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Sample records for units mg-1 protein

  1. Conserved homeodomain proteins interact with MADS box protein Mcm1 to restrict ECB-dependent transcription to the M/G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila, Tata; Miles, Shawna; GuhaThakurta, Debraj; Jemiolo, Dave; Breeden, Linda L

    2002-12-01

    Two homeodomain proteins, Yox1 and Yhp1, act as repressors at early cell cycle boxes (ECBs) to restrict their activity to the M/G1 phase of the cell cycle in budding yeast. These proteins bind to Mcm1 and to a typical homeodomain binding site. The expression of Yox1 is periodic and directly correlated with its binding to, and repression of, ECB activity. The absence of Yox1 and Yhp1 or the constitutive expression of Yox1 leads to the loss of cell-cycle regulation of ECB activity. Therefore, the cell-cycle-regulated expression of these repressors defines the interval of ECB-dependent transcription. Twenty-eight genes, including MCM2-7, CDC6, SWI4, CLN3, and a number of genes required during late M phase have been identified that are coordinately regulated by this pathway.

  2. Bayesian Inference and Prediction in an M/G/1 with Optional Second Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, A.; Salehi-Rad, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we exploit the Bayesian inference and prediction for an M/G/1 queuing model with optional second re-service. In this model, a service unit attends customers arriving following a Poisson process and demanding service according to a general distribution and some of customers need to r

  3. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Poznic

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1-to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb–E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  4. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznic, M

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1 -to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb-E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  5. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  6. Eukaryotic protein domains as functional units of cellular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jing; Xie, Xueying; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Modular protein domains are functional units that can be modified through the acquisition of new intrinsic activities or by the formation of novel domain combinations, thereby contributing to the evolution of proteins with new biological properties. Here, we assign proteins to groups with related...... biological processes. Evolutionary jumps are associated with a domain that coordinately acquires a new intrinsic function and enters new domain clubs, thereby providing the modified domain with access to a new cellular microenvironment. We also coordinately analyzed the covalent and noncovalent interactions...... that domains, and the proteins in which they reside, are selected during evolution through reciprocal interactions with protein domains in their local microenvironment. Based on this scheme, we propose a mechanism by which Tudor domains may have evolved to support different modes of epigenetic regulation...

  7. Optimization on bicriterion policies for M/G/1 system with second optional service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jau-chuan KE; Yunn-kuang CHU

    2008-01-01

    We compare the optimal operating cost of the two bicriterion policies, p,T and p,N, for an M/G/1 queueing system with second optional service, in which the length of the vacation period is randomly controlled either by the number of arrivals during the idle period or by a timer. After all the customers are served in the queue exhaustively, the server immediately takes a vacation and may operate p, T policy or p,N policy. For the two bicriterion policies, the total average cost function per unit time is developed to search the optimal stationary operating policies at a minimum cost. Based upon the optimal cost the explicit forms for joint optimum threshold values of (p,T) and (p,N) are obtained.

  8. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  9. Optimal Control of the D-Policy M/G/1 Queueing System with Server Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a single server in the D-policy M/G/1 queueing system in which the server is turned off at the end of each complete period and is activated again only when the cumulative completion times of the customers in the system exceeds a given level D. While the server is working, he is subject to breakdowns according to a Poisson process. When the server breaks down, he requires repair at a repair facility, where the repair time obeys a general distribution. We have demonstrated that the probability that the server is busy in the steady-state is equal to the traffic intensity. The total expected cost function per customer per unit time is constructed to determine the optimal operating D-policy at a minimum cost. We use the steady-state analytic results and apply an efficient Matlab computer program to calculate the optimal value of D. Based on three different service distributions: exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic, we provide extensive numerical computation for illustration purpose. Sensitivity analysis is also investigated.

  10. Protein sectors: evolutionary units of three-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Najeeb; Rivoire, Olivier; Leibler, Stanislas; Ranganathan, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Proteins display a hierarchy of structural features at primary, secondary, tertiary, and higher-order levels, an organization that guides our current understanding of their biological properties and evolutionary origins. Here, we reveal a structural organization distinct from this traditional hierarchy by statistical analysis of correlated evolution between amino acids. Applied to the S1A serine proteases, the analysis indicates a decomposition of the protein into three quasi-independent groups of correlated amino acids that we term “protein sectors”. Each sector is physically connected in the tertiary structure, has a distinct functional role, and constitutes an independent mode of sequence divergence in the protein family. Functionally relevant sectors are evident in other protein families as well, suggesting that they may be general features of proteins. We propose that sectors represent a structural organization of proteins that reflects their evolutionary histories. PMID:19703402

  11. M/G/1 Subject to an Initial Quorum of Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    is the maximal queue size (and system size) while the server idles or vacations. The modified model is designated as M/G/I1(m). When m=O we have the... designate this model as M/G/1/(m). Thus, when m = 0 we have the regular M/G/1. In a prior report (Krakowski, 1986) we dealt with the process "queue...size" for : i M/G/1(m). (Note: In that prior report m stands for the current m+1. The change simplifies somewhat the typography of many formulas.) We

  12. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  13. Quorum sensing-controlled biofilm development in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Queek, S.Y.; Koh, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Serratia liquefaciens MG1 contains an N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing system that is known to regulate swarming motility colonization. In this study, we describe for S. liquefaciens MG1 the development of a novel biofilm consisting of cell aggregates and differentiated cell types......, such as cell chains and long filamentous cells. Furthermore, quorum sensing is shown to be crucial for normal biofilm development and for elaborate differentiation. A mutant of S. liquefaciens MG1 that was incapable of synthesizing extracellular signal formed a thin and nonmature biofilm lacking cell...... aggregates and differentiated cell chains. Signal-based complementation of this mutant resulted in a biofilm with the wild-type architecture. Two quorum-sensing-regulated genes (bsmA and bsmB) involved in biofilm development were identified, and we propose that these genes are engaged in fine...

  14. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia Marcescens MG1 is surface dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Zhu, H.; Thung, L.;

    2007-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion...

  15. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  16. Phenotypic Diversification and Adaptation of Serratia marcescens MG1 Biofilm-Derived Morphotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Kai Shyang; Lam, Kin Wai; Alhede, Morten

    2007-01-01

    We report here the characterization of dispersal variants from microcolony-type biofilms of Serratia marcescens MG1. Biofilm formation proceeds through a reproducible process of attachment, aggregation, microcolony development, hollow colony formation, and dispersal. From the time when hollow col...

  17. Effect of Mn on microstructure and corrosion properties of extruded Mg-1%Zn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Ma, Y.; Xi, Z. Z.; Xu, C. J.; Lv, Z. L.

    2017-03-01

    The microstructure of the extruded Mg-1Zn alloy doped with different content of manganese was analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The mass-loss immersion method and electrochemical test were used to evaluate the corrosion properties. The results show that the microstructure of the extruded Mg-1%Zn-x%Mn (mass fraction, x=0.4, 0.8, 1.2) alloys consists of α-Mg and α-Mn, the grain size of α-Mg decreases with increasing Mn content. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the alloys is similar. Mn has considerable effect on the corrosion rate, the corrosion process is exacerbated by the galvanic corrosion occurred at interface between α-Mg and α-Mn. The corrosion rate increases as the Mn content increases. Mg-1%Zn-0.4% Mn alloy exhibits the best corrosion resistance between the Mg-1%Zn-x%Mn alloys

  18. Spectroscopy of charge transfer states in Mg1 - x Ni x O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmanov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.

    2016-10-01

    Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of solid solution Mg1- x Ni x O ( x = 0.008) have been analyzed. The contributions of charge transfer electronic states and nonradiative Auger relaxation to the formation of the photoluminescence spectrum are discussed.

  19. Mechanism of simultaneously refolding and purification of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatographic unit and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG; Xindu(耿信笃); BAI; Quan(白泉)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrophobic amino acid residues of a denatured protein molecule tend to react with the particles of the stationary phase of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (STHIC). These hydrophobic interactions prevent the denatured protein molecules from aggregating with each other. The STHIC can provide high enough energy to a denatured protein molecule to make it dehydration and to refold it into its native or various intermediate states. The outcome not only depends on the specific interactions between amino acids, the structure of STHIC, but also depends on the association between the STHIC and mobile phase. The mechanism of protein refolding and the principle of its quality control by HPHIC were also presented. By appropriate selection of the chromatographic condition, several denatured proteins can be refolded and separated simultaneously in a single chromatographic run. A specially designed unit, with diameter much larger than its length, was designed and employed for both laboratory and preparative scales. That unit for the simultaneous renaturation and purification of proteins (USRPP) had the following four functions: to completely remove denaturant, to renature proteins, to separate renatured proteins from impurities, and to easily recycle waste denaturant. The efficiencies of refolding and purification of proteins by the USRPP are almost comparable to a usual long chromatographic column in laboratory. In preparative scale, USRPP can be easily, rapidly, and economically applied requiring a low pressure gradient. As an example, recombinant human interferon-? is employed to elucidate the application of the preparative USRPP.

  20. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AN M/G/1 RETRIAL QUEUE WITH VACATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnar AISSANI

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider an M/G/1 retrial queue with server vacations, when retrial times, servicetimes and vacation times are arbitrary distributed. The distribution of the number of customers in the system in stationary regime is obtained in terms of generating function. Next, we give heavy traffic approximation of such distribution. We show that the system size can be decomposed into two random variables, one of which corresponds to the system size of the ordinary M/G/1 FIFO queue without vacation. Such a stochastic decomposition property is useful for the computation of performance measures of interest. Finally, we solve simple problems of optimal control of vacation and retrial policies.

  1. Band gap bowing in NixMg1-xO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, Christian A.; Råsander, Mikael; Rhode, Sneha; Kachkanov, Vyacheslav; Zou, Bin; Alford, Neil; Moram, Michelle A.

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial transparent oxide NixMg1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were grown on MgO(100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis indicate that the thin films are compositionally and structurally homogeneous, forming a completely miscible solid solution. Nevertheless, the composition dependence of the NixMg1-xO optical band gap shows a strong non-parabolic bowing with a discontinuity at dilute NiO concentrations of x band structure and the density of states demonstrate that deep Ni 3d levels are introduced into the MgO band gap, which significantly reduce the fundamental gap as confirmed by optical absorption spectra. These states broaden into a Ni 3d-derived conduction band for x > 0.074 and account for the anomalously large band gap narrowing in the NixMg1-xO solid solution system.

  2. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  3. Properties of Multi-Stage M/G/1/K Queues with Series Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-González Salvador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modification to the Buzacott & Shantikumar (1993 method to evaluate the properties of M/G/1/K queues with series arrangement. We made several tests and compared with simulation to validate the results. We observed that, with the proposed modification, the method has an acceptable level of exactitude. It can be considered an alternative calculation to other methods in the literature. The fact that this method requires less computational effort, can be useful to practitioners and managers that require tools to analyze the performance of systems in production and services areas.

  4. Conduction electron spin resonance in Mg 1 - x Al x B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likodimos, V.; Koutandos, S.; Pissas, M.; Papavassiliou, G.; Prassides, K.

    2003-01-01

    Conduction electron spin resonance is employed to study the interplay of the electronic and structural properties in the normal state of Mg 1 - x Al x B2 alloys as a function of Al-doping for 0 <= x <= 1. The x-dependence of the spin susceptibility reveals considerable reduction of the total density of states N(EF) with increasing Al concentration, complying with theoretical predictions for a predominant filling effect of the hole σ bands by electron doping. The CESR linewidth exhibits significant broadening, especially prominent in the high-Al-content region, indicative of the presence of enhanced structural disorder, consistent with the presence of compositional fluctuations.

  5. SOME NEW RESULTS ON WAITING TIME AND BUSY TIME IN M/G/1 QUEUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers an M/G/1 queue with Poisson rate λ > 0 and servicetime distribution G(t) which is supposed to have finite mean 1/μ. The following questions are first studied: (a) The closed bounds of the probability that waiting time is more than a fixed value; (b)The total busy time of the server, which including the distribution,probability that are more than a fixed value during a given time interval (0, t], and the expected value. Some new and important results are obtained by theories of the classes of life distributions and renewal process.

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND STATIC RECRYS-TALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF HOT-ROLLED Mg-1Zn AND Mg-1Y ALLOYS DURING ISOTHERMAL ANNEALING%热轧Mg-1Zn和Mg-1Y合金退火组织演变及静态再结晶行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刚建伟; 施斌卿; 陈荣石; 柯伟

    2012-01-01

    对比研究了高温轧制制备的Mg-1.02Zn及Mg-0.76Y(质量分数,%)合金在不同温度退火条件下的组织演变及静态再结晶和晶粒长大动力学行为.结果表明,Mg-1Zn合金的轧制组织以剪切带和孪晶为主,在剪切带和孪晶内伴随着动态再结晶;而Mg-1Y合金的轧制组织中只有孪晶,未观察到剪切带和再结晶发生.退火过程中,Mg-1Zn合金静态再结晶过程主要受控于形核过程,而Mg-1Y合金则既受控于形核过程又受控于长大过程.利用经典的JMAK模型和长大模型分别描述了2种合金热轧制后的静态再结晶和晶粒长大动力学过程,结果表明,静态再结晶过程的Avrami因子n值与理想预测值偏离可能来自于再结晶的不均匀形核.固溶稀土Y原子比Zn原子对晶界移动的拖曳作用更强,导致Mg-1Y合金比Mg-1Zn合金晶粒长大因子n'更高.%Wrought Mg alloys alloyed with rare elements (RE) addition were deemed to be one of the most promising Mg alloys in industrial application, due to the formation of weakened texture and refined microstructure. Generally, the wrought Mg alloys with RE addition after normal thermal-mechanical processing possessed incompletely recrystallized microstructure, so it was necessary to research the subsequent annealing treatment for controlling the microstructure. Unfortunately, the corresponding investigations on the mentioned above were still limited. In this study, hot-rolled Mg-1.02Zn and Mg-0.76Y (mass fraction, %) alloys were selected to investigate the microstructure evolution, static recrystallization behavior and grain growth kinetics under different annealing treatments. The microstructure examination showed that hot-rolled Mg lZn alloy was composed of shear bands and twinswith the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization; whereas only twins were observed in the hot-rolled Mg-IY alloy, no shear bands and recrystallization were detected. That should be attributed to the difference in the

  7. On the M/G/1 queueing system with multiclass customers and fixed feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The M/G/1 queueing system with multiclass customer arrivals, fixed feedback, and first come first served policy is considered, where different classes of customers have different arrival rates, service-time distributions, and feedback numbers. The joint probability generation function of queue size of each class and the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the total sojourn time of a customer in each class are presented, which extended the results obtained by Choi B D. The mean queue size of each class and mean total sojourn time of a customer in each class are obtained with this result. The results can be used in computer and communication networks for their performance analysis.

  8. Reservicing some customers in M/G/1 queues under three disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Salehi-Rad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider an M/G/1 production line in which a production item is failed with some probability and is then repaired. We consider three repair disciplines depending on whether the failed item is repaired immediately or first stockpiled and repaired after all customers in the main queue are served or the stockpile reaches a specified threshold. For each discipline, we find the probability generating function (p.g.f. of the steady-state size of the system at the moment of departure of the customer in the main queue, the mean busy period, and the probability of the idle period.

  9. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  10. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  11. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  12. How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T B; Manefield, M; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal...... molecule N:-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. This in turn results in reduced production of the surface-active compound serrawettin W2, which is crucial for surface translocation of the differentiated swarm cells. It is demonstrated that furanones interfere with interspecies communication during swarming...

  13. Lipid Models for United-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukol, Andreas

    2009-03-10

    United-atom force fields for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a higher computational efficiency, especially in lipid membrane simulations, with little sacrifice in accuracy, when compared to all-atom force fields. Excellent united-atom lipid models are available, but in combination with depreciated protein force fields. In this work, a united-atom model of the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has been built with standard parameters of the force field GROMOS96 53a6 that reproduces the experimental area per lipid of a lipid bilayer within 3% accuracy to a value of 0.623 ± 0.011 nm(2) without the assumption of a constant surface area or the inclusion of surface pressure. In addition, the lateral self-diffusion constant and deuterium order parameters of the acyl chains are in agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, models for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) result in areas per lipid of 0.625 nm(2) (DMPC), 0.693 nm(2) (POPC), and 0.700 nm(2) (POPG) from 40 ns MD simulations. Experimental lateral self-diffusion coefficients are reproduced satisfactorily by the simulation. The lipid models can form the basis for molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins with current and future versions of united-atom protein force fields.

  14. Single Nanometric Memory Unit Based On a Protein-Nanoparticle Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalsy, Izhar; Heyman, Arnon; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2009-03-01

    Proteins as an isolating template and nanoparticle (NP) as an electric storage component can form a single addressable unit cell isolated from the conductive surface and adjacent NPs. This setup gives rise to a wide range of nanoelectronic applications. Here we demonstrate, by Conductive AFM, a single nanometric memory unit using individual protein-NP hybrids. SP1 is a boiling-stable ring-shaped protein, 11 nm in diameter. Mutants of SP1 were synthesized allowing its selective attachment to gold surface and the formation of 2D arrays using methods such as phospholipids trough and Langmuir Blodgett. The SP1 inner pore was connected to Si NP forming a chargeable entity embedded in an isolating unit over a conductive surface. Each NP holds three charging states: natural, positive and negative. The charging life times are 10 min in ambient and days in vacuum. Using this setup, and the relative long charging time, we were able to apply a read and write operations on individual 5nm Si NP embedded in a stable protein.

  15. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Anh Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid nanoparticle (NP structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3. We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP, magnetite (Fe3O4 NP, and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP. Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by a factor of 8·104 and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the

  16. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

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    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  17. Reliability analysis of M/G/1 queues with general retrial times and server breakdowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinting

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the reliability issues as well as queueing analysis of M/G/1 retrial queues with general retrial times and server subject to breakdowns and repairs. We assume that the server is unreliable and customers who find the server busy or down are queued in the retrial orbit in accordance with a first-come-first-served discipline. Only the customer at the head of the orbit queue is allowed for access to the server. The necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is given. Using a supplementary variable method, we obtain the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the reliability function of the server and a steady state solution for both queueing and reliability measures of interest. Some main reliability indexes, such as the availability, failure frequency, and the reliability function of the server, are obtained.

  18. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

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    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  19. Explicit Convergence Rates of the Embedded M/G/1 Queue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan LIU; Zhen Ting HOU

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the explicit convergence rates to the stationary distribution π of the embedded M/G/1 queue; specifically, for suitable rate functions r(n) which may be polynomial with r(n)=nl,l>0 or geometric with r(n) =αn,α> 1 and "moments" f≥1, we find the conditions under which ∑∞n=0r(n)||Pn(i,·)-π(·)||f≤M(i) for all i∈E. For the polynomial case, the explicit bounds on M(i) are given in terms of both "drift functions" and behavior of the first hitting time on the state 0; and for the geometric case, the largest geometric convergence rate α* is obtained.

  20. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

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    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  1. Substrates and enzyme activities related to biotransformation of resveratrol from phenylalanine by Alternaria sp. MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-12-01

    To identify the substrates and enzymes related to resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1, different substrates were used to produce resveratrol, and their influence on resveratrol production was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formation of resveratrol and related intermediates was identified using mass spectrum. During the biotransformation, activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), were analyzed and tracked. The reaction system contained 100 mL 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 120 g/L Alternaria sp. MG1 cells, 0.1 g/L MgSO₄, and 0.2 g/L CaSO₄ and different substrates according to the experimental design. The biotransformation was carried out for 21 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. Resveratrol formation was identified when phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were separately used as the only substrate. Accumulation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and resveratrol and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were identified and changed in different trends during transformation with phenylalanine as the only substrate. The addition of carbohydrates and the increase of phenylalanine concentration promoted resveratrol production and yielded the highest value (4.57 μg/L) when 2 g/L glucose, 1 g/L cyclodextrin, and phenylalanine (4.7 mmol/L) were used simultaneously.

  2. Phase and Microstructure Evaluation and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Mg1- x Ni x SiO3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Atta; Liu, Hanxing; Hao, Hua; Iqbal, Javed; Yao, Zhonghua; Cao, Minghe; Xu, Qi

    2016-10-01

    The ceramics were prepared using the solid-state reaction method and their phase, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. A single-phase clinoenstatite system with monoclinic structure (space group P21/c) was confirmed through x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the compositions with x ≤ 0.1. The compositions with x ≥ 0.15 contain SiO2 and (Mg1- x Ni x )2SiO4 phases only as confirmed from the XRD data of their sintered samples. The unit cell volume was decreased while the theoretical density was increased with increase in x from 0 to 0.1. A decrease in dielectric constant ( ɛ r) while an increase in unloaded quality factor multiplying the resonant frequency ( Q u f o) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ( τ f) was observed with increase in Ni content from 0 to x = 0.1. In the present study, ɛ r ˜ 6.10, Q u f o ˜ 118,702 GHz and τ f ˜ -10 ppm/°C was achieved for the composition with x = 0.1 sintered at 1425°C for 9 h. The material is a good candidate for millimeter wave applications.

  3. Vibratory Reaction Unit for the Rapid Analysis of Proteins and Glycochains

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    Yukie Sasakura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein digestion system using immobilized enzymes for protein identification and glycochain analyses has been developed, and a vibration reaction unit for micro-scale sample convection on an enzyme-immobilized solid surface was constructed. BSA as a model substrate was digested by this unit, and was successfully identified by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Compared to the conventional liquid-phase digestion, the reaction unit increased the number of matched peptides from 9 to 26, protein score from 455 to 1247, and sequence coverage from 21% to 48%. Glycopeptidase F (NGF, an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, was also immobilized and used to remove the glycochains from human immunoglobulin G (IgG. Trypsin and NGF were immobilized on the same solid surface and used to remove glycochains from IgG in single-step. Glycochains were labeled with fluorescent reagent and analyzed by HPLC. Several peaks corresponding to the glycochains of IgG were detected. These results suggested that the single-step digestion system, by immobilized multiple enzymes (trypsin and NGF would be effective for the rapid structural analysis of glycoproteins.Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: glycopeptidase F; IgG: immunoglobulin G; PTM: post-translational modification; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; DTT: dithiothreitol; RT: retention time; ABOE: p-aminobenzoic acid octyl ester; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; ArgC: endoprotease Arginine C.

  4. The four-transmembrane protein IP39 of Euglena forms strands by a trimeric unit repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Uji, Masami; Abe, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    Euglenoid flagellates have striped surface structures comprising pellicles, which allow the cell shape to vary from rigid to flexible during the characteristic movement of the flagellates. In Euglena gracilis, the pellicular strip membranes are covered with paracrystalline arrays of a major integral membrane protein, IP39, a putative four-membrane-spanning protein with the conserved sequence motif of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of Euglena IP39 determined by electron crystallography. Two-dimensional crystals of IP39 appear to form a striated pattern of antiparallel double-rows in which trimeric IP39 units are longitudinally polymerised, resulting in continuously extending zigzag-shaped lines. Structural analysis revealed an asymmetric molecular arrangement in the trimer, and suggested that at least four different interactions between neighbouring protomers are involved. A combination of such multiple interactions would be important for linear strand formation of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer.

  5. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  6. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poisson Guylaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Results Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Conclusions Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this

  7. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaid, Mahdi; Bergeron, Anne; Poisson, Guylaine

    2011-10-05

    A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this problem.

  8. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

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    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  9. Protein Turnover and Metabolism in the Elderly Intensive Care Unit Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stuart M; Dickerson, Roland N; Moore, Frederick A; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-04-01

    Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients do not achieve target protein intakes particularly in the early days following admittance. This period of iatrogenic protein undernutrition contributes to a rapid loss of lean, in particular muscle, mass in the ICU. The loss of muscle in older (aged >60 years) patients in the ICU may be particularly rapid due to a perfect storm of increased catabolic factors, including systemic inflammation, disuse, protein malnutrition, and reduced anabolic stimuli. This loss of muscle mass has marked consequences. It is likely that the older patient is already experiencing muscle loss due to sarcopenia; however, the period of stay in the ICU represents a greatly accelerated period of muscle loss. Thus, on discharge, the older ICU patient is now on a steeper downward trajectory of muscle loss, more likely to have ICU-acquired muscle weakness, and at risk of becoming sarcopenic and/or frail. One practice that has been shown to have benefit during ICU stays is early ambulation and physical therapy (PT), and it is likely that both are potent stimuli to induce a sensitivity of protein anabolism. Thus, recommendations for the older ICU patient would be provision of at least 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg usual body weight/d, regular and early utilization of ambulation (if possible) and/or PT, and follow-up rehabilitation for the older discharged ICU patient that includes rehabilitation, physical activity, and higher habitual dietary protein to change the trajectory of ICU-mediated muscle mass loss and weakness.

  10. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized...... with this cDNA probe. Ten positives were colony-purified, and the largest plasmid cDNA insert, MH8 (4.4 kb), was sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. MH8 contained the complete coding sequence for the precursor of murine complement protein factor H (3702 bp), 100 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  11. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

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    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  12. Energy and Protein Delivery in Overweight and Obese Children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Ariagno, Katelyn A; Stenquist, Nicole; Anderson, Daniela; Muñoz, Eliana; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2017-06-01

    Early and optimal energy and protein delivery have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Overweight and obese children in the PICU may be at risk for suboptimal macronutrient delivery; we aimed to describe macronutrient delivery in this cohort. We performed a retrospective study of PICU patients ages 2-21 years, with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile and >48 hours stay. Nutrition variables were extracted regarding nutrition screening and assessment, energy and protein prescription, and delivery. Data from 83 patient encounters for 52 eligible patients (52% male; median age 9.6 [5-15] years) were included. The study cohort had a longer median PICU length of stay (8 vs 5 days, P Energy expenditure was estimated primarily by predictive equations. Stress factor >1.0 was applied in 44% (22/50). Median energy delivered as a percentage of estimated requirements by the Schofield equation was 34.6% on day 3. Median protein delivered as a percentage of recommended intake was 22.1% on day 3. The study cohort had suboptimal nutrition assessments and macronutrient delivery during their PICU course. Mortality and duration of PICU stay were greater when compared with the general PICU population. Nutrition assessment, indirect calorimetry-guided energy prescriptions, and optimizing the delivery of energy and protein must be emphasized in this cohort. The impact of these practices on clinical outcomes must be investigated.

  13. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Doghachi, Faris A J; Islam, Aminul; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saiman, Mohd Izham; Embong, Zaidi; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2016-01-01

    A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  14. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A J Al-Doghachi

    Full Text Available A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  15. Identification of waiting time distribution of M/G/1, Mx/G/1, GIr/M/1 queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghosal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings out relations among the moments of various orders of the waiting time of the 1st customer and a randomly selected customer of an arrival group for bulk arrivals queueing models, and as well as moments of the waiting time (in queue for M/G/1 queueing system. A numerical study of these relations has been developed in order to find the (β1,β2 measures of waiting time distribution in a comutable form. On the basis of these measures one can look into the nature of waiting time distribution of bulk arrival queues and the single server M/G/1 queue.

  16. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

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    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  17. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of the Lip secretion system in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, K.; Ohnesorg, T.; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 'luxAB insertion mutants that are responsive to N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipB is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. LipB is part of the Lip exporter, a type I secretion system, which is responsible...

  18. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper deri

  19. Raman imaging of grain growth mechanism in highly textured Pb(Mg{1{/}3}Nb{2{/}3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} piezoelectric ceramics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomban, P.; Pham Thi, Mai

    2005-06-01

    Pb(Mg{1 / 3}Nb{2 / 3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} solid solution ((1-x)PMN-xPT) tape cast ceramics have been prepared by homo-epitaxial templated grain growth (HTGG) using cubic 0.75PMN 0.25 PT single crystal seeds as template (a few wt%) and x = 0.35 nanoparticles for the ceramic matrix. Raman imaging studied representative medium and highly textured ceramics. On the base of a previous study which has shown that the Raman peak centre of gravity depends on the solid solution composition whereas peak intensity is correlated to the unit-cell distortion, Raman imaging shows that the final composition and structure is very close to that of the matrix.

  20. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  1. GANDivAWeb: A web server for detecting early folding units ("foldons" from protein 3D structures

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    Krishnan Arun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been known that small regions of proteins tend to fold independently and are then stabilized by interactions between these distinct subunits or modules. Such units, also known as autonomous folding units (AFUs or"foldons" play a key role in protein folding. A knowledge of such early folding units has diverse applications in protein engineering as well as in developing an understanding of the protein folding process. Such AFUs can also be used as model systems in order to study the structural organization of proteins. Results In an earlier work, we had utilized a global network partitioning algorithm to identify modules in proteins. We had shown that these modules correlate well with AFUs. In this work, we have developed a webserver, GANDivAWeb, to identify early folding units or "foldons" in networks using the algorithm described earlier. The website has three functionalities: (a It is able to display information on the modularity of a database of 1420 proteins used in the original work, (b It can take as input an uploaded PDB file, identify the modules using the GANDivA algorithm and email the results back to the user and (c It can take as input an uploaded PDB file and a results file (obtained from functionality (b and display the results using the embedded viewer. The results include the module decomposition of the protein, plots of cartoon representations of the protein colored by module identity and connectivity as well as contour plots of the hydrophobicity and relative accessible surface area (RASA distributions. Conclusion We believe that the GANDivAWeb server, will be a useful tool for scientists interested in the phenomena of protein folding as well as in protein engineering. Our tool not only provides a knowledge of the AFUs through a natural graph partitioning approach but is also able to identify residues that are critical during folding. It is our intention to use this tool to study the topological

  2. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of the Lip secretion system in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, K.; Ohnesorg, T.; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 'luxAB insertion mutants that are responsive to N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipB is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. LipB is part of the Lip exporter, a type I secretion system, which is responsible for the secr......The analysis of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 'luxAB insertion mutants that are responsive to N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipB is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. LipB is part of the Lip exporter, a type I secretion system, which is responsible...

  3. Blood compatibility of zinc-calcium phosphate conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rong-Chang; Wang, Qing-Zhao; Liu, Li-Jun; Xu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys as a new class of biomaterials possess biodegradability and biocompatibility in comparison with currently used metal implants. However, their rapid corrosion rates are necessary to be manipulated by appropriate coatings. In this paper, a new attempt was used to develop a zinc-calcium phosphate (Zn-Ca-P) conversion coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys to increase the biocompatibility and improve the corrosion resistance. In vitro blood biocompatibility of the alloy with and without the Zn-Ca-P coating was investigated to determine its suitability as a degradable medical biomaterial. Blood biocompatibility was assessed from the hemolysis test, the dynamic cruor time test, blood cell count and SEM observation of the platelet adhesion to membrane surface. The results showed that the Zn-Ca-P coating on Mg-1.33Li-0.6Ca alloys had good blood compatibility, which is in accordance with the requirements for medical biomaterials.

  4. A two-stage approach in solving the state probabilities of the multi-queue M/G/1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Song; Yen, Hao-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The M/G/1 model is the fundamental basis of the queueing system in many network systems. Usually, the study of the M/G/1 is limited by the assumption of single queue and infinite capacity. In practice, however, these postulations may not be valid, particularly when dealing with many real-world problems. In this paper, a two-stage state-space approach is devoted to solving the state probabilities for the multi-queue finite-capacity M/G/1 model, i.e. q-M/G/1/Ki with Ki buffers in the ith queue. The state probabilities at departure instants are determined by solving a set of state transition equations. Afterward, an embedded Markov chain analysis is applied to derive the state probabilities with another set of state balance equations at arbitrary time instants. The closed forms of the state probabilities are also presented with theorems for reference. Applications of Little's theorem further present the corresponding results for queue lengths and average waiting times. Simulation experiments have demonstrated the correctness of the proposed approaches.

  5. Structural basis for the enhanced stability of protein model compounds and peptide backbone unit in ammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama

    2012-10-04

    Protein folding/unfolding is a fascinating study in the presence of cosolvents, which protect/disrupt the native structure of protein, respectively. The structure and stability of proteins and their functional groups may be modulated by the addition of cosolvents. Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel cosolvents for a wide variety of biochemical processes that include protein folding. Here, the systematic and quantitative apparent transfer free energies (ΔG'(tr)) of protein model compounds from water to ILs through solubility measurements as a function of IL concentration at 25 °C have been exploited to quantify and interpret biomolecular interactions between model compounds of glycine peptides (GPs) with ammonium based ILs. The investigated aqueous systems consist of zwitterionic glycine peptides: glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly(2)), triglycine (Gly(3)), tetraglycine (Gly(4)), and cyclic glycylglycine (c(GG)) in the presence of six ILs such as diethylammonium acetate (DEAA), diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS), triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS), triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP), and trimethylammonium acetate (TMAA). We have observed positive values of ΔG'(tr) for GPs from water to ILs, indicating that interactions between ILs and GPs are unfavorable, which leads to stabilization of the structure of model protein compounds. Moreover, our experimental data ΔG'(tr) is used to obtain transfer free energies (Δg'(tr)) of the peptide backbone unit (or glycyl unit) (-CH(2)C═ONH-), which is the most numerous group in globular proteins, from water to IL solutions. To obtain the mechanism events of the ILs' role in enhancing the stability of the model compounds, we have further obtained m-values for GPs from solubility limits. These results explicitly elucidate that all alkyl ammonium ILs act as stabilizers for model compounds through the exclusion of ILs from model compounds of

  6. Binomial Schedule for an M/G/1 Type Queueing System with an Unreliable Server under N-Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Tadj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider in this paper an M/G/1 type queueing system with the following extensions. First, the server is unreliable and is subject to random breakdowns. Second, the server also implements the well-known N-policy. Third, instead of a Bernoulli vacation schedule, the more general notion of binomial schedule with K vacations is applied. A cost function with two decision variables is developed. A numerical example shows the effect of the system parameters on the optimal management policy.

