control group were respectively 47% (14/30) and 90% (27/30). The difference of cure rate between the two groups had statistical significance (χ2=4.44, P0.05). Conclusion Combination of thunder-fire moxibustion and gabapentin provides precise effect in treating PHN, and it contains promotion value.%目的:观察雷火灸合并加巴喷丁治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛(PHN)的临床疗效。方法60例 PHN 患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,各30例。治疗组施以雷火灸合并加巴喷丁治疗;对照组采用口服加巴喷丁治疗。观察两组治疗效果。结果治疗组痊愈率73%(22/30),总有效率97%(29/30),对照组痊愈率47%(14/30),总有效率90%(27/30)。两组痊愈率比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.44, P0.05)。结论雷火灸合并加巴喷丁治疗 PHN 疗效显著,有推广价值。

  20. 英国流域水务民营化运作机制及其启示%Operation Mechanism and Enlightenment of River Basin Water Privatization in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘水林; 黎元生

    2016-01-01

    Featured UK water governance is to establish a watershed as a unit of vertical governance mechanisms, based on inde-pendent co-regulatory mechanisms for the protection of decentralization, cooperation mechanisms fully privatized water supply as the core, and market-based mechanisms as a means of regulating the operation of the mechanism. The successful experience of British river basin water privatization operation mechanism has an important significance in China’ s overall planning, management of water re-sources market and promoting PPP cooperation model, setting reasonable water price, and bringing about harmonious development be-tween human and water.%英国水务治理的运作机制是以流域为单元的垂直治理机制为基础,独立协同的分权监管机制为保障,完全私有化的水务合作机制为核心,市场化机制为调节手段。英国流域水务民营化运作机制的成功经验,对于我国统筹规划管理水资源市场、推进PPP合作模式以及科学合理地制定水价、实现人水和谐发展等具有重要的借鉴意义。

  1. Temporal trends in algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish assemblages in streams and rivers draining basins of varying land use in the south-central United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Mize, Scott V.

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific temporal trends in algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish assemblages were investigated in 15 streams and rivers draining basins of varying land use in the south-central United States from 1993–2007. A multivariate approach was used to identify sites with statistically significant trends in aquatic assemblages which were then tested for correlations with assemblage metrics and abiotic environmental variables (climate, water quality, streamflow, and physical habitat). Significant temporal trends in one or more of the aquatic assemblages were identified at more than half (eight of 15) of the streams in the study. Assemblage metrics and abiotic environmental variables found to be significantly correlated with aquatic assemblages differed between land use categories. For example, algal assemblages at undeveloped sites were associated with physical habitat, while algal assemblages at more anthropogenically altered sites (agricultural and urban) were associated with nutrient and streamflow metrics. In urban stream sites results indicate that streamflow metrics may act as important controls on water quality conditions, as represented by aquatic assemblage metrics. The site-specific identification of biotic trends and abiotic–biotic relations presented here will provide valuable information that can inform interpretation of continued monitoring data and the design of future studies. In addition, the subsets of abiotic variables identified as potentially important drivers of change in aquatic assemblages provide policy makers and resource managers with information that will assist in the design and implementation of monitoring programs aimed at the protection of aquatic resources.

  2. Development of a Cell-based Model to Derive Direct Runoff Hydrographs for Ungauged Mountainous Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model to derive direct runoff hydrograph for an ungauged basin using the physical properties of the basin is presented. The basin is divided into grid cells and canal elements. Overland flow is generated from each grid cell of the basin by application of continuous effective rainfall of 1 mm/hr to the basin. The flow generated is routed through downstream grid cells and the canal elements using the kinematic wave approach. The travel time for direct runoff from each grid cell to the basin outlet is calculated and the S-curve is derived for the basin.The S-curve is used to derive the unit hydrograph of a given duration for the basin. The model, referred as Cell-basin model was applied to the Upper Kotmale Basin in Sri Lanka and the model predictions of direct runoff hydrographs for rainfall events agreed with the observations to a reasonable accuracy. Comparison of the unit hydrographs obtained from the model and from the conventional Snyder's synthetic unit hydrograph using regionalized parameters assuming the basin as an ungauged basin, with the unit hydrograph derived from the observations showed that the model predicted unit hydrograph was more suitable than that obtained by Snyder's method for Sri Lankan up country basins. Thus, the present model is a useful tool to obtain direct runoff hydrograph for ungauged basins.

  3. 重新划分塔里木盆地塔北隆起的次级构造单元%Redivision of the tectonic units of Tabei Rise in Tarim Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曰俊; 杨海军; 张光亚; 郑多明; 刘云祥; 赵岩; 李国会; 刘亚雷

    2012-01-01

    塔北隆起位于塔里木盆地北部,是塔里木盆地油气最富集的构造单元之一.其在古生代克拉通内古隆起的基础上,于二叠纪末-三叠纪早期定型为库车周缘前陆盆地的前缘隆起.新生代,其整体沉降,成为埋藏于北塔里木陆内前陆盆地前渊下的一个残余古隆起.目前通用的塔北隆起构造单元划分方案不能准确反映其真实的构造格局.根据最新的研究成果,我们建议重新划分塔北隆起构造单元:(1)取消哈拉哈塘凹陷和草湖凹陷,重新定义轮南低凸起.重新定义的轮南低凸起包括原轮南低凸起、哈拉哈塘凹陷和草湖凹陷北部,是一个下古生界大型鼻状背斜构造,形成于前石炭纪;原草湖凹陷南部划归北部坳陷.(2)以中奥陶统顶面海拔约-6500m的等高线作为塔北隆起的南部边界,该等高线较好地反映了塔北隆起南部的构造轮廓,特别是轮南大型鼻状背斜构造的轮廓.(3)以羊塔1-英买8断裂和英买4-英买1背斜组成的一条较清晰的古生界构造线划分轮台凸起和英买力低凸起.此界线两侧,古生界各反射层存在陡然、明显的落差,岩浆作用、地层发育、构造变形和演化历史存在明显差异.重新划分的塔北隆起包括库尔勒鼻状凸起、轮台凸起、轮南低凸起、英买力低凸起和温宿鼻状凸起五个次级构造单元.本文给出了塔北隆起及其各次级构造单元清晰的定义和范围,并简单论述了其形成演化过程.%In the northern part of Tarim basin, the Tabei Rise is one of the tectonic units richest in oil and gas accumulation. Based on the Paleozoic intra-craton uplift, it developed into the forebulge of Kuqa peripheral foreland basin in terminal Permian-Early Triassic. During Cenozoic it subsided entirely and became a residue of paleo-uplift buried beneath the foredeep of the intracontinental foreland basin in northern Tarim. The existing division of the tectonic units of

  4. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Upper Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene Clay - Rich Volcano - Sedimentary Units from South-Eastern of Elazıg Basin (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Daş, Burhan

    2017-04-01

    Clay-rich Hazar-Maden volcano-sediments were deposited along the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean margin during Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene times. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hatunkoy section from the south - easthern of Elazıg were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS. The Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Guleman Ophiolites, Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene Hazar Group, the Middle Eocene Maden Group, Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial deposits are situated in the study area. The Guleman Ophiolites are composed of dunite, harzburgite with podiform chromite, alternating dunite-wherlite, clinopyroxenite banded gabbro, quartz gabbro/diorite or plagiogranite and volcanites. The Hazar Group consists of limestone and interbedded shale and sandstone. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hazar and Maden Group samples are similar in Hatunkoy section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), calcite, quartz, and feldspar. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of Zr/TiO2, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values and it is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally neutral-basic in composition. REE of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Key Words:Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Volcano sedimentary Units, Eastern Turkey.

  5. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1): Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents basin characteristics, compiled for every catchment in NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. These characteristics are basin shape...

  6. FEE-FISHING UNITS IN THE BASIN OF CORUMBATAÍ: SOCIOECONOMIC-ENVIRONMENTAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT = UNIDADES DE PESQUE-PAGUE NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ: DIAGNÓSTICO SOCIOECONÔMICO-AMBIENTAL E TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned to distinguish the main environmental and socio-economic aspects of 16 fee-fishing located in the Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo. Together, it verified the possibility of effluent treatment system with these units constructed wetlands system (CWS. Previously, it collected information on the number, location and diversity of activities of fee-fishing, as different government agencies and institutions did not have that information. Questionnaires were applied to collect information about the socio-economic and environmental aspects of fee-fishing units located in Corumbatai river basin. Were determinate abiotic and biotic factors present in water and effluent from the tanks of fee-fishing. It was applied a principal component analysis to the values of these factors monitored. The results showed that despite being a tourist attraction for the region and there is a considerable frequency of tourists on fee-fishing, it is still an activity that is economically unstable in Corumbataí River Basin. The results of the tests performed were compared with the limits for class 2 freshwater by CONAMA Resolution 357/05. These results showed that most of the values of the factors studied were above the limit established by this resolution, showing deterioration of water quality of the fee-fishing in this study. From an environmental standpoint, the fish-pay were considered potentially polluting sources, characterized by higher values of total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus and microorganisms. The presence of excessive nutrients in the effluents in water is responsible for eutrophication and may indicate impairment of water quality of rivers in the basin study. Thus, the effluents from fish-you may pay in need of treatment, such as stabilization ponds and wastewater treatment systems using aquatic weeds before they are discarded into the environment. = Neste estudo preocupou

  7. A preliminary assessment of the spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment in the Ohio River basin, United States, using water quality data from the NASQAN programme in a source tracing procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-S.; Collins, A.L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable information on catchment scale suspended sediment sources is required to inform the design of management strategies for helping abate the numerous environmental issues associated with enhanced sediment mobilization and off-site loadings. Since sediment fingerprinting techniques avoid many of the logistical constraints associated with using more traditional indirect measurement methods at catchment scale, such approaches have been increasingly reported in the international literature and typically use data sets collected specifically for sediment source apportionment purposes. There remains scope for investigating the potential for using geochemical data sets assembled by routine monitoring programmes to fingerprint sediment provenance. In the United States, routine water quality samples are collected as part of the US Geological Survey's revised National Stream Quality Accounting Network programme. Accordingly, the geochemistry data generated from these samples over a 10-year period (1996-2006) were used as the basis for a fingerprinting exercise to assess the key tributary sub-catchment spatial sources of contemporary suspended sediment transported by the Ohio River. Uncertainty associated with the spatial source estimates was quantified using a Monte Carlo approach in conjunction with mass balance modelling. Relative frequency weighted means were used as an alternative way of summarizing the spatial source contributions, thereby avoiding the need to use confidence limits. The results should be interpreted in the context of the routine, but infrequent nature, of the suspended sediment samples used to assemble geochemistry as a basis for the sourcing exercise. Nonetheless, the study demonstrates how routine monitoring samples can be used to provide some preliminary information on sediment provenance in large drainage basins. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Thermal processes, transfers and diagenesis of reservoirs in the external units of Albanides (Ionian basin); Thermicite, transferts et diagenese des reservoirs dans les unites externes des Albanides (Bassin Ionien)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muska, K.

    2002-06-01

    forwards fore-land areas. On the other hand, mountain building processes in the Alpine stage has made possible the introduction and circulation of meteoric waters towards fore-land areas. So, it is possible that under such orogenic circumstances, such elements like magnesium involved in diagenetic reactions in the future have been transported towards unfolded fore-land areas. Diagenetic modeling should be undertaken by using the Diaphore software developed at I.F.P. to test the influence of fluid composition as well as their rate of movement in the reservoir cementation process and the development of a secondary porosity due to dissolution in deeper reservoir units where drilling has not been made yet. (author)

  9. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  10. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN: Bacteria Monitoring Stations and Data Summaries in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS 3 (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1:45,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and edited by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Joinable tables must...

  11. The quality of our Nation's waters: Water quality in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States: Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Paul, Angela P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers consist of many basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Demands for irrigation and drinking water have substantially increased groundwater withdrawals and irrigation return flow to some of these aquifers. These changes have increased the movement of contaminants from geologic and human sources to depths used to supply drinking water in several basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest.

  12. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  13. Analysis of Formation and Development Condition for a Rare "Thunder-snow" Event in Shandong%山东一次罕见“雷打雪”天气形成条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽娜; 靳军; 万文龙

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the formation and development of an unusual "thunder-snow" event on 28 February 2010 in Shandong province by using the conventional data,intensive observation of automatic weather station,satellite images,Doppler-Radar data etc.The results show that interaction of westerly trough,vortex with shear line,strong southwesterly low-level jet and cold front resulted in the event.Before the severe convective weather,there was unusual sustained increasing of temperature in troposphere,which provided sufficient energy accumulation for the occurrence of "thunder-snow".The low-level jet supplied sufficient water vapor for the strong precipitation area.The occurrence of severe convective weather attributed to unstable atmospheric stratification and cold front with cold air moving southwards.MCC was the direct cause which leads to "thunder-snow" event,and severe weather such as hail and thunderstorm emerged in the great negative value center and isoline dense areas of TBB in front of moving cloud clusters.The band echo with the shape of "人" and its strong center detected from the PPI screen and the meso-and micro-scale convergence zone of wind speed(direction) in ground layer had a certain significance to forecast distribution of strong convective weather.%利用常规观测、地面加密自动站以及卫星云图、多普勒天气雷达资料,对2010年2月28日山东省罕见"雷打雪"天气的发生发展条件进行了分析。结果表明:此次过程是在高空槽、切变线低涡、强低空西南急流及冷锋等天气系统相互作用下产生的;强对流天气发生前,对流层整层出现持续异常增温,为"雷打雪"提供了充足的能量积累;低空急流的建立为强降水区提供了充分的水汽供应;强对流天气发生在大气层结不稳定、冷锋携带冷空气南下的过程中;MCC是造成"雷打雪"过程的直接原因,冰雹、雷暴等天气出现在TBB低值中心及云团

  14. Interbasinal marker intervals——A case study from the Jurassic basins of Kachchh and Jaisalmer, western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANDEY; Dhirendra; Kumar; FüRSICH; Franz; Theodor

    2009-01-01

    The Kachchh Basin and the Jaisalmer Basin are two neighboring Mesozoic sedimentary basins at the western margin of the Indian craton. The Jurassic succession of the Kachchh Basin is more complete and more fossiliferous than that of the Jaisalmer Basin. Consequently, intrabasinal correlation of the sedimentary units has been possible in the Kachchh Basin, but not in the Jaisalmer Basin. However, some marker beds existing in the Kachchh Basin can be recognized also in the Jaisalmer Basin. Ammonite evidence shows that they are time-equivalent. The following four units form marker intervals in both basins: (1) the pebbly rudstone unit with Isastrea bernardiana and Leptosphinctes of the Kaladongar Formation (Kachchh Basin) and the Isastrea bernardiana-bearing rudstone of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) both represent transgressive systems tract deposits dated as Late Bajocian; (2) bioturbated micrites with anomalodesmatan bivalves within the Goradongar Yellow Flagstone Member (Kachchh Basin) and bioturbated units in the Fort Member (Jaisalmer Basin) represent maximum flooding zone deposits of the Middle to Late Bathonian; (3) trough-crossbedded, sandy packto grainstones of the Raimalro Limestone Member (Kachchh Basin) and the basal limestone-sandstone unit of the Kuldhar section of the Jaisalmer Formation (Jaisalmer Basin) correspond to Late Bathonain transgressive systems tract deposits; and (4) ferruginous ooid-bearing carbonates with hardgrounds of the Dhosa Oolite member (Kachchh Basin) and the middle part of the Jajiya Member (Jaisalmer Basin) are Oxfordian transgressive systems tract deposits. The fact that in both basins similar biofacies prevailed during certain time intervals demonstrates a common control of their depositional history. As the two basins represent different tectonic settings, the most likely controlling factors were the relative sea-level changes produced by eustatic processes, a common subsidence history of the northwestern margin of

  15. Using the stratigraphic record to document tectonic-geomorphologic interactions in a foreland basin setting: outcrop study of the Ainsa Basin, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, D. R.; Moody, J.; Gordon, G.; Hoffman, M.; Moss-Russell, A.; Silalahi, H.; Setiawan, P.; Clark, J.; Bracken, B.; Guzofski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Eocene strata of the Ainsa Basin (Spain) contain clastic and carbonate strata deposited in a relatively small (100 km^2), structurally active piggyback foreland basin. The basin is bounded by the Mediano Anticline to the east and the Boltana Anticline to the west. Clastic strata were sourced by an eastern fluvial-deltaic system whereas carbonate strata were sourced from shallow-water carbonate systems that rimmed the southern and western margins of the basin. Four time-stratigraphic units, which form an upward transect through the basin-fill succession, were studied in detail: Ainsa, Morillo, Guaso, Sobrarbe-Escanilla. The study uses the stratigraphic record to document linkages between progressive uplift of the basin-bounding structures, spatial-temporal changes in the amount and location of subsidence, and temporal changes in the landscape. The Ainsa unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and exited the basin to the northwest, although some channels locally transfer to lobes near the northwest end of the basin. The Morillo unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east, dispersed onto the basin floor, then converged at the western end of the basin where they continued onto the longitudinally adjacent Jaca Basin. The Guaso unit contains submarine channels that entered the basin from the east and transfer to a ponded distributive submarine fan at the center of the basin. The Escanilla-Sobrarbe unit contains a linked shelf-to-basin system that prograded from south to north and records the final filling of the basin. Four lines of evidence collectively support the basin-fill succession was deposited during structural growth. First, the depocenter, which is interpreted to reflect the position of maximum subsidence during deposition, of the systems systematically shifted westward as the basin filled. Second, the axial part of the clastic sediment systematically shifted southward as the basin filled. Third, the

  16. JURASSIC PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE PIENINY AND OUTER CARPATHIAN BASINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAN GOLONKA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic history of the Pieniny/Outer Carpathian basins reflects the evolution of the Circum-Tethyan area, especially its Alpine Tethys part. The Alpine Tethys that is Ligurian, Penninic Oceans and Pieniny/Magura Basin constitute the extension of the Central Atlantic system. The synrift stage lasted in the Pieniny/Magura Basin from late Early Jurassic to Tithonian (the Magura Unit constitutes the southernmost part of the Outer Flysch Carpathians. The Pieniny rift opened during Pliensbachian – Aalenian. The central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys went into a drifting stage during the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian history of the Pieniny/Magura Basin reflects strongest facial differentiation within sedimentary basin where mixed siliceous-carbonate sedimentation took place. Greatest deepening effect is indicated by widespread Oxfordian radiolarites, which occur in the all basinal successions, whereas the shallowest zone is completely devoid of siliceous intercalations at that time (sedimentation from Ammonitico Rosso facies up to coral reef limestone. The southern part of the North European Platform, north from the Pieniny/Magura realm, started to be rifted during Late Jurassic time and Silesian Basin in the Outer Western Carpathians and Sinaia Basin in the Eastern Carpathians, with black, mainly redeposited marls have been created. The outer sub-basins were differentiated during the latest (Hauterivian-Barremian phase of basinal development. The connection of Silesian Basin with Sinaia and Southern Carpathian Severin areas suggests the NW-SE direction of the basinal axis while the orientation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt/Magura Basin was SW-NE so, two Outer Carpathian perpendicular directions are possible within the basins. Major reorganization happened during the Tithonian-Berriasian time. It was reflected by both paleoceanographical and paleoclimatical changes. The Neo-Cimmerian tectonic events as well as main phase

  17. Range maps of terrestrial species in the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Barbara C. Wales; Rick. Demmer

    2003-01-01

    Current range distribution maps are presented for 14 invertebrate, 26 amphibian, 26 reptile, 339 bird, and 125 mammal species and selected subspecies (530 total taxa) of the interior Columbia River basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in the United States. Also presented are maps of historical ranges of 3 bird and 10 mammal species, and 6 maps of...

  18. Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atchafalaya Basin (Water and Land Resources), Louisiana, study is being conducted in response to resolutions adopted by the United States Senate and House of...

  19. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  20. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The Delbi-Moye Basin consists of two sedimentary units (upper and lower sedimentary ... alluvial fan, fluviatile, off shore lacustrine, shoreline lacustrine and paludal and/or swampy depositonal .... Lower mudstone, gravely sandstone and sandy con- glomerates ...... Alluvial sand- stone composition and palaeoclimate: I.

  1. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  2. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 21. Hydrology and water balance of the Red River basin, New Mexico 1930-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McAda, Douglas P.; Myers, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    measured streamflow profiles indicates that, in general, the river is gaining ground water from the alluvium in the reach from the town of Red River to between Hottentot and Straight Creeks, and from Columbine Creek to near Thunder Bridge. The river is losing water to the alluvium from upstream of the mill area to Columbine Creek. Interpretations of ground- and surface-water interactions based on comparisons of mean annual basin yield and measured streamflow are supported further with water-level data from piezometers, wells, and the Red River.

