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Sample records for units mg-1 protein

  1. Development of novel quinoa-based yoghurt fermented with dextran producer Weissella cibaria MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Jeske, Stephanie; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel beverage fermented with Weissella cibaria MG1 based on aqueous extracts of wholemeal quinoa flour. The protein digestibility of quinoa based-milk was improved by applying complex proteolytic enzymes able to increase protein solubility by 54.58%. The growth and fermentation characteristics of Weissella cibaria MG1, including EPS production at the end of fermentation, were investigated. Fermented wholemeal quinoa milk using MG1 showed high viable cell counts (>10 9 cfu/ml), a pH of 5.16, and significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC, 100%), viscosity (0.57mPas) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amount (40mg/l) than the chemical acidified control. High EPS (dextran) concentration in quinoa milk caused earlier aggregation because more EPS occupy more space, and the chenopodin were forced to interact with each other. Microstructure observation indicated that the network structures of EPS-protein improve the texture of fermented quinoa milk. Overall, Weissella cibaria MG1 showed satisfactory technology properties and great potential for further possible application in the development of high viscosity fermented quinoa milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  3. Oncolytic Maraba Virus MG1 as a Treatment for Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Selman, Mohammed; Son, Hwan Hee; Bergeron, Anabel; Chen, Andrew; Tsang, Jovian; Butterwick, Derek; Arulanandam, Rozanne; Forbes, Nicole E; Tzelepis, Fanny; Bell, John C; Werier, Joel; Abdelbary, Hesham; Diallo, Jean-Simon

    2017-09-15

    The poor prognosis of patients with advanced bone and soft-tissue sarcoma has not changed in the past several decades, highlighting the necessity for new therapeutic approaches. Immunotherapies, including oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, have shown great promise in a number of clinical trials for a variety of tumor types. However, the effective application of OV in treating sarcoma still remains to be demonstrated. Although few pre-clinical studies using distinct OVs have been performed and demonstrated therapeutic benefit in sarcoma models, a side-by-side comparison of clinically relevant OV platforms has not been performed. Four clinically relevant OV platforms (Reovirus, Vaccinia virus, Herpes-simplex virus and Rhabdovirus) were screened for their ability to infect and kill human and canine sarcoma cell lines in vitro, and human sarcoma specimens ex vivo. In vivo treatment efficacy was tested in a murine model. The rhabdovirus MG1 demonstrated the highest potency in vitro. Ex vivo, MG1 productively infected more than 80% of human sarcoma tissues tested, and treatment in vivo led to a significant increase in long-lasting cures in sarcoma-bearing mice. Importantly, MG1 treatment induced the generation of memory immune response that provided protection against a subsequent tumor challenge. This study opens the door for the use of MG1-based oncolytic immunotherapy strategies as treatment for sarcoma or as a component of a combined therapy. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  5. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  6. Electron transfer reactions in structural units of copper proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M.

    1975-01-01

    In previous pulse radiolysis studies it was suggested that the reduction of the Cu(II) ions in copper proteins by the hydrated electron is a multi-step electron migration process. The technique has been extended to investigate the reduction of some structural units of these proteins. These studies include: the reaction of the hydrated electron with peptides, the reaction of the disulphide bridge with formate radical ion and radicals produced by the reduction of peptides, and the reaction of Cu(II)-peptide complex with esub(aq)sup(-) and CO 2 - . Using these results the reduction mechanism of copper and other proteins will be discussed. (author)

  7. Quorum Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia Marcescens MG1 is surface dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Zhu, H.; Thung, L.

    2007-01-01

    in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide...... and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface....

  8. Lacritin and Other New Proteins of the Lacrimal Functional Unit

    OpenAIRE

    McKown, Robert L.; Wang, Ningning; Raab, Ronald W.; Karnati, Roy; Zhang, Yinghui; Williams, Patricia B.; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2008-01-01

    The lacrimal functional unit (LFU) is defined by the 2007 International Dry Eye WorkShop as ‘an integrated system comprising the lacrimal glands, ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva and meibomian glands) and lids, and the sensory and motor nerves that connect them’. The LFU maintains a healthy ocular surface primarily through a properly functioning tear film that provides protection, lubrication, and an environment for corneal epithelial cell renewal. LFU cells express thousands of proteins. ...

  9. Lacritin and other new proteins of the lacrimal functional unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKown, Robert L; Wang, Ningning; Raab, Ronald W; Karnati, Roy; Zhang, Yinghui; Williams, Patricia B; Laurie, Gordon W

    2009-05-01

    The lacrimal functional unit (LFU) is defined by the 2007 International Dry Eye WorkShop as 'an integrated system comprising the lacrimal glands, ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva and meibomian glands) and lids, and the sensory and motor nerves that connect them'. The LFU maintains a healthy ocular surface primarily through a properly functioning tear film that provides protection, lubrication, and an environment for corneal epithelial cell renewal. LFU cells express thousands of proteins. Over 200 new LFU proteins have been discovered in the last decade. Lacritin is a new LFU-specific growth factor in human tears that flows through ducts to target corneal epithelial cells on the ocular surface. When applied topically in rabbits, lacritin appears to increase the volume of basal tear secretion. Lacritin is one of only a handful of tear proteins preliminarily reported to be downregulated in blepharitis and in two dry eye syndromes. Computational analysis predicts an ordered C-terminal domain that binds the corneal epithelial cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1) and is required for lacritin's low nanomolar mitogenic activity. The lacritin-binding site on the N-terminus of SDC1 is exposed by heparanase. Heparanase is constitutively expressed by the corneal epithelium and appears to be a normal constituent of tears. Binding triggers rapid signaling to downstream NFAT and mTOR. A wealth of other new proteins, originally designated as hypothetical when first identified by genomic sequencing, are expressed by the human LFU including: ALS2CL, ARHGEF19, KIAA1109, PLXNA1, POLG, WIPI1 and ZMIZ2. Their demonstrated or implied roles in human genetic disease or basic cellular functions are fuel for new investigation. Addressing topical areas in ocular surface physiology with new LFU proteins may reveal interesting new biological mechanisms and help get to the heart of ocular surface dysfunction.

  10. Triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houdt, B.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In applying matrix-analytic methods to M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains, it is crucial to determine the solution to a (set of) nonlinear matrix equation(s). This is usually done via iterative methods. We consider the highly structured subclass of triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD

  11. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  12. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  13. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  14. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the func- ... M/G/1/N queueing systems with server vacations under a limited service discipline ...... system contents in a discrete-time non-preemptive priority queue with general service.

  15. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); M. Nuyens

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for light-tailed

  16. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  17. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  18. The M/G/1 queue with quasi-restricted accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider single-server queues of the M/G/1 kind with a special kind of partial customer rejection called quasi-restricted accessibility (QRA). Under QRA, the actual service time assigned to an arriving customer depends on his service requirement, say x, the current workload, say w, and a

  19. Phenotypic Diversification and Adaptation of Serratia marcescens MG1 Biofilm-Derived Morphotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koh, Kai Shyang; Lam, Kin Wai; Alhede, Morten

    2007-01-01

    We report here the characterization of dispersal variants from microcolony-type biofilms of Serratia marcescens MG1. Biofilm formation proceeds through a reproducible process of attachment, aggregation, microcolony development, hollow colony formation, and dispersal. From the time when hollow col...

  20. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nuijens, M.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for lighttailed service

  1. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  2. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  3. Luminescent and structural properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutyak, N.; Nagirnyi, V.; Spassky, D.; Tupitsyna, I.; Dubovik, A.; Belsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    The structural and luminescent properties of perspective scintillating Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystals were studied. The following characteristics were found to depend linearly on x value: the energy of several vibrational modes detected by Raman spectroscopy, the bandgap width deduced from the shift of the excitation spectrum onset of a self-trapped exciton (STE) emission, the position of thermally stimulated luminescence peaks. It is also shown that the thermal stability of the STE luminescence decreases gradually when x decreases. These data indicate that each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 mixed crystal is not a mixture of two constituents, but possesses its original crystalline structure, as well as optical and luminescent properties. - Highlights: • The structural and luminescent properties of Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 were studied. • The energy of Raman modes, the bandgap width, TSL peak position linearly depend on x. • Each Zn_xMg_1_-_xWO_4 possesses its original crystalline structure.

  4. How Delisea pulchra furanones affect quorum sensing and swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Manefield, M.; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2000-01-01

    Halogenated furanones produced by the benthic marine macroalga Delisea pulchra inhibit swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1. This study demonstrates that exogenously added furanones control transcription of the quorum sensing regulated gene swrA in competition with the cognate signal...

  5. Two separate regulatory systems participate in control of swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, M; Ostling, J; Eberl, L

    1998-01-01

    Swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 requires the expression of two genetic loci, flhDC and swrI. Here we demonstrate that the products of the flhDC operon (the flagellar master regulator) and the swrI gene (the extracellular signal molecule N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone) are global...

  6. Protein turnover and metabolism in the elderly intensive care unit patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, Stuart M.; Dickerson, Roland N.; Moore, Frederick A.; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients do not achieve target protein intakes particularly in the early days following admittance. This period of iatrogenic protein undernutrition contributes to a rapid loss of lean, in particular muscle, mass in the ICU. The loss of muscle in older (aged >60 years)

  7. Frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of centred lattices from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2012-03-01

    In crystallography, a centred conventional lattice unit cell has its corresponding reduced primitive unit cell. This study presents the frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of all centred lattice entries of the Protein Data Bank (as of 23 August 2011) in four unit-cell-dimension-based groups and seven interaxial-angle-based subgroups. This frequency distribution is an added layer of support during space-group assignment in new crystals. In addition, some interesting patterns of distribution are discussed as well as how some reduced unit cells could be wrongly accepted as primitive lattices in a different crystal system.