  7. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  8. Lattice variation and thermal parameters of NiMg1–SO4 7H2O single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Theivanayagom; C Mahadevan

    2001-10-01

    NiMg1–SO4.7H2O single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method from aqueous solutions. Density was measured by the floatation method. X-ray diffraction data were collected for powder samples and used for the estimation of lattice variation and thermal parameters like Debye–Waller factor, mean-square amplitude of vibration and Debye temperature. Lattice volumes approximately obey a relation similar to Retger’s rule. Values of thermal parameters do not follow any particular order with composition. The results obtained are reported.

  9. Imaging secondary metabolism of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 during cellular lysis and colony degradation of competing Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Sarah R; Hoefler, B Chris; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andrés; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Straight, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Soil streptomycetes are saprotrophic bacteria that secrete numerous secondary metabolites and enzymes for extracellular functions. Many streptomycetes produce antibiotics thought to protect vegetative mycelia from competing organisms. Here we report that an organism isolated from soil, Streptomyces sp. Mg1, actively degrades colonies and causes cellular lysis of Bacillus subtilis when the organisms are cultured together. We predicted that the inhibition and degradation of B. subtilis colonies in this competition depends upon a combination of secreted factors, including small molecule metabolites and enzymes. To begin to unravel this complex competitive phenomenon, we use a MALDI imaging mass spectrometry strategy to map the positions of metabolites secreted by both organisms. In this report, we show that Streptomyces sp. Mg1 produces the macrolide antibiotic chalcomycin A, which contributes to inhibition of B. subtilis growth in combination with other, as yet unidentified factors. We suggest that efforts to understand competitive and cooperative interactions between bacterial species benefit from assays that pair living organisms and probe the complexity of metabolic exchanges between them.

  10. Atomic displacements in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, G.-M.; Gvasaliya, S. N.; Pomjakushin, V.; Roessli, B.; Strässle, Th; Lushnikov, S. G.; Shaplygina, T. A.; Günter, P.

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated the chemical structure of PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) relaxor ferroelectric at room temperature under hydrostatic pressures up to 8.37 GPa and at ambient pressure as a function of temperature. The refinement of the crystal structure shows that the amplitude of the displacements of the Pb ions from the (0 0 0) position decreases with increasing pressure. On the other hand, the thermal displacement parameters of Mg/Nb ions are almost insensitive to pressure. The decrease in the Pb displacements correlates with an increase in the anisotropy in the thermal displacement parameter of the O ions. These results are in agreement with those obtained in PbMg1/3Ta2/3O3 (PMT) and show further evidence that the Pb displacements play an important role in the relaxor behavior. The aim of this study is to clarify the microscopic origin for the anomalous pressure effects observed in relaxors as well as to provide new data for the understanding of this class of materials.

  11. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Mg1-xZnxAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Yuqin; Tang, Junkai; Deng, Yanxi

    2016-08-01

    Mg1-xZnxAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 were prepared via the chemical coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterised by thermal gravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectrum, transmission electron microscopy and 27Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy. Mg1-xZnxAl2O4 spinel powders with the mean crystallite size of around 11 nm-14 nm were obtained. The crystallinity of the MgAl2O4 samples increases with the increase in the calcination temperature. At the same calcination temperature, higher amount of Zn2+ substitution leads to the higher level of crystallinity, but has no apparent influence on the mean crystallite size of the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Mg1-xZnxAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methylene blue under UV light. The degradation rates of methylene blue using the MgAl2O4 nanoparticles prepared at the calcination temperatures of 700 °C and 800 °C are much higher than those prepared at 900 °C and 1000 °C. The photocatalytic activities of the spinel powders with lower level of Zn2+ substitution such as Mg0.95Zn0.05Al2O4 are inferior to that of MgAl2O4. Results of 27Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy analysis and the first principle total density of state calculations reveal that this is probably due to the substitutions of Zn2+ decreasing the degree of Al3+ ions inversion over the sites of tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. With the increase in the amounts of Zn2+ substitution, the effects of Zn2+ additions on the photocatalytic activities become gradually predominant, leading to the increases in the degradation rates. The methylene blue degraded by 99% within 4 h using the Mg0.8Zn0.2Al2O4 spinel powders.

  13. Optimal management for infinite capacity N-policy M/G/1 queue with a removable service station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. C.; Pearn, W. L.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we consider an infinite capacity N-policy M/G/1 queueing system with a single removable server. Poisson arrivals and general distribution service times are assumed. The server is controllable that may be turned on at arrival epochs or off at service completion epochs. We apply a differential technique to study system sensitivity, which examines the effect of different system input parameters on the system. A cost model for infinite capacity queueing system under steady-state condition is developed, to determine the optimal management policy at minimum cost. Analytical results for sensitivity analysis are derived. We also provide extensive numerical computations to illustrate the analytical sensitivity properties obtained. Finally, an application example is presented to demonstrate how the model could be used in real applications to obtain the optimal management policy.

  14. The effect of hyperfine interactions on ultracold molecular collisions: NH(^3Sigma^-) with Mg(^1S) in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    González-Martínez, Maykel L

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of hyperfine interactions on ultracold molecular collisions in magnetic fields, using ^{24}Mg(^1S) + ^{14}NH(^3Sigma^-) as a prototype system. We explore the energy and magnetic field dependence of the cross sections, comparing the results with previous calculations that neglected hyperfine interactions (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183201 (2009)). The main effect of hyperfine interactions for spin relaxation cross sections is that the kinetic energy release of the dominant outgoing channels does not reduce to zero at low fields. This results in reduced centrifugal suppression on the cross sections and increased inelastic cross sections at low energy and low field. We also analyze state-to-state cross sections, for various initial states, and show that hyperfine interactions introduce additional mechanisms for spin relaxation. In particular, there are hyperfine-mediated collisions to outgoing channels that are not centrifugally suppressed. However, for Mg+NH these unsuppressed channels make...

  15. Mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-1.5Mn-1Ca-xSr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Sun, S. Y.; Ning, Y. H.; Ning, Y. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mechanical properties and corrosion mechanism of both as-cast and solution-naturally age (T4) treated Mg-1.5Mn-1Ca-xSr alloys were investigated. The results showed that Sr is helpful to decrease grain size and increase the strength. The corrosion process of alloys was mainly determined by the quantity and distribution of second phases. Mg17Sr2, α-Mn and Ca-Sr phases acted as cathodes accelerated the corrosion of Mg2Ca anodic phase and α-Mg matrix. However, continuous distributed Mg17Sr2 was beneficial to resist the happening of localized corrosion because of its barrier effect. T4 treatment could significantly improve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Mg alloys because of the dissolution of Mg2Ca phase and the dispersive distribution of Mg17Sr2 and α-Mn phases.

  16. P-V study of Na1.18Mg1.59Al4.78Si1.33O12 Nal phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamato, M. G.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Frost, D. J.; Kurnosov, A.; Trots, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction introduces chemically differentiated and hydrothermally altered mid-oceanic ridge basaltic (MORB) rocks into the Earth. At lower mantle conditions experiments indicate that a MORB bulk composition can contain more than 20% of an aluminium rich phase, the nature of which changes with pressure. One such Al rich phase has the general formula (Na,Ca)(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Si)6O12 and is referred to as the NAL (short for new Al-rich) phase. NAL crystallising in MORB compositions exhibits complex solid solutions and is considered to be a potential phase for hosting alkali elements in the deep mantle. The knowledge of its elastic properties and how they change with composition is therefore of crucial importance for understanding the bulk elastic properties of the lower mantle and thus the fate of the subducted MORB. To date several studies have been conducted on the compression of NAL phases both in complex and simplified systems. However, large discrepancies in the equations of state can be observed among these studies, most likely due to uncertainties in the pressure determination. The aim of this study is to determine the P-V-T EoS of a NAL phase with composition Na1.18Mg1.59Al4.78Si1.33O12 using a crystal of Sm-Yag whose fluorescence has been calibrated against an absolute pressure determination performed by combining X-ray diffraction and brillouin spectroscopy. Large single-crystals of Na1.18Mg1.59Al4.78Si1.33O12 were synthesized at 2260 °C and at 20.5 GPa. A single crystal was placed in a piston cylinder type diamond anvil cell, together with ruby and Sm-doped Yag as pressure standard. A neon gas, as hydrostatic pressure medium, was loaded into the sample chamber and a specially designed external resistive heater was prepared and placed for high temperature measurements. Single-crystal structural refinement for the NAL phase have been performed and clearly suggest a disordered position for Na along the tunnel. The variation of the unit cell parameters as a

  17. Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering Held in Oxford, United Kingdom on 5-8 April 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-27

    of the iso-accepting and protein- pigment complexes. transfer RNA’s (tRNA). According to Swaf- Huber and his group have found that field the set of...regions. perform the catalytic condensation reac- tion respectively, according to Huber. In the multienzyme complex riboflavin syn- 3 PROTEIN STRUCTURE...Germany). Huber the pigments active in light absorption and his group have carried out extensive and light conduction. Motion would 3 deactivate the

  18. The epitopes in wheat proteins for defining toxic units relevant to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Angéla; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Békés, Frank; Balázs, Ervin

    2012-11-01

    Wheat-related disorders are well-studied health problems. Knowledge of the composition and amounts of epitopes present in a single wheat sample represents a significant gap, and the detailed wheat proteome datasets now available can provide the necessary information to carry out an estimation of allergen prediction for a single cultivar. The combined use of genome sequence and allergen databases, prediction methodology, and cereal chemistry results in better understanding of the level of toxicity present in the end-products produced from wheat flour. The workflow presented in this review provides information about the number and distribution of epitopes at single protein, or protein fraction, levels. In addition, epitopes present in the highest frequency and harmful proteins expressed in the highest amount can be identified. The "epitope toxicity" value obtained in this way is a significant research output from the analysis of large datasets that can be applied to the food industry.

  19. Seroprevalence in Chickens against Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Capping Protein (FliD) in Selected Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H-Y; Hiett, K L; Line, J E; Jagne, J F; Lauer, D C

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a causative pathogen of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Infected poultry products are regarded as a major source for human C. jejuni infection. The flagellar capping protein (FliD) is highly conserved among C. jejuni strains/isolates and is antigenic as analysed by immunoblot. In this study, we used the FliD protein as a probe to survey the prevalence of C. jejuni antibodies in chickens from two areas in the United States. A total of 394 samples were tested. Sera from layer breeders of 44-52 weeks of age tested 100% positive, while 4- to 6-week broilers from 22 premises showed 7-100% positivity. These results demonstrate that anti-FliD antibodies were prevalent in the poultry population in the areas of serum samples collected. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Are Visceral Proteins Valid Markers for Nutritional Status in the Burn Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    B. A., Pidcoke H. F., Chung K. K., Wade C. E., Martini W. Z., Renz E. M., Wolf S. E., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...unable to perform indirect calorimetry . Indirect calo- rimetry was performed to measure the REE when clinically available. An activity factor of 1.2...and 1.4 was used clinically with the Carlson or Milner equa- tions and with indirect calorimetry because these lev- els have been found to increase

  1. Biosynthesis of the Cyclotide Kalata B1 using a Protein Splicing Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R H; Tran, A T; Camarero, J A

    2005-08-13

    Cyclotides are a newly emerging family of large backbone cyclic polypeptides ({approx}30 residues long) characterized by a disulfide-stabilized core (3 disulfide bonds) with an unusual knotted structure. In contrast to other cyclic polypeptides, cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Therefore, despite their small size, they can be considered miniproteins. The unique cyclic-backbone topology and knotted arrangement of 3 disulfide bonds endow cyclotides with exceptional stability and resistance to chemical, enzymatic and thermal degradation. Furthermore, their well-defined structures have been associated with a range of biological functions. Together, these characteristics suggest that cyclotides are ideal molecular scaffolds for the development of stable peptide drugs. Despite the fact that the chemical synthesis of circular peptides has been well explored and a number different approaches involving solid-phase or liquid-phase exist, recent developments in the fields of molecular biology and protein engineering have now made possible the biosynthesis of cyclic peptides. This progress has been made mainly in two areas, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis and Expressed Protein Ligation (EPL)/protein trans-splicing. Access to biosynthetic cyclotides using recombinant DNA expression techniques offers the exciting possibility of producing large combinatorial libraries of highly stable miniproteins. This would allow the generation of cell-based combinatorial libraries that could be screened either in vitro or in vivo for their ability to regulate cellular processes. In the present work, we describe the biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 (KB1) in E. coli using an engineered intein. Our approach (Figure 1) is based on an intramolecular version of Native Chemical Ligation (NCL). NCL involves the chemoselective reaction between a N-terminal Cys residue of one peptide and an {alpha}-thioester group of a second peptide. Importantly, incorporation of these

  2. Effect of Teaching Protein Synthesis Unit Based On Multiple Intelligence Theory, To the Student Level of Retaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet HASENEKOĞLU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Protein Synthesis Unit was presented through Multiple Intelligence Theory based activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate Multiple Intelligence Theory’s impacts on student’s retention of knowledge acquired about Protein Synthesis. This research was conducted with Sophomores from Primary Science Education Department in Kafkas University Faculty of Education and lasted three weeks in the spring term of 2007–2008 academic year. In this study, within context of quasi-experimental method, which is based on impartially selected groups, nonequivalent control groups pretest-posttest method was used. Two classes from Primary Science Education Department were randomly selected. While the traditionalapproach was used in the control group, the teaching activities based on Multiple Intelligences Theory were used in the experimental group. The Protein Syntheses achievement test which had an reliability coefficient Cronbach Alpha of 0,8 prepared by the researcher were used to collect data.The data obtained, t test and A nova test was evaluated by using SPSS 12.0 package program. As a result of research was found that teaching based on Multiple Intelligence has been more effective in increasing student’s achievement and their levels of retention compared to teaching based on Traditional Approach.

  3. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchenbüchler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  4. A novel big protein TPRBK possessing 25 units of TPR motif is essential for the progress of mitosis and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumiyama, Tomohiro; Minoshima, Shinsei; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2012-12-15

    Through the comprehensive analysis of the genomic DNA sequence of human chromosome 22, we identified a novel gene of 702 kb encoding a big protein of 2481 amino acid residues, and named it as TPRBK (TPR containing big gene cloned at Keio). A novel protein TPRBK possesses 25 units of the TPR motif, which has been known to associate with a diverse range of biological functions. Orthologous genes of human TPRBK were found widely in animal species, from insecta to mammal, but not found in plants, fungi and nematoda. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses revealed that TPRBK gene is expressed ubiquitously in the human and mouse fetal tissues and various cell lines of human, monkey and mouse. Immunofluorescent staining of the synchronized monkey COS-7 cells with several relevant antibodies indicated that TPRBK changes its subcellular localization during the cell cycle: at interphase TPRBK locates on the centrosomes, during mitosis it translocates from spindle poles to mitotic spindles then to spindle midzone, and through a period of cytokinesis it stays on the midbody. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and immunofluorescent staining with adequate antibodies revealed that TPRBK binds to Aurora B, and those proteins together translocate throughout mitosis and cytokinesis. Treatments of cells with two drugs (Blebbistatin and Y-27632), that are known to inhibit the contractility of actin-myosin, disturbed the proper intracellular localization of TPRBK. Moreover, the knockdown of TPRBK expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the bundling of spindle midzone microtubules and disrupted the midbody formation, arresting the cells at G(2)+M phase. These observations indicated that a novel big protein TPRBK is essential for the formation and integrity of the midbody, hence we postulated that TPRBK plays a critical role in the progress of mitosis and cytokinesis during mammalian cell cycle.

  5. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  6. Insights into chirality distributions of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown on different CoxMg1-xO solid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jiang, Hua; Kauppi, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was achieved on two different types of Co xMg1-xO catalysts prepared by different techniques: atomic layer deposition (ALD) and impregnation. The chirality distribution of SWNTs grown on the ALD......-prepared CoxMg1-xO catalyst is wider than that of SWNTs grown on the impregnation-prepared CoxMg 1-xO catalyst. The different chirality distributions of SWNTs are related to their different growth modes. The ALD-prepared CoxMg 1-xO catalyzes the growth of SWNTs by "tip growth" mode, as revealed by in situ...... for the synthesis of SWNTs with high chiral-selectivity. In addition, impregnation-prepared Co xMg1-xO catalysts calcinated at different temperatures were systematically studied and their catalytic performances in synthesizing carbon nanotubes were elucidated. This work illustrates the influence of metal...

  7. GPU MrBayes V3.1: MrBayes on Graphics Processing Units for Protein Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuai; Stones, Rebecca J; Ren, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Gang; Xia, Hong-ju; Wu, Hao-Yang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    We present a modified GPU (graphics processing unit) version of MrBayes, called ta(MC)(3) (GPU MrBayes V3.1), for Bayesian phylogenetic inference on protein data sets. Our main contributions are 1) utilizing 64-bit variables, thereby enabling ta(MC)(3) to process larger data sets than MrBayes; and 2) to use Kahan summation to improve accuracy, convergence rates, and consequently runtime. Versus the current fastest software, we achieve a speedup of up to around 2.5 (and up to around 90 vs. serial MrBayes), and more on multi-GPU hardware. GPU MrBayes V3.1 is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrbayes-gpu/.

  8. Searching for the simplest structural units to describe the three-dimensional structure of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Csizmadia, Imre G.

    Ab initio computations have been carried out during the past several years on diamides of single amino acids (HCO-NHCHR-CONH2 where R=H (glycine), -CH3 (alanine), -CH(CH3)2 (valine) and -CH2OH (serine)) exploring all possible backbone and side chain conformations. Selected conformations were studied in our laboratory on threonine (R=CH(CH3)OH), cystein (R=CH2-SH) and phenyl-alanine (R=CH2-CH5H6) diamides. Tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa- and hepta-amide systems of poly-L-alanine (H-(CONH-CHCH3-CONH)n-H 2≤n≤6) were also investigated at selected backbone conformations. All these studies confirmed the results of multidimensional conformation analyses: the jth amino acid residue in a polypeptide has a maximum of nine (9) discrete backbone conformations. These structures correspond to nine conformational centres on the 2D-Ramachandran map. On the basis of this rinding, it can be shown that the folded secondary structure of any protein with known internal coordinates, can be described in terms of these nine discrete conformation types.

  9. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  10. Sr9Mg(1.5)(PO4)7:Eu(2+): A Novel Broadband Orange-Yellow-Emitting Phosphor for Blue Light-Excited Warm White LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenzhi; Jia, Yonglei; Pang, Ran; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Tengfei; Li, Da; Fu, Jipeng; Zhang, Su; Jiang, Lihong; Li, Chengyu

    2015-11-18

    A new orange-yellow-emitting Sr9Mg(1.5)(PO4)7:Eu(2+) phosphor was prepared via high-temperature solid-state reaction. The structure and optical properties of it were studied systematically. Sr9Mg(1.5)(PO4)7:Eu(2+) can be well-excited by 460 nm blue InGaN chips and exhibit a wide emission band covering from 470 to 850 nm with two main peaks centered at 523 and 620 nm, respectively, which originate from 5d-4f dipole-allowed transitions of Eu(2+) in different crystallographic sites. The sites attribution, concentration quenching, fluorescence decay analysis, and temperature-dependent luminescence properties were investigated in detail. Furthermore, a warm white LED device was fabricated by combining a 460 nm blue InGaN chip with the optimized orange-yellow-emitting Sr9Mg(1.5)(PO4)7:Eu(2+). The color coordinate, correlated color temperature and color rendering index of the fabricated LED device were (0.393, 0.352), 3437 K, and 86.07, respectively. Sr9Mg(1.5)(PO4)7:Eu(2+) has great potential to serve as an attractive candidate in the application of blue light-excited warm white LEDs.

  11. Influence of biocompatible metal ions (Ag, Fe, Y) on the surface chemistry, corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg-1Ca alloy treated with MEVVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bian, Dong; Wu, Yuanhao; Li, Nan; Qiu, Kejin; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Mg-1Ca samples were implanted with biocompatible alloy ions Ag, Fe and Y respectively with a dose of 2×10(17)ionscm(-2) by metal vapor vacuum arc technique (MEVVA). The surface morphologies and surface chemistry were investigated by SEM, AES and XPS. Surface changes were observed after all three kinds of elemental ion implantation. The results revealed that the modified layer was composed of two sublayers, including an outer oxidized layer with mixture of oxides and an inner implanted layer, after Ag and Fe ion implantation. Y ion implantation induced an Mg/Ca-deficient outer oxidized layer and the distribution of Y along with depth was more homogeneous. Both electrochemical test and immersion test revealed accelerated corrosion rate of Ag-implanted Mg-1Ca and Fe-implanted Mg-1Ca, whereas Y ion implantation showed a short period of protection since enhanced corrosion resistance was obtained by electrochemical test, but accelerated corrosion rate was found by long period immersion test. Indirect cytotoxicity assay indicated good cytocompatibility of Y-implanted Mg-1Ca. Moreover, the corresponding corrosion mechanisms involving implanting ions into magnesium alloys were proposed, which might provide guidance for further application of plasma ion implantation to biodegradable Mg alloys.

  12. Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films prepared by metalorganic solution deposition technique for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. C.; Desu, S. B.

    1998-08-01

    We report on the properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films prepared by the metalorganic solution deposition technique. Bulk Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics have shown excellent dielectric properties at microwave frequencies; however, the high sintering temperature of bulk material is the major obstacle in their use as dielectric resonators to miniaturize microwave circuits. It was possible to obtain an ordered-perovskite phase of 0.3-μm-thick Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 films with trigonal symmetry at an annealing temperature of 700 °C, which is much lower than the bulk sintering temperatures. The electrical measurements were conducted on Pt/Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3/Pt capacitors. The typical measured small signal dielectric constant and dissipation factor at 100 kHz were 22.2 and 0.009, respectively. The dielectric constant of thin films was comparable to the typical values (ɛr˜23.5-25) reported for bulk ceramics. The temperature coefficient of capacitance was -145 ppm/°C in the measured temperature range of 25-125 °C. The leakage current density was lower than 10-7 A/cm2 at an applied electric field of 0.5 MV/cm. The high dielectric constant, which is comparable to bulk, low dielectric loss, and good temperature and bias stability suggest the suitability of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films for microwave communications and integrated capacitor applications.

  13. Phase Composition of Ni/Mg1−xNixO as a Catalyst Prepared for Selective Methanation of CO in H2-Rich Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Mengmeng Zhang; Hongwei Ma; Zhiming Gao

    2015-01-01

    Supported Ni catalysts Ni/Mg1−xNixO were prepared by reducing samples NiO-MgO in H2/N2 mixture gas at 500°C~800°C for selective methanation of CO in H2-rich gas (CO-SMET). The samples NiO-MgO were obtained by heating water slurry of MgO and Ni(NO3)2 in a rotary evaporator at 80°C and a final calcination in air at 400°C~800°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) measurements demonstrate that the samples NiO-MgO were composed of solid solution Mg1−yNiyO as the mai...

  14. Microstructural and Mössbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Mg1-x ZnxFe2O4x=0.5,0.7 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc substituted magnesium ferrite Mg1-x ZnxFe2O4(x=0.5,0.7 powders have been prepared by a sol-gel autocombustion method. XRD patterns show that the specimens with x=0.5 and 0.7 exhibit single-phase spinel structure, and more content of Zn in specimens is favorable for the synthesis of pure Mg-Zn ferrites. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra of Mg1-x ZnxFe2O4 annealed at 800°C display transition from ferrimagnetic behavior to super paramagnetic behavior with increase in zinc concentration. The Mössbauer spectras of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 annealed at different temperatures display the magnetic phase change of the ferrite particles.

  15. Estimating the activation energy of the displacement of Mg atoms in the channels of B25C4Mg1.42 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The activation energy of displacement of Mg atoms through channels of B25C4Mg1.42 crystals is estimated using quantum chemical calculations (DFT (B3LYP potential), RHF, and UHF methods, 3-21G basis set) of the element of the structure modeling the channel and location of Mg atoms in it. The changes in the activation energy at the replacement of Mg atoms by Na and Li atoms were estimated. The greatest decreasing in the activation energy was detected for Li atoms. The obtained results can be regarded as a theoretical background for development of conducting systems based on B25C4Mg1.42 crystals.

  16. Microwave dielectric properties of (Mg(1-x)Cox)2SnO4 ceramics for application in dual-band inverted-E-shaped monopole antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Chien

    2011-12-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of (Mg((1-x))Co(x))(2)SnO(4) ceramics were examined with a view to their exploitation for mobile communication. The (Mg((1-x))Co(x))(2)SnO(4) ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method with various sintering temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the (Mg((1-x))Co(x))(2)SnO(4) ceramics revealed no significant variation of phase with sintering temperatures. Specimens were not single-phase materials; small amounts of MgO and SnO(2) as the second phases were observed in all specimens. A dielectric constant (ε(τ)) of 8.8, a quality factor (Q × f) of 110800 GHz (at 16.4 GHz), and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ(f)) of -66 ppm/°C were obtained for(Mg(0.93)Co(0.07))(2)SnO(4) ceramics that were sintered at 1550°C for 4 h. The proposed dual-band co-planar waveguide (CPW)-fed inverted-E-shaped monopole covered the industrial, scientific, medical (ISM), high-performance radio local area network (HIPERLAN), and unlicensed national information infrastructure (UNII) bands. A 13.62% bandwidth (return loss <;10 dB) of 2.43 GHz, and a 20.69% bandwidth (return loss <;10 dB) of 5.38 GHz was successfully achieved.

  17. Phase Composition of Ni/Mg1−xNixO as a Catalyst Prepared for Selective Methanation of CO in H2-Rich Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supported Ni catalysts Ni/Mg1−xNixO were prepared by reducing samples NiO-MgO in H2/N2 mixture gas at 500°C~800°C for selective methanation of CO in H2-rich gas (CO-SMET. The samples NiO-MgO were obtained by heating water slurry of MgO and Ni(NO32 in a rotary evaporator at 80°C and a final calcination in air at 400°C~800°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD and temperature programmed reduction (TPR measurements demonstrate that the samples NiO-MgO were composed of solid solution Mg1−yNiyO as the main phase and a minor amount of NiO at calcination temperature of 400°C, and amount of the NiO was decreased as calcination temperature increased. Phase composition of the catalysts Ni/Mg1−xNixO was estimated by the Rietveld method. Effects of reduction temperature, feed Ni/Mg ratio, and calcination temperature on phase composition and catalytic activity of the catalysts were investigated. It is clear that CO conversion was generally enhanced by an increased amount of metallic Ni of the catalysts.

  18. Association between heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in intensive care unit patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70 gene, gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- and medical intensive care unit (MICU stay and organ failure in sepsis. Materials and Methods: MICU patients with sepsis were genotyped for rs1061581, rs2227956, rs1008438 and rs1043618 polymorphisms in HSP70 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or allele-specific PCR. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF- were quantitated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Outcomes were recorded. Results: 108 patients (48 male aged 40.7 ± 16.0 (mean ± standard deviation years included H1N1 infection (36, scrub typhus (29 and urosepsis (12. Seventy-one (65.7% had dysfunction of three or more organ systems, 66 patients (61.1% were treated by mechanical ventilation, 21 (19.4% needed dialysis. ICU stay was 9.3 ± 7.3 days. Mortality was 38.9%. One or more SNPs were noted in 101/108 (93.5% and organ failure was noted in only 1/7 patients without a single SNP. The A allelotypes of rs1061581 and rs1008438 were associated with hematological dysfunction (P = 0.03 and 0.07 and longer ICU stay (P = 0.05 and 0.04, whereas IL-6 and TNF- mRNA levels were associated with central nervous system dysfunction. Conclusions: HSP70 genotypes may determine some adverse outcomes in patients with sepsis.

  19. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.

    2017-02-01

    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth (V L) and cooling rates ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  20. Hydrogen storage of Mg1-xMxH2 (M=Ti, V, Fe) studied using first-principles calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bhihi; M. Lakhal; H. Labrim; A. Benyoussef; A. El Kenz; O. Mounkachi; E. K. Hlil

    2012-01-01

    In this work,the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg-based hydrides,i.e.,Mg1-xMxH2 (M=Ti,V,Fe,0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1),are studied using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) calculation with the coherent potential approximation (CPA).In particular,the nature and concentrations of the alloying elements and their effects are studied.Moreover,the material's stability and hydrogen storage thermodynamic properties are discussed.In particular,we find that the stability and the temperature of desorption decrease without significantly affecting the storage capacities.

  1. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  2. Electric polarization induced by transverse magnetic field in the anisotropy-controlled conical helimagnet Ba2(Mg1-xZnx)2Fe12O22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokunaga, Y.; Murakawa, H.; Onose, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Microscopic origin of magnetic-field (B) induced electric polarization (P) potentially up to near room temperature has been investigated for helimagnets Ba2(Mg1-xZnx)2Fe12O22 with controlled magnetic anisotropy by revealing B - and x -dependent changes of magnetoelectric responses. As Zn concentration (x) increases, the B -induced P rapidly diminishes, accompanying the change in the magnetic-easy surface from conical to planar. Possible spin structures are proposed to explain the observed B dependence of P in terms of the spin-current model. The results indicate the important role of magnetic anisotropy in the B -induced ferroelectric state of this class of helimagnets.

  3. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) Material for Actuator Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Uršič; Marina Santo Zarnik; Marija Kosec

    2011-01-01

    Due to its large piezoelectric and electrostrictive responses to an applied electric field the (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution has been widely investigated as a promising material for different actuator applications. This paper discusses some of the recent achievements in the field of PMN-PT piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators manufactured from PMN-PT single crystals, bulk ceramics, or thick films. The functional properties of PMN-PT materials and some represent...

  4. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT Material for Actuator Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Uršič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its large piezoelectric and electrostrictive responses to an applied electric field the (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT solid solution has been widely investigated as a promising material for different actuator applications. This paper discusses some of the recent achievements in the field of PMN-PT piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators manufactured from PMN-PT single crystals, bulk ceramics, or thick films. The functional properties of PMN-PT materials and some representative examples of the investigated PMN-PT actuator structures and their applications are reported.

  5. Superconducting properties of Zn and Al double-doped Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.8) were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature (T-c) and transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), ac susceptibility, magnetization and resistivity. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c, and the T-c decreases with increasing dopant content. A systematical comparison with Al doped- and Li, Al double doped MgB2 of structure, superconducting transition...

  6. Ce元素的添加对Mg-1.2Ca合金氧化行为和表面张力的影响%Oxidation Behavior and Surface Tension of Mg-1.2Ca Alloy with Ce Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦林; 丁俭; 赵维民; 方正

    2016-01-01

    为了发展高性能阻燃镁合金,对工业纯镁在添加元素Ca和Ce的氧化性能进行了研究.结果表明,随着Ce含量从0%到1.5%(质量分数)的增加,Mg-1.2Ca合金的燃点不断提高,熔体表面张力不断下降.Mg-1.2Ca-1.2Ce燃点可以达到780℃,而且可在大气中不添加任何保护的情况下进行熔炼.随着Ce含量的增加,Mg-1.2Ca熔体氧化膜变得光滑而致密,可以很好地起到阻止氧化、燃烧的效果.通过检测和分析,Mg-1.2Ca-1.2Ce的氧化膜可以分成3层:外层是疏松的MgO,中间层是MgO-CaO复合氧化膜,内层是MgO-Ce2O3复合氧化膜.

  7. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x ( x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz ( f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis of Mg 1.03Mn 0.97SiO 4 and its electrochemical intercalation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhenzhen; Yang, Jun; NuLi, Yanna; Wang, Jiulin

    Magnesium manganese silicate (Mg 1.03Mn 0.97SiO 4) was prepared by a sol-gel method and evaluated as an intercalation electrode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries. The crystalline Mg 1.03Mn 0.97SiO 4 phase was obtained after heating at 900 °C and its electrochemical performance was characterized at room temperature. The pure magnesium manganese silicate exhibits a relatively low reversible specific capacity in the electrolyte comprising 0.25 mol L -1 Mg(AlCl 2EtBu) 2/THF owing to its poor electronic conductivity. Using a ball mill in the presence of acetylene black, and in situ carbon coating, the resulting composites present an improved discharge voltage plateau (1.6 V vs. Mg/Mg 2+) and increased discharge specific capacity (92.9 mAh g -1 at a C/50 rate). The Mg lower price and its feasibility for rechargeable batteries make magnesium manganese silicate an attractive candidate for rechargeable magnesium based batteries.

  9. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x (x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz (f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  10. Structure and superconductivity of double-doped Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.;

    2003-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffract......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X......-ray diffraction (XRD), ac-susceptibility and resistance in varied magnetic fields. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c. The superconducting transition temperature (T-c) decreases with double doping, but the T-c is systematically higher than that of the single Al......-doped samples. It is suggested that the hole band filling has little effect on T-c at high doping level, while the disorder induced by doping plays an important role in suppressing T-c. A systematic comparison with Al-doped MgB2 of the structure, superconducting transition and irreversibility field is made. (C...

  11. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Johnny; HarÐarson, HörÐur Kári; Khan, Sanaullah

    2017-01-01

    -exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14–4.9 MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0–5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold......Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero...