  3. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  4. Great Basin geoscience data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  5. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  6. 桦甸盆地桦甸组与美国犹他盆地绿河组油页岩生物标志化合物特征对比%Comparision on the Characteristics of Biomarkers of Oil Shale Between Huadian Formatin in Huadian Basin and Green River Formation in Uinta Basin of Western United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆涛; 刘招君; 柳蓉; 孙平昌; 胡菲; 张京

    2011-01-01

    在野外地质考察、岩心观察和大量测试数据分析的基础上,对我国东北地区桦甸盆地始新统桦甸组和美国犹他盆地始新统绿河组油页岩中类异戊二烯烷烃、甾类和萜类等生物标志化合物特征进行了详细的对比研究,并探讨其对两地油页岩在有机质来源及古沉积环境上的差异指示意义.结果表明:在GC谱图上,桦甸油页岩Pr/Ph为1.47~2.03,具姥鲛烷优势;而绿河油页岩Pr/Ph为0.34~0.44,具植烷优势.GC-MS分析表明:桦甸油页岩规则甾烷C27-C28-C29呈反"L"型分布,∑(C27+C28)/∑C29为0.63~2.52;绿河油页岩规则甾烷C27-C28-C29呈钝角不对称"V"型分布,∑(C27+C28)/∑C29为0.96~1.20.桦甸油页岩萜类化合物中萜烯>ββ构型霍烷>αβ构型霍烷,以C29萜烯占优势:绿河油页岩中五环三萜烷>三环萜烷>四环萜烷,并检出丰富的Υ-蜡烷和β-胡萝卜烷.两地油页岩生物标志化合物特征参数的对比分析揭示:桦甸油页岩为水生生物和高等植物双重生源,但细菌及藻类等水生生物的贡献较大,主要形成于弱还原淡水沉积环境;绿河油页岩有机质来源主要为细菌和藻类等水生生物,主要形成于强还原咸水沉积环境.%Based on the field geological work, core observation and a lot of test data, the authors aim to develop comparative study on the characteristics of biomarkers of oil shale, including isoprenoid, steranes and terpanes, between Eocene Huadian Formation of Huadian basin in northeast China and Green River Formation of Uinta basin in western United States. The differences on the origin of organic matters and sedimentary environment of oil shale in the two places have been discussed. In GC spectra, the Pr/Ph of Huadian oil shale varies from 1.47 to 2.03, which shows that pristane is in dominated. However, the Pr/Ph of Green River oil shale varies from 0. 34 to 0. 44, showing phytane is in dominated. In the m/z217 GC - MS, the regular

  7. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  8. Being Lead by Tokens of Time---On Narration of Light Thunder by Alai%在时间信物的引领下--阿来小说《轻雷》的叙述分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白浩

    2015-01-01

    时间一向是阿来作品基本主题之一,《轻雷》的出现,将《空山》这个历史长卷和整个阿来写作史推展到了时间维度的尽头,面对消逝的空间,去寻找时间的信物来记录永恒,而在叙述上,《轻雷》也成为其独立性更强、更具代表性的一个样本。《轻雷》首先呈现出的是一个下滑叙事,这是一个信物丢失的世界。与外在自然环境的下降叙事相伴,则是内在人心世界的下降叙事、心灵世界信物的丢失叙事。见证和连接这两个下滑叙事的是拉加泽里,而他本人更是一个下滑的标志。与丢失的世界相比,这个上升叙事构筑的是一个回归的世界,这是一个寻找回归信物的世界。这个双向的叙事在拉加泽里身上展开,如果说前一个叙事是罪与罚,那么这一个叙事则是救与赎。%Time is always one of the main themes in Alei's works.With the appearance Light Thun-der,the historical series of Hollow Mountain and the writer's creation was promoted to an extreme of time dimension.Facing the lost space,we should seek time tokens to record the everlasting.In terms of narration,Light Thunder is a sample with stronger independence and representativeness.First of all,Light Thunder shows a narration of descending,and this is a world with lost tokens.In company with narration of descending in external natural environment,come the narration of descending in spiritual world and narration of tokens loss in spiritual world.It is the Lajiazeli who has witnessed and integrated these two descending narrations,and he himself is also a descending symbol.Compared with lost world,the construction of ascending narration is a coming-back world,a world to get back the lost tokens.This bidirectional narration starts from Lajiazeli.If the first narration is about crime and punishment,the latter is about salvation and redemption.

  9. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  10. Origin and internal organization of widespread composite soft-sediment deformation units in a deep-water forearc basin: The lower Pleistocene Kazusa Group on the Boso Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Hideaki; Ito, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Three main types of soft-sediment deformation structures were identified in a base-of-slope and basin-plain succession (the upper Kiwada Formation) and its age-equivalent submarine slope succession (the lower Takamizo Formation) in the early Pleistocene Kazusa forearc basin on the Boso Peninsula, Japan. The three main types are (1) folded muddy deposits, (2) chaotic muddy deposits, and (3) injected sandy deposits. Chaotic muddy deposits are dominant and are intruded by sandy deposits that locally contain abundant mudstone clasts, which are poorly sorted, and are lithologically similar to debris-flow deposits. Chaotic muddy deposits in the upper Kiwada Formation are interpreted to have formed in response to downslope movements of unconsolidated surface and shallow subsurface muddy deposits, and are locally associated with folded muddy deposits in their basal part. In contrast, chaotic muddy deposits in the lower Takamizo Formation locally show a diapir-like geometry indicative of vertical intrusion, and are laterally associated with muddy deposits that are folded as a result of dragging of the host muddy sediments. In sequence-stratigraphic terms, the development of the soft-sediment deformation structures is interpreted to have occurred during a lowstand to early rise in glacioeuatatic sea-level cycles during the early Pleistocene. Although we cannot confirm which factor was the most effective triggering mechanism for the generation of the soft-sediment deformation structures in the studied successions, the interplay between (1) the seepage of methane and fossil brine, and (2) seismic shaking during the lowstand and early rise in relative sea level is interpreted to have been important in the Kazusa forearc basin during the early Pleistocene.

  11. Tectonic Characteristics and Evolution of Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pengju; ZHANG Meisheng; SUN Xiaomeng; YANG Baojun

    2002-01-01

    Synthetical analyzing the deep geophysical data within Bohai bay basin the authors detect the deep crustal structure presenting high geothermal flux, thinned crust and arched Moho discontinuity, and the basin basement belongs to rigid continental crust. The development of the basin was controlled by two - dimensional faults in NNE and NWW directions. The tectonic units of the basin can be subdivided into three structural divisions: the east, middle and west division. The basin is considered as a continental rift. The tectonic background and regional right - lateral stress field during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene were a compound result of the Kula Plate W - directional subducting under Eurasia Continental Plate in 80 ~ 74Ma and the Philippine sea Plate W -directional subducting under the Eurasia Continental Plate since 60Ma, the long-rang effect of the India Continental Plate wedging into the Eurasia Continental Plate and of the Siberia Plate SE - directional relatively moving.

  12. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  13. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  14. Environmental settings of the South Fork Iowa River basin, Iowa, and the Bogue Phalia basin, Mississippi, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Rose, Claire E.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in different environmental settings were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's Agricultural Chemicals Team (ACT) at seven sites across the Nation, including the South Fork Iowa River basin in central Iowa and the Bogue Phalia basin in northwestern Mississippi. The South Fork Iowa River basin is representative of midwestern agriculture, where corn and soybeans are the predominant crops and a large percentage of the cultivated land is underlain by artificial drainage. The Bogue Phalia basin is representative of corn, soybean, cotton, and rice cropping in the humid, subtropical southeastern United States. Details of the environmental settings of these basins and the data-collection activities conducted by the USGS ACT over the 2006-10 study period are described in this report.

  15. Options for salinity mitigation in the Murray-Darling Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schrobback, Peggy; Adamson, David; Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin faces increasing pressure on water quantity and quality. In 2006-07, salt interception schemes implemented as part of the Murray–Darling Basin Salinity Management strategy removed over 470,000 tonnes of salt from the water supply, reducing the salinity of water flowing to Adelaide by about 200 EC units. However, the costs of salinity mitigation schemes are increasing. With possible continuing declines in average inflows, costs of salinity and salinity mitigation are...

  16. Late movement of basin-edge lobate scarps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, E. R.; Rothery, D. A.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.; Conway, S. J.; Anand, M.

    2017-05-01

    Basin-edge lobate scarps are a sub-type of tectonic shortening structure on the surface of Mercury that have formed at the edge of volcanic units that fill or partly fill impact basins. We have performed a global survey of these features and find that they are widespread in basins across the planet. We obtained model ages from crater size-frequency distribution analysis for a subset of our surveyed basins, for both the smooth plains infill and for the last resolvable tectonic activity on the associated basin-edge scarps. Our results indicate that some of these lobate scarps were still accumulating strain in the late Mansurian (approximately 1 Ga). From a photogeological assessment, we find that the orientations of these basin-edge lobate scarps are similar to those reported for the global population of lobate scarps in earlier studies, appearing to align ∼north-south at low latitudes and ∼east-west at higher latitudes. However, reassessing these landforms' orientation with artificially illuminated topographic data does not allow us to rule out the effect of illumination bias. We propose that these landforms, the result of crustal shortening in response to global contraction, formed along the interface between the basin floor and the smooth plains unit, which acted as a mechanical discontinuity along which shortening strains were concentrated.

  17. Groundwater Systems and Resources in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guangcai; LIANG Yongping; SU Xiaosi; ZHAO Zhenghong; TAO Zhengping; YIN Lihe; YANG Yuncheng; WANG Xiaoyong

    2008-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is.a large-scalesedimentary basin in northwestern China. The hydrostratigraphic units from bottom to top are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks, Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic clastic rocks and Cenozoic deposits. The total thickness is up to 6000 m. Three groundwater systems are present in the Ordos Basin, based on the geological settings, I.e. The karst groundwater system, the Cretaceous dastic groundwater system and the Quaternary groundwater system. This paper describes systematically the groundwater flow patterns of each system and overall assessment of groundwater resources.

  18. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  19. Lunar Pyroclastic Eruptions: Basin Volcanism's Dying Gasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Nahm, A.; McGovern, P. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    spatially isolated volcanic units, both confined within the central peak ring. One is a thin mare deposit to the north, and to the south is a 8.5 km long pyroclastic vent. The basin also a series of fractures, which exhibit complex cross-cutting relationships with each other and the basin floor materials, thereby offering clues about the timing of their formation. Some of these fractures widen as they cut across the uplifted peak ring, indicating that they are the surface manifestations of deep faulting and are younger. An orthogonal system of fractures in the southern basin floor outside of the peak ring is of particular interest because of its possible relationship to Schrodinger's basin volcanism. We are exploring the hypothesis that an expanding magma chamber once resided in this location, uplifted the basin floor, and formed these orthogonal fractures. Post-inflation, the reservoir was emptied via a propagating dike and sill complex that eventually surfaced at the location of the pyroclastic vent. [1] Saal et al. (2008) Nature; [2] Hauri et al. (2011) Science; [3] Saal et al. (2011) NASA Lunar Sci. Inst. Forum; [4] Delano (1986) JGR; [5] Head (1976) Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.; [6] McGovern & Litherland (2011) LPSC 42;McGovern et al. (2011) AGU Fall Session

  20. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  1. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  2. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  3. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. Polyphase basin evolution of the Vienna Basin inferred from 3D visualization of sedimentation setting and quantitative subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzed and visualized data from 210 wells using a MATLAB-based program (BasinVis 1.0) for 3D visualization of sediment distribution, thickness, and quantitative subsidence of the northern and central Vienna Basin. The sedimentation settings for selected horizons were visualized to 3D sediment distribution maps, isopach maps, and cross-sections. Subsidence of the study area resulted in 3D subsidence depth and rate maps of basement and tectonic subsidences. Due to the special position of the Vienna Basin, the basin evolution was influenced by the regional tectonics of surrounding units. The 2D/3D maps provided insights into the polyphase evolution of the Vienna Basin, which is closely related to changes in the changing regional stress field and the paleoenvironmental setting. In the Early Miocene, the sedimentation and subsidence were shallow and E-W/NE-SW trending, indicating the development of piggy-back basins. During the late Early Miocene, maps show wider sedimentation and abruptly increasing subsidence by sinistral strike-slip faults, which initiated the Vienna pull-apart basin system. The sediments of the Early Miocene were supplied through a small deltaic system entering from the south. After thin sedimentation and shallow subsidence of the early Middle Miocene, the development of the Vienna Basin was controlled and accelerated mainly by NE-SW trending synsedimentary normal faults, especially the Steinberg fault. From the Middle Miocene, the subsidence was decreasing overall, however the tectonic subsidence show regionally different patterns. This study suggests that a major tensional regime change, from transtension to E-W extension, caused laterally varying subsidence across the Vienna Basin. The Late Miocene was characterized by the slowing down of basement and tectonic subsidence. From the middle Middle to Late Miocene, enormous amount of sediments supplied by a broad paleo-Danube delta complex on the western flank of the basin. The latest

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  7. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. Research information needs on terrestrial vertebrate species of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins: a research, development, and application database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    1997-01-01

    Research information needs on selected invertebrates and all vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas in the United States were collected into a research, development, and application database as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. The database includes 482 potential research study topics on 232 individual...

  9. The Aquitaine basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biteau, J.-J.; Le Marrec, A.; Le Vot, M.; Masset, J.-M.

    2006-07-01

    The Aquitaine Basin is located in the southwest of France, between the Gironde Arch in the north and the Pyrenean Mountain Chain in the south. It is a triangular-shaped domain, extending over 35000km{sup 2}. From north to south, six main geological provinces can be identified: (1) the Medoc Platform located south of the Gironde Arch; (2) the Parentis sub-basin; (3) the Landes Saddle; (4) the North Aquitaine Platform; (5) the foreland of the Pyrenees (also known as the Adour, Arzacq and Comminges sub-basins); and (6) the Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt. Only the Parentis sub-basin, the foreland of the Pyrenean Chain and a minor part of the fold-and-thrust belt itself are proven hydrocarbon provinces. The Aquitaine Basin, in turn, is subdivided into four sub-basins - the Parentis, Adour-Arzacq, Tarbes and Comminges areas. The lozenge shape of these depocentres is related to the Hercynian tectonic framework of the Palaeozoic basement, reactivated during Early Cretaceous rifting. This rift phase aborted at the end of the Albian (prior to the development of an oceanic crust) in response to the beginning of the subduction of the Iberian plate under the European plate. During the Upper Cretaceous, continued subduction led to the creation of northwards-migrating flexural basins. In the Eocene, a paroxysmal phase of compression was responsible for the uplift of the Pyrenean Mountain Chain and for the thin-skinned deformation of the foreland basin. The resulting structuration is limited to the south by the internal core of the chain and to the north by the leading edge of the fold-and-thrust belt, where the Lacq and Meillon gas fields are located. Four main petroleum provinces have been exploited since the Second World War: (1) the oil-prone Parentis sub-basin and (2) salt ridges surrounding the Arzacq and Tarbes sub-basins; and (3) the gas-prone southern Arzacq sub-basin (including the external Pyrenean fold-and-thrust belt and the proximal foreland sub-basin) and (4

  10. Cuencas internacionales y usos sociales del agua: Formación de espacios de cooperación y conflicto: norte de México y oeste de Estados Unidos International Basins and Social Uses of Water: Creation of Spheres of Cooperation and Conflict: North of Mexico and West of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Samaniego López

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La línea de relación entre México y Estados Unidos tiene diferentes perspectivas de estudio. Pero pocas veces se ha incluido un análisis importante respecto a los usos sociales del agua, así como al contexto que engloba las relaciones de diplomacia por el mencionado tema. Ahora bien, el vínculo existente entre las cuencas internacionales y la formación del norte mexicano es que a partir del desarrollo del oeste estadunidense se establecieron acuerdos que beneficiaron a las dos partes. La incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías a finales de siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX y la formación de obras de irrigación en específico en el norte mexicano han estado entre los factores de desarrollo en zonas agrícolas. En este artículo se propone abordar el estudio de las cuencas compartidas con Estados Unidos y la formación del norte mexicano considerando las fortalezas y las discusiones propias de la relación por las cuencas compartidas.Relations between Mexico and the UnitedStates have been studied from various perspectives. But rarely has a meaningful analysis been included on the social uses of water or the context of the diplomatic relations regarding this issue. The link between international basins and the formation of the Mexican north is that as a result of the development of the American west, agreements were established that benefitted both countries. The incorporation of new technologies in the late 19th and early 20th century and the construction of irrigation works, specifically in the Mexican north, has been one of development factors in agricultural zones. This article seeks to study the basins shared with the United States and the formation of the Mexican north, taking into account the strengths and discussions of the relationship over shared basins.

  11. DELINEATION OF POLLUTION CONTROL UNITS IN TYPICAL CASE AREA IN THE TAIHU LAKE BASIN AND ITS OVERLOADING RATE OF WATER ENVIRONMENT%太湖流域典型区污染控制单元划分及其水环境载荷评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永年; 高俊峰; 陈垌烽; 许妍; 赵家虎

    2012-01-01

    污染控制单元是流域水质目标管理实施的基本单元。为实现流域水生态健康,针对太湖流域特征和太湖湖泊保护的要求,提出以流域水生态功能区为基础、水系完整性原则、管理可行性和可操作性原则、囊括影响受损水体的主要污染源原则、充分考虑现有控制断面原则等5项原则为太湖流域污染控制单元划分的基本原则,综合考虑汇水区、水生态功能区边界、水系分布及其流向、污染源、控制断面、县级与乡镇级行政边界等多个指标,在GIS空间分析的支持下进行太湖流域污染控制单元划分的总体技术思路;在划分技术体系的指导下,以兼具丘陵山区和平原地貌的湖州市及其上游的安徽省部分地区为案例研究区,在相关基础数据和空间方法的支持下,将其划分为12个污染控制单元,经过专家咨询、地方验证等多轮咨询反馈和实地察看以及管理试运行,表明污染控制单元划分结果具有较好的科学性和可操作性;进而评估了各污染控制单元COD、NH4-N、TN和TP污染物的水环境载荷特征,结果表明各单元污染超载严重。%The pollution control units are the base of the water quality targets management in basin scale.According to the protection requirements for the Taihu Lake and the Taihu Lake basin characteristics,the pollution control unit delineation system in the Taihu Lake basin was discussed.The pollution control unit delineation principles mainly include the principle of aquatic ecoregion being the basis,principle of river integrity,principle of management and operational feasibility,principle of including the most point and nonpoint sources of pollution,principle of trying to include the existing water quality monitoring section,etc.The main indicators of the pollution control unit delineation mainly include the subwatershed,level III aquatic ecoregion,distribution pattern and flow direction of river system

  12. Assessment of basin-scale hydrologic impacts of CO2 sequestration, Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Rupp, J.; Medina, C.; Lichtner, P.; Gable, C.; Pawar, R.; Celia, M.; McIntosh, J.; Bense, V.

    2010-01-01

    Idealized, basin-scale sharp-interface models of CO2 injection were constructed for the Illinois basin. Porosity and permeability were decreased with depth within the Mount Simon Formation. Eau Claire confining unit porosity and permeability were kept fixed. We used 726 injection wells located near 42 power plants to deliver 80 million metric tons of CO2/year. After 100 years of continuous injection, deviatoric fluid pressures varied between 5.6 and 18 MPa across central and southern part of the Illinois basin. Maximum deviatoric pressure reached about 50% of lithostatic levels to the south. The pressure disturbance (>0.03 MPa) propagated 10-25 km away from the injection wells resulting in significant well-well pressure interference. These findings are consistent with single-phase analytical solutions of injection. The radial footprint of the CO2 plume at each well was only 0.5-2 km after 100 years of injection. Net lateral brine displacement was insignificant due to increasing radial distance from injection well and leakage across the Eau Claire confining unit. On geologic time scales CO2 would migrate northward at a rate of about 6 m/1000 years. Because of paleo-seismic events in this region (M5.5-M7.5), care should be taken to avoid high pore pressures in the southern Illinois basin. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  14. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1): Basin Characteristics, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents basin characteristics, compiled for every catchment in NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. These characteristics are basin shape index, stream density, sinuosity, mean elevation, mean slope, and number of road-stream crossings. The source data sets are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's NHDPlus and the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris

  15. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Motivation RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis...... of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  16. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  17. Competition effects from cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) differs among perennial grasses of the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Competition from the exotic annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), threatens millions of hectares of native plant communities throughout the Great Basin. The Nature Conservancy has identified the Great Basin as the third most endangered ecosystem in the United States. Not only has increased fue...

  18. Composition of Rheasilvia Basin on Asteroid Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, Eleonora; DeSanctis, Maria Christina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Capria, Maria Teresa; Combe, Jean Philippe; Frigeri, Alessandro; Jaumann, Ralf; Longobardo, Andrea; Marchi, Somone; McCord, Thomas B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Stephan, Katrin; Tosi, Federico; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study is the compositional analysis of small-scale surface features within the Rheasil-Aa basin on asteroid Vesta. We are using data acquired by the Visible and InfraRed mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on the Dawn mission. Nominal spatial resolution of the data set considered in this study is 70m/px. The portion of Rheasil-Aa basin below 65degS has a howarditic composition, with the higher concentration of diogenitic versus eucritic material in the region between 45deg and 225degE-lon. However, there are several locations, such as craters Tarpeia and Severina and Parentatio Rupes, with lithologic characteristics different from the surroundings regions. Tarpeia crater has a eucritic patch in the west side of the crater, the bottom part ofthe wall and part of the floor. Severina, located in a region of Mg-rich pyroxene, has some diogenitic units on the walls of the crater. Also the Parentatio Rupes has an ob-AOUS diogenitic unit. These units extend for 10-20km, and their location, especially in the case of the two craters, suggests they formed before the cratering events and also before the Rheasil-Aa impact event. The origin of these units is still unclear; however, their characteristics and locations suggests heterogeneity in the composition of the ancient Vestan crust in this particular location of the surface.

  19. Water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Daniel; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2011-12-01

    In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin the Australian and state governments are attempting to introduce a system of water management that will halt ongoing decline in environmental conditions and resource security and provide a robust foundation for managing climate change. This parallels similar efforts being undertaken in regions such as southern Africa, the southern United States, and Spain. Central to the project is the Australian government's Water Act 2007, which requires the preparation of a comprehensive basin plan expected to be finalized in 2011. This paper places recent and expected developments occurring as part of this process in their historical context and examines factors that could affect implementation. Significant challenges to the success of the basin plan include human resource constraints, legislative tensions within the Australian federal system, difficulties in coordinating the network of water-related agencies in the six jurisdictions with responsibilities in the Murray-Darling Basin, and social, economic, and environmental limitations that restrict policy implementation.

  20. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  1. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zuliziana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2. In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2 and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2. The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and average correlation coefficient (r between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  2. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraiba Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Marcio M., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto; Goes, Ana M.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Ochoa, Felipe L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Departamento de Geologia

    2012-06-15

    Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraiba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono- sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraiba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic-rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraiba Basin. (author)

  3. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  4. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  5. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  6. Okanogan Basin Spring Spawner Report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

    2007-09-01

    The Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program collected data related to spring spawning anadromous salmonid stocks across the entire Okanogan River basin. Data were collected using redd surveys, traps, underwater video, and PIT-tag technology then summarized and analyzed using simple estimate models. From these efforts we estimated that 1,266 summer steelhead spawned in the Okanogan River basin and constructed 552 redds;152 of these fish where of natural origin. Of these, 121 summer steelhead, including 29 of natural origin, created an estimated 70 redds in the Canadian portion of the Okanagan basin. We estimated summer steelhead spawner escapement into each sub-watershed along with the number from natural origin and the number and density of redds. We documented redd desiccation in Loup Loup Creek, habitat utilization in Salmon Creek as a result of a new water lease program, and 10 spring Chinook returning to Omak Creek. High water through most of the redd survey period resulted in development of new modeling techniques and allowed us to survey additional tributaries including the observation of summer steelhead spawning in Wanacut Creek. These 2007 data provide additional support that redd surveys conducted within the United States are well founded and provide essential information for tracking the recovery of listed summer steelhead. Conversely, redd surveys do not appear to be the best approach for enumerating steelhead spawners or there distribution within Canada. We also identified that spawning distributions within the Okanogan River basin vary widely and stocking location may play an over riding roll in this variability.

  7. Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries manages a system of sanctuaries and othermanaged areas around the country. The legal boundaries of These sanctuaries...