  8. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  9. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  10. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  11. Maraba MG1 Virus Enhances Natural Killer Cell Function via Conventional Dendritic Cells to Reduce Postoperative Metastatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Tai, Lee-Hwa; Ilkow, Carolina S; Alkayyal, Almohanad A; Ananth, Abhirami A; de Souza, Christiano Tanese; Wang, Jiahu; Sahi, Shalini; Ly, Lundi; Lefebvre, Charles; Falls, Theresa J; Stephenson, Kyle B; Mahmoud, Ahmad B; Makrigiannis, Andrew P; Lichty, Brian D; Bell, John C; Stojdl, David F; Auer, Rebecca C

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the ability of novel oncolytic rhabdoviruses (Maraba MG1) to boost natural killer (NK) cell activity. Our results demonstrate that MG1 activates NK cells via direct infection and maturation of conventional dendritic cells. Using NK depletion and conventional dendritic cells ablation studies in vivo, we established that both are required for MG1 efficacy. We further explored the efficacy of attenuated MG1 (nonreplicating MG1-UV2min and single-cycle replicating MG1-Gless) and demonstrated that these viruses activate conventional dendritic cells, although to a lesser extent than live MG1. This translates to equivalent abilities to remove tumor metastases only at the highest viral doses of attenuated MG1. In tandem, we characterized the antitumor ability of NK cells following preoperative administration of live and attenuated MG1. Our results demonstrates that a similar level of NK activation and reduction in postoperative tumor metastases was achieved with equivalent high viral doses concluding that viral replication is important, but not necessary for NK activation. Biochemical characterization of a panel of UV-inactivated MG1 (2–120 minutes) revealed that intact viral particle and target cell recognition are essential for NK cell–mediated antitumor responses. These findings provide mechanistic insight and preclinical rationale for safe perioperative virotherapy to effectively reduce metastatic disease following cancer surgery. PMID:24695102

  12. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  13. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  14. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  15. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Xi, T F; Zhang, Z X; Zhang, D Y

    2009-01-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10 5 for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  16. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, Y; Xi, T F [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Z X [Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhang, D Y, E-mail: gxn139888@pku.edu.c, E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.c, E-mail: 8lanqiuxiang@163.co, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.c, E-mail: top5460@163.co, E-mail: xitingfei@tom.co, E-mail: zhangdeyuan@lifetechmed.co [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd, Hi-Tech Park, Shenzhen 518000 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10{sup 5} for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  17. Surface modification of an Mg-1Ca alloy to slow down its biocorrosion by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Zheng, Y F; Lan, Q X; Cheng, Y; Zhang, Z X; Xi, T F; Zhang, D Y

    2009-08-01

    The surface morphologies before and after immersion corrosion test of various chitosan-coated Mg-1Ca alloy samples were studied to investigate the effect of chitosan dip coating on the slowdown of biocorrosion. It showed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca alloy increased after coating with chitosan, and depended on both the chitosan molecular weight and layer numbers of coating. The Mg-Ca alloy coated by chitosan with a molecular weight of 2.7 x 10(5) for six layers has smooth and intact surface morphology, and exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in a simulated body fluid.

  18. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in the alloy Mg1-xAlxB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serventi, S; Allodi, G; Bucci, C; Renzi, R De; Guidi, G; Pavarini, E; Manfrinetti, P; Palenzona, A

    2003-01-01

    We measured the 27 Al and 11 B NMR spin lattice relaxation rates and the isotropic Knight shifts in powder samples of Mg 1-x Al x B 2 , as a function of the Al concentration, x. The temperature independence of the Knight shifts and the linear temperature dependence of the relaxation are verified throughout the compositions explored. The variation with x of the measured quantities is discussed in terms of the projected densities of states at the Fermi energy, finding good qualitative as well as quantitative agreement with recent band structure calculations

  19. Strategies for a centralized single product multiclass M/G/1 make-to-stock queue

    OpenAIRE

    Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Barış; Balcioglu, Ahmet Baris; Baron, Opher

    2012-01-01

    Make-to-stock queues are typically investigated in the M/M/1 settings. For centralized single-item systems with backlogs, the multilevel rationing (MR) policy is established as optimal and the strict priority (SP) policy is a practical compromise, balancing cost and ease of implementation. However, the optimal policy is unknown when service time is general, i.e., for M/G/1 queues. Dynamic programming, the tool commonly used to investigate the MR policy in make-to-stock queues, is less practic...

  20. Effect of forging process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-1Ca alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Hasbullah Idris, Mohd; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Forging temperature demonstrates more pronounced effect compared to forging speed. → Precipitation of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries accelerates corrosion rate. → Forging process doesn't provide the corrosion resistance required for bone healing. -- Abstract: The performance of Mg-1Ca alloy, a biodegradable metallic material, may be improved by hot working in order that it may be of use in bone implant applications. In this study, Mg-1Ca cast alloy was preheated to different temperatures before undergoing forging process with various forging speeds. Macro- and microstructure of the samples were examined by stereo and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. To determine the mechanical properties of the alloy, hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the samples were measured. To investigate the corrosion behaviour of the alloy, immersion and electrochemical tests were performed on the samples in simulated body fluid and the corrosion products were characterized by SEM/EDS. The results showed that increasing forging temperature decreased grain size led to improved hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the alloy, whereas no significant effect was observed by changing forging speed. Moreover, forging at higher temperatures led to an increase in the amount of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries resulted in higher corrosion rates. It can be concluded that although forging process improved the mechanical properties of the alloy, it does not satisfy the corrosion resistance criteria required for bone healing.

  1. Pengaruh lama fermentasi EM-4 terhadap kandungan protein kasar padatan kering lumpur organik unit gas bio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wildan Fajarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to know good duration against the influence of the duration of EM-4 fermentation by adding EM-4 to increase contents of crude protein for dry solids of unit organic sludge bio gas. The materials of this research were dry solids of organic sludge biogas unit resulted from the separation of organic sludge. The research method was experiments using Completely Randomized Design with different duration of fermentation treatments as follow 0 hour (P1, 24 hours (P2, 48 hours (P3, and 72 hours (P4 with 6 times recurrences to each treatments. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range test if they were significantly different. The result of Analysis of Variance shows that there was an increase of rough protein to P1, P2, P3, and P4. Specifically for P4 treatment gave very different influence (P<0.01 against crude protein contents. The research suggested adding EM-4 in the fermentation process of organic sludge solids biogas unit for 72 hour to increase the crude protein content. Keywords: fermentation, biogas, sludge, crude protein

  2. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  3. Modern quantitative microstructure analysis on the example of aicu5mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatičanin Biljana V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an automatic, QUANTIMET 500 MC, device for quantitative picture analysis and applying linear method of measurement on the example of AlCu5Mg1 alloys, the grain size (min, max and medium values, as well as relative standard measuring errors (RSE, dendrite arm spacing (DAS and length eutectic (Le and also distribution by size (histogram and volume participation of -hard solution and eutectic have been determined. We have also studied the influence of grain-refining additives AlTi5B1 for the same chemical composition of the aluminium-capper-magnesium alloy. It has been concluded that with the increase of titanium content, the mean value of grain size decreases. We have also examined hardness and pressure strength.

  4. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  5. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Anh Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid nanoparticle (NP structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3. We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP, magnetite (Fe3O4 NP, and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP. Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by a factor of 8·104 and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the

  6. Vibratory Reaction Unit for the Rapid Analysis of Proteins and Glycochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Sasakura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein digestion system using immobilized enzymes for protein identification and glycochain analyses has been developed, and a vibration reaction unit for micro-scale sample convection on an enzyme-immobilized solid surface was constructed. BSA as a model substrate was digested by this unit, and was successfully identified by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Compared to the conventional liquid-phase digestion, the reaction unit increased the number of matched peptides from 9 to 26, protein score from 455 to 1247, and sequence coverage from 21% to 48%. Glycopeptidase F (NGF, an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, was also immobilized and used to remove the glycochains from human immunoglobulin G (IgG. Trypsin and NGF were immobilized on the same solid surface and used to remove glycochains from IgG in single-step. Glycochains were labeled with fluorescent reagent and analyzed by HPLC. Several peaks corresponding to the glycochains of IgG were detected. These results suggested that the single-step digestion system, by immobilized multiple enzymes (trypsin and NGF would be effective for the rapid structural analysis of glycoproteins.Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: glycopeptidase F; IgG: immunoglobulin G; PTM: post-translational modification; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; DTT: dithiothreitol; RT: retention time; ABOE: p-aminobenzoic acid octyl ester; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; ArgC: endoprotease Arginine C.

  7. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  8. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poisson Guylaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Results Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Conclusions Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this

  9. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  10. The Oncolytic Virus MG1 Targets and Eliminates Cells Latently Infected With HIV-1: Implications for an HIV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Nischal; Sandstrom, Teslin S; Burke Schinkel, Stephanie C; Côté, Sandra C; Angel, Jonathan B

    2018-02-14

    Cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbor intracellular signaling defects, including impairment of the antiviral type I interferon response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate cells latently infected with HIV-1, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in cell lines latently infected with HIV-1. Following this, a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication was observed following MG1 infection of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells generated using an in vitro model of latency. Last, MG1 infection resulted in a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication in memory CD4+ T cells isolated from effectively treated, HIV-1-infected individuals. Our results therefore highlight a novel approach to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  12. Fermentation of solutions of glucose-protein concentrate in a cascade-multi-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denshchikov, M T; Shashilova, V P

    1964-01-01

    Glucose-protein concentrate is a material obtained by the hydrolysis of corn, containing glucose 75 to 80, maltose, isomaltose, and other non-fermentable sugars 1.5 to 2, H/sub 2/O 15 to 17, mineral matter 1.9 to 1%, and N-containing materials 3.2 to 3.4 g/kg. In earlier fermentation trails with this material, after addition of H/sub 2/O, only 10 to 12% ethanol concentrations were obtained. With period addition of citric acid and replacement of the yeast at regular intervals, using a cascade-multitray unit, 12 to 13% concentrations of ethanol were obtained.

  13. Radiolabeled adenoviral sub-unit proteins for molecular imaging and therapeutic applications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Our group has initiated investigations on the use of radiolabeled adenoviral (Ad) sub-unit proteins for delivering suitable radionuclides into tumor cells for molecular imaging as well as for combined gene/radionuclide therapy of cancer. A number of issues involved in developing combined gene/radionuclide delivery into tumors mediated by Ad vectors have been identified and are being addressed. Whereas current clinical trials of gene therapy using Ad vectors involve non-systemic delivery of therapeutic genes, the delivery of radionuclides preferably would involve systemic (i.v.) administration. The distribution and delivery of Ad sub-unit proteins following i.v. administration is not understood and must be studied and optimized. In addition, retention of the selective binding and internalization into tumor cells of the radiolabeled viral vectors remains an unmet challenge. We used the intact adenovirus (Ad, ∼80 nm diameter), native adenoviral fiber protein (AdFP, 180 kD trimer, purified from infected human cultured cells) and the adenoviral fiber 'knob' protein (recombinant AdFKP, 60 kD, synthesized in E. Coli), all of which interact with the in-vivo cellular receptor, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) through the knob domain of the adenovirus fiber protein. Our initial studies were aimed at optimizing the labeling conditions using I-131 and In-111 to maintain CAR binding activity of the radiolabeled preparations. The CAR-binding was retained as determined using reaction with biotinylated CAR followed by chemiluminescence detection. The biodistribution results in mice and rats following i.v. administration (autoradiography, tissue counting) showed that all three vectors localized preferentially in CAR-expressing organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney), as expected. The CAR-binding of Ad-2 wild serotype was better (∼8 x stronger) than Ad-12, in particular following radiolabeling. Based on the above results, we further focused on the recombinant knob

  14. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A J Al-Doghachi

    Full Text Available A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  15. Z-contrast imaging of ordered structures in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 and Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Pennycook, S.J.; Xu, Z.; Viehland, D.