  12. ANS complex of St John’s wort PR-10 protein with 28 copies in the asymmetric unit: a fiendish combination of pseudosymmetry with tetartohedral twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliwiak, Joanna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kowiel, Marcin [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland); McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from H. perforatum, was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The asymmetric unit of the tetartohedrally twinned crystal contains 28 copies of the protein arranged in columns with noncrystallographic sevenfold translational symmetry and with additional pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The highly pseudosymmetric crystal has 28 unique protein molecules arranged in columns with sevenfold translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) along c and modulated X-ray diffraction with intensity crests at l = 7n and l = 7n ± 3. The translational NCS is combined with pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. The crystal was a perfect tetartohedral twin, although detection of twinning was severely hindered by the pseudosymmetry. The structure determined at 2.4 Å resolution reveals that the Hyp-1 molecules (packed as β-sheet dimers) have three novel ligand-binding sites (two internal and one in a surface pocket), which was confirmed by solution studies. In addition to 60 Hyp-1-docked ligands, there are 29 interstitial ANS molecules distributed in a pattern that violates the arrangement of the protein molecules and is likely to be the generator of the structural modulation. In particular, whenever the stacked Hyp-1 molecules are found closer together there is an ANS molecule bridging them.

  13. 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift of Mg1-xAlxB2: Evidence for an anisotropic Fermi surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-10-01

    We report a detailed study of the 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the 27Al Knight shift (K) in Mg1-xAlxB2, 0<=x<=1. The evolution of (1/T1T) and K with x is in excellent agreement with the prediction of ab initio calculations of a highly anisotropic Fermi surface, consisting mainly of hole-type two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical sheets from bonding 2px,y boron orbitals. The density of states at the Fermi level also decreases sharply on Al doping and the 2D sheets collapse at x~0.55, where the superconducting phase disappears.

  14. Structure, Morphology and Chemical Synthesis of Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 Nano-Ferrites Prepared by Citrate-Gel Auto Combustion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Ravikumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mg-Zn Nano ferrites having chemical formula Mg1-xZnxFe2O4(where x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 were synthesized by the citrate-gel auto combustion method. Synthesized powders were sintered at 500oC for four hours in air and characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS.XRD analysis shows that cubic spinal structure of the ferrites and the crystalline sizes (D were found in the range 25-35 nm. The values of the lattice parameter (a increases and X-ray density (dx increases with doping of Zn content. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies revealed Nano nature of the samples. An elemental composition of the samples was studied by using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. The observed results can be explained on the basis of composition and crystallite size.

  15. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Namkyoung; Kim, Geunwoo; Lee, Yun-Hee; Baek, Kwang-Sae; Kim, Ki-Bok

    2015-11-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the electrical and piezoelectric properties of a PMN-PT [(Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3)] single crystal such as permittivity, electrical impedance and piezoelectric constant d33 has been investigated at 1 kHz. The changes of d33 and permittivity depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples of PMN-PT single crystal were found. In all samples, the permittivity, and piezoelectric constant d33 decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Changes of XRD patterns depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples were found. From the results of XRDs for analyzing the formation of the PMN-PT single crystals in single phase, the neutron irradiation will affect the crystallinity of PMN-PT single crystals.

  16. Influence of Domain Size on the Scaling Effects in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dabin; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-06-01

    The property degradation observed in thin Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) crystals is believed to relate to large domains and subsequent clamping induced by surface-boundary. In this work, the properties were investigated as function of domain size, using controlled poling. The degraded piezoelectric and dielectric properties of thin PMN-PT were found to increase significantly, by decreasing domain size. Furthermore, the fine domain structure was found to be stable at 3kV/cm after 7.0×10(5) negative-pulse cycles, hence, enabling PMN-PT crystals for high-frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound-transducers.

  17. Electron microscopic analysis of surface damaged layer in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Yusuke; Sato, Yukio; Urakami, Ryosuke; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Teranishi, Ryo; Kaneko, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), have superior dielectric and piezoelectric properties suitable for medical ultrasound imaging. Imaging devices with superior performance can be manufactured from thinner PMN-PT single crystals by mechanical dicing and/or polishing. Although it is often a concern that a damaged layer may form during the mechanical dicing and/or thinning process, the microscopic characteristics of the damaged layer have not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, the microstructural characterization of a damaged layer was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that mechanical polishing introduced dislocation near the surface of the crystal. It was also found that the domain structure was affected by the introduction of dislocation.

  18. J-integral in the description of fatigue crack growth rate induced by different ratios of torsion to bending Loading in AlCu4Mg1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozumek, D.; Macha, E. [Opole University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design, Opole (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper presents the results of tests on fatigue crack growth under proportional torsion with bending in AlCu4Mg1 aluminium alloy. Specimens with rectangular cross-sections and stress concentrator in the form of external one-sided sharp notch were used. The tests were performed under the different ratios of torsion to bending moments. The results of the experimental tests have been described by a nonlinear formula based on {delta}J-integral range. The tests have shown that the change of ratio of torsion to bending moments from 0.58 to 1.73 caused an increase in crack growth rate. It has been shown that at the constant loading and the change of stress ratio (R) from - 1 to 0, the fatigue crack growth rate also increases. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. The study of hospital bavage solution and calorie and protein in take. For patients needs from the special care unit at Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, Iran during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Malnutrition is a major problem within intensive care units (ICU affecting the outcome of patients. In Imam Khomeini Hospital, patients were fed with gavage solutions prepared in the kitchen of hospitals, however, its' nutritional value has not been studied at present time. The aim of this study was to analyze the gavage solution and to compare the calculated nutritional demand with the provided values.Materials and Methods: The amount of carbohydrate, lipid and protein of gavage solution has been determined with Leen ion, Gerber and Kejeldal methods, respectively. In this study, 30 patients with at least 5 days in the ICU were included. Daily metabolic needs were calculated with Harris-Benedict equation and then, calculated calorie and protein values were compared with the provided values.Results: The carbohydrate, lipid, protein and energy contents of gavage solutions were 0.035 ±0.002 g/ml, 0.0225±0.017 g/ml, 0.012 ± 0.002 g/ml, and 0.39 ± 0.164 Kcal/ml. The calorie and protein provided by the hospital solution, in comparison to the standard enteral solutions, were 32.5% and 16% respectively. Total energy expenditure (TEE at the time of admission to ICU was 2302 ± 633 Kcal/ per day. During week 1, 2, and 3, TEE was 2301±634, 2283 ± 661 and 2228 ± 790 respectively. Maximum provided energy was 600 ± 632 Kcal/ per day. Maximum protein was provided in week 3 and equal to 22.9% of patient’s needs.Conclusion: The gavage solution provided by hospitals can not meet the calorie and protein needs of patients. It is necessary to prepare solutions with enough contents of carbohydrate, lipid and protein or to provide them with standard enteral nutritional solutions.Key words: Gavage, Intensive care unit, Malnutrition, Calorie, ProteinJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 81-85 (Persian

  20. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Nguyen, Minh D; Vergeer, Kurt H; Lanzara, Giulia; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either (110) or (001), was controlled by the deposition conditions and the subsequent PMN-PT layer followed the orientation of the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (SrRuO3/PMN-PT/SrRuO3) ferroelectric capacitors exhibit orientation dependence. The properties of the films are explained in terms of a model based on polarization rotation. At low applied fields domain switching dominates the polarization change. The model indicates that polarization rotation is easier in the (110) film, which is ascribed to a smaller effect of the clamping on the shearing of the pseudo-cubic unit cell compared to the (001) case.

  1. Molecular dynamics of protein A and a WW domain with a united-residue model including hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Agnieszka G.; Seidman, Steven R.; Sieradzan, Adam K.; Giełdoń, Artur; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2016-05-01

    The folding of the N-terminal part of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A (PDB ID: 1BDD, a 46-residue three-α-helix bundle) and the formin-binding protein 28 WW domain (PDB ID: 1E0L, a 37-residue three-stranded anti-parallel β protein) was studied by means of Langevin dynamics with the coarse-grained UNRES force field to assess the influence of hydrodynamic interactions on protein-folding pathways and kinetics. The unfolded, intermediate, and native-like structures were identified by cluster analysis, and multi-exponential functions were fitted to the time dependence of the fractions of native and intermediate structures, respectively, to determine bulk kinetics. It was found that introducing hydrodynamic interactions slows down both the formation of an intermediate state and the transition from the collapsed structures to the final native-like structures by creating multiple kinetic traps. Therefore, introducing hydrodynamic interactions considerably slows the folding, as opposed to the results obtained from earlier studies with the use of Gō-like models.

  2. Protein kinase A induces recruitment of active Na+,K+-ATPase units to the plasma membrane of rat proximal convoluted tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Luisa; Rousselot, Martine; Chibalin, Alexander V; Bertorello, Alejandro M; Favre, Hervé; Féraille, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of control of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in rat proximal convoluted tubules. For this purpose, we studied the in vitro action of exogenous cAMP (10−3 M dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or 8-bromo-cAMP) and endogenous cAMP (direct activation of adenylyl cyclases by 10−5 M forskolin) on Na+,K+-ATPase activity and membrane trafficking.PKA activation stimulated both the cation transport and hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase by about 40 %. Transport activity stimulation was specific to the PKA signalling pathway since (1) db-cAMP stimulated the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake in a time- and dose-dependent fashion; (2) this effect was abolished by addition of H-89 or Rp-cAMPS, two structurally different PKA inhibitors; and (3) this stimulation was not affected by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on the hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase was accounted for by an increased maximal ATPase rate (Vmax) without alteration of the efficiency of the pump, suggesting that cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane redistribution control.To test this hypothesis, we used two different approaches: (1) cell surface protein biotinylation and (2) subcellular fractionation. Both approaches confirmed that the cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane trafficking regulation. The stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by db-cAMP was associated with an increase (+40 %) in Na+,K+-ATPase units expressed at the cell surface which was assessed by Western blotting after streptavidin precipitation of biotinylated cell surface proteins. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the increased expression in pump units at the cell surface which was accompanied by a decrease (-30 %) in pump units located in the subcellular fraction corresponding to early endosomes.In conclusion, PKA stimulates Na+,K+-ATPase activity, at least in part, by increasing the number of

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of Mg-Zn ferrites (Mg1-xZnxFe2O4) prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Pamela Yajaira; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, Héctor Javier; Jasso-Terán, Argentina; De León-Prado, Laura Elena; Méndez-Nonell, Juan; Hurtado-López, Gilberto Francisco

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 nanoparticles (x=0-0.9) were prepared by sol-gel method. These ferrites exhibit an inverse spinel structure and the lattice parameter increases as the substitution of Zn2+ ions is increased. At lower Zn content (0.1≤x≤0.5), saturation magnetization (Ms) increases, while it decreases at higher Zn content (x≥6). The remnant magnetization (0.17-2.0 emu/g) and coercive field (6.0-60 Oe) indicate a ferrimagnetic behavior. The average core diameter of selected ferrites is around 15 nm and the nanoparticles morphology is quasi spherical. The heating ability of some Mg0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 and Mg0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 aqueous suspensions indicates that the magnetic nanoparticles can increase the medium temperature up to 42 °C in a time less than 10 min

  4. Influence of TEM specimen preparation on chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srot, Vesna; Gec, Medeja; van Aken, Peter A; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Ceh, Miran

    2014-07-01

    The influences of different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation techniques on the chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals was studied. Ion-milled samples where no cooling with liquid nitrogen (L-N2) was applied show permanently changed composition also deep inside the bulk material. When the PMN-PT samples were cooled to L-N2 temperature during the ion-milling process and in addition lower accelerating voltages were used, the chemical composition was altered only in the thinnest parts close to the specimen edge. Samples prepared using only tripod polishing technique show compositional irregularities close to the specimen edge. For the preparation of lead-containing samples, such as PMN-PT single crystals, a combination of tripod polishing and short Ar-ion-milling at low accelerating voltages while cooling the samples to liquid nitrogen temperature proved to be the most suitable to obtain artefact-free electron-transparent TEM lamellae.

  5. Broad range tuning of structural and optical properties of Zn x Mg1-x O nanostructures grown by vapor transport method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanjaria, Jignesh V.; Azhar, Ebraheem Ali; Yu, Hongbin

    2016-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) Zn x Mg1-x O nanomaterials have drawn global attention due to their remarkable chemical and physical properties, and their diverse current and future technological applications. In this work, 1D ZnMgO nanostructures with different magnesium concentrations and different morphologies were grown directly on zinc oxide-coated silicon substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc oxide, magnesium boride and graphite powders. Highly well-defined Mg-rich ZnMgO nanorods with a rock salt structure and Zn-rich ZnMgO nanostructures with a wurtzite structure have been deposited individually by careful optimization of the source mixture and process parameters. Structural and optical properties of the deposited products were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrate strong dominant peaks at 3.3 eV in Mg poor ZnMgO nanostructures and 4.8 eV in Mg rich nanostructures implying that the ZnMgO nanostructures can be used for the fabrication of deep UV optoelectronic devices. A mechanism for the formation and achieved diverse morphology of the ZnMgO nanostructures was proposed based on the characterization results.

  6. Influence of the heat treatment condition of alloy AlCu4Mg1 on the microstructure and properties of anodic oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Dietrich, D.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, high-strength, age-hardenable aluminum alloys offer a high potential for lightweight security-related applications. However, the use of copper-alloyed aluminum is limited because of their susceptibility to selective corrosion and their low wear resistance. These restrictions can be overcome and new applications can be opened up by the generation of protective anodic aluminum oxide layers. In contrast to the anodic oxidation of unalloyed aluminum, oxide layers produced on copper-rich alloys exhibit a significantly more complex pore structure. It is the aim of the investigation to identify the influence of microstructural parameters such as size and distribution of the strengthening precipitations on the coating microstructure. The aluminum alloy EN AW-2024 (AlCu4Mg1) in different heat treatment conditions serves as substrate material. The influence of the strengthening precipitations’ size and distribution on the development of the pore structure is investigated by the use of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Integral coating properties are characterized by non-destructive and light-microscopic thickness measurements and instrumented indentation tests.

  7. Compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric thin films by combinatorial sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Fumiya; Tsujiura, Yuichi; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline thin films by combinatorial sputtering. We prepared compositional gradient (1 - x)PMN-xPT polycrystalline thin films with preferential orientation along the direction in the composition range of x = 0-0.62. We determined that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition of PMN-PT polycrystalline thin film existed at around x = 0.35, from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The maximum value of relative dielectric constants (ɛr = 1498) was obtained at approximately x = 0.23. On the other hand, the piezoelectric coefficients (|e31,f| = 14.1 C/m2) peaked at the determined MPB composition of x = 0.35. From the results of the compositional dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics, the FOM (e_{31,\\text{f}}^{2}/\\varepsilon _{0}\\varepsilon _{\\text{r}}) of the PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film reached 21 GPa, which is much higher than that of the other polycrystalline piezoelectric thin films. These results suggest that PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film is a promising material for high-efficiency piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesters.

  8. Effect of Al content on the phase structure and the hydrogenation characteristic of La(Mg1-xAlx) alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingyu; ZHANG Qing'an

    2006-01-01

    La(Mg1-xAlx) (x=0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8) alloys have been prepared using induction melting followed by annealing. It is found that partial substitution of Mg by Al does not lead to a change in crystal structure, and the alloys have a single LaMg phase when x ≤ 0.4. The lattice parameter of the LaMg phase decreases obviously after the partial substitution of Mg by Al. However, further substitution of Mg by Al leads to the coexistence of multiple phases when x ≥ 0.6. The alloys consist of the LaMg, LaAl, LaAl2, and La5Al4 phases. The LaMg phase decreases, whereas the La5Al4 phase increases with the increase in x. The Al-substituted La(Mg0.6Al0.4) alloy can be hydrogenated into the tetragonal LaH3, cubic LaH3, MgH2, and LaAl under 5 MPa at 473 K for 5 d.

  9. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties.

  10. Low-protein diet for chronic kidney disease in the Caserta Local Health Unit: the SaniARP Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Troncone

    2015-06-01

    disease has increased. Currently, these products are not yet contemplated in the essential levels of assistance but the Italian regions deliver, low-protein food discretionally using their own funds. The Campania Region, in 2010, interrupted the distribution of these products. With the exception of Caserta which took up distribution again in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe an initiative put in place by Caserta which has decided to invest in prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A treatment plan for the distribution designed by a team of in-house nephrologists and data are recorded using Saniarp, a web-based platform. RESULTS: In the observation period patients with a prescription of low-protein food products were 869. The mean age was 61 years. The average cost patient / month for the nutritional treatment was 59 Euro. The average cost patient / month for any type of drug was 632 Euro. In particular, 48 Euro for EPO, 277 Euro for Chelate Agents, 16 Euro for antihypertensive therapy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The policy put in place by the LHU Caserta improved care of kidney patients. The results available to date are still incomplete and do not enable us to clearly assess the benefits both in clinical and economic terms which can be produced by a low-protein diet in kidney patients. In the perspective of third party payers to budget this expense it appears entirely sustainable especially in view of the fact that this dietary treatment might delay the onset of dialysis therapy and lead to lower comorbidity for the patient.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and luminescence properties of a novel green emitting phosphor Na2Mg1-xSiO4:Mnx2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Yao, Yuanlin; Zhou, Zhufa

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel green phosphor Na2Mg1-xSiO4:xMn2+ (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.15, 0.20) was successfully synthesized by a traditional solid-state reaction method at 950 °C. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra (PL and PLE) were measured to systematically study the as-prepared phosphors. The as-obtained Na2MgSiO4:Mn2+ phosphor shows an intense asymmetric green emission spectra with the broad-band peak at 520 nm due to 4T1(4G) → 6A1(6S) transition of the Mn2+ ion. The optimum Mn2+ concentration in this phosphor was 8 mol%. The Mnsbnd Mn critical distance was calculated to be 13.42 Å. The dipole-dipole interaction dominates in the non-radiative energy transfer between the Mn2+ ions and causes the concentration quenching. The decay curve of the Na2MgSiO4:Mn2+ phosphors were discussed. The CIE chromaticity coordinate values (x = 0.163, y = 0.631) of Na2MgSiO4:0.08Mn2+ phosphor were located in green region and the correlated color temperature was 8643 K. The above results indicate that Na2MgSiO4: Mn2+ as a green component can be a good candidate for near UV-excited w-LEDs.

  12. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCEFOR M/G/1 QUEUEING SYSTEMS%M/G/1排队系统的性能灵敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷保群; 奚宏生; 周亚平

    2001-01-01

    The queueing system which is not Markov-type is often used as amodel to study some practical engineering problems,for example,communication networks.In this paper,the problems of sensitivity analysis of the steady-state performance for an M/G/1 queueing system are discussed by studying its embedded Markov chain.The sensitivity formulas of the steady-state performance are given by the potentials of the embedded Markov chain.Since the embedded Markov chain is much simpler than the semi-Markov process that is used to describe the system states,the results in this paper will be very convenient for simulating computation of performance sensitivity and optimization of the system.%非Markov型排队系统经常被用来作为某些实际工程问题(如通讯网络)的研究模型.对于一般的M/G/1排队系统,本文通过研究其嵌入Markov链,讨论了系统的稳态性能灵敏度分析问题,并给出用嵌入Markov链的势能表示的稳态性能灵敏度公式.由于嵌入Markov链要比描述其系统状态的半Markov过程简单得多,故本文的结果对M/G/1排队系统的性能灵敏度仿真计算及系统的优化,都将带来极大的方便.

  13. Studies on the Renaturation with Simultaneous Purification of Recombinant Human Proinsulin with Unit of Simultaneous Renaturation and Purification of Protein in Semi-preparative Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan BAI; Yu KONG; Xin Du GENG

    2003-01-01

    The renaturation and purification of recombinant human proinsulin (rh-proinsulin) expressed in E. Coli with the unit of simultaneous renaturation and purification of protein (USRPP) in semi-preparative scale was studied. The result shows that rh-proinsulin extracted with 8.0 mol/L urea can be renatured and purified simultaneously in 45 minutes with the USRPP (10×50 mm ID). The purity of rh-proinsulin was found to be more than 90% and the mass recovery to be more than 80%. The renaturation effect of rh-proinsulin with the USRPP was tested by enzyme cleavage for obtaining insulin. In addition, the result was further confirmed with RPLC, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and MALDI-TOF, respectively.

  14. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  15. On the Binding Stress-Enhanced Sensitivity of (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3) 0.35 (PMN-PT) Piezoelectric Plate Sensor (PEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO 3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) showed enhanced sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications which has been attributed to binding-induced crystalline orientation switching in the PMN-PT layer. However, so far there has been no direct demonstration of PEPS crystalline orientation switching upon target-analyte binding. Using biotin and streptavidin binding as a model detection system and by direct X-Ray diffraction observations after analyte binding we have unambiguously demonstrated that switching of the crystalline orientations of the PMN-PT layer indeed occurred. In addition, we have shown that PEPS sensitivity enhancement increased with an increasing transverse electromechanical coupling constant, -k31, of the PMN-PT layer--which is known to correlate with the crystalline orientation switching capability--by increasing the grain size of the PMN-PT layer or by applying a DC bias electric field. Finally, unprecedented high sensitivity of PEPS with high -k31, (i.e., -k31 > 0.3) were illustrated by the aM (10-18 M) sensitivity of in situ DNA hybridization detection without amplification and by the 100 fg/ml (10-13 g/ml) sensitivity of rapid, in situ protein detection in biological fluids such as troponin I detection in serum for early sign of myocardial infarction (heart attack), Her2 detection in serum for cancer treatment and monitoring, Tn antigen and anti-Tn antibody detection in serum for early cancer detection, and Toxins detection in stool for Clostridium difficile infection detection.

  16. Free protein S level as a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke in a prospective cohort study of healthy United Kingdom men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Dror, Gie; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Drenos, Fotios; Ireland, Helen A

    2011-10-15

    Plasma protein S (PS) levels are reportedly low in patients with venous thrombosis but high in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The authors examined the association between free PS concentration and CHD or stroke risk and assessed risk in combination with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Free PS concentration was determined in 6 annual visits among 3,052 middle-aged (49-64 years) United Kingdom men from the Second Northwick Park Heart Study, with 297 CHD events from 1989 to 2005. The highest (vs. first) quintile was associated with a significantly increased CHD risk after adjustment for all other risk factors and correction for regression dilution bias (hazard ratio = 1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 3.16; P = 0.024). Models that included all well-known risk factors plus PS quintiles improved prediction of CHD (net reclassification improvement (NRI) = 7.0% (P = 0.007), category-less NRI (>0) = 22.1% (P < 0.001)), and the likelihood ratio statistic increased significantly (P = 0.018). The increase in CHD risk was particularly strong when subjects also had high CRP levels. There was no association between free PS level and stroke risk. This study confirms the independent association of elevated free PS levels with future risk of CHD, although elevated PS levels added only modestly to prediction metrics. The novel finding of increased CHD risk, particularly when CRP and PS levels are high, requires further study.

  17. A triclinic crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein with four molecules in the asymmetric unit reveals a novel packing interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs. PMID:23722834

  18. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2017-06-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å (I) (hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(1010). The crystal structure of kampelite was refined to

  19. Hydrogen absorption in Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 alloy prepared with mechanical alloying and thermal treatment; Absorcion de hidrogeno en la aleacion Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 preparada por aleado mecanico y tratamiento termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Bonifacio; Urena Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.bonifacio@inin.gob.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work presents hydrogen absorption in quaternary alloy Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 obtained by the mechanical alloying method, followed by thermal treatment in ultra-high pure argon atmosphere. The composition of the phases, microstructure and morphology of ground powders and with thermal treatment were characterized by DRX, SEM/EDS and TEM. After 20 hours of mechanical grinding and recooked at 300 degrees Celsius/1h in argon atmosphere, the quaternary alloy has a Mg{sub 2}Ni crystalline hexagonal structure with a crystallite size under 10 nm. The absorption measurements were performed under a pressure of 0.2 to 1.2 MPa at a temperature of 200 degrees Celsius in a micro-reactor. The quantification of absorption-desorption of hydrogen in the intermetallic was conducted in a TGA-DSC simultaneous calorimeter. Metallic hydride-dehydride powder was characterized with SEM and XRD. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la absorcion de hidrogeno en la aleacion cuaternaria Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 obtenida por el metodo de aleado mecanico, seguida de tratamiento termico en atmosfera de argon de ultra alta pureza. La composicion de las fases, microestructura y morfologia de los polvos molidos y con tratamiento termico fue caracterizada por DRX, SEM/EDS y TEM. Despues de 20 h de molienda mecanica con recocido a 300 grados Celsios/1h en atmosfera de argon, la aleacion cuaternaria tiene una estructura cristalina hexagonal Mg{sub 2}Ni con tamano de cristalito menor a 10 nm. Las mediciones de absorcion fueron realizadas bajo una presion de 0.2 a 1.2 MPa a una temperatura de 200 grados Celsios en un micro-reactor. La cuantificacion de absorcion-desorcion de hidrogeno en el intermetalico se realizo en un calorimetro simultaneo TGA-DSC. Se determino que la cantidad maxima absorbida de hidrogeno en la aleacion cuaternaria fue de 3.24% en peso cuando la presion fue de 0.8 MPa a dicha temperatura. Polvos metalicos hidrurados-deshidrurados se caracterizaron por SEM y XRD.

  20. Nanoscale study by piezoresponse force microscopy of relaxor 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3PbTiO(3) and 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.1PbTiO(3) thin films grown on platinum and LaNiO3 electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detalle, M.; Ferri, A.; Da Costa, A.; Desfeux, R.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.

    2010-01-01

    Relaxor 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3PbTiO(3) (70/30 PMN-PT) and 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.1PbTiO(3) (90/10 PMN-PT) thin films have been grown by RF-sputtering on platinum (Pt) and lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO3) bottom electrodes. For both electrodes, macroscopic measurements evidence lower coercive fields, r

  1. Formation process of micro arc oxidation coatings obtained in a sodium phytate containing solution with and without CaCO3 on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. F.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, S. F.; B. Qu; Guo, S. B.; Xiang, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Micro arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In order to reveal the influence of alloying element Ca and CaCO3 electrolyte on the formation process and chemical compositions of MAO coatings on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy, anodic coatings after different anodizing times were prepared on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy in a base solution containing 3 g/L sodium hydroxide and 15 g/L sodium phytate with and without addition of CaCO3. The coating formation was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that Mg-1.0Ca alloy is composed of two phases, the Mg phase and Mg2Ca phase. After treating for 5 s, the coating began to develop and was preferentially formed on the area nearby Mg2Ca phase, which may be resulted from the intrinsic electronegative potential of the Mg phase than that of Mg2Ca phase. Anodic coatings unevenly covered the total surface after 20 s. After 80 s, the coatings were uniformly developed on Mg-1.0Ca alloy with micro pores. During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed into inorganic phosphate. CaCO3 has minor influence on the calcium content of the obtained MAO coatings.

  2. Co-hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C nano-hybrid cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Luo, Shaohua; Chang, Longjiao; Hao, Aimin; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yanguo; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui

    2017-02-01

    LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C is synthesized by a co-hydrothermal method in water/PEG system using Li2CO3, AAO and Mn1-xMgxPO4 as raw material. The electronic structure and micromorphology of multi-component compound LiMn1-xMgxPO4/C (x = 0, 1/24, 1/12, 1/6) and nano-hybrid LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C cathode materials are studied by first-principles calculation and experimental research including XRD, SEM, TEM. The calculated band gap of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4/C is 2.296 eV, which is lower than other percentages Mg2+ doping samples. Electrochemical tests exhibit LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4/C has better cycling performance and rate capability than other contents Mg2+ doping samples with the discharge capacity of 143.5 mAh/g, 141.5 mAh/g, 139.2 mAh/g and 136.3 mAh/g at 0.05C, 0.1C, 0.5C and 1C in order. After compositing and preparation of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C composite material by co-hydrothermal route, the initial discharge capacity reaches up to 151.8 mAh/g, which suggests that co-modified with Mg2+ doping and LiAlO2 compositing material can improve the electronic conductivity of LiMnPO4/C by facilitating the lithium ion diffusion rate in the interior of the materials.

  3. The Assignment of Soft Mode in 0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3 Single Crystal%0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3单晶中软模模式指认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟; 孙靖雅; 杨洋; 萧季驹; 徐正奎; 刘玉龙

    2008-01-01

    应用显微拉曼技术对弛豫型铁电体0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3 (0.67 PMN-0.33 PT)的偏振拉曼光谱随温度变化的研究表明,在-196 到 600 °C温度范围内0.67 PMN-0.33 PT存在两次相变:三方到四方(R-T)相变和四方到立方(T-C)相变.R-T相变的特征是106 cm-1软模(-196°C时) 随温度的升高而湮没到80 cm-1"静态"模式中.依照群论分析,0.67 PMN-0.33 PT的80 cm-1 和 106 cm-1 (-196 ℃时)两个模式分别为E(1TO) 和 A1(1TO)模.文章对三方相的对称结构(C3v点群)在背向散射配置下不同偏振方向的拉曼散射效率进行了计算.计算结果表明晶体中的A1(1TO) 和E(1TO)模式能够通过使用不同的散射配置进行识别.理论计算和实验结果相比较得到了很好的吻合.%Polarized Raman spectra of ferroelectric relaxor 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - 0.33 PbTiO3 (0.67 PMN-0.33 PT) single crystals have been systematically investigated in a wide temperature range from -196 to 600 ℃ by micro-Raman scattering technique. The two structural phase transitions in the crystal were clearly revealed. One is the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase transition, other one is the tetragonal-cubic (T-C) phase transition. The characteristic of the R-T phase transition is the soft mode at 106 cm-1 (at -196℃) which merges to the "static" mode at 80 cm-1 as temperature increases. According to the analysis of the group theory, the two modes at about 80 cm-1 and 106 cm-1 (at -196℃), respectively, are attributed to E(1TO) and A1(1TO) in the 0.67PMN-0.33PT. Raman scattering efficiencies of the rhombohedral symmetry structure (C3v point group) for the crystal in backscattering geometry with different polarization directions are calculated. The analytic results indicate that A1(1TO) and E(1TO) modes in the crystal can be identified by using different scattering geometry. A comparison of experimental results with theoretical predictions shows satisfactory agreement.

  4. 超声半固态流变挤压成形Al-20Si-2Cu-0.4Mg-1Ni合金的组织特征%Microstructural characteristics of Al-20Si-2Cu-0.4Mg-1Ni alloy formed by rheo-squeeze casting after ultrasonic vibration treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树森; 钟鼓; 安萍; 万里; 中江秀雄

    2012-01-01

    A swash plate for air conditioning compressor of cars was formed by rheo-squeeze casting with semi-solid Al-Si alloy slurry prepared by ultrasonic vibration process,and the microstructure of this alloy was investigated.Besides the microstructures of primary Si particles and α(Al)+β-Si eutectic phases,non-equilibrium α(Al)particles or dendrites are discovered in the microstructure of the Al-20Si-2Cu-0.4Mg-1Ni alloy.Rapid cooling generated by squeeze casting process rather than the pressure is considered as the main reason for the formation of non-equilibrium α(Al)phase.The sound pressurizing effect of ultrasonic vibration also enables the non-equilibrium α(Al)phases to form above eutectic temperature and grow into non-dendritic spheroids in the process of semi-solid slurry preparation.Non-equilibrium α(Al)phases formed in the hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with ultrasonic vibration treatment,consist of round α(Al)grains formed above the eutectic temperature and a small amount of fine α(Al)dendrites formed under the eutectic temperature.The volume fraction of primary Si particles is decreased significantly by the effect of ultrasonic vibration through increasing the solid solubility of Si atoms in α(Al)matrix and decreasing the forming temperature range of primary Si particles.The average particle diameter and the volume fraction of primary Si particles in microstructure of the swash-plate by rheo-squeeze casting are 24.3 μm and 11.1%,respectively.%通过超声振动半固态流变挤压铸造工艺制造汽车空调压缩机铝硅合金斜盘零件,研究合金的组织特征.发现在Al-20Si-2Cu-0.4Mg-1Ni合金的组织中,除了通常具有的初晶Si和α(Al)+β-Si共晶相之外,还有非平衡α(Al)颗粒或枝晶.挤压铸造过程中的较快的冷却速度而非压力是非平衡α(Al)相形成的主要原因.在半固态浆料的制备过程中,超声振动的声压作用能促进非平衡α(Al)相在共晶温度以上生成,并生长为非枝晶颗

  5. Characterization of the ECB binding complex responsible for the M/G(1)-specific transcription of CLN3 and SWI4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bernard; Miles, Shawna; Breeden, Linda L

    2002-01-01

    The transcription factor Mcm1 is regulated by adjacent binding of a variety of different factors regulating the expression of cell-type-specific, cell cycle-specific, and metabolic genes. In this work, we investigate a new class of Mcm1-regulated promoters that are cell cycle regulated and peak in late M-early G(1) phase of the cell cycle via a promoter element referred to as an early cell cycle box (ECB). Gel filtration experiments indicate that the ECB-specific DNA binding complex is over 200 kDa in size and includes Mcm1 and at least one additional protein. Using DNase I footprinting in vitro, we have observed protection of the ECB elements from the CLN3, SWI4, CDC6, and CDC47 promoters, which includes protection of the 16-bp palindrome to which Mcm1 dimers are known to bind as well as protection of extended flanking sequences. These flanking sequences influence the stability and the variety of complexes that form on the ECB elements, and base substitutions in the protected flank affect transcriptional activity of the element. Chromatin immunoprecipitations show that Mcm1 binds in vivo to ECB elements throughout the cell cycle and that binding is sensitive to carbon source changes.

  6. Ultrahigh magnetic field sensitivity in laminates of TERFENOL-D and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Shuxiang; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight D.