  8. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  9. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  10. The coal-bearing Cenozoic As Pontes Basin (northwestern Spain): geological influence on coal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, L.; Hagemann, H.W.; Pickel, W.; Saez, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Geologia Dinamica, Geofisica i Paleontologia

    1995-03-01

    Lignite deposits in the Cenozoic As Pontes strike-slip basin (northwestern Spain) were formed as a function of specific paleoclimatic conditions and tectonic evolution of the basin. During the early evolutionary stages, the presence of active normal faults and thrusts inside the basin resulted in two subbasins with distinct differences in sedimentary records, with respect to lignite seam occurrence, thickness, areal extent and lithotype development. In contrast, during the late evolutionary stages the basin was not split and a more homogeneous sedimentary record in terms of coal seam occurrence and lithotype characteristics developed. A total of 26 lignite samples, distributed along the basin infill, were analyzed by organic petrography and geochemistry. All are lignite B (ASTM). The lignites deposited during lower basin infill sedimentation (unit 1 and 2) are dark, matrix-rich, mainly huminitic brown coals, with minor bright, liptinitic-rich coal lithotypes. The dark huminitic coals in these units show sedimentological and paleontological evidence of lacustrine influence. Lignites in the upper basin infill (Unit 4) are almost exclusively matrix-rich, huminitic brown coals. The overall coal petrological data trend recorded from the lower to the upper basin infill units agrees with the stratigraphic and sedimentological data, which show a trend of increasingly drier conditions. Development of bright, liptinite-enriched lignite layers was widespread during the early basin evolutionary stages and was influenced by punctuated water-table oscillations. Sedimentological, petrological and organic geochemical data suggest that, although the paleoenvironments where peat deposition took place did not undergo dramatic changes, they were affected by distinguishable variations, linked mostly to the evolution of basin morphology and basin water balance. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Balochistan basin of Pakistan deserves a second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, V.N.; Quadri, S.M.G.J.

    1996-09-23

    The event of UMC Pakistan, a unit of United Meridian Corp. of Houston, obtaining an exploration license covering 7,480 sq km in the Gwadar district off Makran in the Balochistan basin is good news. The extent of exploration surveys and drilling place this 300,000 sq km basin in the frontier category with confidence in the area speculative due to inadequate data, although hydrocarbon potential may be regarded as moderate to high by comparison with its analogs in other parts of the world. However, the presence along the Makran coast of spectacular volcanoes spewing gas charged water, if not anything else, justifies a second look, or rather a first for some parts, at the Balochistan basin. The paper describes the tectonics and geology, exploration results, source rocks, reservoir rocks, and play types.

  12. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  13. Frontier petroleum basins of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J.F. Jr.; Perez, V.E.

    1989-03-01

    The frontier basins of Colombia with hydrocarbon potential are numerous, have varying geological histories, and are in different stages of exploration development. In this paper, sedimentary or structural basins are classified as frontier petroleum basins if commercial discoveries of hydrocarbons are lacking, if the basin has not attained a high degree of exploration development, or if a new play concept has been perceived or developed for a portion of a mature exploration basin. Using these criteria for classification, the authors discuss the Cauca-Patia Choco-Pacifico, and Lower Magdalena basin complexes; the Cordillera Oriental foreland basin; and the Cesar-Rancheria, Sabana, and Amazonas basins. A comprehensive geological and structural setting of each of these frontier basins will be presented. The depositional and tectonic evolution of the basins will be highlighted, and the play concepts for each will be inventoried, catalogued, and categorized as to whether they are theoretical or established. The discussion of the available plays in each of these basins will include the main play concept elements of reservoirs traps, seals, source rocks, maturation, and timing. When detailed data permit, the reservoir and trap geometry will be presented.

  14. Natural frequency of regular basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  15. Uinta Basin Pneumatic Controller Research Project: Industry meeting slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstream oil and natural gas (ONG) production has increased significantly within Utah’s Uinta & Ouray (U&O) Basin and across the United States over the last decade. ONG extraction and production activities can co-emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a subset of which consists...

  16. Uinta Basin Pneumatic Controller Research Project: Industry meeting slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstream oil and natural gas (ONG) production has increased significantly within Utah’s Uinta & Ouray (U&O) Basin and across the United States over the last decade. ONG extraction and production activities can co-emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a subset of which consists...

  17. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  18. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  19. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...... accessible to enumerative algorithms. Availability The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html....

  20. Tertiary facies architecture in the Kutai Basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Steve J.; Chambers, John L. C.

    1999-04-01

    The Kutai Basin occupies an area of extensive accommodation generated by Tertiary extension of an economic basement of mixed continental/oceanic affinity. The underlying crust to the basin is proposed here to be Jurassic and Cretaceous in age and is composed of ophiolitic units overlain by a younger Cretaceous turbidite fan, sourced from Indochina. A near complete Tertiary sedimentary section from Eocene to Recent is present within the Kutai Basin; much of it is exposed at the surface as a result of the Miocene and younger tectonic processes. Integration of geological and geophysical surface and subsurface data-sets has resulted in re-interpretation of the original facies distributions, relationships and arrangement of Tertiary sediments in the Kutai Basin. Although much lithostratigraphic terminology exists for the area, existing formation names can be reconciled with a simple model explaining the progressive tectonic evolution of the basin and illustrating the resulting depositional environments and their arrangements within the basin. The basin was initiated in the Middle Eocene in conjunction with rifting and likely sea floor spreading in the Makassar Straits. This produced a series of discrete fault-bounded depocentres in some parts of the basin, followed by sag phase sedimentation in response to thermal relaxation. Discrete Eocene depocentres have highly variable sedimentary fills depending upon position with respect to sediment source and palaeo water depths and geometries of the half-graben. This contrasts strongly with the more regionally uniform sedimentary styles that followed in the latter part of the Eocene and the Oligocene. Tectonic uplift documented along the southern and northern basin margins and related subsidence of the Lower Kutai Basin occurred during the Late Oligocene. This subsidence is associated with significant volumes of high-level andesitic-dacitic intrusive and associated volcanic rocks. Volcanism and uplift of the basin margins

  1. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  2. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  3. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  4. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  5. DROUGHT ANALYSIS IN OZANA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina IOSUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  6. BasinVis 1.0: A MATLAB®-based program for sedimentary basin subsidence analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural mapping is important to understand the internal structure of sedimentary basins. Subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. We designed a new software package to process and visualize stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins from well data. BasinVis 1.0 is implemented in MATLAB®, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, and employs two numerical methods: interpolation and subsidence analysis. Five different interpolation methods (linear, natural, cubic spline, Kriging, and thin-plate spline) are provided in this program for surface modeling. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. BasinVis 1.0 incorporates five main processing steps; (1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), (2) loading well data, (3) stratigraphic setting visualization, (4) subsidence parameter input, and (5) subsidence analysis and visualization. For in-depth analysis, our software provides cross-section and dip-slip fault backstripping tools. The graphical user interface guides users through the workflow and provides tools to analyze and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. We demonstrate all functions in a case study of Miocene sediment in the central Vienna Basin.

  7. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  8. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  9. Coal assessments and coal research in the Appalachian basin: Chapter D.4 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal is one of our most important domestic energy resources, producing 37 percent of the Nation’s electricity in 2012. Coal mining within the Appalachian basin has been ongoing for three centuries and, cumulatively, the basin is the most productive coal region in the United States. In 2012, only the Powder River basin produced more coal than the Appalachian basin. Coal is the most important mined product within the basin, and research on the quality and quantity of the coal is one of the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State geological surveys of Alabama, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The USGS and the State geological surveys historically have worked together on coal research and assessment projects to achieve mutually beneficial science goals.

  10. Underworld and multi-basin heat flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenette, S. M.; O'Neill, C.; Moresi, L. N.; Danis, C. R.; Mansour, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present an over arching method for non-linear heat flow assessments of large, multi-basin systems. Our example is the Sydney-, Gunnedah-, Bowen basins (Danis et al 2011), which covers an area of 800kms by 1900kms and depth of 5kms, on the east coast of Australia. It is used as a baseline towards further fluid and structural geodynamics oriented analysis. In contrast to reservoir scale geothermal models - basin, multi-basin and towards lithosphere scale models exhibit their own challenges in terms of physical/rheological behaviour and computational tractability. For instance we model a non-linear heat flow by means of temperature dependent conductivity, as indicated by Clauser and Huenges (1995), which allows crystalline basement rocks, such as granites, to show for example a significant decrease in conductivity from ambient temperature up to around 400C, dropping from around 3 mK**(units) to around 2. For this modelling, a specialisation of the geodynamics code 'Underworld' (Moresi et al 2007) called Underworld-GT is used. A toolbox is added to the otherwise un-touched Underworld code adding geothermal workflow and context to Underworld. A particular novel feature is the ability to load stratigraphic layers, and/or GoCAD or GeoModeller voxel sets as the constraining geological geometry, whilst allowing the heat assessment models to scale from 1 process to 1000s. Another is the ability to prescribe synthetic drill holes, and its use in stochastic-oriented assessments of model parameters. Following the Underworld platform's approach and its simple PDE abstraction layer, these model configurations from a baseline for further additions to the governing equations such as fluid flow and structure, enabling a bridge between reservoir and continental scale dynamics, albeit with their own computational challenges.

  11. GEMAS results from the Pannonian Basin - geochemical signatures in a transnational geological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Edith; Jordan, Gyozo; Slaninka, Igor; Sorsa, Ajka; Gulan, Aleksandra; Gosar, Mateja; Hratovic, Hazim; Klos, Volodymyr

    2014-05-01

    The Pannonian Basin, also referred to as Carpathian Basin, has its geological origins in the Pannonian Sea which was part of the Parathetys Sea, from which it was separated around 10 Ma ago. It spreads over large part of the southeastern part of Central Europe. The centre of the Pannonian Basin is located in Hungary and extends to the adjoining countries Austria, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The basin is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides and the Balkan mountains. The Pannonian Basin is filled by Molasse sediments, which were deposited during the Alpine orogenesis and originating from the rising Alpine and Carpathian Mountain chains. The orogenesis continued during the sedimentation into the Molasse basin. The tectonic movements resulted in several cycles of trans- and regressions of the Parathetys, the sedimentation of marine and freshwater sediments as well as a multitude of fractures and cleavages during the orogensis and the subsidence of different parts of the basin. Even if the Pannonian Basin was formed during a complex orogenesis, it can be regarded as a geo- and hydrodynamic unit. In accordance with the geological history, the soils in the Pannonian Basin developed on loose sediments - including significant loess deposits - and are dominated by soil types which also reflect the continental and steppe climate in this area - Planosols, Luvisols, Cambisols, Calcisols, Chernozems and Phaeozems. The basin is extensively used for agricultural purposes. The geochemical patterns Pannonian Basin are considerably different compared to its surroundings due to its geological development. The spatial distribution of some elements (REE (La, Ce), Y, Th, V, Cd, Pb) are clearly different inside and outside the basin area. For this transnational geological and geographical area, the GEMAS results are compiled and multivariate statistics are applied to find common geochemical signatures in relation

  12. The Middle Ordovician Knox unconformity in the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of well core and cuttings from the Black Warrior Basin in Mississippi reveals the presence of a Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) erosional unconformity interpreted to be equivalent to the well-known Knox-Beekmantown unconformity in eastern North America. The unconformity occurs at the top of a peritidal dolostone unit known informally as the upper dolostone, whose stratigraphic placement has been the subject of a long-standing controversy. The unconformity, which represents the Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary on the North American craton, was previously thought to be short-lived or altogether absent in the Black Warrior Basin.

  13. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    the Dnieper-Donets basin. Discovered reserves of the system are 1.6 billion barrels of oil and 59 trillion cubic feet of gas. More than one-half of the reserves are in Lower Permian rocks below the salt seal. Most of remaining reserves are in upper Visean-Serpukhovian (Lower Carboniferous) strata. The majority of discovered fields are in salt-cored anticlines or in drapes over Devonian horst blocks; little exploration has been conducted for stratigraphic traps. Synrift Upper Devonian carbonate reservoirs are almost unexplored. Two identified source-rock intervals are the black anoxic shales and carbonates in the lower Visean and Devonian sections. However, additional source rocks possibly are present in the deep central area of the basin. The role of Carboniferous coals as a source rock for gas is uncertain; no coal-related gas has been identified by the limited geochemical studies. The source rocks are in the gas-generation window over most of the basin area; consequently gas dominates over oil in the reserves. Three assessment units were identified in the Dnieper-Donets Paleozoic total petroleum system. The assessment unit that contains all discovered reserves embraces postrift Carboniferous and younger rocks. This unit also contains the largest portion of undiscovered resources, especially gas. Stratigraphic and combination structural and stratigraphic traps probably will be the prime targets for future exploration. The second assessment unit includes poorly known synrift Devonian rocks. Carbonate reef reservoirs along the basin margins probably will contain most of the undiscovered resources. The third assessment unit is an unconventional, continuous, basin-centered gas accumulation in Carboniferous low-permeability clastic rocks. The entire extent of this accumulation is unknown, but it occupies much of the basin area. Resources of this assessment unit were not estimated quantitatively.

  14. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  16. CRISM Analyses of Noachian Stratigraphy in Argyre Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Murchie, S.; Seelos, F.; Malaret, E.; Hash, C.; CRISM Team

    2007-12-01

    The Argyre basin is a >1500 km, well preserved impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars and the geologic units associated with the basin are mostly Noachian in age (Scott and Tanaka, 1986). Thus, Argyre is an ideal location to characterize the stratigraphy of ancient highland rocks. We analyzed 72-channel CRISM multispectral data that had been map projected to 256 ppd into 40 5-degree map tiles. The data were corrected for illumination by dividing by the cosine of the solar incidence angle. A multiplicative correction for atmospheric gas absorption was applied (Bibring et al., 2005). Spectrally distinct regions were identified by calculating summary parameters (Pelkey et al., 2007); spectra of key areas were examined in detail. A scarp is roughly associated with a contact between the Hpl3 and Npld units in NW Argyre. At the top of the scarp (unit Hpl3) CRISM has detected an olivine signature associated with a depression. Phyllosilicates have been identified extending laterally along the scarp, related to unit Npld (dissected impact breccias). Below the phyllosilicates are found deposits of high-Ca pyroxene hugging scarps in unit Npld. High-Ca pyroxene is also identified in unit Npl1 (undissected impact breccias), at the same stratigraphic level of the Npld pyroxenes. A high-standing knob in Npl1 has a phyllosilicate signature. CRISM investigations also support previous studies by OMEGA, which identified olivine and pyroxene in north Argyre (Gondet et al., 2007). A correlation appears between the low-Ca pyroxene/olivine exposures and the hills of unit Nplh, the oldest geologic unit in Argyre interpreted as uplifted by tectonism during the formation of the impact basin (Scott and Tanaka, 1986). We suggest that as a group these deposits reveal the stratigraphy of the Noachian crust in this region. At the bottom of the stratigraphic column are olivine and low-Ca pyroxene associated with uplifted ancient rocks (unit Nplh). Above these deposits are high

  17. Continental rift-setting and evolution of Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin in NW-India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stefan Schöbel; Kamal K Sharma; Thorsten Hörbrand; Theresa Böhm; Ines Donhauser; Helga de Wall

    2017-08-01

    The Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin, NW India, and its surrounding area represent a half graben structure situated between the undeformed Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) in the west and a corridor of coeval Cryogenian ductile deformation, anatexis and granite intrusion in the east. The main lithologies observed in the basin are conglomerate, fanglomerate, debris flow and lake deposits derived from a nearby continental provenance, intercalated with concurrent mafic and felsic lava flows. Based on geological traverses across the strike of the basin, we propose a three-fold classification comprising Lower Clastic Unit and an Upper Clastic Unit and a Bimodal (basalt–rhyolite) Volcanic Unit separating the two. Tilting due to basin inversion and faulting has been observed; however, the rocks are unmetamorphosed and show undisturbed primary sedimentary features. The stratigraphic record of the basin is characteristic for deposition and magmatism in a fault-related continental setting. Implications of the findings have been discussed in the context of Neoproterozoic crustal dynamics in NW India. This study provides conclusive evidence for a continental setting for Sindreth Basin evolution and contests the recent models of active subduction setting (either back-arc basin or accretionary sediments over a subduction zone).

  18. Chapter 18: Geology and petroleum potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province represents the northeastern-most cratonic block of Eastern European Russia. More than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered in this basin. Three geological assessment units (AU) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. The NW Izhma Depression AU encompasses all potential structures and reservoirs in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, but this part of the basin contains little source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively. The Main Basin Platform AU includes all structures and reservoirs that developed in the central part of the basin where the tectonic evolution and development of petroleum systems were complex. The Foredeep Basins AU includes all potential reservoirs within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins developed during the Permo-Triassic Uralian Orogeny. For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG and 0.3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids (BBNGL). For the areas of the AUs north of the Arctic Circle in the Timan- Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG and 0.2 BBNGL. The Pechora Sea was assessed with the South Barents Sea Province and is not included in this assessment. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  20. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  1. The coordination of regional interest in developing river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiangman

    2006-01-01

    River basin is a special region with the characteristics of entirety and relation, regionality and diversity,gradation and network, openness and dissipation etc. It is an important unit that organizes and governs national economy as well as a natural region. In river basin, all natural essential factors relate closely each other, and there is remarkable influence between inter-regions. In the process of developing river basin, the multiplex main interest body,the diverse interest demand and the multi-ways of interest realization constitute a complicated interest network, and result in various contradictions and conflicts. Therefore, effective regional interest coordination mechanism should be established to coordinate various regional interest relations. They are the public interest realization mechanism, the fair interest assignment mechanism, the effective interest integration mechanism, the expedited interest expression mechanism and the reasonable interest compensative mechanism.

  2. Architecture and depositional development of the Eocene deep-marine Morillo and Coscojuela formations, Ainsa Basin, Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, F.; McCann, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The Aínsa Basin of northern Spain contains a deep-marine succession comprising up to 24 sandstone bodies separated by thick marl-rich units. A detailed analysis of nine outcrops (>900m of sediment profiles) from the Morillo Formation of the San Vicente Group, from the upper part of the basin success

  3. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  4. Tectonosedimentary evolution model of an intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin for paleoclimatic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiuyi; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Song, Chunhui; Yan, Maodu; Appel, Erwin; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Yibo; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-01

    system, and finally to an outflow system by the Quaternary onset of the Yellow River in the basin. Concurrent are rapid rotation of the basin, occurrence of growth strata and late unconformities, widespread expansion of boulder conglomerates, great decreasing and increasing sedimentation rates above and before the hanging wall of the fault-fold system and new supplementary provenance from the thrust-fold system. This demonstrates that in stable climate, same lithologic units such as distinct lacustrine sediments and alluvial conglomerates will migrate basinwards with the foredeep moving into basin, causing a great diachroneity and often misleads to recognize the same lithologic unit in space as one unit in time. A dynamic model is presented that should help to avoid such pitfalls in tectonic basin evolution, especially concerning stratigraphic correlation and paleoclimatic change research.

  5. Identifying and Characterizing Impact Melt Outcrops in the Nectaris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lawerence, S. J.; Petro, N. E.; Bart, G. D.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Denevi, B. W.; Ghent, R. R.; Klima, R. L.; Morgan, G. A.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Nectaris Basin is an 820-km diameter, multi-ring impact basin located on the near side of the Moon. Nectaris is a defining stratigraphic horizon based on relationships between ejecta units, giving its name to the Nectarian epoch of lunar history. Lunar basin chronology based on higher resolution LRO imagery and topography, while assigning some important basins like Serenitatis to pre-Nectarian time, were generally consistent with those previously derived. Based on this stratigraphy, at least 11 large basins formed in the time between Nectaris and Imbrium. The absolute age of Nectaris, therefore, is a crucial marker in the lunar time-stratigraphic sequence for understanding the impact flux on the Moon, and by extension, the entire inner solar system. For several decades, workers have attempted to constrain the age of the Nectaris basin through radiometric dating of lunar samples. However, there is little agreement on which samples in our collection represent Nectaris, if any, and what the correct radiometric age of such samples is. The importance of the age of Nectaris goes far beyond assigning a stratigraphic marker to lunar chronology. Several dynamical models use Nectaris as their pin date, so that this date becomes crucial in understanding the time-correlated effects in the rest of the solar system. The importance of the Nectaris basin age, coupled with its nearside, mid-latitude location, make remnants of the impact-melt sheet an attractive target for a future mission, either for in-situ dating or for sample return. We have started exploring this possibility. We have begun a consortium data-analysis effort bringing multiple datasets and analysis methods to bear on these putative impact-melt deposits to characterize their extent, elemental composition and mineralogy, maturity and geologic setting, and to identify potential landing sites that meet both operational safety and science requirements.

  6. The birth of the Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2017-05-01

    The stratigraphic succession of a forearc basin provides crucial information on the history of a convergent plate margin. In particular, it helps to establish the origin of the underlying ophiolites and to unravel the earliest evolutionary stage of arc-trench systems, which remain poorly understood. The Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet is one of the best examples of a fossil forearc basin. This study illustrates detailed stratigraphic and high-precision SIMS U-Pb zircon geochronological and Hf isotopic data from the Chongdui Formation, representing the very base of the Xigaze forearc-basin succession, and reconstructs when and how the basin was formed. The Chongdui Formation includes tuffaceous chert and siliceous mudrocks deposited directly on top of pillow basalts of the Xigaze ophiolite and conformably overlain by volcaniclastic turbidites. Tuff layers are interbedded throughout the unit, and their U-Pb zircon ages range from 119 to 113 Ma in the lower member and from 113 to 110 Ma in the upper member, broadly consistent with the established radiolarian biostratigraphy. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope signatures of zircons contained in both tuff layers and turbiditic sandstones indicate clear affinity with magmatic rocks of the Lhasa terrane. Direct depositional and chronostratigraphic relationship with the underlying oceanic crust, dated between 131 and 124 Ma, proves that the Xigaze ophiolite is the basement of the Xigaze forearc basin. After an initial prolonged stage of starved siliceous sedimentation, influx of terrigenous detritus began at 113-110 Ma, reflecting the onset of topographic growth and erosion of the Lhasa terrane in response to intense magmatic activity. Formation of the ophiolitic basement during the early stage of subduction and the subsequent topographic growth of the arc source induced by subduction-related magmatism are thus two critical factors for the birth of the Xigaze forearc basin. Similar stratigraphies were identified in the Great

  7. Magnetic fabrics in tectonically inverted sedimentary basins: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lasanta, Cristina; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Soto, Ruth; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther

    2017-04-01

    , Iberian Range); ii) transport along the hangingwall of thrusts with very slight internal deformation (Organyà basin, Central Pyrenees); iii) record of incipient compressive strain and foliation development (Cabuerniga basin, Basque-Cantabrian Basin; Lusitanian basin, W Portugal); iv) complete inversion associated with a remarkable transport along the hangingwall of thrusts and relatively large internal deformation (Cameros basin, Iberian Range); and v) major folding and flattening linked to foliation (Mauléon basin, Northern Pyrenees; Nogueres unit, Pyrenean Axial Zone).