    1998-02-01

    Lead-based cubic perovskites such as Pb(B 1/3 2+ B 2/3 5+ )O 3 (B 2+ Mg, Co, Ni, Zn; B 5+ = Nb, Ta) are relaxor ferroelectrics. Localized order and disorder often occur in materials of this type. In the Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) family, previous studies have proposed two models, space-charge and charge-balance models. In the first model, the ordered regions carry a net negative charge [Pb(Mg 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 ], while in the second model it does not carry a net charge [Pb((Mg 2/3 Nb 1/3 ) 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 ]. However, no direct evidence for these two models has appeared in the literature yet. In this paper the authors report the first direct observations of local ordering in undoped and La-doped Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , using high-resolution Z-contrast imaging. Because the ordered structure in Ba(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 is well known, the Z-contrast image from an ordered domain is used as a reference for this study

  16. Protein crystal growth results from the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, K. M.; Vanderwoerd, M.; Bray, T. L.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Narayana, S. V. L.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Carter, D.; Clark, A. D, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed by this laboratory on 18 Space Shuttle missions since April, 1985. In addition, a number of microgravity experiments also have been performed and reported by other investigators. These Space Shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature-induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory - 1 mission (USML-1, June 25 - July 9, 1992) was a Spacelab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware was developed to allow in orbit examination of initial crystal growth results, the knowledge from which was used on subsequent days to prepare new crystal growth experiments. In addition, new seeding hardware and techniques were tested as well as techniques that would prepare crystals for analysis by x-ray diffraction, a capability projected for the planned Space Station. Hardware that was specifically developed for the USML-1 mission will be discussed along with the experimental results from this mission.

  17. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  18. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  19. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  20. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  1. Joint distribution of sojourn time and queue length in the M/G/1 queue with (in)finite capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the M/G/1 queue we study the joint distribution of the number of customers x present immediately before an arrival epoch and of the residual service time ¿ of the customer in service at this epoch. The correlation coefficient (x, ¿) is shown to be positive (negative) when the service time

  2. Superconductivity in dense Mg1–xMxB2 (M= Zr, Nb, Mo; x= 0⋅ 05 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Superconductivity in dense Mg1–MB2 (M = Zr, Nb, Mo; = 0.05) materials sintered under pressure. S Kalavathi C Divakar. Superconductors Volume 28 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 249-252 ...

  3. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eike; Wecklein, Heike; Stark, Felix; Jauch, Mandy; Raabe, Thomas

    2006-06-07

    Genes encoding for the two evolutionary highly conserved subunits of a heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme are present in all examined eukaryotic genomes. Depending on the organism, multiple transcription units encoding for a catalytically active CK2alpha subunit and/or a regulatory CK2beta subunit may exist. The phosphotransferase activity of members of the protein kinase CK2alpha family is thought to be independent of second messengers but is modulated by interaction with CK2beta-like proteins. In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present. The X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for several CK2beta protein isoforms due to alternative splicing of its primary transcript. We addressed the question whether CK2beta-like proteins are redundant in function. Our in vivo experiments show that variations of the very C-terminal tail of CK2beta isoforms encoded by the X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit influence their functional properties. In addition, we find that CK2beta-like proteins encoded by the autosomal D. melanogaster genes CK2betates and CK2beta' cannot fully substitute for a loss of CK2beta isoforms encoded by DmCK2beta.

  5. A study on magneto-optic properties of CoxMg1-xFe2O4 nanoferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, R.; Ramachandran, K.; Srinivasan, R.

    2018-04-01

    Nanoparticles of CoxMg1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.5, 0.9) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Characterization by X-ray diffraction technique confirmed the formation of cubic crystalline structure and the crystallite size of the samples obtained using Debye-Scherrer approximation were found to increase with increasing cobalt substitution. Surface morphology and the Chemical composition of the samples were visualized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). Room temperature magnetic parameters of the nanoparticles by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) revealed the magnetic properties such as Saturation magnetization (Ms), Remanent magnetization (Mr) and Coercive field (Hc) found to increase with increasing cobalt substitution. Faraday rotation measurements on CoxMg1-xFe2O4 ferrofluids exhibited increase in rotation with cobalt substitution. Further, there is an increase in Faraday rotation with increasing magnetic field for all the samples.

  6. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of the Lip secretion system in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, K.; Ohnesorg, T.; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 'luxAB insertion mutants that are responsive to N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipB is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. LipB is part of the Lip exporter, a type I secretion system, which is responsible for the secr......The analysis of Serratia liquefaciens MG1 'luxAB insertion mutants that are responsive to N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipB is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. LipB is part of the Lip exporter, a type I secretion system, which is responsible...

  7. Altered Morphology and Function of the Lacrimal Functional Unit in Protein Kinase Cα Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout (−/−) mice have impaired ocular surface–lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα−/− mice. Methods. In PKCα+/+ control mice and PKCα−/− mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Results. Compared with the PKCα+/+ mice, the PKCα−/− mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα−/− mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα+/+ mice. Conclusions. The PKCα−/− mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα−/− mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration. PMID:20505191

  8. Pengaruh cairan lumpur organik unit gas bio terhadap persentase kandungan bahan organik dan protein kasar padatan lumpur organik unit gas bio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Junus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze: 1 the constitution and characteristics of sludge, solid sludge and sludge flour derived from Biogas Unit (BGU; 2 the influence of organic sludge liquid on the percentage of organic and crude protein content of the BGU organic sludge (BGUOS. The methods used in the study were observation and randomized controlled trial experiments. Data derived from field study were analyzed descriptively while data derived from experiments were analyzed using variance analysis. Differences were shown using the smallest significance-p test with CI 95%. The results showed that organic sludge constitution were odious, the organic sludge was clotting after drying process. In addition it became powder as soft as bran after dried, powdered and brooded. The experiment showed that the composition of BGUOS liquid gave influence to the amount of organic content and crude protein in the powder constitution of BGUOS. The fifth treatment brought the optimum percentage of the organic content and crude protein. The research concluded that BGUOS constitution was detestable in its form of sludge, however it could be transformed into bran constitution by drying and brooding treatment. The optimum amount of organic content and crude protein of BGUOS bran were gained by using 5th treatment. The research suggest it is necessary to maintain BGUOS on the basis of local technology and to study the application of BGUOS solid powder or bran as fish and livestock feed. Keywords: Solid Biogas Unit Organic Sludge (Solid BGUOS, CP

  9. Damped soft phonons and diffuse scattering in 40%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-60%PbTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, C.; Ellis, D.; Swainson, I. P.; Xu, Guangyong; Hiraka, H.; Shirane, G.; Zhong, Z.; Luo, H.; Zhao, X.; Viehland, D.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Using neutron elastic and inelastic scattering and high-energy x-ray diffraction, we present a comparison of 40% Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -60% PbTiO 3 (PMN-60PT) with pure Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) and PbTiO 3 (PT). We measure the structural properties of PMN-60PT to be identical to pure PT, however, the lattice dynamics are exactly that previously found in relaxors PMN and Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PZN). PMN-60PT displays a well-defined macroscopic structural transition from a cubic to tetragonal unit cell at 550 K. The diffuse scattering is shown to be weak indicating that the structural distortion is long-range in PMN-60PT and short-range polar correlations (polar nanoregions) are not present. Even though polar nanoregions are absent, the soft optic mode is short-lived for wave vectors near the zone center. Therefore PMN-60PT displays the same waterfall effect as prototypical relaxors PMN and PZN. We conclude that it is random fields resulting from the intrinsic chemical disorder which is the reason for the broad transverse optic mode observed in PMN and PMN-60PT near the zone center and not due to the formation of short-ranged polar correlations. Through our comparison of PMN, PMN-60PT, and pure PT, we interpret the dynamic and static properties of the PMN-xPT system in terms of a random field model in which the cubic anisotropy term dominates with increasing doping of PbTiO 3

  10. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

  11. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  12. Preparation of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 by simultaneous precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juiz, S.A.; Varela, J.A.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 was obtained by simultaneous precipitation of Pb(NO 3 ) 2' Mg(NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O and NH 4 H 2 /NbO(C 2 O 4 ) 3 ./3H 2 O in alkaline medium. DTA of the precipitates show the PMN formation between 700 and 750 0 C. XRD on powder calcined at 750 0 C indicates on other phases basiders PMN. Measurements of dielectric constants shows a Curie temperature shifted to -80 0 C. (author) [pt

  13. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  14. Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering Held in Oxford, United Kingdom on 5-8 April 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-27

    engineered by protein engineering was reported by J. new variants which are now being checked. Brange (Novo Research Institute, Bags- Studies of a cassette...to Brange . Therefore, multidomain protein consisting of five Brange and his group applied protein en- putative domains: the fribonectin finger

  15. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  16. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEHRING, P.M.; VAKRUSHEV, S.B.; SHIRANE, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.92 Ti 0.08 O 3 in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 angstrom -1 , measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T d , which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons

  17. Evaluation of the structure and microstructure of NixMg1-xO oxides obtained by co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez L, G.; Kryshtab, T.; Hesiquio G, M.; Kryvko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ni x Mg 1-x O oxides were prepared by thermal treatment at temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 C from a hydrotalcite-like precursor obtained by co-precipitation at constant ph. The oxides obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. From the obtained results we concluded that the oxides calcined at temperatures of 400, and 600 C are unstable that means that there exists the effect of memory and with a time they return to the precursor. Presence of Ni in Mg oxide provides stability of the compounds thermally treated at 800 C. In order to analyze the structure and microstructure, the reflections 111, 200 and 220 were used. The positions of the maxima of the diffraction peaks are shifted with respect to the simulated ones for Mg O and Ni O. This result reveals that in solid solutions studied compressive strains or vacation are present. The parameters of the microstructure (coherent domain size and micro deformations) were evaluated. The coherent domain size was found to be in the range of 8 - 10 nm and the presence of residual strains of micro deformation can be associated with the existence of extended defects. (Author)

  18. Effect of Nitric and Oxalic Acid Addition on Hard Anodizing of AlCu4Mg1 in Sulphuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Sieber

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The anodic oxidation process is an established means for the improvement of the wear and corrosion resistance of high-strength aluminum alloys. For high-strength aluminum-copper alloys of the 2000 series, both the current efficiency of the anodic oxidation process and the hardness of the oxide coatings are significantly reduced in comparison to unalloyed substrates. With regard to this challenge, recent investigations have indicated a beneficial effect of nitric acid addition to the commonly used sulphuric acid electrolytes both in terms of coating properties and process efficiency. The present work investigates the anodic oxidation of the AlCu4Mg1 alloy in a sulphuric acid electrolyte with additions of nitric acid as well as oxalic acid as a reference in a full-factorial design of experiments (DOE. The effect of the electrolyte composition on process efficiency, coating thickness and hardness is established by using response functions. A mechanism for the participation of the nitric acid additive during the oxide formation is proposed. The statistical significance of the results is assessed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA. Eventually, scratch testing is applied in order to evaluate the failure mechanisms and the abrasion resistance of the obtained conversion coatings.