    2003-01-01

    It has been found that laminate composites of longitudinally magnetized magnetostrictive TERFENOL-D and a transversely poled piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 crystal have extremely high magnetic field sensitivity. At room temperature, an output voltage with an exceptionally good linear response to an ac magnetic field H-ac was found over the range of 10(-11)

  7. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boota, M.; Houwman, E.P.; Dekkers, J.M.; Nguyen, M.D.; Vergeer, K.H.; Lanzara, G.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either

  8. Development of ferroelectric order in relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (0≤x≤0.15)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Z.-G.; Bing, Y.; Gao, J.; Bokov, A.A.; Stephens, P.; Noheda, B.; Shirane, G.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure and phase transition in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and its solid solution with PbTiO3 (PT), PMN-xPT, remain to be some of the most puzzling issues of solid-state science. In the present work we have investigated the evolution of the phase symmetry in PMN-xPT cera

  9. Formation process of micro arc oxidation coatings obtained in a sodium phytate containing solution with and without CaCO{sub 3} on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, Y.Q. [Zhejiang DunAn Light Alloy Technology CO,.LTD, Zhuji 311835 (China); Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Zhang, S.F.; Qu, B. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Guo, S.B. [Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Xiang, J.H., E-mail: xiangjunhuai@163.com [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compared to the Mg phase, the area of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase is much smaller. • The coatings are preferentially developed on the area adjacent to Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. • During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed. • Anodic coatings are developed from uneven to uniform. - Abstract: Micro arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In order to reveal the influence of alloying element Ca and CaCO{sub 3} electrolyte on the formation process and chemical compositions of MAO coatings on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy, anodic coatings after different anodizing times were prepared on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy in a base solution containing 3 g/L sodium hydroxide and 15 g/L sodium phytate with and without addition of CaCO{sub 3}. The coating formation was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that Mg-1.0Ca alloy is composed of two phases, the Mg phase and Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. After treating for 5 s, the coating began to develop and was preferentially formed on the area nearby Mg{sub 2}Ca phase, which may be resulted from the intrinsic electronegative potential of the Mg phase than that of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. Anodic coatings unevenly covered the total surface after 20 s. After 80 s, the coatings were uniformly developed on Mg-1.0Ca alloy with micro pores. During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed into inorganic phosphate. CaCO{sub 3} has minor influence on the calcium content of the obtained MAO coatings.

  10. First-principle study of electronic structure and optical properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3%Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3电子结构第一性原理计算及光学性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈杰; 魏宾; 周静; Shen Shirley Zhiqi; 薛广杰; 刘韩星; 陈文

    2015-01-01

    Transparent ceramics have been widely researched for their broad range of applications, e.g. from optical windows to laser and optoelectronic switches. However, the challenge is to obtain the optical materials with high refractive index to miniaturize optical functional elements, such as lens for optical information storage and waveguides for flat optical components. The hexagonal complex perovskite Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) ceramic, being widely researched as a type of microwave dielectric ceramics, presents the excellent dielectric properties such as high dielectric constant and high Q value, which indicate its potential application as optical materials. In this paper, the electronic structure of BMN is calculated by using the first principle method, to analyze and predict its intrinsic optical properties. The hexagonal complex perovskite BMN ceramic is synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction at 1600 ◦C for 24 h. The structure parameters are obtained through Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The crystal model is established, based on the Rietveld refinement result of the XRD test on synthesized BMN (with the weighted profile R-factor Rwp=6.73%, the profile R-factorRp=5.05%), and then the crystal geometry optimized. With the optimized crystal model, the energy band structure, density of states and optical properties of BMN are calculated using the first principle method based on density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA). Results show that BMN has an indirect band gap of 2.728 eV. There are the strong ionic interactions between Mg and O as well as Ba and O, while there is covalent interaction between Nb and O. The energy band near the Fermi level is mainly occupied by O-2p and Nb-4d electrons, which forms the d-p hybrid orbits. With real band gap correction, the optical properties of BMN are obtained from the definition of direct transition probability and the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations along the

  11. Effect of Sn4+ B-Site Substitution on the Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 Microwave Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunhua WU; Guoqing WANG; Shuang WANG; Dandan LIU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sn4+ (BaSnO3) B-site substitution on the microstructure and dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3microwave ceramics was investigated. X-ray diffraction shows that a complex perovskite material Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3was prepared. As Sn4+ content x increases in the (1-x) Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3-xBaSnO3 (x=0.00~0.20) system, the dielectric constant generally keeps unchanged, while TCF changes from positive to negative. Although the addition of Sn4+ reduces the ordering degree, Qf0 is still increased when the ceramics density increases. This trend implies that Qf0 of this system is mostly determined by ceramics density rather than ordering degree. After sintering at 1500℃for 3 h, the system with x=0.15 was found to have excellent dielectric properties as follows: ε≈25, Qf0≥300,000 GHz at 7 GHz, TCF=-0.6×10-6/℃.

  12. Preparation of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Ceramics by Partial Oxalate Process%部分草酸盐工艺制备Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3铁电陶瓷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方必军; 钱昆; 凌婧; 杜庆柏

    2011-01-01

    通过部分草酸盐工艺制备了颗粒尺寸较小、粒度分布较均匀、团聚较少的(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3(PMN-PT)前驱体.以活性PMN-PT前驱体为原料,通过固相反应法制备PMN-PT陶瓷.XRD测量表明,通过部分草酸盐工艺制备的PMN-PT陶瓷中含有少量的焦绿石相.随着PbTiO3 (PT)含量的增加,PMN-PT陶瓷的晶体结构从三方铁电相逐渐向四方铁电相转变.烧成的PMN-PT陶瓷具有较高的致密度.组分和烧结温度对PMN-PT陶瓷的电学性能产生影响.随着烧结温度的升高,PMN-PT陶瓷的介电常数最大值εm增大,伴随着εm对应的温度Tc/Tm的不规律变化;剩余极化强度Pr增大,矫顽场Ec减小;压电应变常量d33值增大.随着PT含量的增加,Tc/Tm增大,介电响应特征从弥散型铁电相变向正常铁电相变转变,电滞回线从狭长的回线向接近矩形的形状转变.0.68PMN-0.32PT陶瓷呈现优良的综合电学性能,1200℃烧结的陶瓷1kHz时εm为14070,Tm为148.2℃,d33值为457pC/N,Pr为14.69μC/cm2,Ec为4.72kV/cm.%(1-x)Pb (Mg1/3Nba3)O3HIPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) precursor powders with smaller grain size, better size distribution and less conglomeration were prepared using the partial oxalate method. Then the active precursor powders as-obtained were used to prepare PMN-PT ceramics by the conventional solid-state reaction method. XRO measurement confirmed that all the sintered PMN-PT ceramics contain slight content of pyrochlore phase. With the increase of the content of PbTiO3 (PT), the crystal structure of the PMN-PT ceramics gradually changes from rhombohedral ferroelectric phase to tetragonal. The synthesized PMN-PT ceramics exhibit high relative density. Composition and sintering conditions exert great influences on the electrical properties of the sintered PMN-PT ceramics. With the increase of the sintering temperature, the dielectric constant and the Em increase accompanied by the irregular variation of the Tc/Tm the remnant

  13. Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94 of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardina Grüber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94 of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94(444-547, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94(444-547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94(444-547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 A in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94(566-663 consists of two helices with 97.8 A and 48.6 A in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94(674-793 in solution represents a chair-like shape with three architectural segments. CONCLUSIONS: These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding

  14. S100 calcium binding protein B as a biomarker of delirium duration in the intensive care unit – an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan BA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babar A Khan,1–3 Mark O Farber,1 Noll Campbell,2–5 Anthony Perkins,2,3 Nagendra K Prasad,6 Siu L Hui,1–3 Douglas K Miller,1–3 Enrique Calvo-Ayala,1 John D Buckley,1 Ruxandra Ionescu,1 Anantha Shekhar,1 E Wesley Ely,7,8 Malaz A Boustani1–3 1Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 4Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, 5Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, 6Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, 7Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center (GRECC, Nashville, TN, USA Background: Currently, there are no valid and reliable biomarkers to identify delirious patients predisposed to longer delirium duration. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100β levels will be associated with longer delirium duration in critically ill patients. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the medical, surgical, and progressive intensive care units (ICUs of a tertiary care, university affiliated, and urban hospital. Sixty-three delirious patients were selected for the analysis, with two samples of S100β collected on days 1 and 8 of enrollment. The main outcome measure was delirium duration. Using the cutoff of <0.1 ng/mL and $0.1 ng/mL as normal and abnormal levels of S100β, respectively, on day 1 and day 8, four exposure groups were created: Group A, normal S100β levels on day 1 and day 8; Group B, normal S100β level on day 1 and abnormal S100β level on day 8; Group C, abnormal S100β level on day 1 and normal on day 8; and Group D, abnormal S100β levels on both day 1 and day 8. Results: Patients with abnormal levels of S100β showed a trend towards higher delirium duration (P=0.076; Group B (standard deviation (7.0 [3.2] days, Group C (5.5 [6.3] days, and Group D

  15. Optical Dispersion Behavior and Band Gap Energy of Relaxor Ferroelectric 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 Single Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yan-Ting; REN Bo; ZHAO Xiang-Yong; WANG Fei-Fei; WANG Yao-Jin; XU Hai-Qing; LIN Di; LUO Hao-Su

    2009-01-01

    Refractive indices and extinction coefficients of 0.92Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/a )O3-0.08Pb Ti03 (PMN-0.08PT) single crystal are investigated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) at different wavelengths. The parameters relative to the energy band structure are obtained by fitting to the single-oscillator dispersion equation, and the band gap energy is also deduced from the Tauc equation. Similar to most oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics,PMN-0.08PT has the same dispersion behavior described by the refractive-index dispersion parameters.

  16. 研究M/G/1排队的一个新的向量马氏过程%A New Vector Markov Process for M/G/1 Queue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严庆强; 史定华; 郭兴国

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the stochastic process of the busy period and the idle period, and introducing the unfinished work as a supplementary variable, a new vector Markov process was presented to study the M/G/1 queue again. Through establishing and solving the density evolution equations, the busy-period distribution, and the stationary distributions of waiting time and queue length were obtained. In addition, the stability condition of this queue system was given by means of an imbedded renewal process.

  17. Adhesive-Bonded Ca(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3/Ba(Zn_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3 Layered Dielectric Resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ca(Mg_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 and Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 ceramic cylinders with the same diameter were bonded by adhesive with low dielectric loss to yield the layered dielectric resonators, and the microwave dielectric characteristics were evaluated with TE_ 01δ mode. With increasing the Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 thickness fraction, the resonant frequency (f_0) decreased, while the effective dielectric constant (ε_ r,eff ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ_f) increased. Good microwave dielectri...

  18. Energy-storage properties and high-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. F.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Huang, X. X.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2016-03-01

    (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x  =  0, 5, and 10 mol%) ceramics were prepared using a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction method. The low-temperature relaxor behavior of (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ceramics were examined in the temperature range from 120 to 523 K. A broad dielectric maximum that shifted to higher temperatures with increasing frequency, signified the relaxor-type behavior of these ceramics. The value of the relaxation parameter γ  =  1.61-1.94 estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law indicated the relaxor nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation phenomena were found in the temperature region 600-850 K. Energy-storage properties were also analyzed, and the energy-storage density calculated from hysteresis loops reached about 0.47 J cm-3 at room temperature.

  19. Pyroelectric Study on Dipolar Alignment in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; SHEN Ming-Rong; CAO Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-Geld heating in [001], [110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals. Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples, the crystals poled by using the Rield cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃, which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal. We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.%Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-field heating in [001],[110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals.Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples,the crystals poled by using the field cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃,which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal.We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.

  20. Synthesis, thermal and spectral characterization of nanosized Ni(x)Mg(1-x)Al2O4 powders as new ceramic pigments via combustion route using 3-methylpyrozole-5-one as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim S; Shama, Sayed A; Dessouki, Hassan A; Ali, Ayman A

    2011-10-15

    New Ni(x)Mg(1-x)Al(2)O(4) nanosized in different composition (0.1≤x≤0.8) powders have been synthesized successively for first time by using low temperature combustion reaction (LTCR) of corresponding metal chlorides, carbonates and nitrates as salts with 3-methylpyrozole-5-one (3MP5O) as fuel at 300°C in open air furnace. Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl(2)O(4)) was used as crystalline host network for the synthesis of nickel-based nano ceramic pigments. The structure of prepared samples was characterized by using different techniques such as thermal analysis (TG-DTG/DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV/Visible and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) using CIE-L*a*b* parameters methods have been used for color measurements. The obtained results reveal that Ni(x)Mg(1-x)Al(2)O(4) powder of samples is formed in the single crystalline and pure phase with average particle size of 6.35-33.11 nm in the temperature range 500-1200°C. The density, particle size, shape and color are determined for all prepared samples with different calcination time and temperature.

  1. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) May Act as a Substrate and a Recognition Unit for CRL4CRBN and Stub1 E3 Ligases Facilitating Ubiquitination of Proteins Involved in Presynaptic Functions and Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Dolores; Rice, Richard C; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2016-08-12

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause Alzheimer disease, plays an important in vivo role and facilitates transmitter release. Because the APP cytosolic region (ACR) is essential for these functions, we have characterized its brain interactome. We found that the ACR interacts with proteins that regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system, predominantly with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases Stub1, which binds the NH2 terminus of the ACR, and CRL4(CRBN), which is formed by Cul4a/b, Ddb1, and Crbn, and interacts with the COOH terminus of the ACR via Crbn. APP shares essential functions with APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) but not APP-like protein-1 (APLP1). Noteworthy, APLP2, but not APLP1, interacts with Stub1 and CRL4(CRBN), pointing to a functional pathway shared only by APP and APLP2. In vitro ubiquitination/ubiquitome analysis indicates that these E3 ligases are enzymatically active and ubiquitinate the ACR residues Lys(649/650/651/676/688) Deletion of Crbn reduces ubiquitination of Lys(676) suggesting that Lys(676) is physiologically ubiquitinated by CRL4(CRBN) The ACR facilitated in vitro ubiquitination of presynaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, suggesting a mechanism by which APP tunes transmitter release. Other dementia-related proteins, namely Tau and apoE, interact with and are ubiquitinated via the ACR in vitro This, and the evidence that CRBN and CUL4B are linked to intellectual disability, prompts us to hypothesize a pathogenic mechanism, in which APP acts as a modulator of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase(s), shared by distinct neuronal disorders. The well described accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases and the link between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegeneration make this concept plausible.

  2. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The assay...

  3. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  4. 运动个体如何科学摄入蛋白质%How to Conduct Protein Intake Scientifically for Motion Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2011-01-01

    蛋白质是组成人体结构成分和酶等特殊的功能性物质,并在生命过程中发挥着关键性作用.它是人体的主要成份之一,也是人体内部进行各种代谢活动的物质基础.蛋白质在机体内的存在形式和作用是多样化的,与运动个体的肌肉力量和肌肉蛋白合成紧密相关.在运动过程中,骨骼肌收缩活动会影响蛋白质和氨基酸代谢,这种运动的影响还延续到运动后.%Protein is special functional material that composes structural components of human body and enzyme and so on, and it plays a crucial role in the process of life. Protein is not only one of the main ingredients of human body, but also the material base of metabolic activities in human body. The existing form and function of protein is diverse, and it is closely related to muscle protein synthesis and individual muscle strength. Activities of skeletal muscle contraction will affect protein and ami no acid metabolism in athletic process, and after exercise, the influence of the movement will continue.

  5. Giant energy harvesting potential in (100)-oriented 0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer and (001)-oriented 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Gaurav; Kushwaha, Himmat Singh; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Parakkandy, Jafar M.; Batoo, Khalid Mujasam

    2014-11-01

    This work emphasis on the competence of (100)-oriented PMN-PT buffer layered (0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer) and (001)-oriented PMN-PT (0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3) for low grade thermal energy harvesting using Olsen cycle. Our analysis (based on well-reported experiments in literature) reveals that these films show colossal energy harnessing possibility. Both the films are found to have maximum harnessable energy densities (PMN-PT buffer layered: 8 MJ/m3; PMN-PT: 6.5 MJ/m3) in identical ambient conditions of 30-150°C and 0-600 kV/cm. This energy harnessing plausibility is found to be nearly five times higher than the previously reported values to date.

  6. Electric field tuning resistance switching behavior of SrRuO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures at various temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-10-01

    The resistance switching behavior induced by in-plane read current in SrRuO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures is investigated at different temperatures. With decreasing in-plane read current from 10 mA to 0.01 mA, the symmetrical butterfly-like shape of resistance is gradually converted to an antisymmetrical shape at different temperatures, which is resulted from the enhancement of polarization current effect. Specifically, non-volatile resistance behaviors induced by asymmetric bipolar sweeping of electric field and pulsed electric field are achieved at different temperatures. Our results suggests resistance switching behavior dependence of in-plane read current, which is crucial for further application of complex oxide magnetoelectric and spintronic devices.

  7. Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal poled along [111]c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuming; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Naixing; Lü, Tianquan; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation properties in relaxor-based 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) ferroelectric single crystals poled along [111]c has been analyzed theoretically. We found that the X-cut PMN-33%PT has lower phase velocity and higher electromechanical coupling coefficient compared to traditional piezoelectric materials. The power flow angle (PFA) can be zero in specific directions, which could drastically improve the performance of SAW devices. Our theoretical results indicate that the direction about 5° canted from [111]c is the optimum direction for the X-cut [111]c poled crystals in SAW device applications. Characteristic curves were also obtained for the phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and PFA in Z-cut single-domain PMN-33%PT single crystals. PMID:20069133

  8. Piezoelectric energy harvesting based on shear mode 0.71Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Or, Siu Wing; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Li, Xiaobing; Zhang, Qinhui; Di, Wenning; Zhang, Yaoyao

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we theoretically and experimentally present a nonresonant vibration energy harvesting device based on the shear mode of 0.71Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals. The electrical properties of the energy harvesting device were evaluated using an analytical method. Good consistency was obtained between the analytical and experimental results. Under a mass load of 200 g, a peak voltage of 11.3 V and maximum power of 0.70 mW were obtained at 500 Hz when connecting a matching load resistance of 91 komega. A high output could always be obtained within a very wide frequency range. The results demonstrate the potential of the device in energy harvesting applied to low-power portable electronics and wireless sensors.

  9. Electric field dependence of nonlinearity parameters and third order elastic constants of 0.70Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.30PbTiO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-01-01

    Through second harmonic measurements, the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameters of [001]c and [111]c polarized 0.70Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.30PbTiO3(PMN–0.3PT) single crystals have been measured as a function of bias electric field. It was found that the nonlinearity parameter increases almost linearly with field at low field but shows a drastic increase near the coercive field. The [111]c polarized single domain crystal has much smaller nonlinearity parameter than that of the [001]c polarized multidomain crystal. Based on effective symmetries of these crystals, we were able to derive the field dependence of several third order elastic constants, which are important parameters for high field applications. PMID:20198132

  10. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field.

  11. Structural properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films on SrRuO3 conducting oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Mi Ri; Jo, William; Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Young

    2008-09-01

    Coating of 0.65Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectrics by a sol-gel method is followed by growth of epitaxial SrRuO(3) (SRO) metallic oxide electrodes on SrTiO(3) (STO) single-crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition. High-quality PMN-PT films on SRO with preferred growth orientation were successfully fabricated by controlling the operation parameters. Structural properties of relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT thin films on SRO/STO substrates have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In-plane and out-of-plane alignments of the heterostructure are confirmed and the structural twinning of the materials are also revealed.

  12. Real space mapping of polarization dynamics and hysteresis loop formation in relaxor-ferroelectric PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 PbTiO3 solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Svechnikov, S. V. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kiselev, Dmitri [University of Aveiro, Portugal

    2010-01-01

    Polarization switching in ergodic relaxor and ferroelectric phases in the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) system is studied using piezoresponse force microscopy, single point electromechanical relaxation measurements, and voltage spectroscopy mapping. The dependence of relaxation behavior on voltage pulse amplitude and time is found to follow a universal logarithmic behavior with a nearly constant slope. This behavior is indicative of the progressive population of slow relaxation states, as opposed to a linear relaxation in the presence of a broad relaxation time distribution. The role of relaxation behavior, ferroelectric nonlinearity, and the spatial inhomogeneity of the tip field on hysteresis loop behavior is analyzed in detail. The hysteresis loops for ergodic PMN-10%PT are shown to be kinetically limited, while in PMN with larger PT content, true ferroelectric hysteresis loops with low nucleation biases are observed.

  13. Electric-field manipulation of coercivity in FePt/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures investigated by anomalous Hall effect measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfeng; Hao, Liang; Jin, Tianli; Cao, Jiangwei; Bai, Jianmin; Wu, Dongping; Wang, Ying; Wei, Fulin

    2015-06-01

    The effect of electric field (E-field) on the magnetism of FePt thin films in FePt/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) heterostructures was investigated by anomalous Hall effect measurement. For FePt films of different thicknesses, the coercivity vs E-field curves show a typical butterfly-like loop behavior. Further results indicate that the coercivity variation is composed of the volatile symmetrical butterfly-like loop and nonvolatile hysteresis loop-like parts, which originate from the volatile and nonvolatile strains induced by the E-field in the PMN-PT(001) substrate, respectively. No significant difference has been observed after inserting a 2 nm W interlayer, suggesting that the charge-mediated coercivity variation is negligible in FePt/PMN-PT heterostructures.

  14. Control of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency and Frequency Linewidth by Electrical Fields in FeCo/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report our detailed investigation of the electrical tuning of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures consisting of FeCo thin films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates with NiFe underlayers. Our study shows that the electrical tuning range of both ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in this FeCo/PMN-PT heterostructure can be very large. Specifically, the resonance frequency can be tuned from 1.8 GHz to 10.3 GHz, and the frequency linewidth can be changed from 1.6 GHz to 7.3 GHz. The electrical tuning of these microwave properties is discussed in conjunction with the result from the static magnetic characterization and is explained based on the strain-driven magnetoelectric heterostructured effect.

  15. Enhanced Dielectric Properties of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-PbTiO3]0.1 Thin Films Grown on BaPbO3 Perovskite Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sut Kam; Hau, Fei Fei; Wong, Kin Hung

    2004-11-01

    Polycrystalline and epitaxial [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-[PbTiO3]0.1 (PMN-PT) thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on BaPbO3 (BPO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) oxide electrodes. In comparison, the epitaxial films show higher dielectric constant and the polycrystalline films exhibit lower dielectric loss and smaller leakage current. It is also found that the use of lead based BPO electrodes helps to raise the dielectric constant of the PMN-PT layer by 30%, and to reduce the dielectric leakage by as much as three orders of magnitude. Our results have clearly demonstrated the superiority of using lead based electrodes for growing lead based dielectrics.

  16. Depoling and fatigue behavior of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal at megahertz frequencies under bipolar electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaojiang; Li, Shiyang; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-05-01

    Bipolar electric field induced degradation in [001]c poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT) single crystals was investigated at megahertz frequencies. The electromechanical coupling factor kt, dielectric constant ɛr, dielectric loss D, and piezoelectric constant d33 were measured as a function of amplitude, frequency, and number of cycles of the applied electric field. Our results showed that samples degrade rapidly when the field amplitude is larger than a critical value due to the onset of domain switching. We define this critical value as the effective coercive field Ec at high frequencies, which increases drastically with frequency. We also demonstrate an effective counter-depoling method by using a dc bias, which could help the design of high field driven devices based on PMN-PT single crystals and operated at megahertz frequencies.

  17. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-21

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  18. In-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in an FePt/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Feng, Julong; Liu, Pengfei; Wu, Yong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10-FePt films deposited on polarized [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 single crystal substrates. The out-of-plane coercivity (H c⊥) of FePt films exhibits a regular response to the in-plane electric field applied on substrates. The experimental change of H c⊥ is approximately 21.3% with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm. The magnetization direction can be controlled by switching the electric field. The remanence of FePt films can also be manipulated by the electric field, so that a “W”-shaped sawtooth magnetic signal can be generated by a sawtooth electric field.

  19. Abnormal piezoresponse behavior of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30%PbTiO3 single crystal studied by high vacuum scanning force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Huarong; YIN Qingrui; LI Guorong; LUO Haosu; XU Zhenkui

    2003-01-01

    The piezoresponse behavior dependence of the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30%PbTiO3 single crystal on the vacuum degree has been investigated by scanning force microscopy in the piezoresponse mode under high vacuum. Unusual piezo- response behavior related to the screening charges compensation mechanism is observed on the (111) crystal face. The significant piezoresponse degradation behavior with low piezoresponse signal under high vacuum is attributed to the instability of thepolarization state due to the insufficient compensation of the intrinsic screening charges for the polarization charges in PMN-30%PT single crystal. In contrast, the remarkable domain contrast of the sample at ambient pressure is owing to the dominant surface screening charges deriving from surface adsorption, which plays an important role in determining the stability of the domain behavior and in achieving the optimal properties.

  20. Broadband inelastic light scattering study on relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Kim, Tae; Kojima, Seiji; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-06-01

    The broadband inelastic light scattering spectra of ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals were investigated as a function of temperature and crystal orientation by combining Raman and Brillouin spectroscopies. The angular dependence of the strong Raman peak located at ˜50 cm-1 was investigated at 300 °C. The intensity variation of this mode with rotation angle was compatible with the F2g mode of Fm3¯m symmetry, suggesting that this mode arises from the 1:1 chemical order at the B-site in this perovskite structure. The temperature evolution of the polar nanoregions was associated with the growth of two central peaks and the change in the intensity of some Raman peaks, which were known to be sensitive to the rhombohedral symmetry. Both relaxation processes exhibited partial slowing-down behaviors with a common critical temperature of ˜160 °C. Poling the crystal along the [001] direction induced abrupt changes in some of the Raman bands at the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition. On the other hand, the diffuse tetragonal-cubic phase transition was not affected by the poling process. This high-temperature phase transformation seems to be smeared out by the inherent disorder and strong random fields enhanced by the addition of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2) into Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3.

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave Propagation Properties in 0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3 Single Crystal Poled along[001]c%沿[001]c极化0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3单晶的声表面波传播特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀明; 张锐; 黄乃兴; 吕天全; 曹文武

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of relaxor-based 0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3 (PMN-30%PT) ferroelectric single crystals poled along[001]c cubic direction has been analyzed theoretically.It can be found that X-cut PMN-30%PT single crystal is a kind of material with low phase velocity and high electromechanical coupling coefficient,besides the single crystal possess some propagation directions with zero power flow angle (PFA).The results are based on the material parameters at room temperature.Theoretical results indicate that the direction about 127° canted from[001]c is the optimum direction for the X-cut[001]c poled PMN-30%PT single crystal in SAW device applications.SAW characteristic curves were also obtained for Y-cut and Z-cut PMN-30%PT single crystals.%以室温下弛豫铁电单晶0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3(PMN-30%PT)的材料参数为基础,研究了该晶体沿[001]c极化情况下,不同切型的声表面波传播特性.研究发现,X-切型的PMN-30%PT单晶是一种具有低相速度和高机电耦合系数的材料,同时存在许多能流角为零的传播方向,综合来看,X-切型的127°左右方向是声表面波的最佳传播方向.

  2. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  3. Mammalian ACSF3 protein is a malonyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the chain extender units for mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Thweatt, Jennifer; Smith, Stuart

    2011-09-30

    The objective of this study was to identify a source of intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA that could be used for de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammalian mitochondria. Because mammalian mitochondria lack an acetyl-CoA carboxylase capable of generating malonyl-CoA inside mitochondria, the possibility that malonate could act as a precursor was investigated. Although malonyl-CoA synthetases have not been identified previously in animals, interrogation of animal protein sequence databases identified candidates that exhibited sequence similarity to known prokaryotic forms. The human candidate protein ACSF3, which has a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, was cloned, expressed, and characterized as a 65-kDa acyl-CoA synthetase with extremely high specificity for malonate and methylmalonate. An arginine residue implicated in malonate binding by prokaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetases was found to be positionally conserved in animal ACSF3 enzymes and essential for activity. Subcellular fractionation experiments with HEK293T cells confirmed that human ACSF3 is located exclusively in mitochondria, and RNA interference experiments verified that this enzyme is responsible for most, if not all, of the malonyl-CoA synthetase activity in the mitochondria of these cells. In conclusion, unlike fungi, which have an intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, animals require an alternative source of mitochondrial malonyl-CoA; the mitochondrial ACSF3 enzyme is capable of filling this role by utilizing free malonic acid as substrate.

  4. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  5. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins at the Neurovascular Unit Supports Reduction and Reoxidation of Iron for Transport Through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhart, Annette; Skjørringe, Tina; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix;

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms for iron transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remain a controversy. We analyzed for expression of mRNA and proteins involved in oxidation and transport of iron in isolated brain capillaries from dietary normal, iron-deficient, and iron-reverted rats. The expression...... was also investigated in isolated rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) and in immortalized rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells grown as monoculture or in hanging culture inserts with defined BBB properties. Transferrin receptor 1, ferrireductases Steap 2 and 3, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1...... cells provide the machinery for receptor-mediated uptake of ferric iron-containing transferrin. Ferric iron can then undergo reduction to ferrous iron by ferrireductases inside endosomes followed by DMT1-mediated pumping into the cytosol and subsequently cellular export by ferroportin. The expression...

  6. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga

    Full Text Available YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  7. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP) transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Castillo, Francisco; Cobos, Eva S; Oka, Tsutomu; Sudol, Marius; Luque, Irene

    2015-01-01

    YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  8. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  9. Contributions of domain wall motion to complex electromechanical coefficients of 0.62Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.38PbTiO3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-01-01

    The loss behavior of 0.62Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.38PbTiO3 (PMN-38%PT) ferroelectric single crystal poled along [001]c was investigated. It was found that the complex electromechanical coefficients and loss factors change dramatically at the coercive field Ec around 250 V∕mm, representing the intrinsic switching barrier. Since the energy loss is related to the domain wall motion, the imaginary parts of the electromechanical coefficients can be used to study the degree of domain wall motions in relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals. Experimental results indicate that for this system, domain wall motion contributes significantly to the imaginary parts of electromechanical coefficients. In addition, [001]c poled PMN-38%PT single crystals have much larger mechanical loss factor compared to that of conventional single crystal like LiNbO3. This phenomenon is proved to be closely related to 90° domain wall motion in this crystal system. PMID:20145700

  10. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  11. Mild hydrothermal crystal growth of new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30: Structures, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D.; Tapp, Joshua; Möller, Angela; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Two new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 (1) and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30 (2), were synthesized through an in situ mild hydrothermal route, and were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds exhibit complex crystal structures composed of corner- or edge-shared UF9 and MF6 (M=Mg, Mn) polyhedra, forming hexagonal channels in the three-dimensional framework, in which ordered or disordered divalent metal and sodium atoms reside. The large hexagonal voids contain the nearly regular M(II)F6 octahedra and sodium ions, whereas the small hexagonal cavities include M(II) and sodium ions on a mixed-occupied site. Magnetic susceptibility measurements yielded effective magnetic moments of 8.36 and 11.6 μB for 1 and 2, respectively, confirming the presence and oxidation states of U(IV) and Mn(II). The large negative Weiss constants indicate the spin gap between a triplet and a singlet state in the U(IV). Magnetization data as a function of applied fields revealed that 2 exhibits paramagnetic behavior due to the nonmagnetic singlet ground state of U(IV) at low temperature. UV-vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data were also analyzed.

  12. Step-down piezoelectric transformer fabricated with (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-xPbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou; Luo, Haosu

    2010-04-01

    In present work, a ring-type unipoled step-down piezoelectric transformer with the dimensions of Phi16x0.7 mm(3) was designed and fabricated using relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). Both the input and output parts of this transformer were poled along the thickness direction, utilizing the radial vibration mode of PMN-PT. The electrical measurement results indicated that under the matching load resistance of 257 Omega, a voltage transformation ratio of 0.44 was obtained at the resonance frequency of 105 kHz. The frequency and load dependences of this transformer were also systematically studied and discussed. With the input voltage increasing, a maximum output power of about 0.9 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 degrees C. This step-down single-crystal transformer show potential applications in compact-size, small-power ac-dc converters.

  13. Temperature evolution of central peaks and effect of electric field in relaxor ferroelectric 0.83Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.17PbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Md Al; Aftabuzzaman, Md; Svirskas, Sarunas; Banys, Juras; Kojima, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric 0.83Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.17PbTiO3 (PMN–17PT) single crystals were studied by Brillouin scattering to investigate the role of polar nanoregions (PNRs) with intermediate random fields (RFs). Upon cooling, the central peak began to appear at the Burns temperature (T B) of ∼600 K, indicating the existence of polarization relaxations induced by PNRs. The fitting performed using the equation of stretched slowing down at the inverse relaxation time revealed that the slowing down of PNRs was suppressed in PMN–17PT compared with that in PMN–56PT owing to the increase in the strength of RFs. At room temperature, the splitting of the longitudinal acoustic mode at 1.6 kV/cm was observed owing to the coexistence of the macrodomain formed by the external electric field along the [100] axis and the nanodomains formed by RFs. The appearance of the transverse acoustic mode at 3.2 kV/cm indicates the field-induced rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase.

  14. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures with Different Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Sen; Li, Dalai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Aitian; Xu, Yang; Han, X F; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu

    2016-02-17

    Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures composed of Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) with different ferroelectric phases via changing composition and temperature is explored. It is demonstrated that the nonvolatile looplike bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization, previously found in the CoFeB/PMN-xPT heterostructures with PMN-xPT in the rhombohedral (R) phase around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), also occurs for PMN-xPTs with both R phase (far away from MPB) and monoclinic (M) phase, suggesting that the phenomenon is the common feature of CoFeB/PMN-xPT multiferroic heterostructures for PMN-xPT with different phases. The magnitude of the effect changes with increasing temperature and volatile bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization with a butterflylike behavior occurs when the ferroelectric phase changes to the tetragonal phase (T). Moreover, for the R-phase sample with x = 0.18, an abrupt and giant increase of magnetization is observed at a characteristic temperature in the temperature dependence of magnetization curve. These results are discussed in terms of coupling between magnetism and ferroelectric domains including macro- and microdomains for different ferroelectric phases. This work is helpful for understanding the phenomena of electric-field control of magnetism in FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures and is also important for applications.