  8. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  9. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages from the Late Paleozoic Turpan-Hami Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mao; Jianghai Li; Huatian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Permian volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the Turpan-Hami Basin, which is part of the Central Asian orogenic belt. Here we present SHRIMP zircon data for the rhyolite in Well Baocan 1, one of the deepest wells in the basin. The 283.9±2.7 Ma reported in our study provides the best precise age determination for the Yierxitu Formation, the oldest Permian layer of Hami Depression, one of the three substructural units of the Turpan-Hami Basin, and a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in this ba-sin. Our data refines earlier imprecise39Ar-40Ar ages and shows that the volcanic rocks both inside the Turpan-Hami Basin and along its margin are almost coeval. We delineate a collisional orogenesis, and the new age of 283.9±2.7 Ma may limit the latest time of the collision orogenesis.

  10. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment to protect “The Champion” lands in Essex County, Vermont, Options for protecting the Nulhegan Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to establish a Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio 0. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge to provide...

  12. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  13. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    In North China, the Mesozoic terrestrial basins, sedimentary palaeogeography and tectonic settings involved ifve evolutionary stages:(1) the Early-Middle Triassic, (2) the Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic, (3) the Late Jurassic to early Early Cretaceous, (4) the middle-late Early Cretaceous and (5) the Late Cretaceous. The regional punctuated tectonic events occurred during these evolutionary stages. During the Early-Middle Triassic (stage 1), the Xingmeng Orogenic Belt (XMOB, i.e., east-ern part of Central Asia Orogenic Belt, CAOB) of the northern North China was settled in the transition of tectonic environment from syn-orogenic compression to post-orogenic extension with intensive uplifting. It is a main provenance in the uniifed Ordos-North China Basin.The united continental plate of China and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogenic Belt formed due to convergence and collision between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate along two suture zones of the Mianlue and the Shangdan in the terminal Middle Triassic. During the Late Triassic to the Early-Middle Jurassic (stage 2), the Late Triassic maifc or alkaline rocks and intrusions occurred on the northern and southern margins of North China Craton (NCC) and XMOB, implying that intensiifed extension happened all over the North China (early phase of stage 2). Additionally, in the late phase of stage 2, the basic volcanic-iflling faulted basins were widely distributed in the northeastern North China during the Early-Middle Jurassic, including a series of small-to medium-sized basins with coal-bearing strata and some volcanic rocks in other areas of North China, which was the result of subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate during the Early-Middle Jurassic. An active continental margin with accretionary complex developed in the eastern Heilongjiang of China, Japan and the Far East of Russia at that time. However, in the end of the Early-Middle Jurassic, because of the Yan-shanian orogeny characterized by

  14. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  15. The Amazon basin in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  16. Advancements in understanding the aeromagnetic expressions of basin-margin faults—An example from San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets. Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets.

  17. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  18. Tectonic Features and Its Control Over Oil and Gas in Beibuwan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Dianzhong

    1995-01-01

    @@ Main part of Beibuwan Basin located in Beibuwan Bay, South China Sea, is a Cenozoic basin with mainly of Tertiary sedimentation. It is dissected into tectonic framework of interchange of multi-sag and multiuplift units by two groups of big riff with NE and NW trend. The fault sags resulted from the fault dissection are Weixinan, Wushi, Maichen, Fushan (on Hainan Island )etc. (Fig. 1).

  19. Topographic-Compositional Relationships within the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Holtzmann, J.; Blewett, D. T.; Taylor, G. J.; Hawke, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin is an immense structure that dominates the geology of much of the farside of the Moon. Its floor is composed mostly of impact deposits, though it also has numerous relatively small regions of mare basalt. The basin floor exhibits a lower albedo and higher mafic mineral abundance than the surrounding highlands [ I ]. The origin of this mafic anomaly is a major question in lunar geology. Hypotheses for the presence of the mafic anomaly were briefly reviewed in [2] and include mare deposits mixed and obscured by basin or crater ejecta (cryptomaria), a large impact melt sheet that may have differentiated, exposed lower crustal material, and a significant component of excavated mantle. A study of mineralogy as revealed in Clementine UV-VIS imagery for limited portions of the basin found a predominantly low-Capyroxene (noritic) character [2], ruling out cryptomaria as an important contributor to the mafic enhancement. A few small cryptomaria, revealed by dark-halo impact craters and light plains units with high-FeO contents, have been found in SPA; however, it appears that extensive cryptomaria are lacking in this basin. The uniformly noritic lithology within SPA led to favor exposed lower crust or a homogenized melt sheet as the explanation for the mafic anomaly. Models of basin formation predict that a basin the size of SPA should have excavated through the entire lunar crust (assuming nonoblique impact), potentially exposing or mixing a large component of material from the mantle. Comparison of SPA floor FeO and Ti02 (derived from Clementine UV-VIS observations) and also Th (from Lunar Prospector) with model-mantle chemistries appears to be consistent with a mixture of approximately equal proportions of lower-crust and mantle material. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the basin's topography and composition in order to provide further insight on the origin of the basin floor material. Data: Clementine UV

  20. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  1. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  2. Geohydrology of the San Agustin Basin, Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and upper Gila Basin in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R.G.; Everheart, J.T.; Wilson, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The San Agustin Basin, the Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and the upper Gila Basin are located in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra Counties in west-central New Mexico. Four major aquifers are within the study area: (1) the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer; (2) the Datil aquifer; (3) the shallow upland aquifers; and (4) the Alamosa Creek shallow aquifer. Two minor aquifers, the Baca Formation at the northern edge of the San Agustin Basin and a basalt to basaltic andesite unit overlying the Datil Group, yield some water to wells. Sixty-three vertical electrical- resistivity soundings were used to estimate the depth to bedrock and the saline/freshwater interface in the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer. The dissolved-solids concentration of ground-water samples ranged from 74 to 23,500 milligrams per liter. The dominant cations varied; the dominant anion of freshwater generally was bicarbonate. Point-of-discharge temperatures of well or spring water that exceed 21 degrees Celsius are associated with faults in the areas of shallow or exposed bedrock. The dissolved-solids concentration of this warm water ranged from 120 to 1,200 milligrams per liter.

  3. Basin formation on Mercury: Caloris and the origin of its low-reflectance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross W. K.; Head, James W.

    2017-09-01

    The ∼1500 km diameter Caloris basin is the largest, most well-preserved impact structure on Mercury. The interior of Caloris contains an enigmatic geological unit at depth subsequently excavated by smaller impacts - low-reflectance material (LRM). LRM is interpreted to be the original basin floor material and be composed of melted and re-crystallized mantle material. In this work, a comprehensive numerical modeling study of Caloris basin formation is undertaken to provide insight into basin formation on Mercury (which may differ to that on the Moon), and to address the origin of the LRM. Analysis of the modeled basin attributes demonstrates that the Caloris impact would have penetrated to depths approaching the core/mantle boundary, excavating mantle material to the surface and producing melt volumes on the order of 107 km3. Such a melt volume could differentiate, forming a layer (buried beneath later volcanism) that could be the LRM, in agreement with previous spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, LRM deposits at other smaller basins on Mercury may also represent impact melted mantle material. A comparison to lunar basin counterparts demonstrates that basin formation on Mercury is similar to that on the Moon. This observation suggests that the observed difference in the number of large basins between the two bodies (fewer on Mercury) is due to processes that modify basins (i.e., greater impact melt volume and more extensive volcanism on Mercury), rather than first-order impact process differences. The greater average impact velocity and gravity exert a slight effect on some basin properties, including an increased excavation depth-to-transient crater diameter ratio on Mercury.

  4. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  5. STRATIGRAPHY AND SEDIMENTARY HISTORY OF THE PLIO-PLEISTOCENE SANT'ARCANGELO BASIN, OUTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ZAVALA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Defined as a piggyback basin, the Plio-Pleistocene Sant'Arcangelo basin is one of the more recent onshore sedimentary basin of the Southern Apennines. Extensive field studies allow to reinterpret the whole stratigraphy of the basin in a more simple and significant way. Five unconformity-bounded units ("groups" have been recognised : The (1 Catarozzo Group (late Pliocene unconformably overlies pre-Miocene units, and it is composed of a flood-dominated fan-delta marine (C1 and restricted-marine (C2 systems bounded by a sharp contact with a total thickness up to 650 meters. The (2 Aliano Group (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene includes an up to 1,400 meters thick succession of flood-dominated fan-delta systems, with facies ranging from poorly organised alluvial conglomerates in the west to massive marine mudstones in the east. Two sub-units have been recognised, bounded by a regional unconformity, which shows an abrupt passage from marine (A1 to restricted-marine (A2 conditions. The (3 Tursi Group (early-middle Pleistocene reaches a thickness of 500 meters. It is composed of two sub-units, corresponding to alluvial fan (T1 and fan-delta (T2 systems. The alluvial facies of T2 (conglomerates outcrop extensively in the Sant'Arcangelo basin, with equivalent flood-dominated shelfal sandstone lobes broadly developed in the Tursi area (Metaponto basin. The (4 Profico and (5 Montalbano Jonico groups (middle Pleistocene are partially time equivalents, and were developed in both sides of the Valsinni structure, which divided an early, broader Sant'Arcangelo basin into two sub-basins, the present "Sant'Arcangelo" and "Metaponto" basins. The Profico Group has a thickness of up to 300 m and consists of lacustrine strata overlying in angular unconformity the Tursi Allogroup in the "Sant'Arcangelo basin". The Montalbano Jonico Group on the other hand is made up of up to 300 m of fine-grained marine strata unconformably overlying the Tursi Group in the "Metaponto

  6. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  7. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  8. Leveraging Somali Basin Magnetic Anomalies to Constrain Gondwana Breakup and Early Indian Ocean Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. K.; Lawver, L. A.; Norton, I. O.; Gahagan, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Somali Basin, found between the Horn of Africa and Madagascar was formed during the rifting of East and West Gondwana. Understanding the evolution of the basin has historically been hindered by enigmatic seafloor fabric and an apparent paucity of magnetic anomaly data. Recent iterations of satellite gravity data have revealed nearly complete fracture zones as well as a distinct extinct spreading ridge within the basin. Through a thorough compilation of available Somali Basin shiptrack profiles, we have been able to successfully model and interpret magnetic anomalies with exceptional detail. This complication is unrivaled in completeness and provides unprecedented insight into basin formation. Using this high quality data, we have interpreted magnetic anomalies M0r (120.8 Ma) to M24Bn (152.43 Ma) about the extinct ridge. The interpreted Somali Basin spreading rate and spreading direction, through anomaly M15n (135.76 Ma), are similar to those observed in the neighboring coeval Mozambique Basin. This similarity suggests that East Gondwana separated from West Gondwana as a cohesive unit, and that the internal rifting of East Gondwana began later around 135 Ma. Our magnetic anomaly interpretations have been combined with additional magnetic interpretations from around the Indian Ocean to build a regionally consistent plate model of Gondwana breakup and early Indian Ocean formation. This plate model will be crucial for future efforts unraveling a precise history of East Gondwana fragmentation and constraining the formation of the Enderby Basin offshore East Antarctica and Bay of Bengal offshore East India.

  9. Evidence for an intra-Oligocene compressive event in the Marseille-Aubagne basins (SE France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, M.; Nury, D.; Arihac, P.; Gartner, A.; Linnemann, U.; Pantaine, L.

    2016-10-01

    An Oligocene tectonic event has been suspected as the origin of thrusts and folds in several Oligocene troughs and basins of Provence, including the Marseille-Aubagne basins. Deformations are generally assumed to be to a post Oligocene extensional event. The Marseille-Aubagne basins are geographically and stratigraphically separated into three basins (Jarret, Prado and Aubagne) with each of them exhibiting their own sedimentary succession. However, each of the successions includes two main units: - The lower unit which includes several formations attributed to the Rupelian age. All of these sediments are strongly or slightly deformed depending on their location with respect to the main faults. - The upper unit which includes formations of mainly Chattian age. They are undeformed or slightly deformed. Geological sections across the southern Prado basin show a succession of anticlines and synclines. Additionally the thrusting of the Carpiagne massif over the Prado basin has been evidenced since 1952. These deformations are here related to a compressional event According to palaeontological data, the latest deformed strata are ascribed to the Late Rupelian, whereas the earliest undeformed strata are ascribed to the Latest Rupelian. This is in accordance with age determinations on detrital zircons extracted from the latest deformed sandstone, and from the youngest age of detrital zircons from the undeformed sandstone. Thus, the stratigraphic limit between the deformed and undeformed formations should be set around the Rupelian / Chattian limit (28.1 Ma) according to the latest chronostratigraphic chart. Finally, we discuss correlations with similar events occurring around the Mediterranean area. (Author)

  10. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  11. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  12. Stratigraphy and Ar/Ar geochronology of the Miocene lignite-bearing Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin, western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, C.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Billor, M. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is one of the Neogene basins containing economic coal deposits in western Anatolia, Turkey. The basin fill represents fluvial to lacustrine sedimentary units which are interlayered with volcanic rocks with bimodal composition. In order to reveal the stratigraphy and the exact ages of the basin fill and coal deposits, and to explore the tectonic evolution of the basin, we present new field data and Ar/Ar age data from the volcanic units. The field studies and the age data indicate that the whole basin fills were deposited between ~23 and ~19 Ma (Aquitanian-Early Burdigalian) without any unconformity. Taking into account the ages of the coal-bearing sedimentary units in the other Neogene basins in the region, it is concluded that most of the economic coal deposits in the western Anatolia were formed during Aquitanian. The field studies also show that the deposition of the sedimentary units in the basin was controlled by the NE-SW-trending strike- to oblique-slip normal faults. In a regional scale, tectonic evolution of the Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is linked to the differential stretching in the hanging wall of the southerly located, a crustal-scale low-angle detachment fault (the Simav detachment fault) that controlled the Early Miocene exhumation of the Menderes Extensional Core Complex.

  13. Genesis and evolution of a syn-orogenic basin in transpression: Insights from petrography, geochemistry and Sm Nd systematics in the Variscan Pedroches basin (Mississippian, SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz, Maider; López-Guijarro, Rafael; Quesada, Cecilio; Pin, Christian; Bellido, Félix

    2008-12-01

    The Pedroches basin is an outstanding syn-orogenic Variscan (Mississippian) depocenter, located in the vicinity of, and overstepping onto the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian) suture between the Ossa Morena and Central Iberian zones of the SW Iberian Massif. Its formation appears to be related to transtensional processes at a major releasing bend in the reactivated suture during sinistral escape of the Ossa Morena Zone from the zone of frontal Variscan collision between northern Gondwana and Laurussia. Subsequent basin inversion resulted in compartmentalization and internal deformation, and was probably related to transpression at a restraining bend along the reactivated suture (Badajoz-Córdoba shear zone). Basin fill consists of both igneous and metasedimentary rocks generally deposited in a shallow marine, storm-dominated platform environment. By using new petrographic, geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic data, we attempt to characterize: 1) the sources and geological evolution of the Pedroches basin fill, and 2) the processes involved in basin development and sediment supply and dispersal. Sampling was carried out in both sedimentary and igneous rocks belonging to three major structural units within the central part of the basin: Guadiato unit, Guadalbarbo unit and South Pedroches Valley unit. The combined Nd isotopic and geochemical data from the Pedroches Mississippian metasedimentary rocks indicate an upper continental crust provenance and a high degree of sedimentary recycling of these materials throughout the basin; i.e., they are derived from old, recycled upper crust without any significant juvenile component despite the presence of interbedded basaltic rocks. The igneous rocks in turn correspond to submarine basalts and trachy-andesitic basalts plus some hybrid rocks including crust-derived components. Concerning the mafic rocks, major element compositions reveal a tholeiitic and transitional tholeiitic character for the Guadalbarbo unit rocks (MORB type) and an

  14. Monitoring and design of stormwater control basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.; Parrish, J.H.; Jennings, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The City of Austin, Texas, has played a pioneering role in the control of urban nonpoint source pollution by enacting watershed and stormwater ordinances, overseeing detailed monitoring programs, and improving design criteria for stormwater control methods. The effectiveness of the methods used in Austin, and perhaps in other areas of the United States, to protect urban water resources has not yet been fully established. Therefore, detailed monitoring programs capable of quantitatively determining the effectiveness of control methods and of stormwater ordinances, are required. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the City of Austin's stormwater monitoring program, including previous monitoring programs with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey, and to describe the relation of monitoring to design of stormwater control basins.

  15. Tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin, offshore the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2012-04-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin development, located offshore the Argentinean margin, was carried out. This was achieved through the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles, spanning a dense grid on the shelf and the upper-slope of the basin. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement and deepens gradually southwards. U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) fills regional depressions, onlapping the basement, and it thickens and deepens southwards. U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults, which have a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have been developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions. (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic) and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the opening of the South Atlantic during Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Some syn-rift faults continue into the Cretaceous. Sedimentation in this unit is mainly derived from the north and during Mid-Cretaceous also from the northeast, as documented by the presence of a southwestward prograding sedimentary fan located in the northeast of the basin. U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformly U3 and thickens to the south. Sediment input decreases dramatically during that time and only a thin sedimentary succession was deposited over the entire basin. Although a regional compressional regime is established from late Cretaceous to Cenozoic due to the Andean orogenesis, an extensional regime

  16. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  17. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  18. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  19. Construction of a cooling water inlet system with settling basin of Derna power plant station (Libya)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmann, R.; Heimburg, A.M. von; Sinner, H.

    1985-03-01

    Construction of a cooling water intake system with settling basin. The extension of the power station at Derna, in Libya, necessitated the construction of a new cooling water intake system including screening facilities and a settling basin. Construction based on extensive prefabrication (precast concrete) was chosen. The precast reinforced units, ranging up to about 4000 t in weight, were towed on barges to the site of erection. At Derna these units were temporarily stored on the sea bed for several months, during which they were exposed to winter storms and rough sea. The major precast portion of the settling basin was constructed direct on the barge. On arrival at the site, the barge was sunk, allowing the precast unit, which was designed with sufficient buoyancy, to be floated off. The open unprotected coast required special arrangements for the protection of personnel, structures and equipment.

  20. Stratigraphy and evolution of the Cretaceous forearc Celica-Lancones basin of southwestern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Laubacher, Gérard; Bengtson, Peter; Dhondt, Annie V.; Bulot, Luc G.

    1999-01-01

    The "Celica-Lancones" forearc Basin of southern Ecuador and northern Peru is located between the Paleozoic Amotape-Tahuin Massif to the west and NW and the continental volcanic arc to the east and SE. The study of nine sections and exhaustive sampling of the poorly fossiliferous, mainly clastic Cretaceous deposits of this Basin allowed us to define five distinct series, which display two depositional periods. The first period corresponds to the development of an Early (?) and Middle Albian carbonate shelf, interrupted during Late Albian times by the creation of a tectonically generated trough filled by turbidites of Late Albian-Coniacian age. Geological mapping indicates that this "Celica-Lancones Basin s.s." includes distinct tectonic units, characterized by distinct early Late Cretaceous stratigraphic series and separated by major faults. These units can be grouped into two main paleogeographic domains. The southeastern one comprises mainly volcaniclastic deposits, whereas the northwestern domain exhibits quartz-rich deposits. Between Early Coniacian and Middle Campanian times, the "Celica-Lancones Basin s.s." forerarc trough was deformed and eroded as a result of the Late Cretaceous "Peruvian" tectonic phase. The second period corresponds to the latest Cretaceous, during which a new forearc basin was created (Paita-Yunguilla Basin), which is much wider and strikes obliquely with respect to the Celica-Lancones Basin. The sediments of the Paita-Yunguilla Basin exhibit a comparable succession of Campanian-Maastrichtian age throughout the area and conceal the tectonic juxtaposition of the early Late Cretaceous tectonic units. The occurrence of thick Early(?) Maastrichtian coarse-grained conglomerates and breccias express a new significant tectonic event.

  1. Long lasting dynamic disequilibrium in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Liran; Willett, Sean D.; McCoy, Scott W.; Perron, J. Taylor; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-05-01

    The river basins of ancient landscapes such as the southeastern United States exhibit disequilibrium in the form of migrating divides and stream capture. This observation is surprising in light of the relatively short theoretical fluvial response time, which is controlled by the celerity of the erosional wave that propagates upstream the fluvial channels. The response time is believed to determine the time required for fluvial landscapes to adjust to tectonic, climatic, and base-level perturbations, and its global estimations range between 0.1 Myr and 10s Myr. To address this discrepancy, we develop a framework for mapping continuous dynamic reorganization of natural river basins, and demonstrate the longevity of disequilibrium along the river basins in the southeastern United States that are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The mapping of disequilibrium is based on a proxy for steady-state elevation, Ξ, that can be easily calculated from digital elevation models. Disequilibrium is inferred from differences in the value of Ξ across water divides. These differences indicate that with the present day drainage area distribution and river topology the steady-state channels elevation across the divides differs, and therefore divides are expected to migrate in the direction of the higher Ξ value. We further use the landscape evolution model DAC to explore the source of the longevity of disequilibrium in fluvial landscapes. DAC solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of an analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC simulations demonstrate topological, geometrical, and topographical adjustments that persist much longer than the theoretical response time, and consequently, extend the time needed to diminish disequilibrium in the landscape and to reach topological and topographical steady-state. This behavior is interpreted

  2. Conceptual Model of Water Resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Akbari, M. Amin; Ashoor, M. Hanif; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Emerson, Douglas G.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Litke, David W.; Michel, Robert L.; Plummer, L. Niel; Rezai, M. Taher; Senay, Gabriel B.; Verdin, James P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Geological Survey has been working with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resources investigations in the Kabul Basin under an agreement supported by the United States Agency for International Development. This collaborative investigation compiled, to the extent possible in a war-stricken country, a varied hydrogeologic data set and developed limited data-collection networks to assist with the management of water resources in the Kabul Basin. This report presents the results of a multidisciplinary water-resources assessment conducted between 2005 and 2007 to address questions of future water availability for a growing population and of the potential effects of climate change. Most hydrologic and climatic data-collection activities in Afghanistan were interrupted in the early 1980s as a consequence of war and civil strife and did not resume until 2003 or later. Because of the gap of more than 20 years in the record of hydrologic and climatic observations, this investigation has made considerable use of remotely sensed data and, where available, historical records to investigate the water resources of the Kabul Basin. Specifically, this investigation integrated recently acquired remotely sensed data and satellite imagery, including glacier and climatic data; recent climate-change analyses; recent geologic investigations; analysis of streamflow data; groundwater-level analysis; surface-water- and groundwater-quality data, including data on chemical and isotopic environmental tracers; and estimates of public-supply and agricultural water uses. The data and analyses were integrated by using a simplified groundwater-flow model to test the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to assess current (2007) and future (2057) water availability. Recharge in the basin is spatially and temporally variable and generally occurs near streams and irrigated areas in the late winter and early

  3. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  4. Structural Evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çemen; Göncüoglu; Dirik

    1999-11-01

    The Central Anatolian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen contains "interior" basins, the largest of which is the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin (>20,000 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) fault zone and on the west by the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones. Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic evidence suggests that the Tuzgölü basin started as a fault-controlled basin during late Maastrichtian tectonism when the present-day northwest-trending faults that bound the basin were initiated. These faults may have been formed as normal faults suggesting extension or strike-slip faults with a normal component of movement indicating a large transtension at the time of their initiation. The late Maastrichtian faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults in response to late Eocene compression in the region that produced the Central Anatolian thrust belt to the north and the late Eocene south-dipping thrust faults of the Ulukisla basin to the south. This reactivation is suggested by structurally repeated and missing Paleocene-Eocene deposits in some of the basin's wildcat wells. The late Eocene regression in the Tuzgölü basin was caused by the combined effects of Eocene shortening and a large environmental change. Late Eocene evaporites suggest that the basin was dry before the start of the Neotectonic period, while during the Neotectonic itself the Tuzgölü fault zone was reactivated again, predominantly as a normal fault with a right-lateral strike-slip component. This is evidenced by (1) a major unconformity between the post-Eocene Koçhisar Formation of the Tuzgölü basin and the underlying Eocene rock units; (2) a well-developed rollover anticline observed on seismic reflection profiles; and (3) a right-step along the Tuzgölü fault zone seen in the field.