  19. Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 nanoparticles: Interplay between cation distribution and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghuvanshi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between cationic distribution, magnetic properties of Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 ferrite is demonstrated, hardly shown in literature. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirms the formation of cubic spinel nano ferrites with grain diameter between 40.8 to 55.4 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS confirms close agreement of Mg/Fe, Zn/Fe molar ratio, presence of all elements (Mg, Zn, Fe, O, formation of estimated ferrite composition. Zn addition (for Mg shows: i linear increase of lattice parameter aexp, accounted for replacement of an ion with higher ionic radius (Zn > Mg; ii presence of higher population of Fe3+ ions on B site, and unusual occurrence of Zn, Mg on A and B site leads to non-equilibrium cation distribution where we observe inverse to mixed structure, and is in contrast to reported literature where inverse to normal transition is reported; iii effect on A-A, A-B, B-B exchange interactions, affecting coercivity Hc, Ms. A new empirical relation is also obtained showing linear relation between saturation magnetization Ms – inversion parameter δ, oxygen parameter u4¯3m. Non-zero Y-K angle (αYK values implies Y-K type magnetic ordering in the studied samples.

  20. A study on M/G/1 retrial G - queue with two phases of service, immediate feedback and working vacations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varalakshmi, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Saravanarajan, M. C.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the steady state behaviour of M/G/1 retrial queueing system with two phases of services and immediate feedbacks under working vacation policy where the regular busy server is affected due to the arrival of negative customers. Upon arrival if the customer finds the server busy, breakdown or on working vacation it enters an orbit; otherwise the customer enters into the service area immediately. After service completion, the customer is allowed to make finite number of immediate feedback. The feedback service also consists of two phases. At the service completion epoch of a positive customer, if the orbit is empty the server goes for a working vacation. The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation (WV) period. Using the supplementary variable technique, we found out the steady state probability generating function for the system and in orbit. System performance measures and reliability measures are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to validate the analyticalresults.

  1. Investigation of structure, specific heat and superconducting transition in Mg1-xAlxB2(x∼0.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, J.Y.; Zheng, D.N.; Lang, P.L.; Zhao, Z.X.; Luo, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out structure, magnetic and specific heat measurements on aluminum doped magnetism diboride samples Mg 1-x Al x B 2 in order to investigate possible superconductivity at the x=0.5 concentration. A diamagnetic signal was observed in magnetization measurements accompanied by a decrease in resistivity. However, the diamagnetic signal was extremely small as compared to what expected from full diamagnetism. Also, the transition both in magnetization and resistance was very broad. We propose that the diamagnetism is due to a very small amount of superconducting phase such as MgB 2 and the resistive transition is due to the percolation behavior. Furthermore, we performed specific heat measurements, which are considered as a tool to investigate the bulk nature of superconducting transition, on the x=0.5 sample to verify the existence of superconductivity. We observed no evident superconducting transition in the entire temperature region from 2 to 300 K. The undistinguishable data between 0 and 5 T magnetic fields also indicated the absence of bulk superconductivity in the x=0.5 sample

  2. Study of vibrational and magnetic excitations in NicMg1-cO solid solutions by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzanelli, E; Kuzmin, A; Mariotto, G; Mironova-Ulmane, N

    2003-01-01

    The Raman scattering by phonons and magnons was studied for the first time in the polycrystalline solid solutions Ni c Mg 1-c O. The experimental Raman spectrum for c = 0.9 is similar to that of NiO and consists of six well resolved bands, whose origins are the disorder-induced one-phonon scattering (bands at 400 and 500 cm -1 ), two-phonon scattering (bands at 750, 900, and 1100 cm -1 ), and two-magnon scattering (the broad band at ∼ 1400 cm -1 ). We found that the dependence of the two-magnon band in solid solutions on the composition and temperature is consistent with their magnetic phase diagram. We also observed that the relative contribution of two-phonon scattering decreases strongly upon dilution with magnesium ions and disappears completely at c < 0.5. Such behaviour is explained in terms of a disorder-induced effect, which increases the probability of the one-phonon scattering processes

  3. Contraction Twinning Dominated Tensile Deformation and Subsequent Fracture in Extruded Mg-1Mn (Wt Pct) at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkedath, A.; Maiti, T.; Bohlen, J.; Yi, S.; Letzig, D.; Eisenlohr, P.; Boehlert, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio, Mg alloys are attractive for applications where weight savings are critical. However, the limited cold formability of wrought Mg alloys severely restricts their widespread usage. In order to study the role that deformation twinning might play in limiting the elongation-to-failure ({ɛ} f ), in-situ tensile tests along the extrusion axis of Mg-1Mn (wt pct) were performed at 323 K, 423 K, and 523 K. The alloy exhibited a strong basal texture such that most of the grains experienced compression along their -axis during deformation. At 323 K, fracture occurred at about 10 pct strain. Although basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slip activity was observed along with extension twinning, contraction twinning significantly influenced the deformation, and such twins evolved into {10{\\bar{1}} 1}-{10{\\bar{1}} 2} double twins. Crystal plasticity simulation showed localized shear deformation within the contraction twins and double twins due to the enhanced activity of basal slip in the reoriented twin volume. Due to this, the twin-matrix interface was identified to be a potential crack initiation site. Thus, contraction twins were considered to have led to the failure of the material at a relatively low strain, suggesting that this deformation mode is detrimental to the cold formability of Mg and its alloys. With increasing temperature, there was a significant decrease in the activity of contraction twinning as well as extension twinning, along with a decrease in the tensile strength and an increase in the {ɛ} f value. A combination of basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slips accounted for a large percentage of the observed deformation activity at 423 K and 523 K. The lack of contraction twinning was explained by the expected decrease in the critical resolved shear stress values for pyramidal slip, and the improved {ɛ} f values at elevated temperatures were attributed to the vanishing activity of contraction twinning.

  4. Contraction Twinning Dominated Tensile Deformation and Subsequent Fracture in Extruded Mg-1Mn (Wt Pct) at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkedath, A.; Maiti, T.; Bohlen, J.; Yi, S.; Letzig, D.; Eisenlohr, P.; Boehlert, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    Due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio, Mg alloys are attractive for applications where weight savings are critical. However, the limited cold formability of wrought Mg alloys severely restricts their widespread usage. In order to study the role that deformation twinning might play in limiting the elongation-to-failure ({ɛ} _{ {f}}), in-situ tensile tests along the extrusion axis of Mg-1Mn (wt pct) were performed at 323 K, 423 K, and 523 K. The alloy exhibited a strong basal texture such that most of the grains experienced compression along their -axis during deformation. At 323 K, fracture occurred at about 10 pct strain. Although basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slip activity was observed along with extension twinning, contraction twinning significantly influenced the deformation, and such twins evolved into {10{\\bar{1}}1}-{10{\\bar{1}}2} double twins. Crystal plasticity simulation showed localized shear deformation within the contraction twins and double twins due to the enhanced activity of basal slip in the reoriented twin volume. Due to this, the twin-matrix interface was identified to be a potential crack initiation site. Thus, contraction twins were considered to have led to the failure of the material at a relatively low strain, suggesting that this deformation mode is detrimental to the cold formability of Mg and its alloys. With increasing temperature, there was a significant decrease in the activity of contraction twinning as well as extension twinning, along with a decrease in the tensile strength and an increase in the {ɛ} _{ {f}} value. A combination of basal, prismatic, and pyramidal slips accounted for a large percentage of the observed deformation activity at 423 K and 523 K. The lack of contraction twinning was explained by the expected decrease in the critical resolved shear stress values for pyramidal slip, and the improved {ɛ} _{ {f}} values at elevated temperatures were attributed to the vanishing activity of contraction twinning.

  5. Raman study of cations’ distribution in ZnxMg1−xFe2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. W. da; Nakagomi, F.; Silva, M. S.; Franco, A.; Garg, V. K.; Oliveira, A. C.; Morais, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    In a complementary way, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy were successfully employed to assess the cations’ distribution among the tetrahedral (A-site) and octahedral (B-site) sites of nonosized Zn x Mg 1−x Fe 2 O 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) cubic ferrite structure, synthesized by combustion reaction method. Nanoparticles with little change in size distributions, in the 40 nm (x = 0.0) up to 42 nm (x = 1.0) were obtained. Mössbauer data indicated that as the Zn-content (x) increases in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, the Fe 3+ ion monotonically increases (decreases) the A-site (B-site) occupancy up to nearly equal values at the highest end x value. Analysis of the Raman data, however, confirms that the three highest energy modes around 650, 668 and 710 cm −1 are assigned to Zn–O (B-site), Fe–O (A-site) and Mg–O (A-site) vibrations, respectively. Additionally, in agreement with the Mössbauer data, the Raman data show that as the Zn-content (x) increases in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, the occupancy of A-sites by Mg 2+ ions monotonically reduces with concomitant increase of A- and B-sites occupancy by Fe 3+ and Zn 2+ ions, respectively. Indeed, combination of the two sets of spectroscopic data (Raman and Mössbauer) provides an effective protocol for assessing the cations’ distribution within the crystal structure of nanosized quaternary cubic ferrite samples.