  15. Spatially Resolved Ferroelectric Domain-Switching-Controlled Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peisen; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Sen; Chen, Aitian; Li, Dalai; Ma, Jing; Liu, Yan; Pierce, Daniel T; Unguris, John; Piao, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Han, Xiufeng; Pan, Mengchun; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-01-25

    Intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity or phase separation in cuprates, manganites, etc., related to electronic and/or magnetic properties, has attracted much attention due to its significance in fundamental physics and applications. Here we use scanning Kerr microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis with in situ electric fields to reveal the existence of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity of the magnetic response to an electric field on a mesoscale with the coexistence of looplike (nonvolatile) and butterfly-like (volatile) behaviors in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) multiferroic heterostructures. Both the experimental results and micromagnetic simulations suggest that these two behaviors come from the 109° and the 71°/180° FE domain switching, respectively, which have a spatial distribution. This FE domain-switching-controlled magnetism is significant for understanding the nature of FM/FE coupling on the mesoscale and provides a path for designing magnetoelectric devices through domain engineering.

  16. Influences of Ti substitution on the structure and electrochemical properties of Mg1-xTixNi (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hongxia; HUANG Kelong; LIU Suqin; CHEN Dongyang

    2009-01-01

    MgNi-based hydrogen storage alloys Mg1-xTixNi (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) were prepared by means of mechanical alloying. Mg in the alloy was partially substituted by Ti to improve the cycle stability of the alloys. The effects of the substitution of Ti for Mg on the microstructure and electrochemical performances of the alloys were investigated in detail. The results indicate that the substitution of Ti for Mg obviously decreases the discharge capacity, but it significantly improves their cycle stabilities. The microstructure of the alloys analyzed by X-ray dif-fraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the alloys have a dominatingly amorphous structure. The substitution of Ti for Mg helps to improve the anti-oxidation/corrosion ability of the MgNi alloy but demolishes the electrochemical kinetics of hydrogena-tion/dehydrogenation. The Mg0.9Ti0.1Ni alloy electrode milled for 80 h exhibits the best integrative capability, which has the maximal dis-charge capacity of 331.66 mAh/g and the C30/Cmax of 63.65%.

  17. Temperature dependence of electric-field-induced domain switching in 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.3PbTiO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    The influence of temperature on electric-field-induced domain switching of [0 0 1]c oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.3PbTiO3 (PMN–0.3PT) single crystal has been studied. The piezoelectric properties of PMN–0.3PT single crystal change drastically at one critical field at 30 °C and two critical fields at 90 °C corresponding to electric-field-induced domain switching. The domain structures were studied by polarizing light microscopy on the [100]c surface under the electric field applied along [001]c direction. The PMN–0.3PT single crystal exhibits a rapid increase in piezoresponse at 100 V/mm, which is related to R–MA phase transformation. At 90°C, the M and T0 0 1 phases coexist at 100 V/mm, while T001 mono-domain appears at 300 V/mm. The domain switching process here can be identified as (T100 or T010) → M → T001. The experimental results show that the phase state and domain structures of the crystal are closely related to the piezoelectric behaviors. PMID:23814407

  18. Temperature dependence of electric-field-induced domain switching in 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-06-25

    The influence of temperature on electric-field-induced domain switching of [0 0 1]c oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-0.3PT) single crystal has been studied. The piezoelectric properties of PMN-0.3PT single crystal change drastically at one critical field at 30 °C and two critical fields at 90 °C corresponding to electric-field-induced domain switching. The domain structures were studied by polarizing light microscopy on the [100]c surface under the electric field applied along [001]c direction. The PMN-0.3PT single crystal exhibits a rapid increase in piezoresponse at 100 V/mm, which is related to R-MA phase transformation. At 90°C, the M and T0 0 1 phases coexist at 100 V/mm, while T001 mono-domain appears at 300 V/mm. The domain switching process here can be identified as (T100 or T010) → M → T001. The experimental results show that the phase state and domain structures of the crystal are closely related to the piezoelectric behaviors.

  19. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2016-08-19

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  20. Piezostrain tuning non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation in Co2FeAl Heusler alloy film grown on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai; Wang, Fenglong; Dunzhu, Gesang; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-11-01

    Non-volatile electric field-based control of magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl/ Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (CFA/PMN-PT) heterostructures is investigated at room temperature. The remnant magnetization response under different electric fields shows a asymmetric butterfly-like behavior; specifically, this behavior is consistent with the asymmetric butterfly-like piezostrain versus applied electric field curve. Thus electric field-induced non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation can be attributed to the piezostrain effect. Further, the result measured by rotating-angle ferromagnetic resonance demonstrates piezostrain-mediated non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation at the initial state and the two remnant polarization states after application of the poling fields of 10 and  -10 kV cm-1 turned off. The angular dependence of magnetic damping also indicates a 90° phase shift at the above mentioned three different states. Additionally, the piezostrain-mediated non-volatile stable magnetization reversal in the two directions of easy and hard magnetization axes are observed under positive and negative pulsed electric fields, which can be used to improve the performance of low-loss multiple-state memory devices.

  1. Contribution to the large and stable electric field induced strain for textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiangtao; Zhao, Kunyu; Ruan, Wei; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Li, Guorong

    2016-08-01

    Textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were prepared by the templated grain growth method with 3% plate-like BaTiO3 as templates. The degree of grain orientation was about 81% by calculating from the XRD pattern. Temperature dependence of electric field induced strain was measured for both untextured and textured PMN-PT ceramics. The results show that the electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics is much larger and more stable than that for untextured PMN-PT ceramics in a wide temperature range. The contribution from the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect to the strain was analyzed, and it was found that textured PMN-PT ceramics exhibited electrostrictive coefficient Q33 as high as 5.19 × 10-2 m4 C-2 and it was comparable to that of PMN-PT single crystals. The electrostrictive effect contributed the main part of the enhancement of electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics.

  2. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2016-09-14

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  3. Electrically tunable microwave properties in NiFeTa/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) magnetoelectric heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2015-02-01

    The studied magnetoelectric heterostructure consisting of a NiFeTa thin film grown onto a [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) (PMN-PT) substrate was prepared by using gradient-composition sputtering technique. A shorted micro-strip transmission-line perturbation method using a vector network analyzer was employed to study the electrical field modulation of microwave properties of the NiFeTa/PMN-PT heterostructure. It was found that the resonance frequency of the sample can be tuned from 1.72 GHz to 2.05 GHz when the applied electrical field is varied from -6 kV/cm to 6 kV/cm. Moreover, we experimentally observed a quasi-linear relationship between the resonance frequency and the electrical field in a wide range of electrical field from 0 kV/cm to 6 kV/cm in the heterostructure, which is suggested to be useful for applications. All the results are discussed taking into account the reverse magnetostrictive effect and the reverse piezoelectric effect.

  4. Shear-Mode-Based Cantilever Driving Low-Frequency Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhou; Ren, Bo; Gai, Linlin; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Energy harvesting from external mechanical excitation has become a hot interest area, and relaxor piezoelectric single crystal ( 1 - x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 (PMN- x PT or PMN-PT) has attracted continuous attention due to the well-known ultrahigh shear-mode electromechanical response. To exploit the low-frequency application of excellent shear-mode performance of the PMN-PT single crystal, we proposed a Shear-mode-based CANtilever Driving Low-frequency Energy harvester. The device is composed of two symmetrically assembled sandwich structures and a cantilever, in which sandwich structures can be driven by the cantilever. An analytical method was used to illustrate the high output mechanism, and a finite-element method model of the device was also established to optimize the generated electric energy in this device. The electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies and load resistances were studied systematically. The maximum voltage and power density at resonance frequency (43.8 Hz) were measured to be 60.8 V and 10.8 mW/cm(3) under a proof mass of 13.5 g, respectively. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the considerable potential of the resonance-excited shear-mode energy harvester applied to wireless sensors and low-power portable electronics.

  5. Polarization Fatigue in Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Meyer, Richard J; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Electric fatigue tests have been conducted on pure and manganese modified Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals along different crystallographic directions. Polarization degradation was observed to suddenly occur above 50-100 bipolar cycles in oriented samples, while oriented samples exhibited almost fatigue free characteristics. The fatigue behavior was investigated as a function of orientation, magnitude of the electric field and manganese dopant. It was found that oriented PIN-PMN-PT crystals were fatigue free, due to its small domain size, being on the order of 1µm. The direction exhibited a strong electrical fatigue behavior due to mechanical degradation. Micro/macro cracks were developed in fatigued oriented single crystals. Fatigue and cracks were the results of strong anisotropic piezoelectric stress and non-180° domain switching, which completely locked the non-180° domains. Furthermore, manganese modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals were found to show improved fatigue behavior due to its enhanced coercive field.

  6. Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-Ming; ZENG Hua-Bong; CAO Zhen-Zhu; LENG Xue; ZHAO Kun-Yu; LI Guo-Rong; YIN Qing-Rui

    2011-01-01

    @@ Bismuth zinc titanate dopied lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate[Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (BZT-PMN-PT)]piezoelectric ceramics are synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method.Ferroelectric domain structures and the evolutionary behavior of BZT-PMN-PT ceramics under an external in-plane electric field are investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy(PFM).It is found that the BZT doping has a significant effect on the domain configurations and the domain kinetic behavior of the piezoelectric BZT-PMN-PT solid solution ceramics.Microdomains embedded in the macrodomains, induced by the BZT dopant in the solid solution ceramics, are clearly observed by PFM and their volume increases with increasing amounts of BZT doping.The microdomains of BZT-PMN-PT piezoelectric ceramics exhibit better domain dynamic behavior stability than macrodomains under an external in-plane electric held.

  7. Electromechanical properties of Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Lin, Dabin; Luo, Jun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were studied as function of phase and orientation. The properties, including the Curie temperature T(C), ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R∕O-T), coercive field, and piezoelectric∕dielectric responses, were systematically investigated with respect to the composition of PIN-PMN-PT crystals. The Curie temperature T(C) was found to increase from 160 to 220 °C with ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R-T) and T(O-T) being in the range of 120-105 °C and105-50 °C, respectively. The piezoelectric activity of PIN-PMN-PT crystals was analyzed by Rayleigh approach. The ultrahigh piezoelectric response for domain engineered [001] (1600-2200 pC∕N) and [011] (830-1550 pC∕N) crystals was believed to be mainly from the intrinsic contribution, whereas the enhanced level of piezoelectric and dielectric losses at the compositions around morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) was attributed to the phase boundaries motion.

  8. Interweaving domain configurations in [001]-poled rhombohedral phase 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaping; Cao, Wenwu

    2003-09-01

    Domain structures in [001]-poled rhombohedral phase 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 single crystals have been investigated using polarized light microcopy. It was found that the observed domain structures are quite different from those previously assumed four domain states with cross intersecting 71° charged domain walls. The pattern can be interpreted as interweaving of two types of twins in three dimensions. Each local twin pattern contains only two domains with a 109° charged domain wall in either [110] or [11¯0]. The stacking of two 90° rotated twins produces a cross-hatching pattern for transmission optical microscope and an effective 4mm macroscopic symmetry. The pattern becomes simple twins when the imaging is focused at different depth. The domain size is 1-2 μm in all the samples observed and the twin layer thickness is about 50-100 μm.

  9. Improvement in temperature dependence and dielectric tunability properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films using Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Wen; Shen, Jie; Yang, Huimin; Zhang, Shisai; Liu, Yueli

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. The effects of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BMT) buffer layer on the temperature dependence and dielectric tunability properties of PZT thin films were studied. As the thickness of BMT buffer layer increases, the tan δ and tunability of PZT thin films decrease while tunability still maintains above 10%. This result shows that BMT buffer layer can improve the dielectric tunability properties of PZT thin films. Furthermore, the temperature coefficient of the dielectric constant decreases from 2333.4 to 906.9 ppm/°C with the thickness of BMT buffer layer increasing in the range from 25 to 205 °C, indicating that BMT buffer layer can improve the temperature stability of PZT thin films. Therefore, BMT buffer layer plays a critical role in improving temperature dependence and dielectric tunability properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films.

  10. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, N. J.; Catalan, G.; Morros, C.; Bowman, R. M.; Gregg, J. M.

    2003-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was used to grow thin films of several compositions from the Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution as dielectric layers in thin film capacitor structures. They were found to display functional behavior characteristic of relaxors, with the only significant difference between thin film and bulk being a severely reduced dielectric permittivity. Room temperature polarization loops showed a general increase in both the remanent polarization and absolute magnitude of the polarization for a given field with PT content. The electric field-induced strain was primarily examined by in situ x-ray diffraction and although fields greater than 20 MV m-1 were applied to the films, the maximum observed strain was only ˜0.3%, considerably less than the 1.4% seen in single crystal samples. Piezo-response atomic force microscopy studies were consistent in that the macroscopic effective piezoelectric coefficient d33, was found to differ from single crystal measurements by an order of magnitude. However, electrostrictive coefficients (Q33), were found to be comparable to published values for both PMN-PT single crystals and ceramics, ranging between 1 and 9×10-2 C-4 cm2. Consequently, it seems that the relatively poor strain response in these thin films is intimately linked to the reduced permittivity and not to a fundamental difference in the electrostrictive coefficients between bulk and thin film.

  11. Domain size engineering in tetragonal Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dabin; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Zhenrong; Li, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Wada, Satoshi; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-10-15

    The effect of domain size on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of [111]-oriented tetragonal Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) crystals was investigated. The dielectric permittivity (ɛ(33 ) (T)∕ɛ(0)) and piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) were found to be on the order of 13 800 and 1630 pC∕N, respectively, for samples with domain size of ∼500 nm, a 3-fold increase to crystals with domain size of ∼50 μm. Rayleigh analysis revealed that the extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectric response increased from ∼8% to 30% with decreasing domain size, due to the increased domain wall density and associated irreversible domain wall motion. The enhanced properties were thought to relate to the fine domain structures, however, showing a poor electric field and temperature stabilities with domain size of 500 nm. Of particular significance is that samples with domain size being on the order of 5 μm exhibit field and temperature stabilities, with yet high piezoelectric properties, make it potential for transducer applications.

  12. Features of the Relaxor State in the Simple-Perovskite Mixed-Oxide System (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Yohei; Chiba, Yuki; Koyama, Yasumasa

    2017-03-01

    The mixed-oxide system (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) has a simple perovskite structure and exhibits relaxor behavior for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 (low Ti contents). To understand the relaxor state in PMN-xPT, the crystallographic features of the ferroelectric states were investigated via transmission electron microscopy, taking advantage of Friedel's law failure. Polar regions having C and C components were observed separately both below and near Tm, the maximum temperature of the dielectric permittivity for the relaxor. As a result, the relaxor state for 0 < x ≤ 0.30 was identified as an assembly of nanometer-scale polar domains with rhombohedral symmetry. On the other hand, the ferroelectric states for 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.70 are characterized by a ferroelectric MC-type monoclinic state, having a polarization vector in the {100}C planes. Thus, the FR/FMC boundary around x = 0.35 was identified as the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), nearly parallel to the temperature axis.

  13. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cong; Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei; Luo, Haosu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz1/2 at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz1/2 for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established.

  14. Effect of pre-aging on precipitation behavior of Al- 1.29Mg- 1.22Si-0.68Cu-0.69Mn-0.3Fe-0.2Zn-0.1 Ti alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; CHEN Yang; ZHAO Gang; LIU Chun-ming; ZUO Liang

    2006-01-01

    By means of Vickers-hardness and electrical conductivity measurements, DSC tests and TEM analyses, the effect of different pre-aging treatments on precipitation characteristic of the Al- 1.29Mg- 1.22Si-0.68Cu-0.69Mn-0.3Fe-0.2Fe-0.1 Ti (mass fraction, %) alloy during subsequent artificial aging was investigated. The results indicate that with increasing pre-aging time from 2.5 min to 10 min at 170 ℃, the number of formedβ" nuclei increases, resulting in promoting artificial aging kinetics and enhancing peak hardness. The hardness of pre-aged alloy reduces within lower temperature range of non-isothermal aging and increases in early stage of isothermal aging at 170 ℃. The size and density of clusters in pre-aged samples determine the hardenability in early stage of artificial aging. Pre-aging has dual mechanisms: namely, clusters (β" nuclei) formed by pre-aging can inhibit the precipitation of GP zones during natural aging, and can quicken the precipitation of β" phase in the early stage of subsequent artificial aging.

  15. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-04-20

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence was observed in the microareas with M A-type (space group Cm) and M C-type (space group Pm) monoclinic structures. Interestingly, the M A-M Cphase transition temperature exhibited remarkable microareal dependence due to the spatial inhomogeneity of polar nanoregions (PNRs). The M C-cubic phase transition took place at 155 °C in both microareas, which consisted well with previous reports. These results reveal that the phase transition in PMN-33%PT single crystal is closely related with the thermal dynamics of PNRs, which will be useful for understanding the microheterogeneity in this compound.

  16. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  17. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  18. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  19. The roles of amyloid βprotein in neurovascular unit injiny%β淀粉样蛋白在神经血管单元损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏微; 张微微

    2009-01-01

    β淀粉样蛋白(mlyloid-β,Aβ)沉积是脑淀粉样血管病(cerebral amyloid angiopathy,CAA)和阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)的关键病理学基础.目前的研究强调,神经血管单元细胞之间内环境的稳定是维持脑功能正常的关键.本文综述了Aβ与神经血管单元损伤的关系,期望对CAA和AD的临床防治提供一些新的思路.%The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ is the key pathological basis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current studies emphasis that the stability of internal environment between cells of the neurovascular unit is the key to maintain normal brain function. This article reviews the relationship between the Aβand the neurovascular unit injury, and we expect to provide some new ideas for the clinical prevention and treatment of CAA and AD.

  20. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøttger Pernille

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inorganic (Pi phosphate transporter (PiT family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na+-dependent Pi (NaPi transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. Results We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members. A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR254-V483, was found to be a fully functional Pi transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL183-V483 did also support Pi transport albeit at very low levels. Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution

  1. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  2. Preparation of Mg1.1Mn6O12·4.5H2O with nanobelt structure and its application in aqueous magnesium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Kui; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries with low cost of magnesium resources have a potential to meet growing requirements for electric energy storage resulted from the similar electrochemical properties to lithium. The Mg1.1Mn6O12·4.5H2O named as magnesium octahedral molecular sieves (Mg-OMS-1) owns nanobelt structures as a cathode material for aqueous magnesium-ion battery. The morphology and structure of Mg-OMS-1 are measured by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion from this host material and the theory specific capacity of Mg-OMS-1 are determined by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mg-OMS-1 displays an excellent battery behavior for Mg2+ insertion and deinsertion in the magnesium-salt aqueous electrolyte. The initial discharge capacity of Mg-OMS-1 electrode can reach 248.8 ± 0.5 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 in the 0.2 mol dm-3 Mg(NO3)2 aqueous electrolyte. Even back to 10 mA g-1 after the rate performance, the discharge capacity can achieve 214.1 ± 0.5 mAh g-1. The specific capacity retention rate is 90.4% after cycling 200 times at 100 mA g-1 in the 0.5 mol dm-3 Mg(NO3)2 electrolyte with a columbic efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% in the 5 times experiments.

  3. High performance of macro-flexible piezoelectric energy harvester using a 0.3PIN-0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 flake array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhou; Xia, Rongyu; Gai, Linlin; Wang, Xian; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu; Li, Faxin; Wang, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Harvesting energy from human motion to power wearable devices using flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters is becoming a hot research topic, since this approach could fix the charging problem related to batteries and would do no harm to the environment. Unlike nano-generators, which have a piezoelectric material thickness at the level of a few nm to a few μm, we present a high-performance macro-flexible piezoelectric energy harvester (MF-PEH) with a piezoelectric material thickness of 45 μm, based on a 0.3PIN-0.4PMN-0.3PT (PIMNT) long flake array with an optimized cut. The piezoelectric properties of (110)-oriented PIMNT were studied as a function of thickness and compared to those of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMNT). The electrical properties of this device under different strain and load resistances are studied systematically. The results of our experiment show that under a strain of 0.225%, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of MF-PEH reach levels as high as 23.2 V and 0.105 mA (at an excitation frequency of 1.1 Hz), respectively, with a maximum electric output power of 245 μW across a piezoelectric materials area of 400 mm2. We have also used the device to harvest mechanical energy from the motion of human knees and charge a battery successfully. Efficient conversion from mechanical energy to electric energy and large output power demonstrate that our MF-PEH is an important complement to flexible energy harvesters and a potential candidate as a self-powered source for wearable low-power electronics.

  4. Temperature-induced and electric-field-induced phase transitions in rhombohedral Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 ternary single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaojin; Wang, Zhiguang; Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu

    2014-10-01

    Temperature and electric field effects on rhombohedral (R ) ternary Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric single crystals were comprehensively studied by x-ray diffraction. We have focused on how the individual phase transitions as well as the phase transition sequences depend on thermal and electrical history. Electric field-temperature phase diagrams have been constructed under [001] field-cooling and field-heating conditions. As happens to the R phase of binary PMN-PT crystals [H. Cao, J. F. Li, D. Viehland, and G. Y. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184110 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.184110], the R phase of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state is replaced by a monoclinic A (M A) phase in the field-cooled (FC) diagram. In particular, reciprocal-space mesh scans demonstrated that the M A phase was stable for crystals poled along the [001] crystallographic direction rather than the initial R phase of the ZFC state. Furthermore, an E -field-induced phase transformational sequence of R →M A→ tetragonal (T ) was observed at constant temperature, revealing a gradual increase in the c lattice parameter. These findings demonstrate that the ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit common phase transition features with binary PMN-PT and Pb(Zn 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) ones for compositions in the low PT side of the morphotropic phase boundary.

  5. Calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07(PO46(OH4·12H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lafuente

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcioferrite, ideally Ca4MgFe3+4(PO46(OH4·12H2O (tetracalcium magnesium tetrairon(III hexakis-phosphate tetrahydroxide dodecahydrate, is a member of the calcioferrite group of hydrated calcium phosphate minerals with the general formula Ca4AB4(PO46(OH4·12H2O, where A = Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+ and B = Al, Fe3+. Calcioferrite and the other three known members of the group, montgomeryite (A = Mg, B = Al, kingsmountite (A = Fe2+, B = Al, and zodacite (A = Mn2+, B = Fe3+, usually occur as very small crystals, making their structure refinements by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction challenging. This study presents the first structure determination of calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07(PO46(OH4·12H2O based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the Moculta quarry in Angaston, Australia. Calcioferrite is isostructural with montgomeryite, the only member of the group with a reported structure. The calcioferrite structure is characterized by (Fe/AlO6 octahedra (site symmetries 2 and -1 sharing corners (OH to form chains running parallel to [101]. These chains are linked together by PO4 tetrahedra (site symmetries 2 and 1, forming [(Fe/Al3(PO43(OH2] layers stacking along [010], which are connected by (Ca/Sr2+ cations (site symmetry 2 and Mg2+ cations (site symmetry 2; half-occupation. Hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the water molecules (one of which is equally disordered over two positions and OH function are also present between these layers. The relatively weaker bonds between the layers account for the cleavage of the mineral parallel to (010.

  6. M/G/1 Queue with Single Working Vacation and Vacation Interruption%带单重工作休假和休假中断的M/G/1排队系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢国云; 徐秀丽; 王继利; 刘春平

    2011-01-01

    研究单重工作休假和休假中断的M/G/1排队系统,得到了其嵌入Markov链的转移概率矩阵,采用M/G/1型结构矩阵解析法,得到离去时刻稳态队长的母函数的解析表达式.采用经典随机分解方法,给出了队长的条件随机分解结构、条件等待时间的随机分解结果、稳态等待时间的LST变换及稳态下平均等待时间等性能指标.给出数值例子,并讨论了系统参数对几个主要性能指标的影响,从而验证了理论分析的合理性和有效性.%An M/G/1 queue system with a single working vacation and working interruption was studied. An M/G/l -type transition probability matrix of the embedded Markov chain was obtained. And using the M/G/l -type matrix analysis method, the PGF of the stationary queue length for the customers at departure epochs was derived. By the classic stochastic decomposition solution, the stochastic decomposition results of the stationary queue length and the conditional waiting time were presented. And some performance measures of the system such as the LST of the stationary waiting time and the expected waiting time were also obtained. Numerical examples were presented to show the influence of the system parametes on several main performance characteristics, and the rationality and the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis were proved.

  7. SH 波在0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3/金刚石界面的反射和透射%Reflection and transmission of SH waves at interface between 0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3 -0.29PbTiO3 and diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳平; 刘金喜; 聂国权

    2016-01-01

    The reflection and transmission of SH waves at the interface between 0.71Pb (Mg1 /3 Nb2 /3 )O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN -0.29PT)and diamond were discussed.The PMN -0.29PT single crystal under consideration was polarized along the [011 ]c direction to get a macroscopic symmetry of orthonormal 2 mm and the cut orientation on the material was made to have an angle with the XZ-plane.The reflection and transmission coefficients and energy distribution coefficients varying with the incident angle were analyzed under the oblique incidence of SH waves.The results show that the cut orientation is critical for the reflection and transmission coefficients and energy distribution coefficients when SH waves are incident from diamond media.When SH waves are incident from piezoelectric media,the larger the cut angle, the smaller the corresponding critical angle,and the cut angle has little influence on the reflection and transmission coefficients for a given large incident angle.The results are valid for the signal processing,transduction,and frequency control of PMN-PT single crystal composite devices.%研究 SH 波分别从0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3(PMN -0.29PT)介质和金刚石介质倾斜入射时在双材料界面上的反射和透射规律。PMN -0.29PT 单晶沿[011]c方向极化,宏观上呈正交各向异性性质,且材料主轴沿 x3方向旋转切割,数值分析了 SH 波斜入射时在交界面处的反射、透射系数以及能量反射、透射系数随入射角的变化。结果显示:SH 波从金刚石入射时,压电晶体的旋转切割角度对 SH 波的反射、透射系数和能量分配规律起到非常关键的作用;SH 波从压电材料入射时,晶体的旋转切割角度越大,临界角越小,随着入射角的增大,切割角度对 SH 波反射系数的影响逐渐减小。这些结论可为 PMN-PT 单晶材料在传感器和频率控制等领域中的应用提供有价值的理论参考。

  8. Structure and Electrical Properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 Ceramics Near Morphotropic Phase Boundary%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3陶瓷在准同型相界附近的结构与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 夏志国; 斯琴毕力格

    2009-01-01

    基于Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT)和PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT)两个赝二元体系的准同型相界组分和线性组合规律,设计了一系列具有准同型相界组分的PMN-PT-PZ赝三元体系.采用传统的铌铁矿预合成法制备了各组分的铁电陶瓷,研究了它们的相结构及介电、压电和铁电性能.研究表明,该系列PMN-PT-PZ赝三元系铁电陶瓷都具有三方与四方相共存的准同型结构和优异的电学性能.其中,PZ含量为40%(摩尔分数)的0.16PMN-0.44PT-0.4PZ铁电陶瓷样品具有最佳的综合电性能,其室温介电常数εr为2014,压电常数d33为410 pC · N-1,机电耦合系数kp为0.58,剩余极化强度Pr为34.5 μC·cm-2,矫顽场Ec为13.4 kV·cm-1.

  9. Sn含量对PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3三元系压电陶瓷相结构和电性能的影响%Effect of Sn Content on the Phase Structure and Electrical Properties of PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ternary Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大伟; 赵全亮; 曹茂盛; 崔岩; ZHANG Shu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    采用两步钶铁矿前驱体工艺制备了PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PSn-PMN-PT)三元系压电陶瓷,研究了Sn含量的变化对PSn-PMN-PT三元系压电陶瓷结构和性能的影响.XRD结果表明,所选成分均处于三方相和四方相共存的准同型相界上,当Sn含量减少时,PSn-PMN-PT的XRD图谱基本没有发生变化,而当Sn含量增加时,在XRD图谱中逐渐出现烧绿石相.电性能研究表明,缺失少量Sn可以提高PSn-PMN-PT的压电、介电和铁电性能,减小损耗;而添加过量Sn明显损害其压电和铁电性能,增加损耗.缺失0.2mol%Sn的PSn-PMN-PT具有最佳的压电和铁电性能,d33:~530 pC/N,kp:~56.4%,Qm:~570,εr:~3070,tanδ:~0.32%,Pr:~28.9 μC/cm2,EC:~8 kV/cm.

  10. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  11. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  12. Non-monotonic compositional dependence of isothermal bulk modulus of the (Mg1–xMnxCr2O4 spinel solid solutions, and its origin and implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressibility of the spinel solid solutions, (Mg1−xMnxCr2O4 with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, has been investigated by using a diamond-anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation up to ∼10 GPa (ambient T. The second-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state was used to fit the PV data, yielding the following values for the isothermal bulk moduli (KT, 198.2 (36, 187.8 (87, 176.1 (32, 168.7 (52, 192.9 (61 and 199.2 (61 GPa, for the spinel solid solutions with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, respectively (KT′ fixed as 4. The KT value of the MgCr2O4 spinel is in good agreement with existing experimental determinations and theoretical calculations. The correlation between the KT and x is not monotonic, with the KT values similar at both ends of the binary MgCr2O4MnCr2O4, but decreasing towards the middle. This non-monotonic correlation can be described by two equations, KT = −49.2 (11x + 198.0 (4 (x ≤ ∼0.6 and KT = 92 (41x + 115 (30 (x ≥ ∼0.6, and can be explained by the evolution of the average bond lengths of the tetrahedra and octahedra of the spinel solid solutions. Additionally, the relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient and composition is correspondingly reinterpreted, the continuous deformation of the oxygen array is demonstrated, and the evolution of the component polyhedra is discussed for this series of spinel solid solutions. Our results suggest that the correlation between the KT and composition of a solid solution series may be complicated, and great care should be paid while estimating the KT of some intermediate compositions from the KT of the end-members.

  13. Calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T.; Yang, Hexiong; Jenkins, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcioferrite, ideally Ca4MgFe3+ 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O (tetra­calcium magnesium tetrairon(III) hexakis-phosphate tetra­hydroxide dodeca­hydrate), is a member of the calcioferrite group of hydrated calcium phosphate minerals with the general formula Ca4 AB 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O, where A = Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+ and B = Al, Fe3+. Calcioferrite and the other three known members of the group, montgomeryite (A = Mg, B = Al), kingsmountite (A = Fe2+, B = Al), and zodacite (A = Mn2+, B = Fe3+), usually occur as very small crystals, making their structure refinements by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction challenging. This study presents the first structure determination of calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the Moculta quarry in Angaston, Australia. Calcioferrite is isostructural with montgomeryite, the only member of the group with a reported structure. The calcioferrite structure is characterized by (Fe/Al)O6 octa­hedra (site symmetries 2 and -1) sharing corners (OH) to form chains running parallel to [101]. These chains are linked together by PO4 tetra­hedra (site symmetries 2 and 1), forming [(Fe/Al)3(PO4)3(OH)2] layers stacking along [010], which are connected by (Ca/Sr)2+ cations (site symmetry 2) and Mg2+ cations (site symmetry 2; half-occupation). Hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules (one of which is equally disordered over two positions) and OH function are also present between these layers. The relatively weaker bonds between the layers account for the cleavage of the mineral parallel to (010). PMID:24764934

  14. Dielectric properties of BaMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2015-11-01

    Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMN) doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC) of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (˜38%) with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM). This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300-450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE) and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE), the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF). The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  15. 锂盐助烧0.68 Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3陶瓷的介电性能%Dielectric Properties of 0.68 Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.32 PbTiO3 Ceramics with Lithium Salt Sintering Aids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林洪; 徐卓; 姚熹

    2009-01-01

    采用铌铁矿预产物合成法制备锂盐(Li2CO3,LiNO3,LiF)助烧0.68 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32 PbTiO3[PMNPT)弛豫铁电陶瓷.采用XRD分析陶瓷相组成,并对其介电性能进行测试,结果表明:所有陶瓷样品均为纯钙钛矿相,无任何其它杂相出现;添加Li2CO3和LiNO3使PMN-PT陶瓷的介电损耗降低,而介电常数峰宽、介电弛豫特性以及居里点变化不明显;但添加LiF使PMN-PT陶瓷的介电损耗增大,介电常数峰变宽,介电弛豫更明显,以及居里点下降.极化后锂盐助烧PMN-PT陶瓷的介电常数和损耗峰均表现为双峰,第一个峰为三方铁电相一四方铁电相的相变峰,约80℃左右;第二个峰为四方铁电相一顺电相的相变峰,对添加LiF的试样约为130℃,其余试样约为150℃.这主要是由于添加Li2CO3和LiNO3试样只发生Li+在PMNT的B位置换产生氧空位,而添加LiF试样可以通过F-取代反应产生铅空位来补偿Li+取代产生的氧空位.

  16. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  17. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  18. Evolution studied through protein structural domains

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, SONG

    2007-01-01

    A protein structural domain is defined as a compact, spatially distinct part of a protein that can fold independently of neighboring sequences. Since the number of protein domains is limited, and protein domains are evolutionarily more conserved than protein sequences, protein domains play an important role in our understanding of the structure, function and evolution of proteins. As fundamental evolutionary units, protein domains are associated with a variety of evolutionary processes such a...