  5. Transition from marine deep slope deposits to evaporitic facies of an isolated foreland basin: case study of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Legeay, Etienne; Lopez, Michel; Bonnel, Cédric; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    probably fed from shallow water evaporitic platforms developing contemporaneously along the borders of the halite-? and gypsum-saturated basin. Finally, the reworked evaporites are sealed by a thick (> 100 m) chaotic and coarse crystalline gypsum mass, carrying folded rafts and boudins of carbonate and gypsum beds. Such unit is interpreted as a gypsiferous caprock resulting from the leaching of significant amount of halite deposits. Gypsum crystals are secondary and grew from the hydration of anhydrite grains left as a residual phase after the leaching of halite. The halite probably formed in a perennial shallow hypersaline basin fed in solute by marine seepages. This former halite sequence is interpreted to have triggered mini-basin salt tectonics during the Oligo-Miocene. The described facies and proposed scenario of the Tuzhisar Formation in the central part of the Sivas Basin may find analogies with other Central Anatolian Basins (e.g. the Ulukisla Basin) or with other basin-wide salt accumulations in the world (e.g. in the Carpathian Foredeep).

  6. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  7. Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of a geohydrologic study of the Tucson basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Tucson. Geologic data from more than 500 water supply and test wells were analyzed to define characteristics of the basin sediments that may affect the potential for land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. The Tucson basin is a structural depression within the Basin and Range physiographic province. The basin is 1,000 sq mi in units area and trends north to northwest. Three Cenozoic stratigraphic unit--the Pantano Formation of Oligocene age, the Tinaja beds (informal usage) of Miocene and Pliocene age, and the Fort Lowell Formation of Pleistocene age--fill the basin. The Tinaja beds include lower, middle, and upper unconformable units. A thin veneer of stream alluvium of late Quaternary age overlies the Fort Lowell Formation. The Pantano Formation and the lower Tinaja beds accumulated during a time of widespread continental sedimentation, volcanism, plutonism, uplift, and complex faulting and tilting of rock units that began during the Oligocene and continued until the middle Miocene. Overlying sediments of the middle and upper Tinaja beds were deposited in response to two subsequent episodes of post-12-million-year block faulting, the latter of which was accompanied by renewed uplift. The Fort Lowell Formation accumulated during the Quaternary development of modern through-flowing the maturation of the drainage. The composite Cenozoic stratigraphic section of the Tucson basin is at least 20,000 ft thick. The steeply tilted to flat-lying section is composed of indurated to unconsolidated clastic sediments, evaporites, and volcanic rocks that are lithologically and structurally complex. The lithology and structures of the section was greatly affected by the uplift and exhumation of adjacent metamorphic core-complex rocks. Similar Cenozoic geologic relations have been identified in other parts of southern

  8. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  9. H-Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Monitoring Report: Volume 1, Third and Fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Isoconcentration/isocactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Geologic cross sections indicate both the extent and depth of contamination of the primary contaminants in all of the hydrostratigraphic units during the second half of 1994. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the H-Area Seepage Basins have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988.

  10. Pesticides detected in surface waters and fish of the Red River of the North drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    The Red River of the North drainage basin (herein referred to as Red River Basin) within the United States is a study unit under the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The overall goals of this program, initiated to better define the status and trends of the Nation’s water quality, are to address regional and national water-quality issues in a nationally consistent manner. Pesticide contamination of surface water and fish is one focus of this program.

  11. Prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas: a community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    This description of prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas is part of a series of community profiles on ecologically important wetlands of national significance. The shallow wetlands of the Dakotas form the bulk of the portion of the Prairie Pothole Region lying within the United States. This region is famous as the producer of at least half of North America's waterfowl and an unknown, but large, proportion of other prairie-dwelling marsh and aquatic birds.The wetlands described here lie in relatively small, shallow basins that vary greatly in their ability to maintain surface water, and in their water chemistry, which varies from fresh to hypersaline. These wetlands occur in a wide variety of hydrological settings, in an area where annual and seasonal precipitation varies greatly in form and amount. Thus the presence of surface water in these wetlands is largely unpredictable. Superimposed on these phenomena are the effects of a variety of land uses, including pasture, cultivation, mechanical forage removal, idle conditions and burning. All those factors greatly affect the plant and animal communities found in these basins.This profile covers lacustrine and palustrine basins with temporarily flooded, seasonally flooded, and semipermanently flooded water regimes. Basins with these water regimes compose about 90% of the basins in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Dakotas. This profile outlines the wetland subsystems, classes and subclasses that occur in these basins, and provides a useful reference to their geologic, climatic, hydrologic, and pedologic setting.Detailed information on the biotic environment of the wetlands dealt with in this profile will be useful to scientists and resource managers. Special recognition is paid to the macrophyte and invertebrate communities, which have dynamic qualities found in few other of the world's wetland ecosystems.The most noteworthy animal inhabitants of these basins are waterfowl, which are a resource of international

  12. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  13. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  14. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  15. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de (Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland (Uruguay))

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  16. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  17. Coal forming environments and their relationship to tectonic activity in the Cévennes Stephanian coal basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 庄新国; 任建业; 张瑞生

    2002-01-01

    Coal forming environments in the tectonically controlled intermontane Stephanian Cévennes coal basin (Massif central, France) show a complex interelationship between structural and sedimentological features. The study of the general structural features and the geometry of the coal beds developed during the different stages in the evolution of the basin, and the spatial relation of the lithofacial units to the early tectonic activities, lead the authors to suggest the following model. The synsedimentary faults that occurred as both intrabasinal and marginal faults controlled not only the spatial distribution, shape and thickness of the detrital rock units and coal seams, but also caused the inversion of the tectonic style. The marginal faults exercised important controls on the geometry of the basin and the distribution of lithofacial units. However due to the subsidence of the central part of the basin and the depocenter, and the to differences in the timing and intensity of the displacement the coal enrichment zones shifted both vertically and laterally. This eventually resulted in the inversion of the whole tectonic framework from semi-graben through graben to a new semi-graben. The style and rate of the tectonic movement and basin filling that occurred in the Stephanian Cévennes coal basin were in turn closely linked with the tectonic movement in the surrounding area. Therefore the authors propose that the environment and processes of coal formation in this basin are closely linked to its tectonic evolution.

  18. Late Ordovician glaciogenic reservoir heterogeneity: An example from the Murzuq Basin, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul [CASP, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, West Building, 181A Huntingdon Road, CB30DH Cambridge (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [ENI E and P, V. Emilia, 1, San Donato Milanese, MI 20097 (Italy); Sutcliffe, Owen E. [Neftex Petroleum Consultants Ltd., 80A Corinthian Court, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 4RY (United Kingdom); Whittington, Robert [IGES, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    In North Africa, Late Ordovician glaciogenic reservoirs contain large volume of recoverable hydrocarbon reserves, but their heterogeneity and internal complexity means they are poorly understood. To improve this understanding, this paper presents the case study of the Murzuq Basin, SW Libya, and a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Upper Ordovician glaciogenic reservoirs (the Mamuniyat Formation) within it. Particular attention is paid to regionally extensive stratigraphic boundaries and the geometry of sandstone units of potential reservoir quality. Four disconformity-bound units are recognised, the bounding surfaces of which are flat or of high relief. Unit 1 (the oldest) and Unit 3 are mud-dominated and tend towards non-reservoir. In contrast, Units 2 and 4 (the youngest) are sand-dominated, have poor to excellent reservoir quality but distinctly different sedimentological architectures across the basin. Unit 2 comprises transitions from glaciofluvial/intertidal sandstones to offshore turbidites and formed exclusively during glacial retreat. The occurrence of a significant palaeotopography affected sandbody geometry with glaciofluvial/intertidal deposits concentrating in the lee of these palaeohighs or infilling the bottom of tunnel valleys. Unit 4 is a compound stratigraphic unit recording the effects of glacial retreat and isostatic rebound. In deep marine settings, turbidite fans were deposited during retreat but in shallow water settings, structural reactivation and sediment reworking had a more profound effect on sedimentation. Sedimentological architectures are variable at this level and include prograding coarse clastic wedges (away from a palaeohigh) or the infill of half-graben basins during isostatic rebound. (author)

  19. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  20. High-resolution sedimentological and subsidence analysis of the Late Neogene, Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, E.; Muller, P.; Toth-Makk, A.; Hamor, T.; Farkas-Bulla, J.; Suto-Szentai, M.; Phillips, R.L.; Ricketts, B.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological and paleontological analyses were carried out on more than 13,000 m of core from ten boreholes in the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. These data provide the basis for determining the character of high-order depositional cycles and their stacking patterns. In the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin there are two third-order sequences: the Late Miocene and the Pliocene ones. The Miocene sequence shows a regressive, upward-coarsening trend. There are four distinguishable sedimentary units in this sequence: the basal transgressive, the lower aggradational, the progradational and the upper aggradational units. The Pliocene sequence is also of aggradational character. The progradation does not coincide in time in the wells within the basin. The character of the relative water-level curves is similar throughout the basin but shows only very faint similarity to the sea-level curve. Therefore, it is unlikely that eustasy played any significant role in the pattern of basin filling. Rather, the dominant controls were the rapidly changing basin subsidence and high sedimentation rates, together with possible climatic factors.

  1. WATSTORE Stream Flow Basin Characteristics File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Stream Flow Basin Characteristics file contains information about the drainage basins of selected USGS gaging stations. Data elements of this file were converted...

  2. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  3. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  4. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  5. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  6. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  7. Effects of basin bottom slope on jet hydrodynamics and river mouth bar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Robles, A. M.; Ortega-Sánchez, M.; Losada, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    River mouth bars are strategic morphological units primarily responsible for the development of entire deltaic systems. This paper addresses the role of receiving basin slope in the hydrodynamics of an exiting sediment-laden turbulent jet and in resulting mouth bar morphodynamics. We use Delft3D, a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic numerical model, along with a theoretical formulation to reproduce the physics of the problem, characterized by a fluvially dominated inlet free of waves and tides. We propose an updated theoretical model with a slope-dependent entrainment coefficient, showing that the rate at which ambient fluid is incorporated into a jet increases with higher basin slopes. Transient results reveal that the magnitude of a basin slope can alter the stability of a jet, favoring the formation of an unstable meandering jet. While a stable jet gives rise to "middle-ground" bars accompanied by diverging channels, a "lunate" mouth bar results from unstable jets. Additional morphodynamic simulations demonstrate that the time required for mouth bar stagnation in its final position increases linearly with the basin slope. In contrast, the distance at which the mouth bar eventually forms decreases until reaching an asymptotic value for slopes higher than 2%. Moreover, the basin slope highly influences sedimentary processes responsible for bar formation: for milder slopes, progradation processes prevail, while in steeper basins aggradation is more relevant. Finally, the minimum relative water depth over a bar crest that forces the flow to bifurcate around a fully developed bar decreases with the basin slope.

  8. Meganodular anhydritization in the Tertiary Ebro basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orti, Federico; Rosell, Laura; Playà, Elisabet; Salvany, Josep Maria

    2010-05-01

    A number of gypsiferous units in the Tertiary Ebro Basin (Spain) are located along their southern margins. These units, aged Paleogene to Miocene, were accumulated in small shallow saline lakes of low ionic concentration, in which Ca-sulphates (gypsum/anhydrite) precipitated. The lakes were nourished by groundwater from deep regional aquifers, which had the recharge areas in the bounding chains and recycled sulphates/chlorides from the Mesozoic (Triassic, Liassic) evaporites. Some of these units graded laterally to the thick, highly-saline (halite, glauberite, polyhalite) evaporite units developed coevally in the basin centre. In the gypsiferous marginal units, meganodules and large irregular masses (from 0.5 m to >5 m in diameter/length) of secondary gypsum are present in outcrop. These particular features originated as anhydrite, which displaced/replaced the host-gypsum rocks. Although these features mainly display stratiform arrangements, also vertical disposals are found locally suggesting the circulation of ascending flows. The isotopic values (δ34S and δ18O; 87Sr/86Sr) of these features are the same than those of the gypsum host-rocks, suggesting that the precursor anhydrite derived from the in situ replacement of the depositional sulphates. Commonly, the host-rock of the meganodules has been preserved as primary gypsum in the Miocene units. The common characteristics of the meganodules/irregular masses suggest that the anhydrite growth happened in burial conditions from shallow to moderate depths. The anhydritization was caused mainly by the same hydraulic systems feeding the marginal saline lakes. With progressive burial of the gypsiferous units, the gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion initiated in few nucleation points and progressed slowly and to variable depths. At such depths (from some metres to few hundred metres?), the regional ascending flows probably had temperatures (>25°C) and solute contents higher than today. Additionally, compaction brines

  9. The global dimension of water governance: why the river basin approach is no longer sufficient and why cooperative action at global level is needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    When water problems extend beyond the borders of local communities, the river basin is generally seen as the most appropriate unit for analysis, planning, and institutional arrangements. In this paper it is argued that addressing water problems at the river basin level is not always sufficient. Many

  10. Using hydrogeologic data to evaluate geothermal potential in the eastern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2012-01-01

    In support of a larger study to evaluate geothermal resource development of high-permeability stratigraphic units in sedimentary basins, this paper integrates groundwater and thermal data to evaluate heat and fluid flow within the eastern Great Basin. Previously published information from a hydrogeologic framework, a potentiometric-surface map, and groundwater budgets was compared to a surficial heat-flow map. Comparisons between regional groundwater flow patterns and surficial heat flow indicate a strong spatial relation between regional groundwater movement and surficial heat distribution. Combining aquifer geometry and heat-flow maps, a selected group of subareas within the eastern Great Basin are identified that have high surficial heat flow and are underlain by a sequence of thick basin-fill deposits and permeable carbonate aquifers. These regions may have potential for future geothermal resources development.

  11. Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999-2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490-1998) of streamflow for the basin. The results indicate that if future warming occurs in the basin and is not accompanied by increased precipitation, then the basin is likely to experience periods of water supply shortages more severe than those inferred from the longterm historical tree-ring reconstruction. Furthermore, the modeling results suggest that future warming would increase the likelihood of failure to meet the water allocation requirements of the Colorado River Compact.

  12. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  13. Highly extended terrains, lateral segmentation of the substratum, and basin development: The middle-late Miocene Radicondoli Basin (inner northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of sedimentary basins not delimited by normal faults, with a substratum characterized by an upward concave shape and with infilling sediments synclinally deformed. We describe the middle-late Miocene Radicondoli Basin, representing an example of such bowl-shaped basins. Its tectonic origin is controversial, being related both to compression and extension; these opposite interpretations bear significant consequences on the geodynamic context in which the inner northern Apennines developed during the middle-late Miocene. The results of our structural studies, carried out in the substratum and infilling sediments, indicate that the Radicondoli Basin is an example of a hanging wall basin developed in an extensional setting. Extensional tectonics determined the lateral segmentation of the substratum competent levels (i.e., Tuscan Nappe and Verrucano Group) and the consequent collapse of overlying less competent levels (i.e., the Ligurian units) with the formation of a bowl-shaped tectonic depression. Here, the syntectonic sediments (Serravallian-late Messinian) are deformed in a large syncline, characterized by minor gravity-driven folds, with vergences toward the depocenter and traces of their axial planes parallel to the basin margins. This paper highlights the role of the competence contrast during the postcollisional tectonic evolution and the influence of substratum lateral segmentation for the accommodation of syntectonic sediments.

  14. Facies architecture within a regional glaciolacustrine basin: Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Huddart, David; Thomas, Geoffrey S. P.

    2002-11-01

    This paper defines the principal architectural elements present within the Pleistocene, glaciolacustrine basin-fill of the Copper River Basin in Alaska. The Copper River drains an intermontane basin via a single deeply incised trench through the Chugach Mountains to the Gulf of Alaska. This trench was blocked by ice during the last glacial cycle and a large ice-dammed lake, referred to as Lake Atna, filled much of the Copper Basin. Facies analysis within the basin floor allows a series of associations to be defined consistent with the basinward transport of sediment deposited along calving ice margins and at the basin edge. Basinward transport involves a continuum of gravity driven processes, including slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated/concentrated density flows, and turbidity currents. This basinward transport results in the deposition of a series of subaqueous fans, of which two main types are recognised. (1) Large, stratified, basin floor fans, which extend over at least 5 km and are exposed in the basin centre. These fans are composed of multiple lobes, incised by large mega-channels, giving fan architectures that are dominated by horizontal strata and large, cross-cutting channel-fills. Individual lobes and channel-fills consist of combinations of: diamict derived from iceberg rainout and the ice-marginal release of subglacial sediment; multiple units of fining upward gravels which grade vertically into parallel laminated and rippled fine sands and silts, deposited by a range of density flows and currents derived from the subaqueous discharge of meltwater; and rhythmites grading vertically into diamicts deposited from a range of sediment-density flows re-mobilising sediment deposited by either iceberg rainout or the ice-marginal release of sediment. (2) Small, complex, proximal fans, which extend over less than 2 km, and are exposed in the southern part of the basin. These fans are composed of coalescing and prograding lobes of diamict and

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  16. Detailed Gravity and Magnetic Survey of the Taylorsville Triassic Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leftwich, John; Nowroozi, Ali, A.

    1999-10-01

    This work reports the progress on collecting existing gravity data in a rectangular area covering the Richmond and Taylorsville Basins and its vicinity. The area covers one-degree latitude and one degree longitude, starting at 37 North, 77 West and ending at 38 North, 78 West. Dr. David Daniels of the United State Geological Survey supplied us with more than 4900 Bouguer gravity anomalies in this area. The purpose of this report is to present the data in form of several maps and discuss its relation to the geology of the Triassic Basins and its vicinity. Johnson and others (1985) also presented a map of the Bouguer gravity anomaly of this area. However, their map covers a smaller area, and it is based on smaller number of observations.

  17. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  18. Genetic classification of petroleum basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G.; Huizinga, B.J.

    1989-03-01

    Rather than relying on a descriptive geologic approach, this genetic classification is based on the universal laws that control processes of petroleum formation, migration, and entrapment. Petroleum basins or systems are defined as dynamic petroleum-generating and concentrating physico-chemical systems functioning on a geologic space and time scale. A petroleum system results from the combination of a generative subsystem (or hydrocarbon kitchen), essentially controlled by chemical processes, and a migration-entrapment subsystem, controlled by physical processes. The generative subsystem provides a certain supply of petroleum to the basin during a given geologic time span. The migration-entrapment subsystem receives petroleum and distributes it in a manner that can lead either to dispersion and loss or to concentration of the regional charge into economic accumulations. The authors classification scheme for petroleum basins rests on a simple working nomenclature consisting of the following qualifiers: (1) charge factor: undercharged, normally charged, or supercharged, (2) migration drainage factor: vertically drained or laterally drained, and (3) entrapment factor: low impedance or high impedance. Examples chosen from an extensive roster of documented petroleum basins are reviewed to explain the proposed classification.

  19. Influence of recharge basins on the hydrology of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaburn, G.E.; Aronson, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation of recharge basins on Long Island was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Nassau County Department of Public Works, Suffolk County Department of Environmental Control, and Suffolk County Water Authority. The major objectives of the study were to (1) catalog basic physical data on the recharge basins in use on Long Island, (2) measure quality and quantity of precipitation and inflow, (3) measure infiltration rates at selected recharge basins, and (4) evaluate regional effects of recharge basins on the hydrologic system of Long Island. The area of study consists of Nassau and Suffolk Counties -- about 1,370 square miles -- in eastern Long Island, N.Y. Recharge basins, numbering more than 2,100 on Long Island in 1969, are open pits in moderately to highly permeable sand and gravel deposits. These pits are used to dispose of storm runoff from residential, industrial, and commercial areas, and from highways, by infiltration of the water through the bottom and sides of the basins. The hydrology of three recharge basins on Long Island -- Westbury, Syosset, and Deer Park basins -- was studied. The precipitation-inflow relation showed that the average percentages of precipitation flowing into each basin were roughly equivalent to the average percentages of impervious areas in the total drainage areas of the basins. Average percentages of precipitation flowing into the basins as direct runoff were 12 percent at the Westbury basin, 10 percent at the Syosset basin, and 7 percent at the Deer Park basin. Numerous open-bottomed storm-water catch basins at Syosset and Deer Park reduced the proportion of inflow to those basins, as compared with the Westbury basin, which has only a few open-bottomed catch basins. Inflow hydrographs for each basin typify the usual urban runoff hydrograph -- steeply rising and falling limbs, sharp peaks, and short time bases. Unit hydrographs for the

  20. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  1. Management model application at nested spatial levels in Mediterranean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, Antonio; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Froebrich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    and anthropogenic pressures acting on it to define management policies, three spatial levels must be taken into account: the basin, sub-basin and reach level. The common experience showed that different issues can be properly assessed and handled at these three levels. Furthermore different difficulties and problems affect modeling at the same spatial levels. The basin scale is the geographical unit (as required by the WFD) in which coherent management policy must be designed and a Program of Measures must be implemented. At this spatial level a comprehensive understanding of processes acting in the basin area is synthesized (i.e. nutrient loads delivered to the sea). In Mediterranean region land use is commonly very fragmented and also because of complex geomorphology the use of remote sensing can be not easy or sufficient to derive reliable land use maps of agricultural areas. The sub-basin level (processes can be assessed. It is sufficiently narrow to observe peculiarities of geomorphology and water works (i.e. check dams, water abstractions) that can greatly interact with natural flow. At this level modeling often fails in simulating actual streamflow. At local scale field observations can help also to overcome recorded flow measurements inconsistencies, due to the difficulties in metering low flows (i.e. rivulets can detour and skip flow meters) that often lead to underestimate extreme low flow. The modeling of Mediterranean river basins is then rather a challenge and the understanding of potential issues inherent in the focusing on different spatial levels must be recognized.