  6. Implementation of Nutrition Support Guidelines May Affect Energy and Protein Intake in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Ursula G; Lucas, Laura A; Mackey, Guisela; Silva, Jaime C; Lusk, Jennifer; Orellana, Renan; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Coss-Bu, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    Critically ill children are at risk of developing malnutrition, and undernutrition is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The study evaluated changes in the energy and protein intake before and after implementation of nutrition support (NS) guidelines for a pediatric critical care unit (PICU). This retrospective study documented energy and protein intake for the first 8 days of PICU stay. Basal metabolic rate and protein needs were estimated by Schofield and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Guidelines, respectively. Three hundred thirty-five children from August to December 2012 (pre-implementation) and 185 from October to December 2013 (post-implementation). Implementation of NS Guidelines. Changes in actual energy and protein intake in the post- compared with the pre-Implementation period. Unpaired t tests, Pearson's χ(2) (unadjusted analysis) were used. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for protein and energy intake, adjusted for age, sex, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score. After the implementation of guidelines, significant improvements were seen during days 5 through 8 in energy intake among children 2 years of age and older, and in protein intake in both age groups (Pprotein deficit/kg/day, as follows: younger than 2-year-olds, -1.5±0.7 g/kg/day vs -1.3±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.02; 2-year-olds or older, -1.0±0.6 g/kg/day vs -0.7±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.01; and for the energy deficit/kg/d in 2-year-olds and older, -17.2±13.6 kcal/kg/day vs -13.3±18.1 kcal/kg/day, unpaired t test, P=0.07, in the pre- vs post-implementation period, respectively. The implementation of NS guidelines was associated with improvements in total energy in 2-year-olds and older and protein in younger than 2 and 2 years and older children by days 5 through 8, and protein deficits were significantly lower in the post- vs the pre-implementation period. The implementation of NS guidelines may have had a

  7. Are Visceral Proteins Valid Markers for Nutritional Status in the Burn Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    serum CRP, haptoglobin, and α-1-antitrypsin) were measured weekly. Serum creatinine was measured daily. Urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) was measured weekly...but its effects on acute-phase reactant and visceral protein metabolism are not known. The insulin infusion may have decreased the urinary nitrogen...journal for their assistance in editing this manuscript. REFERENCES 1. Demling RH, Seigne P. Metabolic management of patients with severe burns. World

  8. Insights into chirality distributions of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown on different CoxMg1-xO solid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jiang, Hua; Kauppi, Inkeri

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was achieved on two different types of Co xMg1-xO catalysts prepared by different techniques: atomic layer deposition (ALD) and impregnation. The chirality distribution of SWNTs grown on the ALD......-prepared CoxMg1-xO catalyst is wider than that of SWNTs grown on the impregnation-prepared CoxMg 1-xO catalyst. The different chirality distributions of SWNTs are related to their different growth modes. The ALD-prepared CoxMg 1-xO catalyzes the growth of SWNTs by "tip growth" mode, as revealed by in situ...... for the synthesis of SWNTs with high chiral-selectivity. In addition, impregnation-prepared Co xMg1-xO catalysts calcinated at different temperatures were systematically studied and their catalytic performances in synthesizing carbon nanotubes were elucidated. This work illustrates the influence of metal...

  9. Low-Temperature Sintering Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 Microwave Dielectric Ceramics with LMZBS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Huaiwu; Liu, Cheng; Su, Hua; Jia, Lijun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xin; Gan, Gongwen

    2018-05-01

    Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics doped with Li2O-MgO-ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 glass (LMZBS) were prepared via a solid-state route. The LMZBS glass effectively reduced the sintering temperature of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics to 950°C. The effects of the LMZBS glass on the sintering behavior, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics are discussed in detail. Among all the LMZBS doped Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics, the sample with 1 wt.% of LMZBS glass sintered at 950°C for 4 h exhibited good dielectric properties: ɛ r = 16.7, Q × f = 31,000 GHz (9.92 GHz), τ f = - 1.3 ppm/°C. The Li3Mg1.8Ca0.2NbO6 ceramics possessed excellent chemical compatibility with Ag electrodes, and could be applied in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications.

  10. The cytotoxicity of a 2-chloroethylnitrosourea analog of sarcosinamide in the SK-MG-1 human glioma cell line as a possible indicator for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, V.; Feindel, W.; Panasci, L.C. (Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-07-01

    The cytotoxicities of a new sarcosinamide analog of chloroethylnitrosourea (SarCNU) and of BCNU were examined in the glioma cell line SK-MG-1 in the presence or absence of excess concentrations of amino acids and sarcosinamide. The cytotoxicity of SarCNU, but not of BCNU, was significantly reduced in the presence of excess sarcosinamide. The stability of SarCNU was not significantly altered by increasing concentrations of sarcosinamide. In order to investigate the possibility that sarcosinamide inhibits the uptake of SarCNU, the transport of tritiated sarcosinamide was examined in SK-MG-1 cells. The uptake of 3H-sarcosinamide was inhibited by excess, unlabelled sarcosinamide and SarCNU but not by BCNU, glycine or sarcosine. These results suggest the existence of a carrier-mediated transport for sarcosinamide which can accomodate SarCNU in SK-MG-1 cells.

  11. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchenbuechler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  12. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  13. Altered morphology and function of the lacrimal functional unit in protein kinase C{alpha} knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout ((-/-)) mice have impaired ocular surface-lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα(-/-) mice. In PKCα(+/+) control mice and PKCα(-/-) mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Compared with the PKCα(+/+) mice, the PKCα(-/-) mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα(+/+) mice. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα(-/-) mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration.

  14. Studies of diluted antiferromagnets MnxMg1-xTiO3 with x=0.55 and 0.70 by muon spin relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, A.; Ito, A.; Torikai, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Nagamine, K.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal fields μSR measurements have been performed in order to probe the spin dynamics in the diluted antiferromagnets Mn x Mg 1-x TiO 3 with x=0.70 and 0.55. In the x=0.70 sample which forms the antiferromagnetic long-range order, the static and fluctuating fields coexist at the muon stopping site below T N . On the other hand, in the x=0.55 sample which shows the spin-glass behavior, the local fields fluctuate rather fast even below T SG . We infer that this drastic change occurs when Mn x Mg 1-x TiO 3 transforms from an antiferromagnetic system to a spin-glass system by dilution

  15. Evolution of the two-gap nature revealed in the upper critical field of Mg1-xAlxB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, H.-G.; Jo, Younghun; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kang, Byeongwon

    2007-01-01

    The temperature and the angular dependences of the upper critical field [H c2 (T,θ)] of Mg 1-x Al x B 2 single crystals (x=0.12 and 0.21) were studied. The H c2 (T,θ) was found to be well described by the dirty-limit two-gap theory. A quantitative comparison of the data with this theory indicated that Mg 1-x Al x B 2 single crystals preserved the two-gap nature but became dirtier. We also found that as the Al concentration was increased, anisotropic impurity scattering increased, making the σ bands less anisotropic. In addition, these results are compared with those of 10% C-doped MgB 2 single crystals

  16. Wiener-Hopf analysis of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers and of a related class of random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bayer; O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTwo variants of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers lead to the study of a random walk $bmsX_{n+1=ppart{bmsX_n+bmsxi_n$ where the integer-valued $bmsxi_n$ are not bounded from below or from above, and are distributed differently in the interior of the state-space and on the boundary.

  17. Microstructure, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation and cytotoxicity evaluations of Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys for biodegradable metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Qiu, Xin; Niu, Xiaodong; Tian, Zheng; Sun, Wei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Meng, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys were newly developed as degradable metallic biomaterials. A comprehensive investigation of the microstructure, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation assessments and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluations of the as-cast state, as-heat treated state and as-extruded state alloys was done. The microstructure observations show that the Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys are mainly composed of the matrix α-Mg phases and the Mg12ZnY secondary phases (LPS structure). The hot extrusion method significantly refined the grains and eliminated the defects of both as-cast and heat treated alloys and thereby contributed to the better mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The values of tensile strength and tensile yield strength of the alloy in the as-extruded condition are about 236 and 178 MPa respectively, with an excellent elongation of 28%. Meanwhile, the value of compressive strength is about 471 MPa and the value of bending strength is about 501 MPa. The superior bending strength further demonstrates the excellent ductility of the hot extruded alloys. The results of immersion tests and electrochemical measurements in the SBF indicate that a protective film precipitated on the alloy's surface with the extension of degradation. The protective film contains Mg(OH)2 and hydroxyapatite (HA) which can reinforce osteoblast activity and promote good biocompatibility. No significant cytotoxicity towards L-929 cells was detected and the immersion extracts of alloy samples could enhance the cell proliferation with time in the cytotoxicity evaluations, implying that the Mg-1.5Y-1.2Zn-0.44Zr alloys have the potential to be used for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift study of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$. Evidence for anisotropic Fermi surface

    OpenAIRE

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of $^{11}$B and $^{27}$Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates ($1/T_1$), as well as of $^{27}$Al Knight shift (K) of Mg$_{1-x}$Al$_x$B$_2$, $0\\leq x\\leq 1$. The obtained ($1/T_1T$) and K vs. x plots are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. This asserts experimentally the prediction that the Fermi surface is highly anisotropic, consisting mainly of hole-type 2-D cylindrical sheets from bonding $2p_{x,y}$ boron orbitals. It is also shown that the density ...

  19. Processing and properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3--PbTiO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantigate, C.; Lee, J.; Safari, A.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare in situ Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 (PMN) and PMN-PT thin films by pulsed laser deposition and to investigate the electrical features of thin films for possible dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and microactuator applications. The impact of processing parameters such compositions, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure on perovskite phase formation and dielectric characteristics were reported. It was found that the highest dielectric constant, measured at room temperature and 10 kHz, was attained from the PMN with 99% perovskite.

  20. Hydrogen storage of Mg1−xMxH2 (M = Ti, V, Fe) studied using first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhihi, M.; Lakhal, M.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.; Labrim, H.; Mounkachi, O.; Hlil, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the hydrogen storage properties of the Mg-based hydrides, i.e., Mg 1−x M x H 2 (M = Ti, V, Fe, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1), are studied using the Korringa—Kohn—Rostoker (KKR) calculation with the coherent potential approximation (CPA). In particular, the nature and concentrations of the alloying elements and their effects are studied. Moreover, the material's stability and hydrogen storage thermodynamic properties are discussed. In particular, we find that the stability and the temperature of desorption decrease without significantly affecting the storage capacities

  1. Superconducting properties of Zn and Al double-doped Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    (XRD), ac susceptibility, magnetization and resistivity. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c, and the T-c decreases with increasing dopant content. A systematical comparison with Al doped- and Li, Al double doped MgB2 of structure, superconducting transition......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.8) were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature (T-c) and transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction...