  19. Applications of molecular analysis for the study of early land plant evolution during the upper Silurian - Lower Devonian: borehole M.G.1, Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia, North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M. F.; Vecoli, M.; Riboulleau, A.; Versteegh, G.

    2009-04-01

    The development of land plants during the Ordovician to Devonian time is essentially documented by rare macro and micro remains such as cuticles and sporomorphs. This period is a key interval for the development of life on emerged lands - the so - called terrestrialization process, which includes the origin of land plant and their progressive spread on the continents. It is well known that many biomarkers (such as cadalene, retene, among others) can provide important information on the evolution of major plant groups. Nevertheless, no land-plant biomarker studies have been carried out on sediments older than Middle Devonian so far. We performed molecular biomarker analyses on a Siluro-Devonian clastic sequence (borehole MG-1, southern Tunisia), known to contain abundant and well-preserved plant remains (miospores and phytodebris:[1]). Our aim is to identify possible land plant biomarkers in Ordovician - Devonian sediments and relate these biomarkers to specific kind of plants. All samples were studied by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker analysis. The Rock-Eval results show that most of the samples are in the type II-III organic matter indicating a mixture of organic matter of terrestrial and marine origin. In general, we detected n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms lower than twenty in all the aliphatic fractions. These n-alkanes are considered of algal origin. However, most samples also show long n-alkanes which could indicate a land plant origin. In addition to short-chain alkanes, hopanes and terpanes indicates a bacterial/algal origin for the organic matter. This result is consistent with both the marine depositional setting and the palynofacies of the studied samples where amorphous organic matter and marine palynomorphs such as Tasmanites algae can be observed. An algal contribution is also visible in the aromatic fraction, where series of isohexylalkylbenzenes and aryl isoprenoids from C13 to C20 have been identified. The occurrence of both series in

  20. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  1. Value of soluble TREM-1, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein serum levels as biomarkers for detecting bacteremia among sepsis patients with new fever in intensive care units: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Longxiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT, and C-reactive protein (CRP serum levels for differentiating sepsis from SIRS, identifying new fever caused by bacteremia, and assessing prognosis when new fever occurred. Methods We enrolled 144 intensive care unit (ICU patients: 60 with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and 84 with sepsis complicated by new fever at more than 48 h after ICU admission. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels were measured on the day of admission and at the occurrence of new fever (>38.3°C during hospitalization. Based on the blood culture results, the patients were divided into a blood culture-positive bacteremia group (33 patients and blood culture-negative group (51 patients. Based on 28-day survival, all patients, both blood culture-positive and -negative, were further divided into survivor and nonsurvivor groups. Results On ICU day 1, the sepsis group had higher serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels compared with the SIRS group (P P Conclusions Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels each have a role in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Serum sTREM-1, with the highest sensitivity and specificity of all indicators studied, is especially notable. sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels are of no use in determining new fever caused by bacteremia in ICU patients, but sTREM-1 levels reflect the prognosis of bacteremia. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01410578

  2. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  3. DSCG binding protein and process for preparing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecht, I.; Mazurek, N.

    1987-07-28

    An essentially pure protein is described consisting essentially of the protein, (CBP), present in nature in membranes of basophile cells and in mast cells, having a molecular weight of about 60,000 +- 2,000 determined by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis an isoelectric point of about 3.9 and an amino acid composition of about 4 units of asparagine, 3 units of threonine and serine, 3 units glycine, 2 units alanine, 2 units proline, 1 unit cysteine, 2 units valine, 1 unit methionine, 1 unit isoleucine, 2 units leucine, 1 unit tyrosine, 1 unit phenylalanine, 2 units histamine, 2 units lysine and 1 unit arginine. The protein is able to build calcium and having a calcium dependent affinity to the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(-2 carboxychromon-5-yloxy)-2-hydroxy propane (DSCG).

  4. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  5. Sound velocities and hypersonic dampings of Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.45Ti0.55]O3 single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2010-12-08

    A Brillouin spectroscopic investigation was carried out on PMN-55%PT single crystals, which are known to have no chemically ordered regions and undergo a well-defined structural phase transition at T(C) ∼ 521 K. The longitudinal and transverse sound velocities probed on a right-angle scattering geometry exhibited a remarkable softening and increasing hypersonic damping on approaching T(C) from T(B) ∼ 610 K that was characterized by the deviation of the dielectric permittivity from the high-temperature Curie-Weiss behavior. The acoustic anomalies of the longitudinal acoustic mode at the backward scattering were more substantial than those observed at the right-angle scattering, which could be understood in the framework of normal acoustic dispersion considering the difference in the acoustic frequency. The softening of the transverse sound velocity was more significant than that of the longitudinal one upon cooling toward T(C), suggesting that this acoustic anomaly may be related to the local rhombohedral transformation, occurring in polar nano-regions (PNRs). The observed acoustic behaviors combined with the central peak dynamics clearly indicated the existence of dynamic polar nano-regions in PMN-55%PT where there are no chemically ordered regions, and seem to suggest that the order parameter fluctuations due to two kinds of coupling contribute to the acoustic anomalies in the temperature range of T(C) ∼ T(B): electrostrictive coupling between the acoustic waves and the dynamic PNRs, and linear coupling between the acoustic waves and the precursor polar clusters, i.e., the ordering unit responsible for the order-disorder-type slowing down behavior probed by the central peak.

  6. Electromechanical coupling coefficient k31eff for arbitrary aspect ratio resonators made of [001] and [011] poled (1−x)Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–xPbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanwen; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhu; Cao, Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of k31eff on the aspect ratio G=l1∕l2 has been calculated for resonators made of [001] poled 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-0.33PT) and [011] poled 0.71Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT). Based on the derived unified formula, the lateral electromechanical energy conversion efficiency ∣k31eff∣2 decreases with G for [001] poled PMN-0.33PT but increases with G for [011] poled PMN-0.29PT. PMID:19529794

  7. Effect of fabrication conditions on phase formation and properties of epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.67-(PbTiO3)0.33 thin films on (001) SrTiO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boota, M.; Houwman, E.P.; Nguyen, M.D.; Lanzara, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The pulsed laser deposition process of 300nm thick films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.67-(PbTiO3)0.33 on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 was studied by varying deposition pressure, substrate deposition temperature, laser fluence on the target and target-substrate distance. Perovskite phase pure, (001)-oriented, epit

  8. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Background The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house......-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... sequences of PiT family members from all kingdoms, along with the studies of the dual functions of the human PiT paralogs show that these proteins are excellent as models for studying the evolution of a protein's structure-function relationship....

  9. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers....... The biophysical and structural investigations of PPIs consequently demand hybrid approaches, implementing orthogonal methods and strategies for global data analysis. Currently, impressive developments in hardware and software within several methodologies define a new era for the biostructural community. Data can...

  10. Double Points of Plane Models in M_{g,1}

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasca, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compute the class of the closure of the effective divisor in M_{6,1} given by pointed curves [C,p] with a sextic plane model mapping p to a double point. Such a divisor generates an extremal ray in the pseudoeffective cone of M_{6,1} as shown by Jensen. A general result on some families of linear series with adjusted Brill-Noether number 0 or -1 is introduced to complete the computation.

  11. Effect of Sintering Aid CuO-MnO2 on Dielectric Proper-ties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhongqing; ZHANG Chunyan; WANG Hao; HUANG Weijiu; LIN Lin

    2009-01-01

    Microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x wt% CuO-x wt% MnO2 additions (x=0.25-1) prepared by conventional solid-state route were investigated. It is found that low level-doping of CuO-MnO2 can significantly improve the density of the specimens and their microwave dielectric properties. The relative density of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics can be increased by 95% sintering at 1 330 ℃due to the liquid phase effect. The second phase is not observed in ceramics with CuO-MnO2 addition.The parameterεr increases with increasing sintering temperature, and Qf is effectively promoted by CuO-MnO2 addition. Higher CuO-MnO2 content would make τf value more positive. Meanwhile, εr value of 30.5, Qf value of 63 200 GHz and τf value of 0.5 ppm/ ℃ were obtained for 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with 0.5 wt% CuO-0.5 wt% MnO2 addition sin-tered at 1 330 ℃ for 4 h.

  12. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  13. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  14. Protein Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  15. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  16. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  17. Strain assisted electrocaloric effect in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Chen, Bin; Wang, Baomin; Yang, Huali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Solid state cooling technologies based on electrocaloric, magnetocaloric and mechanocaloric effects have received much attention during the past decade. To further improve the cooling efficiency and reduce the driving field, it is desirable to combine multiple effects in a single system. Here, we report on the caloric effects induced by both electric field and strain in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films deposited on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate. The isothermal entropy change (ΔS) induced by the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films is calculated to be 6.78 J K-1 kg-1. Furthermore, the strain from 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate can reduce the electric field where ΔS reaches the maximum by as much as 50 kV/cm. The electrocaloric efficiency is also increased from 0.366 to 0.378 by the strain effect. The electrocaloric effect in an antiferroelectric material assisted by strain may lead to more efficient solid state cooling technology.

  18. Complete matrix properties of [001](c) and [011](c) poled 0.33Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-0.38Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.29PbTiO(3) single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Fengmin; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-03-15

    The elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of [001](c) and [011](c) poled 0.33Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-0.38Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.29PbTiO(3) single crystals have been fully characterized at room temperature, and the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric susceptibility ε(33) were also measured. The depoling temperature of this crystal is more than 20 °C higher than that of the corresponding binary 0.71Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.29PbTiO(3) system. From the measured P-E hysteresis loops, the coercive fields along [001](c) and [011](c) directions have been determined to be 6.0 kV/cm and 6.6 kV/cm, respectively, which indicate that these domain engineered ternary relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals are excellent candidates for high-power applications.

  19. Complete matrix properties of [001]c and [011]c poled 0.33Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.38Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Fengmin; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    The elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of [001]c and [011]c poled 0.33Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.38Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals have been fully characterized at room temperature, and the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric susceptibility ε33 were also measured. The depoling temperature of this crystal is more than 20 °C higher than that of the corresponding binary 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 system. From the measured P-E hysteresis loops, the coercive fields along [001]c and [011]c directions have been determined to be 6.0 kV/cm and 6.6 kV/cm, respectively, which indicate that these domain engineered ternary relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals are excellent candidates for high-power applications. PMID:23378702

  20. Protein C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an unexplained blood clot, or a family history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with the function of this protein may cause blood clots to ...

  1. Protein S

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an unexplained blood clot, or a family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with the function of this protein may cause blood clots to ...

  2. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  3. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  4. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  5. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  6. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  7. Flowering Buds of Globular Proteins: Transpiring Simplicity of Protein Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2002-01-01

    Structural and functional complexity of proteins is dramatically reduced to a simple linear picture when the laws of polymer physics are considered. A basic unit of the protein structure is a nearly standard closed loop of 25–35 amino acid residues, and every globular protein is built of consecutively connected closed loops. The physical necessity of the closed loops had been apparently imposed on the early stages of protein evolution. Indeed, the most frequent prototype sequence motifs in prokaryotic proteins have the same sequence size, and their high match representatives are found as closed loops in crystallized proteins. Thus, the linear organization of the closed loop elements is a quintessence of protein evolution, structure and folding. PMID:18629251

  8. Temperature Dependence of Electrical Properties and Crystal Structure of 0.29Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3–0.44Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–0.27PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the temperature dependent (~25–200°C electromechanical properties and crystal structure of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals using in situ electrical measurement and neutron diffraction techniques. The results show that the poled crystal experiences an addition phase transition around 120°C whereas such a transition is absent in the unpoled crystal. It is also found that the polar order persists above the maximum dielectric permittivity temperature at which the crystal shows a well-defined antiferroelectric behavior. The changes in the electrical properties and underlying crystal structure are discussed in the paper.

  9. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  10. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm3. This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  11. 具有反馈、不可靠服务台和二次多选择服务M/G/1重试排队系统%An M/G/1 Retrial Queue with Second Muilti-Optional Service Feedback and Unreliable Server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江华; 王金亭

    2006-01-01

    An M/G/1 retrial queue with two-phase service and feedback is studied in this paper, where the server is subject to starting failures and breakdowns during service. Primary customers get in the system according to a Poisson process, and they will receive service immediately if the server is available upon arrival. Otherwise, they will enter a retrial orbit and are queued in the orbit in accordance with a first-come-first-served (FCFS) discipline. Customers are allowed to balk and renege at particular times. All customers demand the first "essential"service, whereas only some of them demand the second "multi-optional" service. It is assumed that the retrial time, service time and repair time of the server are all arbitrarily distributed.The necessary and sufficient condition for the system stability is derived. Using a supplementary variable method, the steady-state solutions for some queueing and reliability measures of the system are obtained.

  12. Influence of manganese doping to the full tensor properties of 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.47Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-02-21

    Complete sets of elastic, piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties of [001]c and [011]c poled pure and 0.5 wt. % manganese-doped 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.47Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals have been characterized at room temperature. The results indicate that manganese ion substitution in the B-site of perovskite 0.24PIN-0.47PMN-0.29PT single crystals makes the material harder with much higher mechanical quality factor Qm and slight decrease in piezoelectric and dielectric constants. The much improved Qm value (200-900) makes Mn-doped single crystals more suitable for high-power transducer applications than pure single crystals.

  13. [Protein-calorie nutritional state in elderly patients hospitalized in Lomé Campus university hospital: pilot study about 33 patients versus 30 reference cases registered in three care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, K C; Lamboni, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the protein-calorie nutritional status of elderly hospitalized patients admitted to the hepato-gastroenterology, cardiology and internal medicine departments of the Lomé Campus University Hospital and identify the endogenous and mixed undernutrition to provide patients with better nutrition and assistance. Methodology. This cross-sectional study conducted between April 1 and July 31, 2009, included 33 hospitalized case patients aged at least 55 years and 30 age-matched outpatient control subjects. Patients were evaluated according to body mass index (BMI), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and their serum albumin, serum prealbumin and orosomucoid levels. Results. Among the hospitalized case patients, 37% had protein-calorie undernutrition (low serum albumin), and 73% were at risk of this undernutrition (low serum prealbumin). Five patients (16%) were endogenously undernourished and 17 (57%) exogenously undernourished. Six to 13% of the oupatient controls were undernourished and 33% at risk of undernutrition according to the MNA scale. A significant difference existed between the mean albumin values of case patients and controls (38 ± 9 g/L vs 46 ± 7 g/L, p = 0.002). Conclusion. Our results confirm that the elderly inpatients were regularly malnourished. Knowledge of their nutritional profile has allowed us to launch an improved nutritional assistance program and to supervise it properly.

  14. 掺铁铌镁酸铅-钛酸铅单晶的光折变效应%Photorefractive effect of ion-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红; 孙亮

    2012-01-01

    采用助溶剂法生长了掺杂量分别为0.1wt%和0.01wt%的0.67PMNT-0.33PT单晶.利用二波耦合实验研究了掺铁的弛豫铁电单晶0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3(PMN-PT)的光折变性能.本文测试了样品的消光光谱、电光系数、光诱吸收电场和光电导.最大的增益系数达到了21cm-1,是无掺杂的PMN-PT晶体的两倍.光栅形成速率随铁浓度的升高而降低.%By a flux solution method, Fe:0.01wt% and Fe:0.1wi% doped 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals were grown. Using two-beam coupling experiment, the photorefractive property of the Fe-doped PMN-PT relaxor ferroelectric single crystals was studied. The extinction spectrum, the electro-optical coefficient, the light-induced absorption change, and the photoconductivity were measured. The maximum gain coefficient reached 21 cm"1, which was about twice as large as that of undoped PMN-PT. With increasing Fe content, the grating formation rate decreased.

  15. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  16. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  17. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  18. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  19. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  20. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  1. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  2. Phase retrieval in protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong Chuan; Xu, Rui; Dong, Yu Hui

    2012-03-01

    Solution of the phase problem is central to crystallographic structure determination. An oversampling method is proposed, based on the hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) [Fienup (1982). Appl. Opt. 21, 2758-2769], to retrieve the phases of reflections in crystallography. This method can extend low-resolution structures to higher resolution for structure determination of proteins without additional sample preparation. The method requires an envelope of the protein which divides a unit cell into the density region where the proteins are located and the non-density region occupied by solvents. After a few hundred to a few thousand iterations, the correct phases and density maps are recovered. The method has been used successfully in several cases to retrieve the phases from the experimental X-ray diffraction data and the envelopes of proteins constructed from structure files downloaded from the Protein Data Bank. It is hoped that this method will greatly facilitate the ab initio structure determination of proteins.

  3. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  6. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  7. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  8. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  9. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  10. Determination of full matrix material constants of [111]c poled Mn doped 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single-domain single crystal using one sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Zheng, Limei; Chen, Jing; Sun, Enwei; Yang, Ming; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-08-01

    To date, there is no report in the literature regarding the full set of material constants of single crystals with 3m symmetries using less than 5 samples. Multiple samples make the data self-consistency difficult due to sample to sample variations, which is severe in ferroelectric materials because the poling depends strongly on the sample geometry. To eliminate errors caused by property variation from sample to sample, a combined ultrasonic and inverse impedance spectroscopy characterization method has been developed, which only needs one small sample to get all constants. The method has been used to determine full matrix material constants of [111]c poled Mn doped 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.46Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystals. The validity of this method has been verified by comparing the results with those determined by the traditional resonance method using 5 different geometry samples, and the method was proved stable with input data variation within ±10%.

  11. Effect of fabrication conditions on phase formation and properties of epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O30.67-(PbTiO30.33 thin films on (001 SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Boota

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The pulsed laser deposition process of 300nm thick films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O30.67-(PbTiO30.33 on (001-oriented SrTiO3 was studied by varying deposition pressure, substrate deposition temperature, laser fluence on the target and target-substrate distance. Perovskite phase pure, (001-oriented, epitaxial smooth films were obtained in a narrow range of deposition parameters. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of films fabricated within this parameter range still vary significantly. This shows the sensitivity of the system for growth conditions. The best film has a polarization value close to that expected for a (001 poled, stress free single crystal film. All films show deposition conditions dependent variations in the self-bias field. The self-bias is very stable during long cycling for films made at optimum deposition conditions. The piezoelectric coefficients of the films are strongly reduced with respect to bulk single crystal values due to the film clamping. The properties variations are ascribed to changes in the grain boundary properties in which film defects are expected to accumulate. Notably slight off-stoichiometry may cause localized screening charges, affecting specifically the polarization and dielectric constant.

  12. Electric-Field-Tunable Ferroelastic Control of Nonvolatile Resistivity and Ferromagnetic Switching in Multiferroic La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.7[PbTiO3]0.3 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistivity and magnetization switching in elastically coupled La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 substrates is achieved through the ferroelastic effect. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric and non-180° ferroelastic domain switching, we identify that such changes in order parameters stem from domain-switching-induced strain rather than accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Specifically, the strong correlation between the ferroelastic strain and the magnetic field is manifested not only by the strain-tunable magnetoresistance effect but also by the magnetically manipulated strain effect, which is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating the essential physics of the ferroelastic-strain effect and delivering prototype devices for energy-efficient and nonvolatile information storage.

  13. Growth and pyroelectric properties of high Curie temperature relaxor-based ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ternary single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Wang, Feifei; Zhou, Dan; Ge, Wenwei; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao

    2008-06-01

    To enhance the service temperature of relaxor-PbTiO3 pyroelectric single crystals, high quality ternary perovskite single crystal was grown by a modified Bridgman technique. Analyzed by x-ray fluorescence, the as-grown crystal is 0.41Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.17Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 [PIMNT(41/17/42)], which appears to be a tetragonal ferroelectric phase with relatively high Curie temperature of 253°C. It exhibits the relative permittivity of 487 and low dielectric loss of 0.3% at 50Hz and room temperature. The pyroelectric properties with a pyroelectric coefficient of 5.7×10-4C /m2K and a detectivity of 6.34×10-5Pa-1/2 would satisfy the needs of operation as a high Curie temperature material. The results show that PIMNT crystal with better temperature stability, compared with the pure PMNT single crystals, is a good candidate as an infrared detector material.

  14. Polarized Raman study on phase transitions in 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–0.43Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Dapeng; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was performed to investigate the local lattice structure and phase transitions of unpoled 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–0.43Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.33PbTiO3 (0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT) single crystal in the temperature range from 30 °C to 260 °C. MA- and MC-type monoclinic phases were detected by micro-Raman spectra measured in different micro areas. Temperature dependence of Raman intensities, frequency shifts, mode merge and intensity ratios in the VV and VH geometries were investigated. Our results indicated that the monoclinic–tetragonal (M–T) phase transition of the ternary relaxorbased ferroelectric single crystal 0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT occurs at 85 °C, which is verified by the mode merging from 520 cm−1 and 580 cm−1 to 500 cm−1, and the tetragonal–cubic (T–C) phase transition happens at 200 °C based on the vanishing mode at 780 cm−1 measured in the VH polarization. PMID:24619338

  15. Polarized Raman study on phase transitions in 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.43Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Dapeng; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-02-25

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was performed to investigate the local lattice structure and phase transitions of unpoled 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.43Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (0.24PIN-0.43PMN-0.33PT) single crystal in the temperature range from 30 °C to 260 °C. MA- and MC-type monoclinic phases were detected by micro-Raman spectra measured in different micro areas. Temperature dependence of Raman intensities, frequency shifts, mode merge and intensity ratios in the VV and VH geometries were investigated. Our results indicated that the monoclinic-tetragonal (M-T) phase transition of the ternary relaxorbased ferroelectric single crystal 0.24PIN-0.43PMN-0.33PT occurs at 85 °C, which is verified by the mode merging from 520 cm(-1) and 580 cm(-1) to 500 cm(-1), and the tetragonal-cubic (T-C) phase transition happens at 200 °C based on the vanishing mode at 780 cm(-1) measured in the VH polarization.

  16. Phase coexistence and domain configuration in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.34PbTiO3 single crystal revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray diffractive three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping and piezoresponse force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Han; Yang, Bin; Luo, Zhenlin; Sun, Enwei; Zhao, Jiangtao; Zheng, Limei; Dong, Yongqi; Zhou, Hua; Ren, Yang; Gao, Chen; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-04-11

    The crystalline phases and domain configuration in the morphotropic phase boundary composition Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been investigated by synchrotronbased X-ray 3D Reciprocal Space Mapping (3D-RSM) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The coexistence of tetragonal (T) and monoclinic MC phases in this PMN-0.34PT single crystal is confirmed. The affiliation of each diffraction spot in the 3D-RSM was identified with the assistance of qualitative simulation. Most importantly, the twinning structure between different domains in such a mixed phase PMN-PT crystal is firmly clarified, and the spatial distribution of different twin domains is demonstrated. In addition, the lattice parameters of T and MC phases in PMN-0.34PT single crystal as well as the tilting angles of crystal lattices caused by the interfacial lattice mismatch are determined.

  17. Quantitative analysis of magnetization reversal in Ni thin films on unpoled and poled (0 1 1) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 piezoelectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Alexander; Kehlberger, Andreas; Büttner, Felix; Jakob, Gerhard; Eisebitt, Stefan; Kläui, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    The field angle dependence of the magnetization reversal in 20 nm thick polycrystalline Ni films grown on piezoelectric (0 1 1) [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates is analysed quantitatively to study the magnetic anisotropy induced in the film by poling the piezosubstrate. While the PMN-PT is in the unpoled state, the magnetization reversal is almost isotropic as expected from the polycrystalline nature of the film and corresponding to an orientation ratio (OR) of 1.2. The orientation ratio is obtained by fitting the angular dependence of normalized remanent magnetization to an adapted Stoner-Wohlfarth relation. Upon poling the piezosubstrate, a strong uniaxial anisotropy, whose hard axis is oriented along the [1 0 0] direction of the PMN-PT, is induced, yielding an OR of 3.1. The angular dependence of the coercivity for the poled state is found to consist of a strong increase for increasing field angles away from the easy axis direction and of a sharp decrease for angles close to the hard direction. It is best described by a two-phase model, implying that the magnetization reversal is determined by both, coherent rotation of the magnetic moments, according to the Stoner-Wohlfarth model, and the gradual displacement of the domain walls in obedience to the Kondorsky model.

  18. Enhanced electromechanical properties and phase transition temperatures in [001] textured Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ternary ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunfei; Wu, Jie; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Shantao; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Bin; Messing, Gary L.; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-08-01

    [001] oriented relaxor based ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ceramics were fabricated by templated grain growth. The effects of BaTiO3 template amount on the [001] orientation degree, microstructure, and resulting changes in dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of PIN-PMN-PT were investigated. A high [001] texture fraction of 93% was achieved in the PIN-PMN-PT ceramics at 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template. Giant electromechanical properties (d33* = 1555 pC/N, d33 = 824 pC/N, and kp = 0.81) and high ferroelectric properties (Ec = 8.3 kV/cm and Pr = 31 μC/cm2) were obtained from those highly textured ceramics, which are much superior to those of randomly oriented counterpart. Furthermore, the textured ternary ceramics exhibited remarkably improved phase transition temperatures (Tr-t = 120 °C and Tc = 203 °C) compared with previously reported binary PMN-PT textured ceramics. The domain structure was characterized by piezoelectric force microscopy, and domain contribution to the enhanced piezoelectric response in the textured PIN-PMN-PT ceramics was analyzed. The high-quality textured ternary ceramics are very promising for new-generation electromechanical devices with high performance and wide temperature usage range.

  19. Phase coexistence and domain configuration in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.34PbTiO3 single crystal revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray diffractive three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping and piezoresponse force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Han; Yang, Bin; Luo, Zhenlin; Sun, Enwei; Zhao, Jiangtao; Zheng, Limei; Dong, Yongqi; Zhou, Hua; Ren, Yang; Gao, Chen; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-04-01

    The crystalline phases and domain configuration in the morphotropic phase boundary composition Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been investigated by synchrotron-based X-ray 3D Reciprocal Space Mapping (3D-RSM) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. The coexistence of tetragonal (T) and monoclinic MC phases in this PMN-0.34PT single crystal is confirmed. The affiliation of each diffraction spot in the 3D-RSM was identified with the assistance of qualitative simulation. Most importantly, the twinning structure between different domains in such a mixed phase PMN-PT crystal is firmly clarified, and the spatial distribution of different twin domains is demonstrated. In addition, the lattice parameters of T and MC phases in PMN-0.34PT single crystal as well as the tilting angles of crystal lattices caused by the interfacial lattice mismatch are determined.

  20. Complete set of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants of [011]C poled rhombohedral Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3:Mn single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shujun; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Jun; Sahul, Raffi; Cao, Wenwu; Shrout, Thomas R

    2013-02-21

    Mn modified rhombohedral Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT:Mn) single crystals poled along [011]C crystallographic direction exhibit a "2R" engineered domain configuration, with macroscopic mm2 symmetry. The complete sets of material constants were determined using combined resonance and ultrasonic methods, and compared to [001]C poled PIN-PMN-PT:Mn crystals. The thickness shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 and electromechanical coupling factor k15 were found to be on the order of ∼3000 pC/N and 0.92, respectively, with longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d33 and coupling factor k33 being on the order of ∼1050 pC/N and 0.90. Of particular importance is that PIN-PMN-PT:Mn single crystals exhibited high mechanical quality factor Q33 ∼ 1000, comparable to "hard" PZT8 ceramics, which can also be confirmed by the low extrinsic contribution, being ≤2% from the Rayleigh analysis.

  1. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-02

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  2. Relaxor ferroelectric properties of the (1-2 x)BiScO3 · xPbTiO3 · xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (0.30 ≤ x ≤ 0.46) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, A. A.; Kamentsev, K. E.; Bekhtin, M. A.; Segalla, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray diffraction, dielectric, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric studies have been performed on ceramic samples of (1-2 x)BiScO3 · xPbTiO3 · xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (0.30 ≤ x ≤ 0.46) perovskite-like solid solutions. The solid solution symmetry was found to vary from the rhombohedral ( x ≤ 0.38) to tetragonal ( x ≥ 0.42) as x increases. The samples with 0.30 < x ≤ 0.42 have properties characteristic of relaxor ferroelectrics, namely the existence of a wide peak in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity at T mɛ = 390-440 K that shifts to higher temperatures as the frequency increases, narrow unsaturated dielectric hysteresis loops, and an electric field-induced transition to the ferroelectric state at 318 K. The observed features of the dielectric, piezo-, and pyroelectric properties of these solid solutions are explained by the fact that they are relaxor ferroelectrics.

  3. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  4. Electrochemical nanomoulding through proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Daniel B.

    The continued improvements in performance of modern electronic devices are directly related to the manufacturing of smaller, denser features on surfaces. Electrochemical fabrication has played a large role in continuing this trend due to its low cost and ease of scaleability toward ever smaller dimensions. This work introduces the concept of using proteins, essentially monodisperse complex polymers whose three-dimensional structures are fixed by their encoded amino acid sequences, as "moulds" around which nanostructures can be built by electrochemical fabrication. Bacterial cell-surface layer proteins, or "S-layer" proteins, from two organisms---Deinococcus radiodurans and Sporosarcina ureae---were used as the "moulds" for electrochemical fabrication. The proteins are easily purified as micron-sized sheets of periodic molecular complexes with 18-nm hexagonal and 13-nm square unit cell lattices, respectively. Direct imaging by transmission electron microscopy on ultrathin noble metal films without sample preparation eliminates potential artifacts to the high surface energy substrates necessary for high nucleation densities. Characterization involved imaging, electron diffraction, spectroscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. The S-layer protein of D. radiodurans was further subjected to an atomic force microscope based assay to determine the integrity of its structure and long-range order and was found to be useful for fabrication from around pH 3 to 12.

  5. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  6. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  7. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Ways to Give Matching Gifts Donate Your Car Online Options United Way Close About UMDF Our ... Rights Reserved | UMDF Donor Privacy Policy Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email STAY UPDATED! Join the ...

  8. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  9. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  10. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  11. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  12. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  13. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fraction de Lactosérum, Fraction de Petit-Lait, Goat Milk Whey, Goat Whey, Isolat de Protéine de Lactosérum, Isolat ... Lactosérum de Lait de Chèvre, MBP, Milk Protein, Milk Protein Isolate, Mineral Whey Concentrate, Proteínas del Suero de la Leche, Protéine ...

  14. The cullin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikas, Antonio; Hartmann, Thomas; Pan, Zhen-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Cullin proteins are molecular scaffolds that have crucial roles in the post-translational modification of cellular proteins involving ubiquitin. The mammalian cullin protein family comprises eight members (CUL1 to CUL7 and PARC), which are characterized by a cullin homology domain. CUL1 to CUL7 assemble multi-subunit Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes, the largest family of E3 ligases with more than 200 members. Although CUL7 and PARC are present only in chordates, other members of the cullin protein family are found in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast. A cullin protein tethers both a substrate-targeting unit, often through an adaptor protein, and the RING finger component in a CRL. The cullin-organized CRL thus positions a substrate close to the RING-bound E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin to the substrate. In addition, conjugation of cullins with the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 modulates activation of the corresponding CRL complex, probably through conformational regulation of the interactions between cullin's carboxy-terminal tail and CRL's RING subunit. Genetic studies in several model organisms have helped to unravel a multitude of physiological functions associated with cullin proteins and their respective CRLs. CRLs target numerous substrates and thus have an impact on a range of biological processes, including cell growth, development, signal transduction, transcriptional control, genomic integrity and tumor suppression. Moreover, mutations in CUL7 and CUL4B genes have been linked to hereditary human diseases.

  15. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  16. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  17. Chemical reporters for exploring protein acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinon, Emmanuelle; Hang, Howard C

    2015-04-01

    Proteins are acylated by a variety of metabolites that regulates many important cellular pathways in all kingdoms of life. Acyl groups in cells can vary in structure from the smallest unit, acetate, to modified long-chain fatty acids, all of which can be activated and covalently attached to diverse amino acid side chains and consequently modulate protein function. For example, acetylation of Lys residues can alter the charge state of proteins and generate new recognition elements for protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, long-chain fatty-acylation targets proteins to membranes and enables spatial control of cell signalling. To facilitate the analysis of protein acylation in biology, acyl analogues bearing alkyne or azide tags have been developed that enable fluorescent imaging and proteomic profiling of modified proteins using bioorthogonal ligation methods. Herein, we summarize the currently available acylation chemical reporters and highlight their utility to discover and quantify the roles of protein acylation in biology.