  2. New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Marsella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

  3. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  4. Integrated Hydrosystem Modeling of the California Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J. H.; Hwang, H. T.; Sudicky, E. A.; Mallia, D.; Lin, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Western United States is facing one of the worst droughts on record. Climate change projections predict warmer temperatures, higher evapotranspiration rates, and no foreseeable increase in precipitation. California, in particular, has supplemented their decreased surface water supplies by mining deep groundwater. However, this supply of groundwater is limited, especially with reduced recharge. These combined factors place California's water-demanding society at dire risk. In an effort to quantify California's risks, we present a fully integrated water cycle model that captures the dynamics of the subsurface, land surface, and atmospheric domains over the entire California basin. Our water cycle model combines HydroGeoSphere (HGS), a 3-D control-volume finite element model that accommodates variably-saturated subsurface and surface water flow with evapotranspiration processes to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a 3-D finite difference nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric simulator. The two-way coupling within our model, referred to as HGS-WRF, tightly integrates the water cycling processes by passing precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from WRF to HGS, while exchanging actual evapotranspiration and soil saturation data from HGS to WRF. Furthermore, HGS-WRF implements a flexible coupling method that allows each model to use a unique mesh while maintaining mass conservation within and between domains. Our simulation replicated field measured evapotranspiration fluxes and showed a strong correlation between the soil saturation (depth to groundwater table) and latent heat fluxes. Altogether, the HGS-WRF California basin model is currently the most complete water resource simulation framework as it combines groundwater, surface water, the unsaturated zone, and the atmosphere into one coupled system.

  5. Cretaceous stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, Sierra Blanca basin, southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S.G. (New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Anderson, O.R. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The Sierra Blanca basin of Otero and Lincoln counties, New Mexico contains a Lower (upper Albian)-Upper (Santonian) Cretaceous section of marine and nonmarine strata as much as 700 m thick which represent the upper part of a regressive cycle followed by two transgressive-regressive deposition cycles. The lower 55 m of the Cretaceous section are the same tripartite Dakota Group units recognized in Guadalupe and San Miguel counties: basal Mesa Rica Sandstone (late Albian), medial Pajarito formation (late Albian) and upper Romeroville sandstone (earliest Cenomanian). The Mesa Rica and Pajarito represent a regression and are overlain disconformably by the transgressive Romeroville sandstone. Overlying transgressive marine clastics and minor carbonates of the Mancos Shale are as much as 73 m thick and include the early Turonian Greenhorn Limestone. The overlying Tres Hermanos formation (up to 91 m thick) consists of the (ascending order) Atarque sandstone and the Carthage and Fite Ranch sandstone members. These strata represent a mid-Turonian regression in response to regional tectonism (Atarque and Carthage), followed by a transgression (Fite Ranch sandstone) that ended in the deposition of the D-Cross Tongue of the Mancos Shale and Fort Hays Member of the Niobrara Formation during the late Turonian. The subsequent regression began with the Coniacian Gallup Sandstone (55 m) followed by coal-bearing Crevasse Canyon Formation (up to 244 m thick). The Coniacian-Santonian Crevasse Canyon Formation, the youngest Cretaceous unit in the basin, is disconformably overlain by middle Eocene conglomerates and red-bed siliciclastics of the Cub Mountain formation. Dakota Group age determinations in the Sierra Blanca basin are those of well-dated sections to the north, but ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from the Sierra Blanca basin provide precise age control for Cenomanian-Santonian marine and marginal marine strata and palynology and megafossil plants for nonmarine strata.

  6. Basin bifurcation in quasiperiodically forced systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feudel, U.; Witt, A.; Grebogi, C. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais, PF 601553, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Lai, Y. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and of Mathematics, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In this paper we study quasiperiodically forced systems exhibiting fractal and Wada basin boundaries. Specifically, by utilizing a class of representative systems, we analyze the dynamical origin of such basin boundaries and we characterize them. Furthermore, we find that basin boundaries in a quasiperiodically driven system can undergo a unique type of bifurcation in which isolated {open_quotes}islands{close_quotes} of basins of attraction are created as a system parameter changes. The mechanism for this type of basin boundary bifurcation is elucidated. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  8. Drainage-area boundaries for selected sampling stations, scale 1:100,000, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  9. Selected hydrologic data, Yampa River basin and parts of the White River basin, northwestern Colorado and south-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, T.F.; Brogden, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data are presented from four energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Yampa River basin and parts of the White River basin in northwestern Colorado and south-central Wyoming. Water-quality data during 1974 and 1975 and parts of 1976 for 129 ground-water sites and 119 surface-water sites are tabulated. For most samples, major cations, anions, and trace metals were analyzed. For the same time period, field measurements of specific conductance, temperature, and pH were made on 252 springs and wells. These samplings sites, as well as the locations of 20 climatological stations, 18 snow-course sites, and 43 surface-water gaging stations, are shown on maps. Geologic units that contain coal deposits or supply much of the water used for stock and domestic purposes in the area also are shown on a map. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Geometric Reconstruction of Bedrock and Overlying Recent Deposits In An Intra-mountain Basin: The Clusone Basin (southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caielli, G.; Berra, F.

    Regione Lombardia (Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica) and the National Research Council (CNR-IDPA Milano) acquired seismic reflection profiles in the Clu- sone basin (Middle Val Seriana, Southern Alps). In the study area, the bedrock is rep- resented by late Triassic carbonate units (Formazione di Castro, Dolomia Principale and coeval basinal facies, bordered northward by an important alpine fault) covered by a large amount of recent deposits that covers an area of more than 10 km2, with a maximum thickness of more than two hundreds meters, as documented by available well data. The aim of the seismic prospecting was to identify the sediments layering and the rock basement depth. The acquisition parameters were as follows: group in- terval 10 m; shot interval 5 m; geophone frequency 14 Hz; sample rate 1 ms; record length 2 s, energy source hydrapulse. The cable, with 120 channels, remained dur- ing all the experiment allowing reflection/refraction events acquisition. The data were processed by a standard procedure using PROMAX and SUNT5 processing codes. The statics were calculated starting from the refracted first arrivals using a two layer inversion based on least square optimisation. Standard seismic reflection processing was applied to obtain reflection images and it was integrated with seismic refraction data inversion. Seismic profiles allow to reconstruct both the main reflectors in the recent deposits and the geometry of the bedrock. The first results document a complex history in the drainage patterns of the Clusone basin, allowing to identify, in an intra- mountain basin, drainage directions that in some cases are different from the ones that can be observed today. The integration of well data and seismic profiles in this study of an intra-mountain basin allows on one side the identification of the bedrock geome- tries and, on the other, gives constrains for the reconstruction of the geomorphologic evolution of a sector of a mountain chain.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  12. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  13. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  14. Assessment of metallic mineral resources in the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada, with a section on Platinum-Group-Element (PGE) Potential of the Humboldt Mafic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.; Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Theodore, Ted G.; Ponce, David A.; John, David A.; and Berger, Byron R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Sidder, Gary B.; Zierenberg, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The Humboldt River Basin is an arid to semiarid, internally drained basin that covers approximately 43,000 km2 in northern Nevada. The basin contains a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits and occurrences, and, at various times, the area has been one of the Nation's leading or important producers of gold, silver, copper, mercury, and tungsten. Nevada currently (2003) is the third largest producer of gold in the world and the largest producer of silver in the United States. Current exploration for additional mineral deposits focuses on many areas in northern Nevada, including the Humboldt River Basin.

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  16. The Mississippian Pedroches Basin: A failed attempt to propagate a Palaeotethys Arm across Southern Iberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz, Maider; Quesada, Cecilio; Rosales, Idoia

    2013-04-01

    The Pedroches basin, straddling the boundary between the Ossa Morena (OMZ) and the Central Iberian (CIZ) zones of the Iberian Massif, forms one of the largest exposures of Mississippian rocks in the Iberian Peninsula. With the only exception of transitional facies near the northern and southern margins, the basin fill mostly consists of volcanic and sedimentary rocks deposited in relatively shallow continental shelf environments, in which storm activity was the main process of sediment supply and dispersal. Significantly, the Pedroches basin is split into several compartments (structural units), among which three syn-sedimentary, sigmoidal shape igneous belts, produced the most severe facies, structural and palaeogeographic changes. Owing to its timing of formation during the period of Variscan convergence, its location within an area undergoing active Variscan deformation, and the fact that the basin fill was itself affected by the Variscan orogeny, the Pedroches basin was considered a typical example of a syn-orogenic, peripheral foreland basin. Recent stratigraphical, sedimentological and isotope geology work has allowed a reinterpretation of the basin fill, in which two different sequences may be distinguished, with distinct tectono-stratigraphic significance. Above a basal conglomerate, the several hectometres thick lower part of the basin fill succession shows the highest variability among the various structural units in terms of lithology, facies and thickness. Most volcanic rocks are located within this lower part, within and in between the igneous belts, suggesting the important role of lithosphere-through, extension-related faulting in the origin of the basin. Significant across-strike thickness changes attest for syn-sedimentary horst and graben formation at this stage. On the contrary, the upper part of the basin fill is very similar in all units and corresponds to flyschoid greywacke-mudstone alternations (Culm facies). The change between the lower and

  17. Successor Characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Songliao Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongquan; Timothy KUSKY; YING Danlin; GUO Xiaoyu; LI Hongkui

    2008-01-01

    The Songliao basin is a complex successor basin that was initiated in the Mesozoic and experienced multiple periods of reactivation. Based on seismic and drilling data, as well as regional geologic research, we suggest that the Songliao basin contains several different successor basins resting on top of Carboniferous-Permian folded strata forming the basement to the Songliao basin. These basins include the Triassic-Mid Jurassic Paleo-foreland basin, the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous downfaulted basin, and an early Cretaceous depressed basin (since the Denglouku Group). This paper presents a systematic study of the basin-mountain interactions, and reveals that there are different types of prototype basin at different geologic times. These prototype basins sequentially superimposed and formed the large Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin fills a Triassic-early Middle Jurassic gap in the geologic history of the Songliao basin. The paleoforeland basin, downfaulted basin, and depressed thermal subsidence basin all together represent the whole Mesozoic-Cenozoic geologic history and deformation of the Songliao basin. Discovery of the Triassic-early Middle Jurassic paleo-foreland basin plays an important role both for deep natural gas exploration and the study of basin-mountain coupling in north China and eastern China in general. This example gives dramatic evidence that we should give much more attention to the polyphase tectonic evolution of related basins for the next phase of exploration and study.

  18. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  19. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  20. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) in the Conterminous United States: Bedrock Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of bedrock geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Geology of the Conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 Scale--A Digital Representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman Map" (Schuben and others, 1994). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus

  1. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  2. Genecology and seed zones for tapertip onion in the US Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Johnson; Barbara C. Hellier; Ken W. Vance-Borland

    2013-01-01

    The choice of germplasm is critical for sustainable restoration, yet seed transfer guidelines are lacking for all but a few herbaceous species. Seed transfer zones based on genetic variability and climate were developed using tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) collected in the Great Basin and surrounding areas in the United States. Bulbs from 53 locations were...

  3. Norway and adjacent sedimentary basins during Cenozoic times - sediment fluxes, accumulation rates and mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2011-01-01

    use offshore data from adjacent sedimentary basins (the North Sea and the Norwegian shelf) to calculate the amount of erosion. We have used a broad dataset of seismic 2D lines to map depositional units and a well dataset for the stratigraphic control and the velocity distribution in the sediments. We...

  4. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  5. FACIES ANALYSIS, STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY (MOLLUSCS AND VERTEBRATES IN THE UPPER PLIOCENE SANDY FLOOD-BASIN DEPOSITS OF THE UPPER VALDARNO BASIN (NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMILIANO GHINASSI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Valdarno Basin, one of the most investigated Neogene–Quaternary basins of the Northern Apennines, developed during three main phases, as testified by the occurrence of three unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units (UBSUs in the basin infill. Despite numerous studies having been carried out, biochronological, paleoecological and stratigraphical issues in the lower portion of the Montevarchi Synthem (second phase have yet to be understood. Sandy deposits (Montecarlo Sand and Silt Unit, stratigraphically located in this portion of the Montevarchi Synthem, are the focus of this multidisciplinary study. These deposits conformably overlie sandy fluvio-eolian sediments and are, in turn, capped by fluvio-palustrine deposits through a progressive unconformity. Facies analysis suggest a sandy flood-basin environment for these deposits, characterised by variations in water discharge and flood event energy. Mollusc and fish remains, pointing to quiet or slow-moving shallow waters, have been affected by transport processes before final burial in overbank areas. Fish remains of the primary marine family Mugilids highlight a connection between the basin and the sea that was previously only supposed. Small mammal remains, referred to the rodent Mimomys polonicus, are coherent with a water-rich environment. Cyclic variations in shell content and sedimentological characteristics testify to the occurrence of short-term climatic oscillations during this warming phase. This study fits with paleomagnetic and radiometric datings and mammal biochronology, in indicating that the Montecarlo Sand and Silt Unit belongs to a time interval preceding the Reunion paleomagnetic event. The depositional evolution of the Montecarlo Unit was driven by climatic change from arid to humid conditions, related to a global increase in temperature that occurred between 2.4 and 2.2 Ma.

  6. Natural gas accumulations in low-permeability Tertiary, and Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) rock, Uinta Basin, Utah. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D.; Wandrey, C.J.; Pitman, J.K.; Nuccio, V.F.; Schmoker, J.W.; Rice, D.D.; Johnson, R.C.; Dolton, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report characterizes Upper Cretaceous Campanian and Maastrichtian, and lower Tertiary gas-bearing rocks in the Uinta Basin with special emphasis on those units that contain gas in reservoirs that have been described as being tight. The report was prepared for the USDOE whose Western Tight Gas Sandstone Program cofunded much of this research in conjunction with the US Geological Survey`s Evolution of Sedimentary Basins, and Onshore Oil and Gas Programs. (VC)

  7. Natural gas accumulations in low-permeability Tertiary, and Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian) rock, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouch, T.D.; Wandrey, C.J.; Pitman, J.K.; Nuccio, V.F.; Schmoker, J.W.; Rice, D.D.; Johnson, R.C.; Dolton, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report characterizes Upper Cretaceous Campanian and Maastrichtian, and lower Tertiary gas-bearing rocks in the Uinta Basin with special emphasis on those units that contain gas in reservoirs that have been described as being tight. The report was prepared for the USDOE whose Western Tight Gas Sandstone Program cofunded much of this research in conjunction with the US Geological Survey's Evolution of Sedimentary Basins, and Onshore Oil and Gas Programs. (VC)

  8. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  9. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  10. Cenozoic Sedimentation and Tectonic Deformation in the Central Part of the Potiguar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissandra Nascimento Moura-Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary covers occur along the Brazilian coast and have been frequently describedtogether as a single unit. The study of Brazilian sedimentary basins concentrates on their rift phase, whereas the post-riftphase has been considered a tectonic quiescent period. In the Potiguar basin, although post-rift Cretaceous units are wellinvestigated, the Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary covers, as well as their identifi cation and differentiation, are still poorly known. A few previous studies have demonstrated that post-rift sedimentary units with no apparent deformation have a complexdeformation pattern in all scales of observation. The study of this deformation, however, did not include Neogene and Quaternary units.The main aim of the present study is the characterization of Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary units that outcrop in the central partof the Potiguar Basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and related tectonics. The study has concentrated on the description ofthe Barreiras Formation and overlying Quaternary alluvial, marine, and aeolian deposits at 1:100,000 scale. Facies analyses, grain sizestudies, and luminescence dating were carried out. Ten informal and formal lithostratigraphic sedimentary units were described, inaddition to the Precambrian crystalline basement. The main results indicate that several Quaternary alluvial deposits were previouslymapped as the Miocene Barreiras Formation. It was possible to locate the new boundaries of the Quaternary sedimentary deposits andtheir stratigraphic relationships with older units. In addition, it was possible to identify the major fault systems in the basin that show NW- and NE-trending directions, which coincide with macro landforms. It follows that these major fault systems, mainly the NW trending system, control the deposition of Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary units.

  11. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    , overpressured reservoirs caused by thermal generation of gas, typical of basin-centered gas accumulations, are not common in the Travis Peak Formation. Signifi cant overpressure was found in only one Travis Peak sandstone reservoir in 1 of 24 oil and gas fi elds examined across eastern Texas and northern Louisiana. The presence of gas-water contacts is perhaps the most defi nitive criterion indicating that a gas accumulation is conventional rather than a ?sweet spot? within a basin-centered gas accumulation. Hydrocarbon-water contacts within Travis Peak sandstone reservoirs were documented in 17 fi elds and probably occur in considerably more fi elds across the productive Travis Peak trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana. All known hydrocarbon-water contacts in Travis Peak reservoirs in eastern Texas, however, occur within sandstones in the upper 500 ft of the formation. Although no gas-water contacts have been reported within the lower three-fourths of the Travis Peak Formation in northeastern Texas, gas production from that interval is limited. The best available data suggest that most middle and lower Travis Peak sandstones are water bearing in northeastern Texas. Insuffi cient hydrocarbon charge relative to permeability of Travis Peak reservoirs might be responsible for lack of overpressure and basin-centered gas within the Travis Peak Formation. Shales interbedded with Travis Peak sandstones in eastern Texas are primarily oxidized fl ood-plain deposits with insuffi cient organic-carbon content to be signifi cant sources of oil and gas. The most likely source rocks for hydrocarbons in Travis Peak reservoirs are two stratigraphically lower units, the Jurassic-age Bossier Shale of the Cotton Valley Group, and laminated, lime mudstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Hydrocarbon charge, therefore, might be suffi cient for development of conventional gas accumulations, but it is insuffi cient for

  12. Shallow Water Marine UXO Detection Survey, United States Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    rigging tow bar, and a hydrofoil control surface mounted on a 6.7 m (22 ft) ThunderJet® boat. The system was designed to be used with a 6 to 7 m (20 to...in which data collection could be conducted was 1 m (3 ft). The towing system, hydrofoil , and tiller were not designed to withstand greater sea state...platform, a down rigging tow bar, and a hydrofoil control surface mounted on a 6.7 m (22 ft) ThunderJet® boat. The system was designed to be used

  13. Incipient basin inversion of the Middle Archean Moodies Basin, Barberton Supergroup, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Jens; Heubeck, Christoph; Lippold, Wigbert

    2010-05-01

    The Moodies Group of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is one of the oldest and best-preserved quartz-rich sedimentary sequences on Earth. Its strata, approx. 3 km thick, record an initial extensional setting, followed by a strong shortening pulse which resulted in the dominant large-scale final deformation of the greenstone belt. We investigated the apparently rapid transition from Moodies extensional to compressive setting through detailed mapping, correlation of measured sections and the analysis of a prominent basaltic lava which extends for approx. 60 km along strike, in order to constrain the tectonic and depositional setting of some of the earliest stable life-providing habitats on Earth. In the middle Moodies Group, large-scale cross-bedded coarse-grained sandstones, interpreted as an offshore dune field, are abruptly overlain by a discontinuous cobble and boulder conglomerate of up to 4 m thickness, possibly representing local small alluvial fans above a cryptic disconformity. A basaltic lava, reaching approx. 50 m thick, regionally exists above this unit and forms the most prominent marker unit in the Moodies Group. In most places, the lava is metasomatically altered to a fine-grained mesh of illite, sericite, chlorite and very fine-grained quartz. In its upper third, it contains abundant amygdules approx. 0.5 - 1 cm in diameter. We did not record significant thickness changes hinting at eruption centers, feeder channels, flow markers nor pillows. Two thin but regionally continuous dacitic tuffs overlying the lava yielded concordant single-zircon ages of 3229+-6 Ma (Heubeck et al., in prep.) which are statistically indistinguishable from underlying Fig Tree Group volcanics and suggest high depositional and subsidence rates (mm/yr or higher) of intervening Moodies Group strata. Overlying clastic sediments up to 1 km thick show a very high lateral and vertical variability in grain size and petrography. Their facies ranges from alluvial conglomeratic wedges

  14. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  15. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  16. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  17. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: surficial geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the area of surficial geology types in square meters compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the "Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous US" (Clawges and Price, 1999). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River

  18. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  19. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  20. Re-evaluation of the petroleum potential of the Kufra Basin (SE Libya, NE Chad): does the source rock barrier fall?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luening, Sebastian [Wales Univ., Inst. of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom); LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Craig, Jonathan [LASMO plc, London (United Kingdom); Fitches, Bill [Robertson Research International, Llandudno (United Kingdom); Mayouf, Juma; Busrewil, Ahmed; El Dieb, Mufta; Gammudi, Amar [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libya); Loydell, David [Portsmouth Univ., School of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); McIlroy, Duncan [Liverpool Univ., STRAT Group, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    The Kufra Basin is a large, underexplored, Palaeozoic intracratonic sag basin in SE Libya and NE Chad with extensions into NW Sudan and SW Egypt. The basin fill consists of shallow marine to fluvial deposits ranging in age from infracambrian to Cretaceous. Geologically, the basin is very similar to the Murzuq Basin in SW Libya which recently presented Libya with its largest oil discovery for over a decade. Most of the hydrocarbon play elements known from the Murzuq Basin also occur in the Kufra Basin: thick, porous Cambro-Ordovician sandstones are present and would form good reservoirs, lower Silurian shales may act as effective seals, and there are potential structural traps in seismically defined fault blocks. However, the source rock availability in the Kufra Basin is currently unclear. One of the two main source rock candidates in the basin is a lower Silurian shale unit (Tanezzuft Formation). The Tanezzuft shales have been described as being up to 130 m thick in outcrops at the basin margins, but the shales were found to be replaced by siltstones and sandstones in two dry exploration wells drilled in the northern part of the basin by AGIP between 1978 and 1981. Hot shales developed at the base of this widespread Silurian shale unit form important source rocks in many areas of North Africa and Arabia. These hot shales are interpreted to have been deposited in palaeodepressions, such as incised valleys of the preceding lowstand, or intrashelf basins, during the initial transgression after the melting of the late Ordovician ice cap. The areal distribution of the organic-rich unit is, therefore, discontinuous. Fieldwork in the Kufra Basin has shown that the basal Tanezzuft horizon is not exposed on the northern and eastern margins of the basin. Deep infracambrian rift grabens have been interpreted on seismic lines from the Kufra Basin and, in analogy to Oman and Algeria, could contain organic-rich infracambrian deposits. The infracambrian succession in the Kufra

  1. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea Basin in the last 25 Myrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; d'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Jabour, Haddou; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-05-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been the subject of debate and considered either as a back-arc or a forearc basin. Stratigraphic analyses of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, enabled us to clarify the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB. The thick pre-rift sequence located beneath the Miocene basin is interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution from the Serravallian to the late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and in cross section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere hence explaining the considerable thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  2. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  3. Geochronology of the volcanic rocks in the Lu-Zong basin and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; COOKE; Sebastien; MEFFRE

    2008-01-01

    The Lu-Zong (Lujiang-Zongyang) basin is one of the most important volcanic basins in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area, China. It comprises four shoshonitic volcanic units, which are, in an ascending order, the Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao, Shuangmiao and Fushan Groups. The LA-ICP MS U-Pb zircon ages of the four units are: 134.8±1.8 Ma for the Longmenyuan Group, 134.1±1.6 Ma for the Zhuanqiao Group, 130.5±0.8 Ma for the Shuangmiao Group, and 127.1±1.2 Ma for the Fushan Group. The results indicate that all volcanic rocks in the Lu-Zong basin were formed in the Early Cretaceous from about 135 Ma to 127 Ma, lasting 8-10 Ma. There were no Jurassic volcanic activities in all the volcanic basins including the Lu-Zong basin in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area. This work has provided new chronological results for the further study and understanding of the tec- tonic, magmatic and metallogenic processes of eastern China in the Mesozoic.