  2. Structural evolution in the ageing AlZn4,7Mg1,2 alloy after control heat treatment and fatigue investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lech-Grega, M.; Klyszewski, A. [Light Metals Div., Inst. of Non-Ferrous Metals, Skawina (Poland); Richert, M.; Buglacki, H.

    2000-07-01

    The changes of structure in the ageing AlZn4,7Mg1,2 (7020) alloy have been investigated by using TEM, after the heat treatment simulating the welding process and after fatigue investigation. The processes of coagulation of ZnMg{sub 2} precipitates, dissolution and natural ageing have been observed depending on the temperature of heat treatment in the range of 250-450 C and number of fatigue cycles. Dislocations and slip bands in fatigue materials were also observed. These phenomena which influence the strength hardening and residual stress fields decide about the properties of the welded joints. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural evolution of direct chill cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy during solution treatment

    OpenAIRE

    He Kezhun; Yu Fuxiao; Zhao Dazhi

    2011-01-01

    Heat treatment has important influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys. The most common used heat treatment method for these alloys is solution treatment followed by age-hardening. This paper investigates the microstructural evolution of a direct chill (DC) cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy after solution treated at 500, 510, 520 and 530℃, respectively for different times. The major phases observed in the as-cast alloy are α-aluminum dendrite, primary Si p...

  4. Solid-state epitaxial effects in structurally diphasic xerogel of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranathan, P.; Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate (PMN), Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , with perovskite structure has been prepared using structurally diphasic PMN gels. The diphasic gels were made using various concentrations of perovskite PMN seeds. The unseeded gel calcined at 775 degrees C for 2 h gave ∼ 98% of perovskite PMN phase. The use of 1% PMN perovskite seed not only led to a pure perovskite phase but also lowered the crystallization temperature of these gels by about 75 degrees C. These results show that isostructural seeding helps to lower the crystallization temperature of perovskite PMN phase

  5. A Study on Microstructural Change and Properties of Mg-1.4 wt%Ca-xwt%Zn Alloys by Two-Step Solid Solution and Aging Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seong Mo; Kim, Hye Sung; Jeong, Ha-Guk; Kim, Teak-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Optimum heat treatment conditions to improve the hardness and corrosion resistance of ternary Mg-Ca-Zn alloys have been studied, based on the theoretical models and DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) experimental data. Two-step heating process at 420 ℃ and 480 ℃ has been applied and we have found that the low melting point phase, Ca_2Mg_6Zn_3 can effectively be dissolved into α-Mg matrix without premature melting. Due to preceding treatment at lower temperature followed by the second stage solid solution heat treatment at 480 ℃, Mg-1.4 wt%Ca-xwt%Zn alloys (x=0, 1.5 and 4.0) exhibit improved corrosion resistance than that from the single step solid solution treated alloy at 480 ℃. However, aging treatment of the alloy at 200 ℃ has led to the homogeneous precipitation of Ca_2Mg_6Zn_3 and Mg_2Ca phases in the matrix as well as at the grain boundary. This microstructural change results in the deterioration of corrosion resistance mainly originated from galvanic corrosion between the matrix and the precipitates. The hardness of Mg-1.4%Cax%Zn alloy, on the other hand, significantly increases with Zn addition by applying two-step solid solution and aging heat treatment.

  6. Structure and superconductivity of double-doped Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffract......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Al0.5Li0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6) were prepared by a solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature and magneto-transport properties were investigated by means of X......-ray diffraction (XRD), ac-susceptibility and resistance in varied magnetic fields. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c. The superconducting transition temperature (T-c) decreases with double doping, but the T-c is systematically higher than that of the single Al......-doped samples. It is suggested that the hole band filling has little effect on T-c at high doping level, while the disorder induced by doping plays an important role in suppressing T-c. A systematic comparison with Al-doped MgB2 of the structure, superconducting transition and irreversibility field is made. (C...

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of Mg-Zn ferrites (Mg1−xZnxFe2O4) prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Pamela Yajaira; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, Héctor Javier; Jasso-Terán, Argentina; De León-Prado, Laura Elena; Méndez-Nonell, Juan; Hurtado-López, Gilberto Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Mg 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 nanoparticles (x=0–0.9) were prepared by sol-gel method. These ferrites exhibit an inverse spinel structure and the lattice parameter increases as the substitution of Zn 2+ ions is increased. At lower Zn content (0.1≤x≤0.5), saturation magnetization (Ms) increases, while it decreases at higher Zn content (x≥6). The remnant magnetization (0.17–2.0 emu/g) and coercive field (6.0–60 Oe) indicate a ferrimagnetic behavior. The average core diameter of selected ferrites is around 15 nm and the nanoparticles morphology is quasi spherical. The heating ability of some Mg 0.9 Zn 0.1 Fe 2 O 4 and Mg 0.7 Zn 0.3 Fe 2 O 4 aqueous suspensions indicates that the magnetic nanoparticles can increase the medium temperature up to 42 °C in a time less than 10 min - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles of Mg 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 were synthesized by sol-gel method. • Nanoparticles showing a single spinel crystalline structure were obtained. • Aqueous suspensions of Mg 0.7 Zn 0.3 Fe 2 O 4 and Mg 0.9 Zn 0.1 Fe 2 O 4 show heating ability.

  8. An overlapping region between the two terminal folding units of the outer surface protein A (OspA) controls its folding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Koki; Nakamura, Takashi; Dhar, Debanjan; Ikura, Teikichi; Koide, Shohei; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2018-04-27

    Although many naturally occurring proteins consist of multiple domains, most studies on protein folding to date deal with single-domain proteins or isolated domains of multi-domain proteins. Studies of multi-domain protein folding are required for further advancing our understanding of protein folding mechanisms. Borrelia outer surface protein A (OspA) is a β-rich two-domain protein, in which two globular domains are connected by a rigid and stable single-layer β-sheet. Thus, OspA is particularly suited as a model system for studying the interplays of domains in protein folding. Here, we studied the equilibria and kinetics of the urea-induced folding-unfolding reactions of OspA probed with tryptophan fluorescence and ultraviolet circular dichroism. Global analysis of the experimental data revealed compelling lines of evidence for accumulation of an on-pathway intermediate during kinetic refolding and for the identity between the kinetic intermediate and a previously described equilibrium unfolding intermediate. The results suggest that the intermediate has the fully native structure in the N-terminal domain and the single layer β-sheet, with the C-terminal domain still unfolded. The observation of the productive on-pathway folding intermediate clearly indicates substantial interactions between the two domains mediated by the single-layer β-sheet. We propose that a rigid and stable intervening region between two domains creates an overlap between two folding units and can energetically couple their folding reactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Structural disorder and electronic hybridization in NicMg1-cO solid solutions probed by XANES at the oxygen K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongliang; Zhong Jun; Chu Wangsheng; Wu Ziyu; Kuzmin, Alexei; Mironova-Ulmane, Nina; Marcelli, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    A series of Ni c Mg 1-c O solid solutions has been studied for the first time looking at the structural disorder by means of x-ray absorption near-edge-structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the oxygen K edge. The experimental XANES signals were analysed within the full multiple scattering formalism and were interpreted taking into account clusters of up to 15 coordination shells around an absorbing oxygen atom. The substitution of nickel atoms by magnesium atoms results in a dramatic decrease of the empty density of states in the conduction band close to the Fermi level due to an exchange of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) interaction with 3p(Mg)-2p(O). Besides, a simultaneous small decrease of the 3d(Ni)-2p(O) hybridization is also induced by the lattice expansion, determined by the difference in ionic radii between nickel and magnesium ions

  10. Some of Physical Properties of Nanostructured (Mg1-xCoxFe2O4 Ferrites Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Ammer Alsherefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel auto combustion technique was used to prepare nanoparticles of magnesium-cobalt ferrites with the chemical formula Mg1-xCoxFe2O4 for  (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, where x added as weight  percentages, and sintering  at temperature (1100 oC. The X-ray patterns of prepared powder has confirmed the structure of cubic spinel structure (fcc. The prepared samples were composed of nearly spherical nano particles .An average particle size of  magnesium-cobalt ferrite  were  calculated  using  Debye Scherer’s relation is equal 53.12 nm. The surface structure of the samples was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM. The electromagnetic properties for prepared samples were investigated using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA in X-band microwave region.

  11. Local hysteresis and grain size effect in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- PbTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsman, V. V.; Emelyanov, A. Yu.; Kholkin, A. L.; Safari, A.

    2002-07-01

    The local piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectric films of solid solutions 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- 0.1PbTiO3 were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM) in a piezoelectric contact mode. The piezoelectric hysteresis loops were acquired in the interior of grains of different sizes. A clear correlation between the values of the effective piezoelectric coefficients, deff, and the size of the respective grains is observed. Small grains exhibit slim piezoelectric hysteresis loops with low remanent deff, whereas relatively strong piezoelectric activity is characteristic of larger grains. Part of the grains (approx20-25%) is strongly polarized without application of a dc field. The nature of both phenomena is discussed in terms of the internal bias field and grain size effects on the dynamics of nanopolar clusters.

  12. Electromechanical behavior of [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu. U.; Priya, Shashank

    2012-05-01

    [001]-textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were synthesized by using templated grain growth method. Significantly high [001] texture degree corresponding to 0.98 Lotgering factor was achieved at 1 vol. % BaTiO3 template. Electromechanical properties for [001]-textured PMN-PT ceramics with 1 vol. % BaTiO3 were found to be d33 = 1000 pC/N, d31 = 371 pC/N, ɛr = 2591, and tanδ = ˜0.6%. Elastoelectric composite based modeling results showed that higher volume fraction of template reduces the overall dielectric constant and thus has adverse effect on the piezoelectric response. Clamping effect was modeled by deriving the changes in free energy as a function of applied electric field and microstructural boundary condition.