  18. PICU脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿肠内营养摄入能量及蛋白质充分性及其与预后的关系%Prognostic significance of energy and protein adequacy provided by enteral nutrition in children with sepsis or severe sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伯梁; 钱素云

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解儿童重症监护病房( pediatric intensive care unit,PICU)内脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿经肠内营养( enteral nutrition,EN)途径摄入能量及蛋白质的充分性以及其与预后的关系。方法前瞻性观察记录2012年11月至2013年4月间首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院PICU收治的脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿每日经EN途径摄入的能量及蛋白质,分别以64 kcal · kg-1·d-1及1.5 g·kg-1·d-1作为能量及蛋白摄入标准计算充分性。按肠内摄入能量及蛋白质是否充分分组并比较其预后差异。结果共入组患儿62例,平均年龄9.37个月。经肠内途径摄入能量充分性0.84±0.38,蛋白充分性0.94±0.46,观察期内达到能量及蛋白充分摄入者分别为25例(40.32%)及29例(46.8%)。与对照组相比,肠内能量不充分组患儿年龄较大(P=0.02)、儿童危重病例评分(pediatric critical illness score, PCIS)较低(77.12±10.21 vs 82.88±7.03),而有创机械通气天数较长(P=0.03);而肠内蛋白不充分组患儿体质量较大(P=0.00),严重脓毒症比例较高(42.4% vs 17.2%,P=0.03),器官功能障碍数目(P=0.01)亦较多。肠内能量(16.2% vs 4.0%)及蛋白(15.2% vs 6.9%)摄入不充分组住院28 d病死率高于充分组。结论 PICU脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿中经肠内途径摄入能量及蛋白质不足者比例较高,且年龄及体质量偏大。肠内摄入能量不充分可能增加有创机械通气时间及住院费用,而蛋白摄入不充分可能增加脏器功能不全风险。肠内摄入能量或蛋白充分性不足可能导致PICU内脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿病死率升高。%Objective To examine the prognostic implications of the adequacy of energy and protein intake provided by enteral nutrition ( EN) in children with sepsis or severe sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit ( PICU) . Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of consecutive

  19. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  20. Effects of PbSnO3 on the properties of Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-PbTiO3 perroelectric ceramics%锡酸铅对铌镁酸铅-钛酸铅铁电陶瓷性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超; 龙西法

    2013-01-01

    采用固相法合成(0.90-x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-0.10PbSnO3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PSn-PT)铁电陶瓷.研究了(0.90-x) PMN-0.10PSn-xPT铁电陶瓷的结构、介电、铁电和压电性能.在PMN-PT陶瓷中加入PSn后,由于Sn在合成过程中的变价行为导致了第二相Sn2Nb2O7的产生.根据XRD分析确定了(0.90-x)PMN-0.10PSn-xPT体系的准同型相界(MPB)位于x-0.36附近,进而结合介电温谱分析得到了(0.90-x)PMN-0.10PSn-xPT的部分低温相图.PSn加入到PMN-PT陶瓷中,降低了PMN-PT铁电陶瓷的压电活性,最大值位于0.52PMN-0.10PSn-0.38PT组分处(390 pC/N).极化样品的介电温谱上没有观察到三方-四方相变温度点,说明PSn的加入使PMN-PT陶瓷的MPB变窄和竖直,因而PSn的加入可以提高PMN-PT铁电陶瓷的实际使用温度.

  1. New Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 Quaternary Ceramics: Morphotropic Phase Boundary Design and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nengneng; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Qiang; Xu, Chao; Yang, Zhanlue; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Shrout, Thomas R

    2016-06-22

    Four series of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PIN-PZ-PT) quaternary ceramics with compositions located at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) regions were prepared. The MPBs of the multicomponent system were predicted using a linear combination rule and experimentally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and electrical measurement. The positions of MPBs in multicomponent systems were found in linear correlation with the tolerance factor and ionic radii of non-PT end-members. The phase structure, piezoelectric coefficient, electromechanical coupling coefficient, unipolar strains, and dielectric properties of as-prepared ceramics were systematically investigated. The largest d33s were obtained at S36.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the corresponding values of 580, 450, 420, and 530 pC/N, respectively, while the largest kps were found at S34.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the respective values of 0.54, 0.50, 0.47, and 0.53. The largest unipolar strain Smax and high-field piezoelectric strain coefficients d33* were also observed around the respective MPB regions. The rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature Trt increased with increasing PIN and PZ contents. Of particular importance is that high Trt of 140-197 °C was achieved in the M series with PZ and PIN contents being around 0.208 and 0.158, which will broaden the temperature usage range.

  2. Linear electro-optic properties of relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(0.76 − x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Sun, Enwei; Liu, Gang; Tian, Hao; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Linear electro-optic properties of 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(0.76 − x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals, with compositions in the rhombohedral, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) and tetragonal phases, have been investigated. Very large effective electro-optic coefficient γc (204 pm/V) was observed in a crystal with the MPB composition when it is poled along [001]. The rhombohedral phase (x = 0.27 and 0.30) single crystals poled along [111] direction and tetragonal phase (x = 0.39) single crystal poled along [001] direction are in single domain, and their electro-optic coefficients (γc = 76, 94, and 43 pm/V for the crystals with x = 0.27, 0.30, and 0.39, respectively) were found to be much higher than that of traditional electro-optic single crystal LiNbO3 (γc = 19.9 pm/V). The electro-optic coefficients of the single crystal in the rhombohedral phase have excellent temperature stability in the experimental temperature range of 10–40 °C. The half-wave voltage Vπ was calculated to be much lower (less than 1000 V) than that of LiNbO3 single crystal (2800 V). These superior properties make the ternary relaxor-PT single crystals very promising for electro-optic modulation applications. PMID:23922449

  3. Linear electro-optic properties of relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(0.76 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengmin; Yang, Bin; Sun, Enwei; Liu, Gang; Tian, Hao; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-07-14

    Linear electro-optic properties of 0.24Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-(0.76 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals, with compositions in the rhombohedral, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) and tetragonal phases, have been investigated. Very large effective electro-optic coefficient [Formula: see text] (204 pm/V) was observed in a crystal with the MPB composition when it is poled along [001]. The rhombohedral phase (x = 0.27 and 0.30) single crystals poled along [111] direction and tetragonal phase (x = 0.39) single crystal poled along [001] direction are in single domain, and their electro-optic coefficients ([Formula: see text] = 76, 94, and 43 pm/V for the crystals with x = 0.27, 0.30, and 0.39, respectively) were found to be much higher than that of traditional electro-optic single crystal LiNbO3 ([Formula: see text] = 19.9 pm/V). The electro-optic coefficients of the single crystal in the rhombohedral phase have excellent temperature stability in the experimental temperature range of 10-40 °C. The half-wave voltage [Formula: see text] was calculated to be much lower (less than 1000 V) than that of LiNbO3 single crystal (2800 V). These superior properties make the ternary relaxor-PT single crystals very promising for electro-optic modulation applications.

  4. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B;

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...

  5. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    initially-adsorbed protein. Interphase protein concentration CI increases as VI decreases, resulting in slow reduction in interfacial energetics. Steady-state is governed by a net partition coefficient P=(/CBCI). In the process of occupying space within the interphase, adsorbing protein molecules must displace an equivalent volume of interphase water. Interphase water is itself associated with surface-bound water through a network of transient hydrogen bonds. Displacement of interphase water thus requires an amount of energy that depends on the adsorbent surface chemistry/energy. This “adsorption-dehydration” step is the significant free-energy cost of adsorption that controls the maximum amount of protein that can be adsorbed at steady state to a unit adsorbent-surface area (the adsorbent capacity). As adsorbent hydrophilicity increases, protein adsorption monotonically decreases because the energetic cost of surface dehydration increases, ultimately leading to no protein adsorption near an adsorbent water wettability (surface energy) characterized by a water contact angle θ → 65°. Consequently, protein does not adsorb (accumulate at interphase concentrations greater than bulk solution) to more hydrophilic adsorbents exhibiting θ protein/surface interactions can be highly favorable, causing protein to adsorb in multilayers in a relatively thick interphase. A straightforward, three-component free energy relationship captures salient features of protein adsorption to all surfaces predicting that the overall free energy of protein adsorption ΔGadso is a relatively small multiple of thermal energy for any surface chemistry (except perhaps for bioengineered surfaces bearing specific ligands for adsorbing protein) because a surface chemistry that interacts chemically with proteins must also interact with water through hydrogen bonding. In this way, water moderates protein adsorption to any surface by competing with adsorbing protein molecules. This Leading Opinion ends

  6. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  7. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  8. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  9. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  10. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  11. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  12. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    of research are explored. Here we present an overview of the most widely used protein-protein interaction databases and the methods they employ to gather, combine, and predict interactions. We also point out the trade-off between comprehensiveness and accuracy and the main pitfall scientists have to be aware......Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  13. Protein-Protein Interactions in Virus-Host Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Anderson F; Pinney, John W

    2017-01-01

    To study virus-host protein interactions, knowledge about viral and host protein architectures and repertoires, their particular evolutionary mechanisms, and information on relevant sources of biological data is essential. The purpose of this review article is to provide a thorough overview about these aspects. Protein domains are basic units defining protein interactions, and the uniqueness of viral domain repertoires, their mode of evolution, and their roles during viral infection make viruses interesting models of study. Mutations at protein interfaces can reduce or increase their binding affinities by changing protein electrostatics and structural properties. During the course of a viral infection, both pathogen and cellular proteins are constantly competing for binding partners. Endogenous interfaces mediating intraspecific interactions-viral-viral or host-host interactions-are constantly targeted and inhibited by exogenous interfaces mediating viral-host interactions. From a biomedical perspective, blocking such interactions is the main mechanism underlying antiviral therapies. Some proteins are able to bind multiple partners, and their modes of interaction define how fast these "hub proteins" evolve. "Party hubs" have multiple interfaces; they establish simultaneous/stable (domain-domain) interactions, and tend to evolve slowly. On the other hand, "date hubs" have few interfaces; they establish transient/weak (domain-motif) interactions by means of short linear peptides (15 or fewer residues), and can evolve faster. Viral infections are mediated by several protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which can be represented as networks (protein interaction networks, PINs), with proteins being depicted as nodes, and their interactions as edges. It has been suggested that viral proteins tend to establish interactions with more central and highly connected host proteins. In an evolutionary arms race, viral and host proteins are constantly changing their interface

  14. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2015-04-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same.

  15. The Evolutionary History of Protein Domains Viewed by Species Phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Song Yang; Philip E. Bourne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein structural domains are evolutionary units whose relationships can be detected over long evolutionary distances. The evolutionary history of protein domains, including the origin of protein domains, the identification of domain loss, transfer, duplication and combination with other domains to form new proteins, and the formation of the entire protein domain repertoire, are of great interest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A methodology is presented for providing a parsimon...

  16. Conditional depletion of nuclear proteins by the Anchor Away system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Geisberg, Joseph V; Wong, Koon Ho; Jin, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear proteins play key roles in the regulation of many important cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes encoding nuclear proteins are essential. This unit describes a method termed Anchor Away that can be used to conditionally and rapidly deplete nuclear proteins of interest. It involves conditional export of the protein of interest out of the nucleus and its subsequent sequestration in the cytoplasm. This method can be used to simultaneously deplete multiple proteins from the nucleus.

  17. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  18. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  19. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  20. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  1. Sickle Cell Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  2. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  3. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  4. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  5. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  6. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  7. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  8. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  9. Unit 5. Thermodynamics (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Summary of the "Unit 5. Thermodynamics" of course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image Engineering, in Telecommunications. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante Resumen del "Tema 5. Termodinámica" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I". Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen en Telecomunicaciones. Escuela Politécnica Superior. Universidad de Alicante.

  10. Simple micromechanical model of protein crystals for their mechanical characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteins have been known to perform the excellent mechanical functions and exhibit the remarkable mechanical properties such as high fracture toughness in spider silk protein [1]. This indicates that the mechanical characterization of protein molecules and/or crystals is very essential to understand such remarkable mechanical function of protein molecules. In this study, for gaining insight into mechanical behavior of protein crystals, we developed the micromechanical model by using the empirical potential field prescribed to alpha carbon atoms of a protein crystal in a unit cell. We consider the simple protein crystals for their mechanical behavior under tensile loading to be compared with full atomic models

  11. UNIT COMMITMENT: A NEW TRUNCATED METHOD OF UNIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    limits, minimum up/down times. Other ... incremental heat rate in ₦/hour for unit i ... approaches to treating thermal unit during its ... (d) Load Balance: During each interval of time, k, the .... The unit information and initial conditions are shown in.

  12. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  13. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  14. Complicações gastrointestinais e adequação calórico-protéica de pacientes em uso de nutrição enteral em uma unidade de terapia intensiva Gastrointestinal complications and protein-calorie adequacy in intensive care unit enteral nutrition patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Meira de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de complicações gastrointestinais e a adequação calórico-protéica de pacientes críticos em uso de terapia de nutrição enteral. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, onde foram coletados, mediante análise das fichas de acompanhamento nutricional, as complicações gastrointestinais mais freqüentes durante o período de internamento do paciente, bem como a necessidade e a oferta calórico-protéica. Considerou-se como ofertado, o volume e o tipo de fórmula efetivamente recebido pelo paciente no último dia de internamento hospitalar. Foi utilizado o programa SPSS, versão 13 para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 77 pacientes com idade 54,7 ± 18,1 anos e predominância do sexo feminino (54,5%. A dieta ofertada foi adequada e todos os pacientes apresentaram algum tipo de complicação gastrointestinal, sendo o retorno gástrico o mais prevalente (39%, seguido da constipação com 36,4%. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da elevada prevalência de complicações gastrointestinais, não foi observada uma inadequação na oferta calórica-protéica. As condutas multidisciplinares frente à resolução dessas complicações necessitam ser padronizadas para que soluções precoces possam ser tomadas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal complications and protein-calorie adequacy in critical patients using enteral nutrition therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in the intensive care unit of the Hospital das Clinicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco involving analysis of nutritional records evaluating the most frequent gastrointestinal complications during the patients' hospitalization and protein-calorie supply requirements. It was considered offered, the volume and formula effectively received by the patient on the last hospitalization day. The SPSS version

  15. Protein function from its emergence to diversity in contemporary proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to learn from nature the rules that govern evolution and the design of protein function. The fundamental laws of physics lie in the foundation of the protein structure and all stages of the protein evolution, determining optimal sizes and shapes at different levels of structural hierarchy. We looked back into the very onset of the protein evolution with a goal to find elementary functions (EFs) that came from the prebiotic world and served as building blocks of the first enzymes. We defined the basic structural and functional units of biochemical reactions—elementary functional loops. The diversity of contemporary enzymes can be described via combinations of a limited number of elementary chemical reactions, many of which are performed by the descendants of primitive prebiotic peptides/proteins. By analyzing protein sequences we were able to identify EFs shared by seemingly unrelated protein superfamilies and folds and to unravel evolutionary relations between them. Binding and metabolic processing of the metal- and nucleotide-containing cofactors and ligands are among the most abundant ancient EFs that became indispensable in many natural enzymes. Highly designable folds provide structural scaffolds for many different biochemical reactions. We show that contemporary proteins are built from a limited number of EFs, making their analysis instrumental for establishing the rules for protein design. Evolutionary studies help us to accumulate the library of essential EFs and to establish intricate relations between different folds and functional superfamilies. Generalized sequence-structure descriptors of the EF will become useful in future design and engineering of desired enzymatic functions.

  16. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Karn

    2003-02-01

    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  17. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  18. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  20. From Protein Communication to Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Marco; Di Dato, Antonio; Orteca, Nausicaa; Fattorusso, Caterina; Novellino, Ettore; Andreoli, Mirko; Ferlini, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    The majority of functionally important biological processes are regulated by allosteric communication within individual proteins and across protein complexes. The proteins controlling these communication networks respond to changes in the cellular environment by switching between different conformational states. Targeting the interface residues mediating these processes through the rational identification of molecules modulating or mimicking their effects holds great therapeutic potential. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have shown to have a high degree of plasticity since they occur through small regions, called hot spots, which are included in binding surfaces or in binding clefts of the proteins and are characterized by a high degree of complementarity. This prompted several researchers to compare the protein structure to human grammar proposing terms like "protein language". The decoding of this language represent a new paradigm not only to clarify the dynamics of many biological processes but also to improve the opportunities in drug discovery. In this review, we try to give an overview on intra-molecular and inter-molecular protein communication mechanisms describing the protein interaction domains (PIDs) and short linear motifs (SLiMs), which delineate the authentic syntactic and semantic units in a protein. Moreover, we illustrate some novel approaches performed on natural compounds and on synthetic derivatives aimed at developing new classes of potential drugs able to interfere with intra-molecular and inter-molecular protein communication.

  1. Protein inference: A protein quantification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zengyou; Huang, Ting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Peijun; Teng, Ben; Deng, Shengchun

    2016-08-01

    In mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, protein quantification and protein identification are two major computational problems. To quantify the protein abundance, a list of proteins must be firstly inferred from the raw data. Then the relative or absolute protein abundance is estimated with quantification methods, such as spectral counting. Until now, most researchers have been dealing with these two processes separately. In fact, the protein inference problem can be regarded as a special protein quantification problem in the sense that truly present proteins are those proteins whose abundance values are not zero. Some recent published papers have conceptually discussed this possibility. However, there is still a lack of rigorous experimental studies to test this hypothesis. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem. Protein inference methods aim to determine whether each candidate protein is present in the sample or not. Protein quantification methods estimate the abundance value of each inferred protein. Naturally, the abundance value of an absent protein should be zero. Thus, we argue that the protein inference problem can be viewed as a special protein quantification problem in which one protein is considered to be present if its abundance is not zero. Based on this idea, our paper tries to use three simple protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem effectively. The experimental results on six data sets show that these three methods are competitive with previous protein inference algorithms. This demonstrates that it is plausible to model the protein inference problem as a special protein quantification task, which opens the door of devising more effective protein inference algorithms from a quantification perspective. The source codes of our methods are available at: http://code.google.com/p/protein-inference/.

  2. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  3. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  4. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    , underlining the importance of understanding this relationship. The monomeric C-36 peptide was investigated by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy and found to be intrinsically disordered with minor propensities towards β-sheet structure. The plasticity of such a peptide makes it suitable for a whole range......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... of this mechanism were investigated through a series of interaction experiments. Despite a very buried location in the native structure, evidence here suggest that the C-terminal tail is labile under slightly destabilizing conditions, providing new detail to this matter. A small infectious polymer unit was also...

  5. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  6. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  7. Protein–Protein Interactions in Virus–Host Systems

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, Anderson F; Pinney, John W

    2017-01-01

    To study virus–host protein interactions, knowledge about viral and host protein architectures and repertoires, their particular evolutionary mechanisms, and information on relevant sources of biological data is essential. The purpose of this review article is to provide a thorough overview about these aspects. Protein domains are basic units defining protein interactions, and the uniqueness of viral domain repertoires, their mode of evolution, and their roles during viral infection make viru...

  8. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  9. Photoactivation and imaging of optical highlighter fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, George H

    2011-07-01

    A major advance in the microscopic study of cells and tissues is the introduction of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins, which can specifically mark proteins of interest within a living cell. Fluorescent proteins are now available that allow a pool of molecules to be "turned on" by photoactivation. This unit discusses technical aspects for the general use of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins and introduces some specific applications in the concluding remarks.

  10. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  11. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein i

  12. Last call for units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Stuart; Rosen, Ronald; Jones, Clifford; Bean, Leonard W.; Lane, Frank

    2009-09-01

    I am writing with regard to Kevin McGuigan's definition of the darwin unit, Dw, as "the mathematical probability of one undergraduate (or faculty) fatality per practical if the person in question is left to their own devices" (July p60). Although it is clear how the loss of genitals in a laboratory accident would result in a student's removal from the gene pool, McGuigan does not explain how the loss of finger (a 1 mDw event, he suggests) might impede procreation in the slightest. Perhaps McGuigan is confusing Darwin's evolution by natural selection with Lamarck's discredited theory of evolution by the inheritance of acquired characteristics. If so, the gulf between physicists and biologists seems as wide as ever.

  13. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  14. Why critically ill patients are protein deprived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, L John; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2013-01-01

    Critical illness dramatically increases muscle proteolysis and more than doubles the dietary protein requirement. Yet surprisingly, most critically ill patients receive less than half the recommended amount of protein during their stay in a modern intensive care unit. What could explain the wide gap between the recommendations in clinical care guidelines and actual clinical practice? We suggest that an important aspect of the problem is the failure of guidelines to explain the pathophysiology of protein-energy malnutrition and the ways critical illness modifies protein metabolism. The difficulty created by the lack of a framework for reasoning about appropriate protein provision in critical illness is compounded by the many ambiguous and often contradictory ways the word malnutrition is used in the critical care literature. Failing to elucidate these matters, the recommendations for protein provision in the guidelines are incoherent, unconvincing, and easy to ignore.

  15. Flow properties of acetylated chickpea protein dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li H; Hung, Tran V

    2010-06-01

    Chickpea protein concentrate was acetylated with acetic anhydride at 5 levels. Acetylated chickpea protein (ACP) dispersions at 3 levels (6%, 45%, and 49%) were chosen for this flow property study. Effects of protein concentration, temperature, concentrations of salt addition and particularly, degree of acetylation on these properties were examined. Compared with native chickpea proteins, the ACP dispersions exhibited a strong shear thinning behavior. Within measured temperature range (15 to 55 degrees C), the apparent viscosities of native chickpea protein dispersions were temperature independent; those of ACP dispersions were thermally affected. The flow index (n), consistency coefficient (m), apparent yield stress, and apparent viscosities of ACP dispersions increased progressively up to 45% acetylation but decreased at 49% acetylation level. Conformational studies by gel filtration suggested that chickpea proteins were associated or polymerized at up to 45% acetylation but the associated subunits gradually dissociated to smaller units at higher levels (49%) of acetylation.

  16. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  17. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  18. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  19. Portable Virtual Training Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Reagan; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Mission Operations Lab initiated a project to design, develop, deliver, test, and validate a unique training system for astronaut and ground support personnel. In an effort to keep training costs low, virtual training units (VTUs) have been designed based on images of actual hardware and manipulated by a touch screen style interface for ground support personnel training. This project helped modernized the training system and materials by integrating them with mobile devices for training when operators or crew are unavailable to physically train in the facility. This project also tested the concept of a handheld remote device to control integrated trainers using International Space Station (ISS) training simulators as a platform. The portable VTU can interface with the full-sized VTU, allowing a trainer co-located with a trainee to remotely manipulate a VTU and evaluate a trainee's response. This project helped determine if it is useful, cost effective, and beneficial for the instructor to have a portable handheld device to control the behavior of the models during training. This project has advanced NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) VTU capabilities with modern and relevant technology to support space flight training needs of today and tomorrow.

  20. Commonly consumed protein foods contribute to nutrient intake, diet quality, and nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein per kg per day for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food...

  1. Grafting of protein-protein binding sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A strategy for grafting protein-protein binding sites is described. Firstly, key interaction residues at the interface of ligand protein to be grafted are identified and suitable positions in scaffold protein for grafting these key residues are sought. Secondly, the scaffold proteins are superposed onto the ligand protein based on the corresponding Ca and Cb atoms. The complementarity between the scaffold protein and the receptor protein is evaluated and only matches with high score are accepted. The relative position between scaffold and receptor proteins is adjusted so that the interface has a reasonable packing density. Then the scaffold protein is mutated to corresponding residues in ligand protein at each candidate position. And the residues having bad steric contacts with the receptor proteins, or buried charged residues not involved in the formation of any salt bridge are mutated. Finally, the mutated scaffold protein in complex with receptor protein is co-minimized by Charmm. In addition, we deduce a scoring function to evaluate the affinity between mutated scaffold protein and receptor protein by statistical analysis of rigid binding data sets.

  2. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    He openly admitted his homosexual orientation at a staff meeting; by doing that he clearly stated his guidelines toward gays . He had developed a...of units and consequentially unit effectiveness (Dupuy 1993, 2948). Some nations permit openly gay and lesbian personnel and others may not. Social...may cause less tension. However, for some nations involvement of gays and lesbians in multinational units may be offensive, while other nations are

  3. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    the expected behavior and benefits of nearshore placement. Nearshore placement studies have been documented in two journal papers, one technical...Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...sensing measurements, and USACE projects to create valuable guidance that address geomorphic questions. The present focus of the work unit is a common

  4. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring facilit

  5. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring

  6. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  7. Optimal protein intake in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Miller, Sharon L; Miller, Kevin B

    2008-10-01

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein, as promulgated by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Academy of Science, is 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day for adults, regardless of age. This value represents the minimum amount of protein required to avoid progressive loss of lean body mass in most individuals. There is an evidence that the RDA for elderly may be greater than 0.8 g/kg/day. Evidence indicates that protein intake greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in elderly. In addition, other factors, including immune status, wound healing, blood pressure and bone health may be improved by increasing protein intake above the RDA. Furthermore, the RDA does not address the recommended intake of protein in the context of a balanced diet. Concerns about potential detrimental effects of increased protein intake on bone health, renal function, neurological function and cardiovascular function are generally unfounded. In fact, many of these factors are improved in elderly ingesting elevated quantities of protein. It appears that an intake of 1.5 g protein/kg/day, or about 15-20% of total caloric intake, is a reasonable target for elderly individuals wishing to optimize protein intake in terms of health and function.

  8. Molecular principles of protein stability and protein-protein interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lendel, Christofer

    2005-01-01

    Proteins with highly specific binding properties constitute the basis for many important applications in biotechnology and medicine. Immunoglobulins have so far been the obvious choice but recent advances in protein engineering have provided several novel constructs that indeed challenge antibodies. One class of such binding proteins is based on the 58 residues three-helix bundle Z domain from staphylococcal protein A (SPA). These so-called affibodies are selected from libraries containing Z ...

  9. Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Gibson Hall, Nicolette

    2012-08-01

    The WHO (2007) Technical Report on protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition states that the best estimate for a population average requirement is 105 mg nitrogen/kg body weight per day, or 0·66 g protein/kg body weight per day. In many developing countries protein intake falls significantly short of these values. Apart from protein quantity, protein quality including bioavailability and digestibility, from different food sources, are currently on the global agenda. The 1st International Symposium on Dietary Protein for Human Health held in Auckland, in March 2011, and the consecutive Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Consultation on Dietary Protein Quality, both highlighted the importance of assessing the quality of protein from different food sources through determination of amino acid content. Throughout the developed world, animal products and cereals are the two most important sources of protein; in developing countries this order is reversed. In low income countries only 3 % of total dietary energy, as an indicator of diet composition, is derived from meat and offal, 11 % from roots and tubers and 6 % from pulses, nuts and oilseeds. The remainder of the dietary energy is mainly derived from cereal-based staple food. Although the production of livestock has increased in developing countries, the consumption of protein in these countries with people consuming the most limited amounts of protein are continually decreasing. Undernutrition, including insufficient consumption of protein, remains a persistent problem in the developing world, and although many diets within these developing countries are deficient in the quantity of protein compared to recommendations, the quality of the protein also strongly comes into focus.

  10. Small heat shock proteins, protein degradation and protein aggregation diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michel J.; Zijlstra, Marianne P.; Carra, Serena; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    Small heat shock proteins have been characterized in vitro as ATP-independent molecular chaperones that can prevent aggregation of un- or misfolded proteins and assist in their refolding with the help of ATP-dependent chaperone machines (e. g., the Hsp70 proteins). Comparison of the functionality of

  11. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  12. Fusion-protein-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Bostjan; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Fusion proteins can be used directly in protein crystallization to assist crystallization in at least two different ways. In one approach, the `heterologous fusion-protein approach', the fusion partner can provide additional surface area to promote crystal contact formation. In another approach, the `fusion of interacting proteins approach', protein assemblies can be stabilized by covalently linking the interacting partners. The linker connecting the proteins plays different roles in the two applications: in the first approach a rigid linker is required to reduce conformational heterogeneity; in the second, conversely, a flexible linker is required that allows the native interaction between the fused proteins. The two approaches can also be combined. The recent applications of fusion-protein technology in protein crystallization from the work of our own and other laboratories are briefly reviewed.

  13. Scaffolds for blocking protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Stefan J; Lee, Song-Gil; Chmielewski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Due to the pivotal roles that protein-protein interactions play in a plethora of biological processes, the design of therapeutic agents targeting these interactions has become an attractive and important area of research. The development of such agents is faced with a variety of challenges. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in the design of proteomimetics capable of disrupting protein-protein interactions. Those inhibitors based on molecular scaffold designs hold considerable interest because of the ease of variation in regard to their displayed functionality. In particular, protein surface mimetics, alpha-helical mimetics, beta-sheet/beta-strand mimetics, as well as beta-turn mimetics have successfully modulated protein-protein interactions involved in such diseases as cancer and HIV. In this review, current progress in the development of molecular scaffolds designed for the disruption of protein-protein interactions will be discussed with an emphasis on those active against biological targets.

  14. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  15. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  16. Multicultural Mini-Units. Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Sherrill B.

    The teaching mini-units in this teacher's guide are designed for use with elementary level students. Thematic study units are given for each of the following countries or continents: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, and the…

  17. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom is among the world leaders in recruiting international students.Joanna Burke,Cultural Counselor in the Cultural and Education Section of the British Embassy in China,recently spoke about international students,especially Chinese students in the United Kingdom,with Beijing Review reporter Wang Hairong.

  18. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  19. Unit 03 - Introduction to Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 74, CC in GIS; National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1990-01-01

    This unit provides a brief introduction to computer hardware and software. It discusses binary notation, the ASCII coding system and hardware components including the central processing unit (CPU), memory, peripherals and storage media. Software including operating systems, word processors database packages, spreadsheets and statistical packages are briefly described.

  20. Multicultural Mini-Units. Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Sherrill B.

    The teaching mini-units in this teacher's guide are designed for use with elementary level students. Thematic study units are given for each of the following countries or continents: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, and the…

  1. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  2. Views of Appalachia: Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, Shirley R.

    Designed to teach twelfth grade English honors students in Kentucky to think critically, to write creatively, to develop a better self-concept, and to stimulate appreciation and pride for Appalachian literature and culture, this 9-week resource unit features mini-units on (1) Man and His Values; (2) Death; (3) Prejudice; (4) Strip Mining; and (5)…

  3. S-layer protein self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pum, Dietmar; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2013-01-25

    Crystalline S(urface)-layers are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms (bacteria and archaea). S-layers are highly porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and thicknesses of ~10 nm. One of the key features of S-layer proteins is their intrinsic capability to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in solution, and at interfaces. Basic research on S-layer proteins laid foundation to make use of the unique self-assembly properties of native and, in particular, genetically functionalized S-layer protein lattices, in a broad range of applications in the life and non-life sciences. This contribution briefly summarizes the knowledge about structure, genetics, chemistry, morphogenesis, and function of S-layer proteins and pays particular attention to the self-assembly in solution, and at differently functionalized solid supports.

  4. Protein purification using PDZ affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-04-01

    PDZ domains function in nature as protein-binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise approximately 90 residues and undergo specific, high-affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, other PDZ domains, and/or phospholipids. We have previously shown that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. This unit provides protocols for the PDZ affinity chromatography procedure that are applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domains or PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We detail the preparation of affinity resins composed of PDZ domains or PDZ domain peptide ligands coupled to solid supports. These resins can be used to purify proteins containing endogenous or genetically introduced PDZ domains or ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands.

  5. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  6. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  7. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Matthew G; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-07-01

    A study to determine the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were determined using the appropriate rodent models. All pulses had high digestibility values, >70%, with PDCAAS values greater than 0.5, thereby qualifying as a quality protein in the United States, but only navy beans qualified as a good source of protein. All pulses except whole green lentils, split red lentils, and split green peas would qualify as sources of protein with protein ratings between 20 and 30.4 in Canada. These findings support the use of pulses as protein sources in the regulatory context of both the United States and Canada.

  8. Structures closed into cycles in globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, A V

    2011-12-01

    Different types of structures closed into cycles are widespread at all the levels of structural organization of proteins. β-Hairpins, triple-stranded β-sheets, and βαβ-units represent simple structural motifs closed into cycles by systems of hydrogen bonds. Secondary closing of these simple motifs into larger cycles by means of different superhelices, split β-hairpins, or SS-bridges results in formation of complex structural motifs such as abcd-units, φ-motifs, five- and seven-segment α/β-motifs, etc. At the level of tertiary structure many proteins and domains fold into structures closed into cylinders. Apparently, closing the motifs and domains into cycles and cylinders results in formation of more cooperative and stable structures as compared with open ones, and this may be the reason for high frequencies of occurrence of the motifs in proteins.

  9. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  10. Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions by split firefly luciferase complementation in plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan

    2014-07-01

    This unit describes the split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) assay, a high-throughput quantitative method that can be used to investigate protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in plant mesophyll protoplasts. In SFLC, the two proteins to be tested for interaction are expressed as chimeric proteins, each fused to a different half of firefly luciferase. If the proteins interact, a functional luciferase can be transitorily reconstituted, and is detected using the cell-permeable substrate D-luciferin. An advantage of the SFLC assay is that dynamic changes in PPIs in a cell can be detected in a near real-time manner. Another advantage is the unusually high DNA co-transfection and protein expression efficiencies that can be achieved in plant protoplasts, thereby enhancing the throughput of the method.

  11. PMN-PT和BST铁电陶瓷的低频高场疲劳特性及去除疲劳方法的研究%Low-frequency fatigue investigation of 0.94PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.06PbTiO3 and Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics under high-electric-field cycling and the de-fatigue effects by heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琴玉; 张进修; 孙大志; 厉志明

    2002-01-01

    第一次研究了PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT)和Ba1-xSrxTiO3(BST)铁电陶瓷的低频高场电循环下的疲劳及其采用在顺电相保温20min去疲劳的效果.实验表明:PMN-PT和BST相比,同样条件下的电循环后PMN-PT易产生明显的疲劳;但BST从一开始就有少量的疲劳存在,PMN-PT则直到5×104才开始出现疲劳.同样的电循环数后,去除疲劳的效果不一样:BST在靠近Tc处比PMN-PT靠近Tm处去除疲劳的效果好,但60℃后在增加温度仍有部分疲劳不能消除,直到150℃时疲劳仍不能完全消除;而PMN-PT在110℃时疲劳已完全消除.本文用极性微区理论和外场诱导相变理论很好地解释了以上现象.

  12. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  13. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  14. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  15. Protein folding, protein homeostasis, and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Van Drie

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold into their functional 3-dimensional structures from a linear amino acid sequence. In vitro this process is spontaneous; while in vivo it is orchestrated by a specialized set of proteins, called chaperones. Protein folding is an ongoing cellular process, as cellular proteins constantly undergo synthesis and degradation. Here emerging links between this process and cancer are reviewed. This perspective both yields insights into the current struggle to develop novel cancer chemotherapeutics and has implications for future chemotherapy discovery.