  4. Geochronology of the volcanic rocks in the Lu-Zong basin and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU TaoFa; FAN Yu; YUAN Feng; LU SanMing; SHANG ShiGui; David COOKE; Sebastien MEFFRE; ZHAO GuoChun

    2008-01-01

    The Lu-Zong (Lujiang-Zongyang) basin is one of the most important volcanic basins in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area, China. It comprises four shoshonitic volcanic units, which are,in an ascending order, the Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao, Shuangmiao and Fushan Groups. The LA-ICP MS U-Pb zircon ages of the four units are: 134.8±1.8 Ma for the Longmenyuan Group, 134.1±1.6 Ma for the Zhuanqiao Group, 130.5±0.8 Ma for the Shuangmiao Group, and 127.1+1.2 Ma for the Fushan Group. The results indicate that all volcanic rocks in the Lu-Zong basin were formed in the Early Cretaceous from about 135 Ma to 127 Ma, lasting 8-10 Ma. There were no Jurassic volcanic activities in all the volcanic basins including the Lu-Zong basin in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area.This work has provided new chronological results for the further study and understanding of the tectonic, magmatic and metallogenic processes of eastern China in the Mesozoic.

  5. The South Pyrenean Eocene carbonate megabreccias revisited: new interpretation based on evidence from the Pamplona Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano; Orue-Etxebarria, Xabier

    1999-05-01

    The South Pyrenean Foreland Basin contains numerous units of Eocene carbonate megabreccias intercalated with siliciclastic turbidites and derived by resedimentation of shallow-marine carbonate platforms. Previous studies were limited mainly to the foreland eastern part, known as the Jaca Basin. The present study from the Pamplona Basin, a western part of the foreland trough, sheds new light on the origin and regional significance of these South Pyrenean Eocene carbonate megabreccias (SPECMs). The number of the SPECM units in the foreland basin is higher than previously recognized and their age is somewhat older than originally assumed. The SPECM units appear to occur as time-stratigraphic clusters, which can be correlated with the relative sea-level lowstands and linked with phases of tectonic activity. The megabreccias were derived from a carbonate-platform system hosted by the foreland basin's southern (passive) margin. The episodic instability and mass wasting were triggered by phases of structural steepening (forebulge uplift) accompanied by high-magnitude earthquakes, with the former causing platform emergence, increased load stresses and excess pore-water pressure in the carbonate ramp. The SPECM deposits were emplaced by cohesive debris flows evolving into high-density turbidite currents. An ideal SPECM unit consists of (1) an immature, homogeneous debrite in the proximal part; (2) a differentiated, bipartite debrite and turbidite in the medial part; and (3) an incomplete, base-missing debrite overlain by turbidite, or a turbidite alone, in the distal part. The debrite component volumetrically predominates in the SPECM units, and the original terms `megaturbidite' and `seismoturbidite' thus seem to be inappropriate for these deposits.

  6. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    on the Kashagan structure offshore in the Caspian Sea is probably also of the supergiant status. Major oil and gas reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs in reefs and structural traps of the subsalt sequence. Substantially smaller reserves are located in numerous fields in the suprasalt sequence. These suprasalt fields are largely in shallow Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic reservoirs in salt dome-related traps. Petroleum source rocks are poorly identified by geochemical methods. However, geologic data indicate that the principal source rocks are Upper Devonian to Lower Permian deep-water black-shale facies stratigraphically correlative to shallow-shelf carbonate platforms on the basin margins. The main stage of hydrocarbon generation was probably in Late Permian and Triassic time, during deposition of thick orogenic clastics. Generated hydrocarbons migrated laterally into adjacent subsalt reservoirs and vertically, through depressions between Kungurian salt domes where the salt is thin or absent, into suprasalt clastic reservoirs. Six assessment units have been identified in the North Caspian basin. Four of them include Paleozoic subsalt rocks of the basin margins, and a fifth unit, which encompasses the entire total petroleum system area, includes the suprasalt sequence. All five of these assessment units are underexplored and have significant potential for new discoveries. Most undiscovered petroleum resources are expected in Paleozoic subsalt carbonate rocks. The assessment unit in subsalt rocks with the greatest undiscovered potential occupies the south basin margin. Petroleum potential of suprasalt rocks is lower; however, discoveries of many small to medium size fields are expected. The sixth identified assessment unit embraces subsalt rocks of the central basin areas. The top of subsalt rocks in these areas occurs at depths ranging from 7 to 10 kilometers and has not been reached by wells. Undiscovered resources of this unit did not rec

  7. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Hartford-Deerfield Basin, Connecticut and Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James

    2016-01-01

    The Hartford-Deerfield basin, a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic rift basin located in central Connecticut and Massachusetts, is the northernmost basin of the onshore Mesozoic rift basins in the eastern United States. The presence of asphaltic petroleum in outcrops indicates that at least one active petroleum system has existed within the basin. However, to-date oil and gas wells have not been drilled in the basin to test any type of petroleum trap. There are good to excellent quality source rocks (up to 3.8% present day total organic carbon) within the Jurassic East Berlin and Portland formations. While these source rock intervals are fairly extensive and at peak oil to peak gas stages of maturity, individual source rock beds are relatively thin (typically less than 1 m) based solely on outcrop observations. Potential reservoir rocks within the Hartford-Deerfield basin are arkosic conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, and finer grained sandstones, shales, siltstones, and fractured igneous rocks of the Triassic New Haven and Jurassic East Berlin and Portland formations (and possibly other units). Sandstone porosity data from 75 samples range from less than 1% to 21%, with a mean of 5%. Permeability is equally low, except around joints, fractures, and faults. Seals are likely to be unfractured intra-formational shales and tight igneous bodies. Maturation, generation, and expulsion likely occurred during the late synrift period (Early Jurassic) accentuated by an increase in local geothermal gradient, igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Migration pathways were likely along syn- and postrift faults and fracture zones. Petroleum resources, if present, are probably unconventional (continuous) accumulations as conventionally accumulated petroleum is likely not present in significant volumes.

  8. Diversity of aquatic prokaryotic communities in the Cuatro Cienegas basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Ana E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Espinosa-Asuar, Laura; Forney, Larry J; Noguez, Ana M; Souza Saldivar, Valeria

    2008-07-01

    The Cuatro Cienegas basin (Coahuila, México) is a composite of different water systems in the middle of the desert with unusually high levels of endemism and diversity in different taxa. Although the diversity of macrobiota has been well described, little is known about the diversity and distribution of microorganisms in the oligotrophic ponds. Here we describe the extent and distribution of diversity found in aquatic prokaryotic communities by analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned genes. Twelve locations within the basin were sampled. Among all the samples, we found a total of 117 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using T-RFLPs, which ranged in any single sample from four to 49. OTU richness and Shannon diversity indices for different sites varied, but none were particularly high. 16S rRNA gene sequence data showed 68 different phylotypes among 198 clones. The most abundant phylotypes were Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria, and extreme halophiles. The differences among sites were significant; 45 TRFs were found only once, and 37% of the total diversity was represented by differences between sites, suggesting high beta-diversity. Further studies are needed to test whether this is a direct consequence of environmental heterogeneity in the basin.

  9. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  10. Geology and Mineralogy of Ancient Sea Deposits in Eridania Basin, Mars: Implications for Noachian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Cuadros, J.; Niles, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    At the same time when life appeared in seafloor deposits on Earth (>3.8 billion years ago), the Eridania basin on Mars was the site of a vast (>106 km2), deep (>1 km) inland sea. Though the Eridania basin has been eroded and largely resurfaced by subsequent volcanism, deep basin seafloor deposits are recognizable. Thick (>500 m) deposits found in the deepest parts of the basin - the oldest observable basin deposits - contain no evidence of bedding at the scale of meters-decameters, but display mottled colour patterns and contain pervasive irregular and boxwork veins. We show that the most ancient subaqueous basin deposits correspond to saponite, talc-saponite, Fe-rich mica (e.g. glauconite-nontronite), Fe- and Mg-serpentine, and Mg-Fe-Ca-carbonate that likely formed in a hydrothermal seafloor setting. Jarosite within the same unit likely indicates that sulphides were present in the deep-water deposits, but have been weathered upon exposure at the surface. While thin deposits of chloride salts at high elevations near the interior basin margins are indicative of evaporite deposits in shallow water, the deep water mineral assemblages cannot be explained by an evaporite-playa setting. The thick, deep basin deposits in Eridania formed in deep water, likely in a hydrothermal seafloor setting. The Eridania sea likely persisted over a geologically significant period of time in the Late Noachian. Abundant Fe present in the seafloor deposits likely indicates reducing conditions, which could have formed in a stratified sea in contact with an oxidizing atmosphere, a reduced sea beneath a reduced atmosphere, or an ice-covered sea.

  11. Tectonic control on the Late Quaternary hydrography of the Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moroni, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    We examine the intramontane Upper Tiber Basin in the Northern Apennines (central Italy), where sub-orthogonal fault systems forced river deviation and the abandonment of alluvial fans since the late Middle Pleistocene. Archaeological material, spanning the Middle Palaeolithic-Iron Age, was collected mostly from the surface of the Late Quaternary alluvial landforms and related deposits (MUP and HOL units). This information contributed to the partial dating of seven major stages of drainage development. Normal faults parallel and transverse to the basin trend were active at different times and conditioned the valley pattern of the Middle (MUP1-2)-Late (MUP3) Pleistocene Tiber, Singerna, Sovara and Tignana rivers, which still flow today into the basin. The MUP1 and the MUP3 fans were beheaded by the displacement of their feeder valleys along the basin-transverse Carmine and Montedoglio faults. In some cases, the former feeder rivers underwent stream piracy but their courses mostly deviated in response of the topographic gradient created by faulting, as well as through the incision of new valleys that exploited the lithological contrast along the fault lines. The MUP3 Tignana fan was abandoned mostly due to the activity of the basin-parallel, dip-slip Sansepolcro fault. Subsidence driven by the basin-parallel Anghiari and Sansepolcro fault systems also provided the accommodation space for the MUP3 and HOl1-2 Afra fans between Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. This study exemplifies the interplay between longitudinal and transverse fault systems, and the Late Quaternary hydrographic evolution of an extensional basin settled in the axial zone of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Although the faulting has interacted with the forcing exerted by the Late Quaternary climate fluctuations on the basin drainage systems, the tectonic rates are sufficiently high to represent the prime controller on base-level change and drainage routing patterns.

  12. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  13. SLIDE INVENTORY IN DUBRACINA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Toševski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available he slide inventory in Dubračina river basin consists of 39 slides. They have been detected by field geomorphological mapping and visual analysis of 1 meter digital elevation model. The slides detected using elevation model are validated by the field checking as well. The outline of all slides is generated using digital elevation model. The total area affected by sliding is 81873 m2 which is 0,44% of researched area. The area, volume, total lenght, width of displaced mass, dip angle of slope on the slide location and dip direction of sliding have been defined for each slide. Slides areas are ranging from 150 to 12956 m2. Minimal total slide lenght from the crown to the tip is 20 m and maximal is 226 m. Angles of slope dip on slide locations are ranging from 10,1° to 28,6° focusing that 76,7% total area affected by sliding has slope dip angle on slide location up to 20°. According to weighting factor calculations lithological unit flysch (E2,3 is marked as the most significant lithological factor of the sliding. All slides are located in the flysch weathering zone where zone crop out. It has been shown that terrain tendency for excessive erosion is very limitative factor in using digital elevation model for the remote slide mapping (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Human Health Impact of Fluoride in Groundwater in the Chiang Mai Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y.; Takizawa, S.; Wattanachira, S.; Wongrueng, A.; Ibaraki, M.

    2005-12-01

    Chiang Mai Basin, in Northern Thailand, is known as a fluorotic area. Groundwater of the Chiang Mai Basin has been gradually replaced by contaminated surface water since the 1980's. People have been exposed to fluoride contaminated groundwater since that time. As a result, harmful health effects on dental and skeletal growth were observed in the 90's. These include dental and skeletal fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is characterized by yellow or white spots on teeth and pitting or mottled enamel, consequently causing the teeth to look unsightly. Skeletal fluorosis leads to changes in bone structure, making them extremely weak and brittle. The most severe form of this is known as ``crippling skeletal fluorosis,'' a condition that can cause immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. This study focuses on the problematic issue of the Chiang Mai Basin's groundwater from the viewpoint of fluoride occurrence and current health impacts. Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces comprise the Chiang Mai Basin. Fluoride rich granites or fluorite deposits are scattered across the mountainside of the Lamphun Province. Tropical savanna climate conditions with seasonal monsoons bring more than 1,000 mm of annual precipitation, which can prompt weathering of minerals containing fluoride. The Ping River dominates the Basin, and the main eastern tributary of the Ping River runs through the Lamphun Province. The Basin has geological units composed of lower semi-consolidated Tertiary fluvial and upper unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium deposits. The main aquifers are in the upper unconsolidated unit. High fluoride concentrations tend to be observed in the aquifer located in lower part of this unconsolidated unit. We have been investigating two areas in the Basin. These two locations are similar with respect to geological and hydrological settings. However, one area in which groundwater is Ca-bicarbonate dominant has a low fluoride occurrence

  15. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  16. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Hack's law of debris-flow basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; YUE Z.Q.; LEE C.F.; BEIGHLEY R.E.; CHEN Xiao-Qing; HU Kai-Heng; CUI Peng

    2009-01-01

    Hack's law was originally derived from basin statistics for varied spatial scales and regions.The exponent value of the law has been shown to vary between 0.47 and 0.70,causing uncertainty in its application.This paper focuses on the emergence of Hack's law from debris-flow basins in China.Over 5,000 debris-flow basins in different regions of China with drainage areas less than 100km2 are included in this study.Basins in the different regions are found to present similar distributions.Hack's law is derived fi'om maximum probability and conditional distributions,suggesting that the law should describe some critical state of basin evolution.Results suggest the exponent value is approximately 0.5.Further analysis indicates that Hack's law is related to other scaling laws underlying the evolution of a basin and that the exponent is not dependent on basin shape but rather on the evolutionary stage.A case study of a well known debris-flow basin further confirms Hack's law and its implications in basin evolution.

  18. What Controls Runoff Ratios in the Congo Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M. T.; Wei, R.

    2014-12-01

    As the second-largest river globally, the Congo is a critical part of large-scale water, energy, and carbon cycles, and thus has a significant influence on regional climate. The runoff ratio is a coefficient relating runoff to precipitation; it is a parameter that integrates and summarizes upstream hydrologic processes. The Budyko equation depicts the expected partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (R): P=R+E. It is hypothesized that radiation and precipitation are primary controls of the partitioning process; the effects of the surface control (e.g. soil and slope) are implicitly assumed to be minor. In this study, we explored thirty years of data in the Congo River basin. We will correlate the runoff ratio to a variety of factors, including precipitation, radiation and surface controls (e.g. soil, slope). Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) by pentad precipitation was used as primary precipitation data, and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) by data was used for comparison. For discharge and drainage area were derived from Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and net radiation is from NASA Earth Observatory. Congo sub basins are analyzed as well. Interannual variability in the runoff ratio for the Congo basin ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, but was generally uncorrelated with precipitation. Runoff is generally uncorrelated with precipitation, whereas evapotranspiration calculated as residual (P-R) is highly correlated with precipitation, with E ranging from 1000 to 1300 mm per year, and P explaining 85% of the variance. Spatial variability was explored by analysis of long-term mean runoff ratio for 10 sub-basins. Spatially, both R and runoff ratio are highly correlated with P, with P explaining 59% of the variance in the runoff ratio. Physical mechanisms to explain these results are explored, and the implications for the Congo's role in partitioning rainfall over sub-Saharan Africa are discussed.

  19. The Australian central Eromanga Basin project: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, F. J.; Wake-Dyster, K. D.

    1983-12-01

    The Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources is carrying out a major multidisciplinary program of geological and geophysical studies in southwestern Queensland in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Queensland. The project is aimed at providing information on the regional structure and depositional history of the central Eromanga Basin and the underlying Adavale, Cooper and Galilee basins. The information being obtained is particularly relevant to a better understanding of the petroleum prospectivity of the area. The program includes geophysical surveys involving 1400 km of new six-fold CDP seismic reflection coverage on regional traverses up to 400 km long crossing the main structural elements of the area; gravity measurements along all new seismic reflection traverses; refraction surveys along two major east-west and north-south traverses and magnetotelluric soundings along the same major east-west traverse. LANDSAT imagery studies are providing new perspective on many regional structures when used in conjunction with seismic and gravity information. Wireline logs and synthetic seismograms are being used with the new seismic data to re-examine stratigraphic correlations. Palynologic and lithologic studies are underway to assist in determining depositional environments. Source rock, maturation, hydrological and geochemical studies are providing information on the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. A significant feature of the program is the extension of the recording time of all new reflection data to 20 s to obtain good quality deep crustal reflection information comparable to that obtained on COCORP programs in the United States. The reflection data is being interpreted with the refraction, gravity and magnetotelluric data to investigate the relationship of deep crustal and upper mantle features to the sedimentary basins in the central Eromanga Basin area.

  20. A preliminary investigation of the structure of southern Yucca Flat, Massachusetts Mountain, and CP basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on geophysical modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Phelps; Leigh Justet; Barry C. Moring, and Carter W. Roberts

    2006-03-17

    New gravity and magnetic data collected in the vicinity of Massachusetts Mountain and CP basin (Nevada Test Site, NV) provides a more complex view of the structural relationships present in the vicinity of CP basin than previous geologic models, helps define the position and extent of structures in southern Yucca Flat and CP basin, and better constrains the configuration of the basement structure separating CP basin and Frenchman Flat. The density and gravity modeling indicates that CP basin is a shallow, oval-shaped basin which trends north-northeast and contains ~800 m of basin-filling rocks and sediment at its deepest point in the northeast. CP basin is separated from the deeper Frenchman Flat basin by a subsurface ridge that may represent a Tertiary erosion surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata. The magnetic modeling indicates that the Cane Spring fault appears to merge with faults in northwest Massachusetts Mountain, rather than cut through to Yucca Flat basin and that the basin is downed-dropped relative to Massachusetts Mountain. The magnetic modeling indicates volcanic units within Yucca Flat basin are down-dropped on the west and supports the interpretations of Phelps and KcKee (1999). The magnetic data indicate that the only faults that appear to be through-going from Yucca Flat into either Frenchman Flat or CP basin are the faults that bound the CP hogback. In general, the north-trending faults present along the length of Yucca Flat bend, merge, and disappear before reaching CP hogback and Massachusetts Mountain or French Peak.

  1. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  2. Floods simulation in the Crişul Alb River Basin using hydrological model CONSUL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mic, Rodica Paula; Corbus, Ciprian; Matreata, Marius

    2016-04-01

    For the simulation of floods, in the Crişul Alb River Basin, Romanian hydrological model CONSUL with lumped parameters was used. This deterministic mathematical rainfall-runoff model compute discharge hydrographs on configured river sub-basins, their channel routing and composition on the main river and tributaries and finally their routing and mitigation through reservoirs, according to the schematic representation (topological modelling) of how water flows and integrate in a river basin. After topological modelling 42 sub-basins and 19 river reaches resulted for the Crişul Alb River Basin model configuration, established according to the position of tributaries, hydrometric stations and reservoirs that influence flow. The CONSUL model used as input data, for each sub-basin, average values of precipitation and air temperature determined based on the measured values of weather stations in the basin. Calculation of average values was performed using a pre-processing program of meteorological data from rectangular grid nodes corresponding to Crişul Alb River Basin, averaging being achieved as weighted values based on the representativeness of these nodes for each analyzed sub-basin. Calibration of model parameters was performed by the simulation of 25 rainfall-runoff events from the period 1975 - 2010, chosen to cover a wide range of possible situations in the case of floods formation. By simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the closing sections of river sub-basins were determined the infiltration and unit hydrograph parameters and by simulating floods from the hydrometric stations located in the downstream sections of the river reaches hydrometrically controlled were determined the routing equation parameters. The parameters thus determined allow building some generalization relationships of these parameters according to the morphometric characteristics of the river sub-basins (surface, slope) or river reaches (length, slope). Based on these

  3. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle d

  4. SEDIMENTARY PATTERN OF PROTOTYPE BASIN IN THE DEPOSITION PERIOD OF LAIYANG FORMATION AND THE ADVANTAGEOUS AREAS FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION OF JIAOLAI BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiping; LI Ling; LI Wei; ZHOU Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    Laiyang formation of Jiaolai Basin is the target stratum for oil and gas exploration. By measuring several field sections, the authors find that Laiyang formation reveals the whole processes from development to death of the lake basin and its sedimentary facies differ in different structural locations.Analyses about sedimentary facies and paleocurrent orientations in association with researches about the positive tectonic units such as Dayetou horseback and Chaigou horst indicate that Laiyang sag is a relatively independent sedimentary unit that shows great water depth typical of deep lake or semideep lake and was controlled by Wulongcun fault during the deposition period of Laiyang formation. Its sediments mainly originated from Jiaobei uplift area and Dayetou horseback. Gaomi-Zhucheng sag was a fast-filled basin controlled by Wurong fault and Yishu fault zone, being high in the northeast and low in the northwest and characterized by the development of pluvial facies and fluvial facies in most areas, and with the development of lake facies being limited to local low-lying regions. Selection of advantageous hydrocarbon reservoir areas for exploration purpose mainly relies on the sedimentation pattern of prototype basin and conservation conditions. The central-west area of Laiyang sag covered by overlying Laiyang formation is the most advantageous exploration area.