  13. Direct observation of the near-surface layer in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, K.H.; Whan, T.; Fox, J.H.; Luo, H.; Viehland, D.; Li, J.F.; Stock, C.; Shirane, G.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially resolved neutron diffraction as a function of crystal depth in Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 reveals the presence of a distinct near-surface region where a strong distortion in the lattice exists. A dramatic change in both the lattice constant and the Bragg peak intensity as a function of crystal depth is observed to occur in this region over a length scale ∼100 μm. This confirms a previous assertion, based on a comparison between high-energy x rays and neutrons, that such a near surface region exists in the relaxors. Consequences to both single crystal and powder diffraction measurements and previous bulk neutron diffraction measurements on large single crystals are discussed

  14. Local and average structures of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - 0.3PbZrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, P.S.R.; Shinde, A.B.; Narasimhan, S.L.; Tiwari, V.S.; Singh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The local and average structure of 0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.3PbZrO 3 (PMN-PZ) was studied by neutron diffraction. The Rietveld refinement was carried out to determine the average, long-range crystallographic structure, while the pair density function (PDF) analysis was used in studying the local atomic structure. The local atomic structure determined by the PDF analysis, was found to be significantly different from the average crystallographic structure determined by the Rietveld analysis. These results show that the conflict between the local structural preference and the average structure is not limited to relax or ferroelectric oxides, but may be widely prevalent in mixed-ion ferroelectrics. (author)

  15. DAFS study of local structure of ordered nanodomains in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.I.; Robinson, I.K.; Robinson, I.K.; Adler, D.L.; Cross, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    We have performed a Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS) study of a single crystal of the relaxor ferroelectric PbMg 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 . DAFS measurements were performed at the Nb K edge on a half-order Bragg reflection originating from the 1:1 ordered nanodomains. DAFS data analysis provided us with the local structure around Nb atoms in the ordered nanodomains. The Nb-O distance in the ordered region was determined to be 0.052(10) Angstrom shorter than half the lattice parameter of the bulk crystal, in good agreement with one model of the ferroelectric phase transition broadening [JETP 84, 994 (1997)]. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Fatigue properties of piezoelectric-electrostrictive Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 monolithic bilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-11-01

    The fatigue response of monolithic piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3-electrostrictive 0.90Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 bilayer composites was investigated experimentally. The monomorph bilayers were cosintered at 1150°C, and the polarization hysteresis, relative permittivity, displacement, and cyclic fatigue (107cycles) were measured as a function of piezoelectric-electrostrictive volume fraction (PEVF) ratio. The highest tip displacement of bilayers was found in the 3:1 PEVF monolith, reaching 40μm at 5kV/cm applied field strength. By minimizing the electrostrictive layer thickness, tip displacement substantially increased, while maintaining a lower hysteresis than the purely piezoelectric counterpart. Fatigue measurements indicated a 31% decrease in displacement after 107cycles in 3:1 monoliths, whereas the 1:3 PEVF only showed a 12% decrease under the same conditions. There is a 30% increase in polarization after 107cycles for 1:1 PEVF bilayers, which is attributed to self-poling due to a diffuse transition layer in the vicinity of the interface. It was found that partial 90° domain switching occurred prior to poling because of the residual stresses in the composite, imposed by the electrostrictive layer and the spontaneous strain associated with the cubic-tetragonal transition in the ferroelectric layer. The results indicate that the electrostrictive layer, which is electrically in series with the piezoelectric one, enhances the fatigue resistance of the monolithic bilayer composites in addition to the increase in tip displacement.

  17. Electrical transport in low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. SUCHANICZ; K. KONIECZNY; K. ŚWIERCZEK; M. LIPIŃSKI; M. KARPIERZ; D. SITKO; H. CZTERNASTEK; K. KLUCZEWSKA

    2017-01-01

    Low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.15) were prepared by the conventional oxide mixed sintering process, and their optical band gap, Seebeck coefficient, ac ( σac ) and dc ( σdc ) conductivities as a function of temperature were investigated for the first time. It was found that all samples have p-type conductivity. The low-frequency (20 Hz–2 MHz) ac conductivity obeys a power law σac ~ ωs , which is characteristic for disordered materials. The frequency exponent s is a decreasing function of temperature and tends to zero at high temperature. σac is proportional to ω0.07 – ω0.31 in the low-frequency region and to ω0.51 – ω0.98 in the high-temperature region. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity showed a change in slope around the temperature at which the phase transition appeared. Both ac and dc conductivities showed a thermally activated character and possessed linear parts with different activation energies and some irregular changes. It was found that the hopping charge carriers dominate at low temperature and small polarons and oxygen vacancies dominate at higher temperature. (1-x)BaTiO3–xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics are expected to be promising new candidate for low-lead electronic materials.

  18. A triclinic crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein with four molecules in the asymmetric unit reveals a novel packing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The triclinic structure of the HIV-1 capsid protein contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit that form a novel packing interface that could conceivably resemble an intermediate structure that is involved in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs

  19. Influence of the heat treatment condition of alloy AlCu4Mg1 on the microstructure and properties of anodic oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Dietrich, D.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, high-strength, age-hardenable aluminum alloys offer a high potential for lightweight security-related applications. However, the use of copper-alloyed aluminum is limited because of their susceptibility to selective corrosion and their low wear resistance. These restrictions can be overcome and new applications can be opened up by the generation of protective anodic aluminum oxide layers. In contrast to the anodic oxidation of unalloyed aluminum, oxide layers produced on copper-rich alloys exhibit a significantly more complex pore structure. It is the aim of the investigation to identify the influence of microstructural parameters such as size and distribution of the strengthening precipitations on the coating microstructure. The aluminum alloy EN AW-2024 (AlCu4Mg1) in different heat treatment conditions serves as substrate material. The influence of the strengthening precipitations’ size and distribution on the development of the pore structure is investigated by the use of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Integral coating properties are characterized by non-destructive and light-microscopic thickness measurements and instrumented indentation tests.

  20. Solution Treatment Effect on Tensile, Impact and Fracture Behaviour of Trace Zr Added Al-12Si-1Mg-1Cu Piston Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Md. Salim

    2018-04-01

    The effects of T6 solution treatment on tensile, impact and fracture properties of cast Al-12Si-1Mg-1Cu piston alloys with trace of zirconium were investigated. Cast alloys were given precipitation strengthening treatment having a sequence of homogenizing, solutionizing, quenching and ageing. Both cast and solutionized samples are isochronally aged for 90 min at different temperatures up to 300 °C. Tensile and impact properties of the differently processed alloys have been studied to understand the precipitation strengthening of the alloys. Fractograpy of the alloys were observed to understand the mode of fracture. It is observed that the improvement in tensile properties in the aged alloys through heat treatment is mainly attributed to the formation of the Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates within the Al matrix. Solution treatment improves the tensile strength for the reason that during solution treatment some alloying elements are re-dissolved to produce a solute-rich solid solution. Impact energy decreases with ageing temperature due to formation of GP zones, β' and β precipitates. The fractography shows large and small dimple structure and broken or cracked primary Si, particles. Microstructure study of alloys revealed that the solution treatment improved distribution of silicon grains. The addition of Zr produces an improvement in the tensile properties as a result of its grain refining action and grain coarsening resistance in the matrix at a higher temperature.

  1. Mössbauer spectroscopy of ZnxMg1-x Fe2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanostructures crystallized from borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shabrawy, S.; Miglierini, M.; Schaaf, P.; Tzankov, D.; Georgieva, M.; Harizanova, R.; Rüssel, C.

    2018-03-01

    Glasses in the system 51.7 B2O3/9.3 K2O/1 P2O5/10.4 Fe2O3/(27.6 - y) MgO/y ZnO (with y = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 13.8, and 20) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching method. The glass samples were thermally treated at 560 °C for 3 h in ambient conditions. Using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, the effect of the substitution of MgO by ZnO in the glass network and the effect on the precipitated crystallized phase was studied. The results showed that the ratio of Zn2+:Mg2+ in the precipitated crystals increases with the ZnO concentration in the glass. The isomer shift values indicated that iron occurs as Fe3+, which is distributed at the tetrahedral (A) and the octahedral [B] sites. Introducing ZnO leads to a relative increase of the Fe3+ concentration at the B sites at the expense of that occupying the A sites. This indicates the precipitation of ZnxMg1-x Fe2O4 nanoparticles, where Zn2+ ions favorably occupy the A sites. The average hyperfine field of the samples showed a strong dependence on the Zn concentration. At the highest Zn concentration of 13.8 and 20 mol%, the samples are paramagnetic, while for the smaller ones, the samples are superparamagnetic.

  2. Far-infrared spectroscopy in ordered and disordered BaMg1/3Nb2/3O3 microwave ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Anderson; Moreira, Roberto Luiz

    2003-09-01

    Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with suitable microwave dielectric properties for application in wireless communications and information access technologies were studied by far-infrared spectroscopy. Samples with different B-site ordering degrees, obtained by hydrothermal synthesis followed by sintering at various temperatures, were employed in this investigation. The sixteen infrared modes predicted by factor-group analysis were observed and adjusted according to a four-parameter semiquantum model. The dispersion parameters were determined in order to calculate the real part of the dielectric permittivity and the quality factors associated with the dielectric losses in the microwave region. The materials exhibited increasing ɛ0 and Q values up to 1100 °C, increasing more substantially when the temperature attained 1300 °C. The B-site ordering played an important role on this behavior along with the microstructural evolution above 1100 °C (grain growth), which also increased the phonon lifetime and contributed to the Q improvement. Kramers-Kronig analyses were carried out in all experimental data and the contributions of the main optical polar modes to the dielectric and microwave properties were carefully analyzed in order to identify and attribute the Ba-BO3 external mode, the inner modes related to the O-Mg-O and O-Nb-O bending vibrations, and the stretching modes of each MgO6 and NbO6 octahedron.

  3. Epitaxial Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 thin films synthesized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, G. R.; Streiffer, S. K.; Baumann, P. K.; Auciello, O.; Ghosh, K.; Stemmer, S.; Munkholm, A.; Thompson, Carol; Rao, R. A.; Eom, C. B.

    2000-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was used to prepare Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) thin films on (001) SrTiO 3 and SrRuO 3 /SrTiO 3 substrates, using solid Mg β-diketonate as the Mg precursor. Parameters including the precursor ratio in the vapor phase, growth temperature, growth rate, and reaction pressure in the reactor chamber were varied in order to determine suitable growth conditions for producing phase-pure, epitaxial PMN films. A cube-on-cube orientation relationship between the thin film and the SrTiO 3 substrate was found, with a (001) rocking curve width of 0.1 degree sign , and in-plane rocking-curve width of 0.8 degree sign . The root-mean-square surface roughness of a 200-nm-thick film on SrTiO 3 was 2 to 3 nm as measured by scanning probe microscopy. The zero-bias dielectric constant and loss measured at room temperature and 10 kHz for a 200-nm-thick film on SrRuO 3 /SrTiO 3 were approximately 1100 and 2%, respectively. The remnant polarization for this film was 16 μC/cm 2 . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Broad range tuning of structural and optical properties of Znx Mg1−x O nanostructures grown by vapor transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanjaria, Jignesh V; Azhar, Ebraheem Ali; Yu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) Zn x Mg 1−x O nanomaterials have drawn global attention due to their remarkable chemical and physical properties, and their diverse current and future technological applications. In this work, 1D ZnMgO nanostructures with different magnesium concentrations and different morphologies were grown directly on zinc oxide-coated silicon substrates by thermal evaporation of zinc oxide, magnesium boride and graphite powders. Highly well-defined Mg-rich ZnMgO nanorods with a rock salt structure and Zn-rich ZnMgO nanostructures with a wurtzite structure have been deposited individually by careful optimization of the source mixture and process parameters. Structural and optical properties of the deposited products were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrate strong dominant peaks at 3.3 eV in Mg poor ZnMgO nanostructures and 4.8 eV in Mg rich nanostructures implying that the ZnMgO nanostructures can be used for the fabrication of deep UV optoelectronic devices. A mechanism for the formation and achieved diverse morphology of the ZnMgO nanostructures was proposed based on the characterization results. (paper)

  5. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Johnny; HarÐarson, HörÐur Kári; Khan, Sanaullah

    2017-01-01

    -exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14–4.9 MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0–5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold......, respectively, in the complexation with native β-lactoglobulin at pH 4.0. Highest RUmax and KA,app were obtained with heat-treated β-lactoglobulin and β-casein, respectively. Overall, RUmax and KA,app decreased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, with increasing pH from 4.0 to 5.0. KA,app was influenced by ionic......Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero...