  16. Protein pI shifts due to posttranslational modifications in the separation and characterization of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kan; Zhao, Jia; Lubman, David M; Miller, Fred R; Barder, Timothy J

    2005-05-01

    Proteins from breast cancer cell lines are characterized using a 2-D liquid separation technique in which protein pI is used as the first-dimension separation parameter. To effect this protein pI separation, chromatofocusing(CF) is employed whereby a pH gradient is generated on-column using a weak anion exchange medium with the intact proteins fractionated and collected every 0.2 pH unit. It is demonstrated that the pI for expressed intact proteins as generated by CF is an important parameter for identification and characterization of the actual protein modifications occurring in the cancer cell. For most proteins, the experimentally determined pI is very close to that predicted by the databases. In other cases, however, where the pI is observed to be shifted from the expected value, it is shown that this shift is often correlated to protein modifications. The modifications that cause such shifts include truncations and deletions often observed in cancer cells or phosphorylations that can shift the pI by several pH units. It is also shown that the effects of phosphorylation on the observed shift can vary depending upon the protein and the amount of phosphorylation. Moreover, large changes in the pI are often observed for proteins with a pI above 7.0 upon phosphorylation, whereas little change is observed for proteins with a pI of approximately 5.0. The expressed protein's pI value thus becomes an important parameter together with the intact MW value, peptide map, and MS/MS results for identification of the presence and type of posttranslational modifications occurring in the cancer cell.

  17. Protein crystallization: from HTS to kilogram-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyushnichenko, Vadim

    2003-11-01

    The first experiments on protein crystallization started randomly during the 19th century. This technique has been widely used for the determination of the tertiary structure of proteins since the 1950s, when an understanding of the physics of protein crystallization began to emerge. In the 1980s and 1990s, research focused on the study of protein crystal growth processes in microgravity environments, which were created in space shuttle experiments. High-throughput screening (HTS) systems were developed that later found broader laboratory applications. The combination of HTS with an engineering approach opens new opportunities for the protein crystallization process to become a robust, scalable, reproducible and economically viable industrial unit operation.

  18. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...

  19. Geysers Unit 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, John P.

    1980-12-01

    likely. For all of its risk aversion, SDG&E still remains one of the best potential markets for any energy producer. A recent article in FORBES MAGAZINE found that SDG&E had the third highest price per kilowatt of any utility in the country--5.9{cents} per kilowatt hour for commercial customers. That was in March, 1980. Energy cost adjustment clause increases resulted in an average commercial price per kilowatt hour of 7.2{cents} in May. In July it is expected to climb to 9.2{cents}. SDG&E's rate territory continues to expand at the rate of 5% annually and it is located just over 100 miles from a major source of geothermal heat in the Imperial Valley. But today, SDG&E has no commercial geothermal heat or power purchase contracts with domestic producers. You may ask, ''Why not?'' With no incentive to spend its own money and with a high growth rate, what is SDG&E doing to obtain capacity for its existing and future customers? At the present time, most of SDG&E's capital expenditure for generation is going to the construction of San Onofre Units 2 and 3 , a nuclear project which has been under way for ten years and which is expected to start generating commercial power in 1982 and 1983. San Onofre 2 and 3 will add 440 MW of capacity from a reliable, proven generating technology to SDG&E's system.

  20. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  1. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  2. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Protein and Heart Health Updated:May 5,2015 Protein ... said. What’s the harm in getting too much protein? The main problem is that often the extra ...

  3. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  4. Fundamental units: physics and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fundamental units is discussed in the context of achievements of both theoretical physics and modern metrology. On one hand, due to fascinating accuracy of atomic clocks, the traditional macroscopic standards of metrology (second, metre, kilogram) are giving way to standards based on fundamental units of nature: velocity of light $c$ and quantum of action $h$. On the other hand, the poor precision of gravitational constant $G$, which is widely believed to define the ``cube of theories'' and the units of the future ``theory of everything'', does not allow to use $G$ as a fundamental dimensional constant in metrology. The electromagnetic units in SI are actually based on concepts of prerelativistic classical electrodynamics such as ether, electric permitivity and magnetic permeability of vacuum. Concluding remarks are devoted to terminological confusion which accompanies the progress in basic physics and metrology.

  5. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing Review:The United Kingdom has many top universities in the world. Could you please tell us how many inter-national students are enrolled in UK institutes of higher learning and how many are from China?

  6. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  7. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  8. Conductometric monitoring of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Rosanna; Festa, Fernanda; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Pechkova, Eugenia; LaBaer, Joshua; Nicolini, Claudio

    2013-12-06

    Conductometric monitoring of protein-protein and protein-sterol interactions is here proved feasible by coupling quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM_D) to nucleic acid programmable protein arrays (NAPPA). The conductance curves measured in NAPPA microarrays printed on quartz surface allowed the identification of binding events between the immobilized proteins and the query. NAPPA allows the immobilization on the quartz surface of a wide range of proteins and can be easily adapted to generate innumerous types of biosensors. Indeed multiple proteins on the same quartz crystal have been tested and envisaged proving the possibility of analyzing the same array for several distinct interactions. Two examples of NAPPA-based conductometer applications with clinical relevance are presented herein, the interaction between the transcription factors Jun and ATF2 and the interaction between Cytochrome P540scc and cholesterol.

  9. Decommissioning of an irradiation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, A.G. [Radiation Protection and Safety Services, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Distributed throughout hospital, research establishments in the United Kingdom and many other countries are Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines used for either research purposes or treatment of patients for radiotherapy. These Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines are loaded with radioactive sources of either Cobalt 60 or Caesium 137. The activity of these sources can range from 1 Terabecquerel up to 100 Terabecquerels or more. Where it is possible to load the radioactive sources without removal from the shielded container into a transport package which is suitable for transport decommissioning of a Teletherapy machine is not a major exercise. When the radioactive sources need to be unloaded from the Irradiation Unit or Teletherapy machine the potential exists for very high levels of radiation. The operation outlined in the paper involved the transfer from an Irradiation Unit to a transport package of two 3.25 Terabecquerel sources of Cobalt 60. The operation of the removal and transfer comes within the scope of the United Kingdom Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 which were made following the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This paper illustrates a safe method for this operation and how doses received can be kept within ALARA. (author)

  10. United Kingdom: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Richardson, Erica; Findley, Lisa; Longley, Marcus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Steel, David

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but all have maintained national health services which provide universal access to a comprehensive package of services that are mostly free at the point of use. These health services are predominantly financed from general taxation and 83.5% of total health expenditure in the United Kingdom came from public sources in 2013. Life expectancy has increased steadily across the United Kingdom, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement, and the gap between the most deprived and the most privileged continues to widen, rather than close. The United Kingdom faces challenges going forward, including how to cope with the needs of an ageing population, how to manage populations with poor health behaviours and associated chronic conditions, how to meet patient expectations of access to the latest available medicines and technologies, and how to adapt a system that has limited resources to expand its workforce and infrastructural capacity so it can rise to these challenges.

  11. Complement system proteins which interact with C3b or C4b A superfamily of structurally related proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, K B M; Bentley, D R; Campbell, R D;

    1986-01-01

    , while the precise number of units in CR1 is not known yet. These structurally homologous complement proteins are also functionally related as they all interact with C3b and C4b during activation of the cascade. The repeating units also occur in the functionally unrelated proteins subcomponent C1r, β2......-glycoprotein 1, blood clotting factor XIII and interleukin-2 receptor. In this review Ken Reid and his colleagues propose that this could be a general feature of a superfamily of structurally related proteins....

  12. Relevant uses of surface proteins – display on self‐organized biological structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jahns, Anika C.; Rehm, Bernd H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Proteins are often found attached to surfaces of self‐assembling biological units such as whole microbial cells or subcellular structures, e.g. intracellular inclusions. In the last two decades surface proteins were identified that could serve as anchors for the display of foreign protein functions. Extensive protein engineering based on structure–function data enabled efficient display of technically and/or medically relevant protein functions. Small size, diversity of the anchor pro...

  13. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  14. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  15. A BASIC CAMERA UNIT FOR MEDICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMIALOWSKI, A; CURRIE, D J

    1964-08-22

    A camera unit suitable for most medical photographic purposes is described. The unit comprises a single-lens reflex camera, an electronic flash unit and supplementary lenses. Simple instructions for use of th's basic unit are presented. The unit is entirely suitable for taking fine-quality photographs of most medical subjects by persons who have had little photographic training.

  16. Soy protein allergy: incidence and relative severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, Christopher T

    2004-05-01

    Food allergy is a relatively rare and sometimes violent reaction of the immune system to food proteins. The first report characterizing soy allergy appeared in 1934. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations includes soy in its list of the 8 most significant food allergens. At least 16 potential soy protein allergens have been identified but their relative clinical significance is unknown. Conversely, soy has a long history of successful use in managing cow's milk allergies in infants. To better predict the utility of soy proteins for controlling food allergy, it is important to understand the relative allergenic reactivity of soy compared with other major food proteins. This can be studied using clinical data, animal models, and biochemical approaches; all show diminished reactivity for soy. Clinical studies using in vitro methods and blinded food challenges have generated substantial information. Study populations include high-risk asymptomatic infants and patients with atopic symptoms, positive food challenges, and specific milk allergies. Generally, these studies show lower allergic reactivity for soy proteins vs. other food allergens. Comparisons of food allergen dose-response relationships for triggering allergic symptoms also demonstrate a higher protein concentration threshold for soy (approximately 100 times), indicating lower allergenic reactivity. Extensive investigations of soy immunological reactivity have also been carried out using animal models. Consistent with clinical results, all of these data show substantially diminished immunological reactivity for soy proteins. Biochemical and immunochemical analyses indicate no striking differences between soy and other food proteins that would explain these unexpected differences in allergenic reactivity.

  17. Bioengineering a Single-Protein Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta P; Aragones, Albert C; Camarero, Nuria; Vilhena, J G; Ortega, Maria; Zotti, Linda Angela; Perez, Ruben; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Gorostiza, Pau; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2017-10-05

    Bioelectronics moves towards designing nanoscale electronic platforms that allow in vivo determinations. Such devices require interfacing complex biomolecular moieties as the sensing units to an electronic platform for signal transduction. Inevitably, a systematic design goes through a bottom-up understanding of the structurally related electrical signatures of the biomolecular circuit, which will ultimately lead us to tailor its electrical properties. Toward this aim, we show here the first example of bioengineered charge transport in a single-protein electrical contact. The results reveal that a single point-site mutation at the docking hydrophobic patch of a Cu-Azurin causes minor structural distortion of the protein blue Cu site and a dramatic change in the charge transport regime of the single-protein contact, which goes from the classical Cu-mediated 2-step transport in this system to a direct coherent tunneling. Our extensive spectroscopic studies and molecular-dynamics simulations show that the proteins' folding structures are preserved in the single-protein junction. The DFT-computed frontier orbital of the relevant protein segments suggests that the Cu center participation in each protein variant accounts for the different observed charge transport behavior. This work is a direct evidence of charge transport control in a protein backbone through external mutagenesis and a unique nanoscale platform to study structurally related biological electron transfer.

  18. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  19. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  20. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Using Protein Signature Profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood A. Mahdavi; Yen-Han Lin

    2007-01-01

    Protein domains are conserved and functionally independent structures that play an important role in interactions among related proteins. Domain-domain inter- actions have been recently used to predict protein-protein interactions (PPI). In general, the interaction probability of a pair of domains is scored using a trained scoring function. Satisfying a threshold, the protein pairs carrying those domains are regarded as "interacting". In this study, the signature contents of proteins were utilized to predict PPI pairs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis ele- gans, and Homo sapiens. Similarity between protein signature patterns was scored and PPI predictions were drawn based on the binary similarity scoring function. Results show that the true positive rate of prediction by the proposed approach is approximately 32% higher than that using the maximum likelihood estimation method when compared with a test set, resulting in 22% increase in the area un- der the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. When proteins containing one or two signatures were removed, the sensitivity of the predicted PPI pairs in- creased significantly. The predicted PPI pairs are on average 11 times more likely to interact than the random selection at a confidence level of 0.95, and on aver- age 4 times better than those predicted by either phylogenetic profiling or gene expression profiling.

  1. Inferring Protein Associations Using Protein Pulldown Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Daly, Don S.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Borkowski, John J.; Cannon, William R.

    2007-02-01

    Background: One method to infer protein-protein associations is through a “bait-prey pulldown” assay using a protein affinity agent and an LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry)-based protein identification method. False positive and negative protein identifications are not uncommon, however, leading to incorrect inferences. Methods: A pulldown experiment generates a protein association matrix wherein each column represents a sample from one bait protein, each row represents one prey protein and each cell contains a presence/absence association indicator. Our method evaluates the presence/absence pattern across a prey protein (row) with a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT), computing its p-value with simulated LRT test statistic distributions after a check with simulated binomial random variates disqualified the large sample 2 test. A pulldown experiment often involves hundreds of tests so we apply the false discovery rate method to control the false positive rate. Based on the p-value, each prey protein is assigned a category (specific association, non-specific association, or not associated) and appraised with respect to the pulldown experiment’s goal and design. The method is illustrated using a pulldown experiment investigating the protein complexes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Results: The Monte Carlo simulated LRT p-values objectively reveal specific and ubiquitous prey, as well as potential systematic errors. The example analysis shows the results to be biologically sensible and more realistic than the ad hoc screening methods previously utilized. Conclusions: The method presented appears to be informative for screening for protein-protein associations.

  2. Some Relationships among Unit Subsystem Characteristics, Unit Task Characteristics, and Unit Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    C.J. (1980) The behavoiral antd affective consequences of performance- relevant situational variables. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance...cies, practices, and procedures facilitate and/or inhibit organizational work unit effectiveness. This dissertation introduces an additional variable...people in an organizational work unit perform rather than a person. Roberts, lulin, and Rousseau (1978) provided an adaptation of Lewin’s work that

  3. Global Units modulo Circular Units : descent without Iwasawa's Main Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, Jean-Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iwasawa's classical asymptotical formula relates the orders of the $p$-parts $X_n$ of the ideal class groups along a $\\ZM_p$-extension $F_\\infty/F$ of a number field $F$, to Iwasawa structural invariants $\\la$ and $\\mu$ attached to the inverse limit $X_\\infty=\\limpro X_n$. It relies on "good" descent properties satisfied by $X_n$. If $F$ is abelian and $F_\\infty$ is cyclotomic it is known that the $p$-parts of the orders of the global units modulo circular units $U_n/C_n$ are asymptotically equivalent to the $p$-parts of the ideal class numbers. This suggests that these quotients $U_n/C_n$, so to speak unit class groups, satisfy also good descent properties. We show this directly, i.e. without using Iwasawa's Main Conjecture.

  4. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  5. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of papaya mosaic virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Todderud, E; Stubbs, G

    1993-12-05

    Papaya mosaic virus coat protein has been treated with trypsin and a large fragment of the intact protein has been crystallized in space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21 (unit cell dimensions: a = b = 110 A, c = 237 A). The crystals diffract to 3.5 A resolution. Crystals of the untreated protein have also been grown. The untreated protein crystals diffract to 4 A resolution, but have a large mosaic spread. They have the same space group as the trypsin-treated protein crystals, but a much smaller unit cell (a = b = 72 A, c = 240 A).

  7. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  8. Unsupervised segmentation with dynamical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Ravishankar; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Peck, Charles C; Kozloski, James R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel network to separate mixtures of inputs that have been previously learned. A significant capability of the network is that it segments the components of each input object that most contribute to its classification. The network consists of amplitude-phase units that can synchronize their dynamics, so that separation is determined by the amplitude of units in an output layer, and segmentation by phase similarity between input and output layer units. Learning is unsupervised and based on a Hebbian update, and the architecture is very simple. Moreover, efficient segmentation can be achieved even when there is considerable superposition of the inputs. The network dynamics are derived from an objective function that rewards sparse coding in the generalized amplitude-phase variables. We argue that this objective function can provide a possible formal interpretation of the binding problem and that the implementation of the network architecture and dynamics is biologically plausible.

  9. THOR Particle Processing Unit PPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federica Marcucci, Maria; Bruno, Roberto; Consolini, Giuseppe; D'Amicis, Raffaella; De Lauretis, Marcello; De Marco, Rossana; De Michelis, Paola; Francia, Patrizia; Laurenza, Monica; Materassi, Massimo; Vellante, Massimo; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. On board THOR, data collected by the Turbulent Electron Analyser, the Ion Mass Spectrum analyser and the Cold Solar Wind ion analyser instruments will be processed by a common digital processor unit, the Particle Processing Unit (PPU). PPU architecture will be based on the state of the art space flight processors and will be fully redundant, in order to efficiently and safely handle the data from the numerous sensors of the instruments suite. The approach of a common processing unit for particle instruments is very important for the enabling of an efficient management for correlative plasma measurements, also facilitating interoperation with other instruments on the spacecraft. Moreover, it permits technical and programmatic synergies giving the possibility to optimize and save spacecraft resources.

  10. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines...... a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  11. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  12. Unit Reconstitutions: Combat Stress as an Indicator of Unit Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    professional military education or writing for trade journals supplemented the brief “reconstitution renaissance ” with scholarly excursus. This literature...United Sates Army, neuropsychiatry in World War II, Vol. II, overseas theatres . Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 60 Nash, William P. 2007

  13. Auto Body Repair. Supplementary Units. Instructor Key and Student Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Linda; Muench, James F., Ed.

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply auto body repair skills. The material specifically supplements the Auto Body Repair Curriculum Guide (University of Missouri-Columbia 1988), and is intended for instructors serving the occupational needs of various categories of disadvantaged and handicapped…

  14. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    Collecting protein powder diffraction data on standard in-house powder diffractometers requires careful handling of the samples. Specially designed sample holders combined with optimized collimation were found to be the key factors in improving the data quality and reducing the data collection time....... For safe identification of the crystal form the experimental patterns have to be compared with patterns calculated from known crystal structures. Very good agreement with Protein Data Bank data was obtained after including corrections for background, unit cell parameters, disordered bulk...

  15. The Work Unit Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    detl- il 𔃻’ 1hiLS. dIxam.rnt. no.y be- used in conjuctien with tlie video, or !sep1aTate’ly. 114. SUBJECT TERMS 1%. NUMLItH Of 01 AuLAS 12, yi N~I) I T...6145, (202) 274-6817, (AV) 284-6817. 1I 10. WINS AND INPUT WRAP-UP The Army Material Command has implemented its own PC-based work unit input system...extrusion and composite materials . An example of a contract search would be: Find all work units that relate to contract F33615-84-K-2458. An example

  16. AC410 Unit 9 Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

     AC410 Unit 9 Assignment Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/ac410-unit-9-assignment/   18–29. The CPA firm of Carson & Boggs LLP is performing an internal control audit in accordance with PCAOB Standard No. 5. The partner in charge of the engagement has asked you to explain the process of determining which controls to test. Describe the process, presenting each of the links in this process and a short summary of how the auditors approach each of them. v ...

  17. Comparison Of Digital Radiographic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yen

    1986-06-01

    A total PACS will be inevitable for radiology practice within several years. To achieve a total PACS for radiology, a satisfactory digital radiographic unit is required, because approximately 65% of digital data for PACS comes from digital radiographs. There are several possibilities for producing digital radiographs, and 3 - 4 companies have been marketing digital radiographic devices. Some data regarding the digital radiographic units on the market are compared. It will aid in assessing the current status and availability of this aspect of development, as well as providing a summary of further development of digital radiographic technology.

  18. On the Unit of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2013-01-01

      The unit of translation has been the focus of debate through the history of translation. Barkhudarov suggests six levels of UT, each level could serve as unit of different levels of translation. Many Chinese translators also expressed their opinions on this issue, but there is no settled answer yet. This paper tends to make a distinction between different texts:ordinary and special. Ordinary ones can adopt the UT of paragraph, while special ones should adopt special UTs according to their own characteristics.

  19. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  20. Structural Perspectives on the Evolutionary Expansion of Unique Protein-Protein Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shaytan, Alexey K; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-09-15

    Structures of protein complexes provide atomistic insights into protein interactions. Human proteins represent a quarter of all structures in the Protein Data Bank; however, available protein complexes cover less than 10% of the human proteome. Although it is theoretically possible to infer interactions in human proteins based on structures of homologous protein complexes, it is still unclear to what extent protein interactions and binding sites are conserved, and whether protein complexes from remotely related species can be used to infer interactions and binding sites. We considered biological units of protein complexes and clustered protein-protein binding sites into similarity groups based on their structure and sequence, which allowed us to identify unique binding sites. We showed that the growth rate of the number of unique binding sites in the Protein Data Bank was much slower than the growth rate of the number of structural complexes. Next, we investigated the evolutionary roots of unique binding sites and identified the major phyletic branches with the largest expansion in the number of novel binding sites. We found that many binding sites could be traced to the universal common ancestor of all cellular organisms, whereas relatively few binding sites emerged at the major evolutionary branching points. We analyzed the physicochemical properties of unique binding sites and found that the most ancient sites were the largest in size, involved many salt bridges, and were the most compact and least planar. In contrast, binding sites that appeared more recently in the evolution of eukaryotes were characterized by a larger fraction of polar and aromatic residues, and were less compact and more planar, possibly due to their more transient nature and roles in signaling processes.

  1. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  2. UNIT 14A.4 Generation of Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Patricia L.; Moss, Bernard; Wyatt, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    This unit describes how to infect cells with vaccinia virus and then transfect them with a plasmid-transfer vector or PCR fragment to generate a recombinant virus. Selection and screening methods used to isolate recombinant viruses and a method for the amplification of recombinant viruses are described. Finally, a method for live immunostaining that has been used primarily for detection of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is presented. This unit first describes how to infect cells with vaccinia virus and then transfect them with a plasmid-transfer vector or PCR fragment to generate a recombinant virus (see Basic Protocol 1). Also presented are selection and screening methods used to isolate recombinant viruses (see Basic Protocol 2) and a method for the amplification of recombinant viruses (see Basic Protocol 3). Finally, a method for live immunostaining that has been used primarily for detection of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is presented (see Basic Protocol 4). HeLa S3 cells are recommended for large-scale growth of vaccinia virus. BS-C-1 cells may be used for xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (XGPRT) and plaque size selection, fluorescent protein screening, transfection and determination of virus titer (UNIT 14A.3). For thymidine kinase (TK) selection, HuTK− 143B cells are used. With MVA, all steps are carried out in CEF or BHK-21 cells (UNIT 14A.3). CAUTION Proceed carefully and follow biosafety level 2 (BL-2) practices when working with standard vaccinia virus (see UNIT 14A.3 for safety precautions). [*Copy Editor: The original CPMB unit referenced CPMB Unit 16.15 for safety. The chapter editor asked that the authors include some of the safety information in the revised units – CPMB 16.16 and 16.17 – which are now CPMC Unit 14A.3 and 14A.4. As a result, the authors changed the safety citation here to “Unit 14A.3”, which doesn’t have nearly as much information as the original CPMB Unit 16.15. Perhaps the

  3. Decomposition of overlapping protein complexes: A graph theoretical method for analyzing static and dynamic protein associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Katia S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cellular processes are carried out by multi-protein complexes, groups of proteins that bind together to perform a specific task. Some proteins form stable complexes, while other proteins form transient associations and are part of several complexes at different stages of a cellular process. A better understanding of this higher-order organization of proteins into overlapping complexes is an important step towards unveiling functional and evolutionary mechanisms behind biological networks. Results We propose a new method for identifying and representing overlapping protein complexes (or larger units called functional groups within a protein interaction network. We develop a graph-theoretical framework that enables automatic construction of such representation. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to TNFα/NF-κB and pheromone signaling pathways. Conclusion The proposed representation helps in understanding the transitions between functional groups and allows for tracking a protein's path through a cascade of functional groups. Therefore, depending on the nature of the network, our representation is capable of elucidating temporal relations between functional groups. Our results show that the proposed method opens a new avenue for the analysis of protein interaction networks.

  4. Homology inference of protein-protein interactions via conserved binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Tyagi

    Full Text Available The coverage and reliability of protein-protein interactions determined by high-throughput experiments still needs to be improved, especially for higher organisms, therefore the question persists, how interactions can be verified and predicted by computational approaches using available data on protein structural complexes. Recently we developed an approach called IBIS (Inferred Biomolecular Interaction Server to predict and annotate protein-protein binding sites and interaction partners, which is based on the assumption that the structural location and sequence patterns of protein-protein binding sites are conserved between close homologs. In this study first we confirmed high accuracy of our method and found that its accuracy depends critically on the usage of all available data on structures of homologous complexes, compared to the approaches where only a non-redundant set of complexes is employed. Second we showed that there exists a trade-off between specificity and sensitivity if we employ in the prediction only evolutionarily conserved binding site clusters or clusters supported by only one observation (singletons. Finally we addressed the question of identifying the biologically relevant interactions using the homology inference approach and demonstrated that a large majority of crystal packing interactions can be correctly identified and filtered by our algorithm. At the same time, about half of biological interfaces that are not present in the protein crystallographic asymmetric unit can be reconstructed by IBIS from homologous complexes without the prior knowledge of crystal parameters of the query protein.

  5. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  6. Internal symmetry in protein structures: prevalence, functional relevance and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Santhanam

    2015-06-01

    Symmetry has been found at various levels of biological organization in the protein structural universe. Numerous evolutionary studies have proposed connections between internal symmetry within protein tertiary structures, quaternary associations and protein functions. Recent computational methods, such as SymD and CE-Symm, facilitate a large-scale detection of internal symmetry in protein structures. Based on the results from these methods, about 20% of SCOP folds, superfamilies and families are estimated to have structures with internal symmetry (Figure 1d). All-β and membrane proteins fold classes contain a relatively high number of unique instances of internal symmetry. In addition to the axis of symmetry, anecdotal evidence suggests that, the region of connection or contact between symmetric units could coincide with functionally relevant sites within a fold. General principles that underlie protein internal symmetry and their connections to protein structural integrity and functions remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonadiabatic effects in the phonon dispersion of Mg1 -xAlxB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Astuto, Matteo; Heid, Rolf; Renker, Burkhard; Weber, Frank; Schober, Helmut; De la Peña-Seaman, Omar; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Bossak, Alexei; Krisch, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Superconducting MgB2 shows an E2 g zone center phonon, as measured by Raman spectroscopy, that is very broad in energy and temperature dependent. The Raman shift and lifetime show large differences with the values elsewhere in the Brillouin zone measured by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), where its dispersion can be accounted for by standard harmonic phonon theory, adding only a moderate electron-phonon coupling. Here we show that the effects rapidly disappear when electron-phonon coupling is switched off by Al substitution on the Mg sites. Moreover, using IXS with very high wave-vector resolution in MgB2, we can follow the dispersion connecting the Raman and the IXS signal, in agreement with a theory using only electron-phonon coupling but without strong anharmonic terms. The observation is important in order to understand the effects of electron-phonon coupling on zone center phonon modes in MgB2, and also in all metals characterized by a small Fermi velocity in a particular direction, typical for layered compounds.

  8. Development of Low Cost, High Performance AlZn4.5Mg1 Alloy 7020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    MPa) U.T.S. (MPa) El. (%) Data Reference 7005-T651 290 (42) 370 (54) 15 typical [6] 6061 -T651 300 (44) 337 (49) 19 experiment [15] 7018...Aluminum Association chemical composition limits [14]. Alloy Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti V Zr Date 6061 0.40 0.8 0.7 0.15 0.40 0.15...Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys, (www.eaa.net/en/about- aluminium /standards/international-registration), The Aluminum

  9. On Inference and Transient Response for M/G/1 Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Probability Program Code 411(SP) Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA 22217 Dr. Morris DeGroot Statistics Department Carnegie-Mellon University...University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 Dr. R. Gnanadesikan Bell Core 435 South Street Morris Township, NJ 07960 Prof. Bernard Harris Dept. of...07974 Dr. D. Pregibon Bell Telephone Laboratories - AT&T Murray Hill, NJ 07974 Dr. Jon Kettenring Bell Core 435 South Street Morris Township, NJ 07960

  10. Die-cast heterophase composites with AlSi13Mg1CuNi matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyzia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed tests, an advantageous interaction of glassy carbon particles in a couple consisting of a heterophase composite and a spheroidal cast iron has been corroborated. It was found that, the presence of glassy carbon in the heterophase composite (SiC+C affects the stabilization of the friction coefficient value as a function of the friction distance and reduces the intensity of the wearing-in stage of the interacting surfaces. Both a decrease of the friction coefficient and the wear of the heterophase composites may be connected with the carbon particles' chipping effect and the deposition of its fragments on the surface of the interacting components of the friction couple, which forms a kind of a solid lubricating agent in the system. This should allow applying of this material to the composite piston - cylinder sleeve system in piston air-compressors. Further works will concern the selection of the matrix alloy composition with the purpose of reducing the phenomenon of particles chipping during machining. It seems that one of the possibilities is the application of a more plastic matrix and optimizing the fraction of reinforcing phases and their gradient distribution in the casting.

  11. A functional protein retention and release multilayer with high stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kun; An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-04-01

    Effective and robust interfacial protein retention lies at the heart of the fabrication of protein-based functional interfaces, which is potentially applicable in catalysis, medical therapy, antifouling, and smart devices, but remains challenging due to the sensitive nature of proteins. This study reports a general protein retention strategy to spatial-temporally confine various types of proteins at interfacial regions. The proteins were preserved in mesoporous silica nanoparticles embedded in covalently woven multilayers. It is worth noting that the protein retention strategy effectively preserves the catalytic capabilities of the proteins, and the multilayer structure is robust enough to withstand the bubbling catalytic reactions and could be repeatedly used due to conservation of proteins. The spatiotemporal retention of proteins could be adjusted by varying the number of capping layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the protein-loaded interfacial layers could not only be used to construct catalytic-active interfaces, but also be integrated as the power-generating unit to propel a macroscopic floating device.Effective and robust interfacial protein retention lies at the heart of the fabrication of protein-based functional interfaces, which is potentially applicable in catalysis, medical therapy, antifouling, and smart devices, but remains challenging due to the sensitive nature of proteins. This study reports a general protein retention strategy to spatial-temporally confine various types of proteins at interfacial regions. The proteins were preserved in mesoporous silica nanoparticles embedded in covalently woven multilayers. It is worth noting that the protein retention strategy effectively preserves the catalytic capabilities of the proteins, and the multilayer structure is robust enough to withstand the bubbling catalytic reactions and could be repeatedly used due to conservation of proteins. The spatiotemporal retention of proteins could be adjusted by

  12. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  13. Dimensionality and the sample unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The sample unit and its implications for the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program are discussed in light of a generalized three-dimensional concept of continuous forest inventories. The concept views the sampled population as a spatial-temporal cube and the sample as a finite partitioning of the cube. The sample...

  14. Semasiological measurements of phraseological units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavpacheva Oksana Khautievna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with semantic relations in phraseology in modern English. In particular, the authors attempt to analyze different perspectives on the problem of correlation of concepts such as phraseological variance and synonyms existing in Russian linguistics. In addition, the article reviews and analyzes the nature and mechanism of phraseological variance. Particular attention is paid to the criteria of a particular phraseological unit to variants or synonyms. It substantiates the idea that the most suitable for the modern English language seems the point of view that considers the variance of phraseological unit as a fixed rate of transformation of the language of this unit does not violate its semantic identity. The main content of the study is an analysis of the main types of options phraseological units of modern English language: the structural and grammatical (morphological, syntactic, lexical, lexical and stylistic and of quantitative. The article also examines the characteristics of phraseological synonyms that unlike phraseological variants are built on different images, different logical-conceptual and shades of meaning, scope and use of stylistic coloring.

  15. Compiler validates units and dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    Software added to compiler for automated test system for Space Shuttle decreases computer run errors by providing offline validation of engineering units used system command programs. Validation procedures are general, though originally written for GOAL, a free-form language that accepts "English-like" statements, and may be adapted to other programming languages.

  16. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  17. Unit 23 - History of GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 55, CC in GIS; National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1990-01-01

    This unit provides a very brief review of some important milestones in the development of GIS. It provides early examples of spatial analysis performed with multiple theme maps, then introduces people, applications and systems that were significant in the early days of computerized cartography and spatial analysis.

  18. Professional Cosmetology Practices. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.

    This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…

  19. Tractor Safety. Unit A-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…

  20. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  1. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  2. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de Mexico: Condiciones…

  3. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  4. "Mexico in Transition." Curriculum Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Foreign Language Resource Center.

    These curriculum units were developed in a National Endowment for the Humanities 1994 summer seminar "Mexico in Transition." The 23 lessons are written in Spanish. Lessons are entitled: (1) "La Migracion Mexicana Vista a Traves del Cuento 'Paso del Norte' de Juan Rulfo" (Jose Jorge Armendariz); (2) "Los Grupos Indigenas de…

  5. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  6. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  7. Investigating Protein Structure and Evolution with SCOP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Antonina; Howorth, Dave; Chothia, Cyrus; Kulesha, Eugene; Murzin, Alexey G

    2015-03-09

    SCOP2 is a successor to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database that organizes proteins of known structure according to their structural and evolutionary relationships. It was designed to provide a more advanced framework for the classification of proteins. The SCOP2 classification is described in terms of a directed acyclic graph in which each node defines a relationship of particular type that is represented by a region of protein structure and sequence. The SCOP2 data are accessible via SCOP2-Browser and SCOP2-Graph. This protocol unit describes different ways to explore and investigate the SCOP2 evolutionary and structural groupings.

  8. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  9. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  10. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  11. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  14. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  17. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  18. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  19. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  20. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...