  5. Experimental Evaluation Of A Single-basin Solar Still Using Different Absorbing Materials: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R.TELTUMBADE,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Single-basin solar stills can be used for water desalination. Probably, the are considered the best solution for water production in remote,arid to semi-arid, small communities, where fresh water isunavailable.however,the amount of distilled water produced per unit area is somewhat low which makes the single-basin solar still unacceptable in some instances. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using different absorbing materials in a solar still, and thuds enhance the productivity of water. Experimental result show that the productivity of distilled water was enhance for some matereals.

  6. Integrated management of operations in Santos Basin: methodology applied to a new philosophy of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leandro Leonardo; Lima, Claudio Benevenuto de Campos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derenzi Neto, Dario [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Vladimir Steffen [Soda IT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the methodology used to develop the Integrated Management of Operations (GIOp) project in Santos Basin Operational Unit (UO-BS) in the South-Southeast Exploration and Production area of PETROBRAS. The following text describes how the activities were carried out to gather improvements opportunities and to design To-Be processes, considering the challenging environment of the Santos Basin in the coming years. At the end of more than 12 months of work, more than 50 processes and sub-processes were redesigned, involving a multidisciplinary team in the areas of operations, maintenance, safety, health and environment, flow assurance, wells, reservoirs and planning. (author)

  7. Thermal basin modelling of the Arauco forearc basin, south central Chile — Heat flow and active margin tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Philipp P.; Echtler, Helmut; Littke, Ralf; Alfaro, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    The Arauco basin is part of the coastal forearc domain in South-Central Chile. During its evolution since the Late Cretaceous it was subject to multiple deposition cycles and the erosion of lower bathyal to beach and lagoon sediments. These different environments were established in alternating accretional and erosive subduction tectonic settings along the South Andean active margin. Whereas the general development is well understood, inconsistencies arise regarding the origin of the high thermal maturity of Eocene coals and the estimates of vertical movements of the whole area during the Cenozoic. Thermal modelling of this forearc basin provides new insights regarding its thermal evolution and evaluation of the magnitudes of subsidence and inversion. Results are based on the analysis of coal samples from surface outcrops, mines and drill cores of ten onshore wells from ENAP/Sipetrol. Newly derived vitrinite reflectance (VR r) measurements indicated a temperature in the range of 135-150 °C for the oldest sediment unit of the Arauco basin, which was reached in post Eocene times. Furthermore, 1D basin modelling techniques indicate scenarios that could explain the coalification values in the basin's sediments. The models were calibrated against VR r data from drill core samples supplied by ENAP/Sipetrol. A Miocene and an Oligocene subsidence/inversion scenario were considered, while neither could be securely discarded based on the modelling results. Furthermore, it can be shown that the current thermal maturity was not reached by an increased heat flow (HF) or a deep subsidence only. Consequently, a structural inversion accompanied by the erosion of ~ 3.0 ± 0.4 km depending on the locality in combination with a high HF of ~ 64 ± 4 mW/m 2 is the best explanation of the available data. The HF, which is high for a forearc setting, can be attributed to the increased temperature of the relatively young subducted Nazca Plate and an additional influence of ascending hot

  8. Miocene sediments distribution in the central and northern parts of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Wagreich, M.; Decker, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Vienna Basin is a Miocene sedimentary basin situated at the Alpine-Carpathian transition and spreading from Austria in the South to the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the north. The basin primarily developed as a piggy-back basin during the Lower Miocene (~18 - 16 Ma) on top of the NW-ward moving Eastern Alpine and West Carpathians thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, the local stress regime changed by the lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian area. It leads to the developing of the basin between two left stepping sinistral strike-slip faults of the Vienna Basin faults system during the Middle and Upper Miocene (~16 - 8 Ma). Structures related with this pull-apart stage are extensional sinistral strike-slip duplexes connected with large scale listric normal fraults. Our study area mainly covers the central and northern Vienna Basin that is not yet studied well for the stratigraphy. The goal of this study is the characterization and distribution of the Miocene sediments. For this purpose we investigated approximately 200 wells in 17 well-groups in order to obtain details on the Miocene sediments. Among them 84 wells drilled down to the Northern Calcareous Alps and the flysch units in the pre-Neogene basin subcrop. The initial phase of the Miocene deposition was related to the transgression and is characterized by the deposition of coarse clastic and marly clay sediments. These sediments are distributed locally in the northern part of the basin. The overlying sediments are more widely distributed than the underlying ones. During the late Lower Miocene, the depocenters shifted towards the south and sedimentation was dominated by marly clay intercalated with sand. An unconformity depicted for the regional stage boundary fits well with the regressive phase and the subsequent transgression. From Middle to Upper Miocene, sediments were deposited over a wide area of the Vienna Basin. The sedimentation was governed by combination of pull

  9. New insights into the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Malvinas Basin, offshore of the southernmost Argentinean continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baristeas, N.; Anka, Z.; di Primio, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Marchal, D.; Dominguez, F.

    2013-09-01

    A detailed tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the Malvinas Basin was achieved by the interpretation of around 65,000 km of 2D seismic reflection profiles. Five main seismo-stratigraphic units and their sub-units, informally named units U1 to U5 a/b, bound by major unconformities were identified and correlated with the Mesozoic to Cenozoic main tectonic phases of the basin. Unit U1 (Pre-168 Ma) represents the seismic basement. Unit U2 (168-150.5 Ma, syn rift phase) thickens and deepens southwards. Units U1 and U2 are affected by several syn-rift normal faults that exhibit a main NE-SW strike direction in the south of the basin and a NW-SE strike direction in the centre of the basin. This suggests that the Malvinas Basin may have developed initially as a rift basin with two different extensional directions: (1) a NW-SE directed extension probably linked with the opening of the Weddell Sea (Early Mid-Jurassic), and (2) a NE-SW directed extension most likely linked with the Jurassic back-arc extension of Gondwana and probably later with the onset of the opening of the South Atlantic during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time. Unit U3 (150.5-68 Ma, sag phase) is mainly an aggradational wedge-shaped unit. Unit U4 (68-42.5 Ma, transtensional foredeep phase) overlies unconformable unit U3. It deepens in the south because of an N-S/NW-SE directed extensional regime. Accumulation rates decrease during units U2, U3, and U4 from 4.84, to 1.23 to 0.8 km3/Ma × 103. Units U5a and U5b (42.5-5.5 and 5.5-0 Ma, transpressional foredeep phase) finally represent a change from aggradation to progradation sedimentary pattern and to a left-lateral transpressional regime in the south. The sediment supply was considerably higher than before and a thick sedimentary wedge has been deposited until today. Accumulations rates increased in units U5a and U5b from 2.28 to 8.91 km3/Ma × 103.

  10. Petroleum generation and migration in the Berkine (Ghadames) Basin, Eastern Algeria. An organic geochemical and basin modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahi, N.

    1999-07-01

    In this study the petroleum system of one of the most important hydrocarbon bearing basins in Algeria, the Berkine Basin, was reconstructed by combining the geological knowledge of the basin and the results of geochemical and basin modelling studies. In this order, total organic carbon (C{sub org}) measurements, Rock-Eval pyrolyses, vitrinite reflectance measurements, gas chromatography (GC) analyses as well as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed in order to evaluate the source rocks with respect to organic richness, kerogen type, depositional environment and maturity. Following the previous evaluation, the burial, erosion and temperature developments within the basin were reconstructed applying both one-dimensional (PDI/1D) and two-dimensional (PetroMod/2D) basin modelling programs. The hydrocarbon generation history of two major Palaeozoic source rocks was reconstructed based on the predetermined temperature history and kinetic model for hydrocarbon (oil and gas) generation. The basin has the benefit of multiple hydrocarbon sources deposited duirng the Silurian and the Frasnian periods within a continental shelf environment. The development of anoxic to dysoxic bottom water conditions was a prerequisite for the deposition of these organic rich units. While increasing the commercial value of the basin by increasing the hydrocarbon potential, these source rocks by generating hydrocarbons at different epochs during the basin evolution generally complicate the understanding of the petroleum system and the oil and gas accumulations. Therefore, the 2D finite element program PetroMod was used to discuss the history of hydrocarbon generation, expulsion and accumulation along a 205 km long selected transect which crosses various oil and gas fields. The major goal was to understand these hydrocarbon accumulations of which the origin and emplacement are still unsolved up to date. The understanding of such important petroleum geology aspects

  11. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  12. Inferring lateral density variations in Great Geneva Basin, western Switzerland from wells and gravity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Aurore; Lupi, Matteo; Clerc, Nicolas; Rusillon, Elme; Do Couto, Damien

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of sustainable energy development Switzerland supports the growth of renewable energies. SIG (Services Industriels de Genève) and the Canton of Geneva intend to develop the use of hydrothermal energy in western Switzerland. As a Mesozoïc-formed sedimentary basin, the Great Geneva Basin (GGB) shares geological and petrophysical similarities with the Munich area (Baviera, Germany) and Paris Basin (France). The latter already provide significant amounts of geothermal energy for district heating. The prospection phase has been launched in 2014 by SIG and aims at identifying relevant geological units and defining their geometries. Lower Cretaceous and Tertiary geological units have first been targeted as potential layers. At the depth we find these units (and according to the normal geothermal gradient), low enthalpy geothermal resources are rather expected. In this framework, our study aims at constraining and refining lateral and vertical heterogeneities of Quaternary to Cretaceous sedimentary layers in GGB. Linear velocity law is inverted at wells and then interpolated to the whole basin for each geological layer. Using time pickings from available data and Quaternary information from previous studies time to depth conversion is performed. Thickness map of every geological unit is then produced. Tertiary thickness ranges from 0 m at the NW border of the GGB at the foothill of the Jura Mountains to 3000 m in the SE of the GGB at the border with the French Alps. These observations are consistent with field and well observations. The produced thickness map will be used as a geometry support for gravity data inversion and then density lateral variations estimation. Unconstrained, and a priori constrained inversion has been performed in GGB using Gauss-Newton algorithms. Velocity versus density relationships will then enable to refine velocity law interpolation. Our procedure allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of key target formation and represents an

  13. Coalbed methane resources of the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the technically recoverable, undiscovered coalbed-gas resources in the Appalachian basin and Black Warrior basin Assessment Provinces as about 15.5 trillion cubic feet. Although these resources are almost equally divided between the two areas, most of the production occurs within relatively small areas within these Provinces, where local geological and geochemical attributes have resulted in the generation and retention of large amounts of methane within the coal beds and have enhanced the producibility of the gas from the coal. In the Appalachian basin, coalbed methane (CBM) tests are commonly commercial where the cumulative coal thickness completed in wells is greater than three meters (10 ft), the depth of burial of the coal beds is greater than 100 m (350 ft), and the coal is in the thermogenic gas window. In addition to the ubiquitous cleating within the coal beds, commercial production may be enhanced by secondary fracture porosity related to supplemental fracture systems within the coal beds. In order to release the methane from microporus coal matrix, most wells are dewatered prior to commercial production of gas. Two Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were defined by the USGS during the assessment: the Pottsville Coal-bed gas TPS in Alabama, and the Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas TPS in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These were divided into seven assessment units, of which three had sufficient data to be assessed. Production rates are higher in most horizontal wells drilled into relatively thick coal beds, than in vertical wells; recovery per unit area is greater, and potential adverse environmental impact is decreased.

  14. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  15. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  16. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point. The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and

  17. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  18. Deserts of the southwestern United States, for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundaries of the deserts of the southwestern United States. Those deserts include the Great Basin, Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran...

  19. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  20. Submarine pyroclastic deposits in Tertiary basins, NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kralj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tertiary basins of NE Slovenia, Upper Oligocene volcanic activity occurred in a submarine environment that experienced contemporaneous clastic sedimentation. Pyroclastic deposits are essentially related to gas- and watersupported eruption-fed density currents. At Trobni Dol, the Lako Basin, an over 100 m thick deposit formed by a sigle sustained volcanic explosion that fed gas-supported pyroclastic flow. Diagnostic features are large matrixshard content, normal grading of pumice lapilli, collapsed pumice lapilli and the presence of charcoal. In the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex, several but only up to 5 m thick deposits related to eruption-fed gassupported pyroclastic flows occur. Deposits settled from water-supported eruption-fed density currents form fining- and thinning-upward sedimentary units which resemble the units of volcaniclastic turbidites. Pyroclastic deposits related to gas- and water-supported density currents occur in an up to 1000 m thick succession composed of coherent volcanics, autoclastic, pyroclastic, reworked volcaniclastic and mixed volcaniclastic-siliciclastic deposits that indicate a complex explosive and depositional history of the Smrekovec Volcanic Complex.

  1. Architecture and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the intramontane Baza Basin (Bétics, SE-Spain): Constraints from seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Christian; Gibert, Luis; Jurado, María José; Stiller, Manfred; Baumann-Wilke, Maria; Scott, Gary; Mertz, Dieter F.

    2017-07-01

    The Baza basin is a large Neogene intramontane basin in the Bétic Cordillera of southern Spain that formed during the Tortonian (late Miocene). The Bétic Cordillera was produced by NW-SE oblique convergence between the Eurasian and African Plates. Three seismic reflection lines (each 18 km long; vibroseis method) were acquired across the Baza basin to reveal the architecture of the sedimentary infill and faulting during basin formation. We applied rather conventional CDP data processing followed by first arrival P-wave tomography to provide complementary structural information and establish velocity models for the post-stack migration. These images show a highly asymmetric structure for the Basin with sediments thickening westward, reaching a maximum observed thickness of > 2200 m near the governing Baza Fault zone (BFZ). Three major seismic units (including several subunits) on top of the acoustic basement could be identified. We use stratigraphic information from the uplifted block of the BFZ and other outcrops at the basin edges together with available information from neighboring Bétic basins to tentatively correlate the seismic units to the known stratigraphy in the area. Until new drilling or surface outcrop data is not available, this interpretation is preliminary. The seismic units could be associated to Tortonian marine deposits, and latest Miocene to Pleistocene continental fluvio-lacustrine sediments. Individual strands of the BFZ truncate the basin sediments. Strong fault reflections imaged in two lines are the product of the large impedance contrast between sedimentary fill and basement. In the central part of the Basin several basement faults document strong deformation related to the early stages of basin formation. Some of these faults can be traced up to the shallowest imaged depth levels indicating activity until recent times.

  2. Real time flood forecasting in the Nan Basin, Thailand, by using a distributed Xin'anjiang Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Xiaobin

    2015-04-01

    Taking Nan basin in Thailand as a research case, on the basis of DEM, this paper extracts the digital information of Nan basin and divides it into ten sub-basins, considering the land usage and terrain distribution, to construct the distributed Xinanjiang model. Before the model simulation, various digital basin information is established involving elevation matrix, river net matrix, direction matrix and so on. The three-water-source Xinanjiang model is adopted in the grids to calculate the runoff yield under a specific precipitation in grids, and then all the water flows of the grids are convoluted to the sub-basin's outlet to synthesize the runoff process of a subbasin. Eventually the subbasin runoff is routed to the basin outlet to obtain runoff process of the whole basin with real-time correction. The model parameters are calibrated by using the trial and error method. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the parameters are analyzed. The main achievements of this paper are as follows. (1) The basin information is extracted and the digital NAN basin is constructed on the basis of DEM data. As a result, a series of basin information matrix and digital Nan basin are generated. (2) The constant flow in grids and isochrones concept are used to replace the unit hydrograph of sub-basins. The basin discharge process is obtained through calculating the grid runoff yield and subbasin runoff convolution and routing the subbasin runoffs to the basin outlet. (3) The model is calibrated on more than 50 historical flood processes. The sensitivity and uncertainty of model parameters are analyzed by the perturbation analysis method, showing that some parameters, including KC, KKG, KKSS, WUM, KG, WLM, KSS and WDM are more sensitive. At the same time, the model uncertainty is analyed by the GLUE method and the results illustrate that the simulation effect depends on the values of parameter group while the observed runoff is in the uncertainty range. (4) The calculated discharge

  3. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  4. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon. It ...

  5. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be turned about in any canal, except: (a) With permission from the traffic controller; and (b) At the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin No. 1—Opposite Brossard. (b) Turning Basin No. 2—Between Lock 7 and the Guard Gate Cut for vessels up...

  6. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  7. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. Neotectonic of subsiding basins : case of studies from Marañon and Beni basins, Peru and Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Climatic conditions make the fluvial processes very sensitive in the extended flood plain of subandean basins, giving typical morphostructures. Because of high subsidence rate, these basins are case for the understanding of neotectonics in subsiding basins. Recent anciente fluvial traces are used in combination with sub surface structures, neotectonic and seismotectonic data to study the neotectonic evolution of the Peruvian and Bolivian active foreland basins. These basins, the Marañon Basin...

  9. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  10. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-01-22

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  11. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill-Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill-hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin such as alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  12. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  13. THE CAMAQUÃ BASIN MODELLING : TECTONOSTRATIGRAPHY THROUGH INTEGRATION OF GEOPHYSICAL (GRAVIMETRY, WELL LOG AND REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Londoño Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A tectonostratigraphic study of the Camaquã Basin, formed by Neoproterozoic to Eopaleozoic volcano-sedimentary units, is herein presented. Based on lineaments obtained through LANDSAT
    TM images and geophysical methods, four structural domains were recognized. The depositional and deformational sequences of the Guaritas and the Bom Jardim Formations were identified on
    well logs, where the fluvial deltaic system and brittle to brittle-ductile tectonic evidence is preserved. Differential compaction of sedimentary rocks was recognized using geophysical information (electrical (well log and potential methods (gravimetry. The sedimentary package presents variable thickness, increasing to the NE portion of the basin, and a compartmentalization in echelon subbasins, delimited by NW-trending structures is observed. A 3D schematic model of the Camaquã Basin was built based on the geophysical and satellite image data integrated to the Digital Terrane Model.

  14. Determination of the Relationship between Hydrologic Processes and Basin Morphometry - The Lamos Basin (Mersin, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ümit; Güler, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the relationship between hydrologic processes and basin morphometry in the Lamos Basin, which is located at the northern part of the Mersin (SE Turkey). The morphometric parameters of the basin was derived from the 1:25K scale topographic map sheets that were digitized using ArcGIS 9.3.1 geographic information system (GIS) software. Morphometric parameters considered in this study include basin area, basin length, basin perimeter length, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, basin relief, drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, bifurcation ratio, form factor, elongation ratio, overland flow length, relief ratio, and hypsometric integral. The results have shown that there are 1252 individual stream reaches with a total length of 1414.1 km in the Lamos basin, which covers an area of 1358 km2 and has a length of 103 km in the N-S direction. Furthermore, the basin has a medium drainage density of 1.04 1/km with a stream frequency and drainage texture values of 0.92 and 4.33, respectively. The basin can be classified as elongated because of the low values of elongation ratio (0.48) and form factor (0.12). The hypsometric integral of the basin (0.58) indicates that it is in the youth period and thus reasonably sensitive to erosion. The values of drainage texture, drainage density, and stream frequency indicate that the Lamos basin is moderately well drained, therefore overland flow in the basin is not expected to be so quick. Thus, in case of occurrence of sudden peak flows, sensitivity to the land sliding and erosion may increase further. As a result, it is suggested that human activities in the basin should be limited in areas in fairly close proximity to the present day stream network to prevent or reduce the risk to life and property.

  15. Seismic stratigraphy of rift basins: techniques, methods and its application in the Reconcavo Basin; Sismoestratigrafia de bacias rifte: tecnicas, metodos e sua aplicacao na Bacia do Reconcavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchle, Juliano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias (Brazil)], e-mail: julianokuchle@yahoo.com.br; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Paleontologia e Estratigrafia (Brazil)], e-mail: claiton.scherer@ufrgs.br

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims a proposal of interpretation and seismic stratigraphy systematic mapping of rift basins based on genetic concepts, as offered by the basic development of the Sequence Stratigraphy - the temporal interpretation of units based on concepts derived from variables and observable in depositional trends. So, rift basins are controlled by specifically variables and its relationships, which results in theoretical evolutional models. Those theoretical models are detailed as depositional trends denominated stacking patterns. Thus, from the stacking patterns, it is able to establish the inverse way analysis, picturing evolutional models and controlling variables. The main objective of this paper is the migration of the genetic tectonic-stratigraphic model of rift basins to the seismic platform, supported by the key-concepts of the seismic stratigraphy. This analysis is based on the recognition of seismic stratigraphic units which composes the tectonic system tracts - basic units of the framework, and these system tracts are formed by specific stacking patterns for each portion of the half Graben. As those stacking patterns reflect changes in the accommodation, stratigraphic surfaces and strata termination patterns are established. Therefore, a whole conceptual basis of seismic stratigraphy recognition and mapping is proposed, as well as a time determination of evolutional models in chronostratigraphic diagrams (Wheeler charts), to supply a useful tectonic-stratigraphic framework to hydrocarbon exploration. (author)

  16. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  17. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  18. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion projections for the Las Vegas Basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barbara Luke; Ying Liu

    2008-11-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements were collected from which characteristic shear wave velocity profiles were developed for each response unit. An equivalent-linear one-dimensional site response model was used. The model was calibrated using a basin-wide, small-strain ground motion database. Calibration tests showed that ground motion projections become increasingly conservative with increasing ground-motion amplitude. Projections were overconservative for the coarsegrained response unit, likely due to the sparseness of the velocity database. For the earthquake response analyses, historical ground motions were used to model characteristic ‘bedrock’ motion for earthquakes on 10 faults judged to be critical. Response spectral envelopes were generated for each unit through Monte-Carlo simulations. For the fine-grained response unit, 95th percentile peak ground acceleration, peak spectral acceleration and predominant period were 310 cm/s2, 1100cm/s2, and 0.29 s, respectively. With respect to codified design spectra, projections are lower at short periods and higher at long periods. Projections of peak spectral accelerations for the coarsegrained response unit, were more than double that of codified spectra; however, they are believed to be overconservative. Near-fault effects and basin-edge effects, though potentially important, were not considered in these analyses.

  19. The Messinian evaporites in the Levant Basin: lithology, deformation and its evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Steinberg, Josh; Reshef, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    The lithological composition of the Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin remains controversial and salt deformation mechanisms are still not fully understood, due to the lack of high resolution 3D depth seismic data and well logs that record the entire evaporite sequence. We demonstrate how 3D Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) and intra-salt tomography can lead to improved salt imaging. Using 3D PSDM seismic data with great coverage and deepwater well log data from recently drilled boreholes, we reveal intra-salt reflective units associated with thin clastic layers and a seismic transparent background consisting of uniform pure halite. Structural maps of all internal reflectors are generated for stratigraphy and attributes analysis. High amplitude fan structures in the lowermost intra-salt reflector are observed, which may indicate the source of the clastic formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin comprises six units; the uppermost unit thickens towards the northwest, whereas the other