  6. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-protein diet for chronic kidney disease in the Caserta Local Health Unit: the SaniARP Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Troncone

    2015-06-01

    disease has increased. Currently, these products are not yet contemplated in the essential levels of assistance but the Italian regions deliver, low-protein food discretionally using their own funds. The Campania Region, in 2010, interrupted the distribution of these products. With the exception of Caserta which took up distribution again in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe an initiative put in place by Caserta which has decided to invest in prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A treatment plan for the distribution designed by a team of in-house nephrologists and data are recorded using Saniarp, a web-based platform. RESULTS: In the observation period patients with a prescription of low-protein food products were 869. The mean age was 61 years. The average cost patient / month for the nutritional treatment was 59 Euro. The average cost patient / month for any type of drug was 632 Euro. In particular, 48 Euro for EPO, 277 Euro for Chelate Agents, 16 Euro for antihypertensive therapy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The policy put in place by the LHU Caserta improved care of kidney patients. The results available to date are still incomplete and do not enable us to clearly assess the benefits both in clinical and economic terms which can be produced by a low-protein diet in kidney patients. In the perspective of third party payers to budget this expense it appears entirely sustainable especially in view of the fact that this dietary treatment might delay the onset of dialysis therapy and lead to lower comorbidity for the patient.

  8. Microstructural evolution of direct chill cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy during solution treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Kezhun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment has important influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys. The most common used heat treatment method for these alloys is solution treatment followed by age-hardening. This paper investigates the microstructural evolution of a direct chill (DC cast Al-15.5Si-4Cu-1Mg-1Ni-0.5Cr alloy after solution treated at 500, 510, 520 and 530℃, respectively for different times. The major phases observed in the as-cast alloy are α-aluminum dendrite, primary Si particle, eutectic Si, Al7Cu4Ni, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 and Al2Cu. The Al2Cu phase dissolves completely after being solution treated for 2 h at 500℃, while the eutectic Si, Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al15(Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu4Si2 phases are insoluble. In addition, the Al7Cu4Ni phase is substituted by the Al3CuNi phase. The α-aluminum dendrite network disappears when the solution temperature is increased to 530℃. Incipient melting of the Al2Cu-rich eutectic mixture occurrs at 520℃, and melting of the Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al3CuNi phases is observed at a solution temperature of 530℃. The void formation of the structure and deterioration of the mechanical properties are found in samples solution treated at 530℃.

  9. Folding units in calcium vector protein of amphioxus: Structural and functional properties of its amino- and carboxy-terminal halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, S; Tsvetkov, P O; Petrova, T V; Takagi, T; Sakamoto, H; Lobachov, V M; Makarov, A A; Cox, J A

    2001-04-01

    Muscle of amphioxus contains large amounts of a four EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein, CaVP, and its target, CaVPT. To study the domain structure of CaVP and assess the structurally important determinants for its interaction with CaVPT, we expressed CaVP and its amino (N-CaVP) and carboxy-terminal halves (C-CaVP). The interactive properties of recombinant and wild-type CaVP are very similar, despite three post-translational modifications in the wild-type protein. N-CaVP does not bind Ca2+, shows a well-formed hydrophobic core, and melts at 44 degrees C. C-CaVP binds two Ca2+ with intrinsic dissociation constants of 0.22 and 140 microM (i.e., very similar to the entire CaVP). The metal-free domain in CaVP and C-CaVP shows no distinct melting transition, whereas its 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+) forms melt in the 111 degrees -123 degrees C range, suggesting that C-CaVP and the carboxy- domain of CaVP are natively unfolded in the metal-free state and progressively gain structure upon binding of 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+. Thermal denaturation studies provide evidence for interdomain interaction: the apo, 1Ca2+ and 2Ca2+ states of the carboxy-domain destabilize to different degrees the amino-domain. Only C-CaVP forms a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 complex with CaVPT. Our results suggest that the carboxy-terminal domain of CaVP interacts with CaVPT and that the amino-terminal lobe modulates this interaction.

  10. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of blood serum immunoglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations in workers of X-ray diagnostics units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klucinski, P.; Martirosian, G.; Mazur, B.; Kaufman, J.; Hrycek, A.; Cieslak, P.

    2005-01-01

    Workers of X-rays departments are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational exposure of low-level X-ray radiation on immunoglobulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in radiology workers. In the study group of 41 X-ray department workers and the control group composed of 32 persons, immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG,IgA) and CPR concentrations were analyzed. The study group was subdivided by gender and smoking habit. A significant decrease in IgG level was found in the workers and the female subgroup. The same observation was made when smokers and nonsmokers of both groups were compared. Smoking workers showed lower concentrations of IgA than non-smokers. Occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is associated with suppressive influence on the immunoglobulin production, especially IgG. In addition, smoking decreases the production of IgA in radiology workers. (author)

  12. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N.; Drouiche, N.; Lounici, H.; Pauss, A.; Goosen, M.F.A.; Mameri, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5–2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 °C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m −2 bar −1 . However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: ► Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. ► Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. ► Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. ► Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. ► The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  13. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  14. Extent and effects of recurrent shortages of purified-protein derivative tuberculin skin test antigen solutions - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Two purified-protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin skin test (TST) antigen solutions are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Tubersol (Sanofi Pasteur Limited) and Aplisol (JHP Pharmaceuticals, LLC). Tubersol was out of production in late 2012 through April 2013. Shortages of Aplisol have resulted from increased demand as practitioners have sought a substitute for Tubersol. Tubersol production resumed in May 2013, and supplies had been nearly restored by early June. However, in mid-July, state tuberculosis (TB) control officials notified CDC of difficulty obtaining Tubersol and Aplisol. Sanofi Pasteur notified FDA of a temporary delay in the availability of tuberculin in the 10-dose and 50-dose presentations. In mid-October, the 10-dose presentation was being returned to market, on allocation, which means that historical purchasing practices determine the amount that customers are allotted. In late October, the 50-dose presentation was being returned to market, also on allocation, one vial per historical customer per month. Supplies are forecast to approach normal during January 2014, after distributors have restored their supply chains. A compensatory surge in testing after deferment of testing during the periods of shortage might cause further temporary instability of supplies. In mid-August 2013, officials in 29 of 52 U.S. jurisdictions noted a shortage of at least one PPD TST antigen solution in health departments to the extent that it interrupted activities. This report includes a summary of the extent and effects of the shortages and a reiteration of advice on how to adapt to them.

  15. mPUMA: a computational approach to microbiota analysis by de novo assembly of operational taxonomic units based on protein-coding barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Chaban, Bonnie; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Muirhead, Kevin; Hill, Janet E

    2013-08-15

    Formation of operational taxonomic units (OTU) is a common approach to data aggregation in microbial ecology studies based on amplification and sequencing of individual gene targets. The de novo assembly of OTU sequences has been recently demonstrated as an alternative to widely used clustering methods, providing robust information from experimental data alone, without any reliance on an external reference database. Here we introduce mPUMA (microbial Profiling Using Metagenomic Assembly, http://mpuma.sourceforge.net), a software package for identification and analysis of protein-coding barcode sequence data. It was developed originally for Cpn60 universal target sequences (also known as GroEL or Hsp60). Using an unattended process that is independent of external reference sequences, mPUMA forms OTUs by DNA sequence assembly and is capable of tracking OTU abundance. mPUMA processes microbial profiles both in terms of the direct DNA sequence as well as in the translated amino acid sequence for protein coding barcodes. By forming OTUs and calculating abundance through an assembly approach, mPUMA is capable of generating inputs for several popular microbiota analysis tools. Using SFF data from sequencing of a synthetic community of Cpn60 sequences derived from the human vaginal microbiome, we demonstrate that mPUMA can faithfully reconstruct all expected OTU sequences and produce compositional profiles consistent with actual community structure. mPUMA enables analysis of microbial communities while empowering the discovery of novel organisms through OTU assembly.

  16. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2018-02-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2 H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3 R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2 V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å ( I) ( hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(10 10). The crystal structure of kampelite was

  17. Hydrogen absorption in Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 alloy prepared with mechanical alloying and thermal treatment; Absorcion de hidrogeno en la aleacion Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 preparada por aleado mecanico y tratamiento termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Bonifacio; Urena Nunez, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.bonifacio@inin.gob.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work presents hydrogen absorption in quaternary alloy Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 obtained by the mechanical alloying method, followed by thermal treatment in ultra-high pure argon atmosphere. The composition of the phases, microstructure and morphology of ground powders and with thermal treatment were characterized by DRX, SEM/EDS and TEM. After 20 hours of mechanical grinding and recooked at 300 degrees Celsius/1h in argon atmosphere, the quaternary alloy has a Mg{sub 2}Ni crystalline hexagonal structure with a crystallite size under 10 nm. The absorption measurements were performed under a pressure of 0.2 to 1.2 MPa at a temperature of 200 degrees Celsius in a micro-reactor. The quantification of absorption-desorption of hydrogen in the intermetallic was conducted in a TGA-DSC simultaneous calorimeter. Metallic hydride-dehydride powder was characterized with SEM and XRD. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la absorcion de hidrogeno en la aleacion cuaternaria Mg1.95Ti0.05Ni0.95Cu0.05 obtenida por el metodo de aleado mecanico, seguida de tratamiento termico en atmosfera de argon de ultra alta pureza. La composicion de las fases, microestructura y morfologia de los polvos molidos y con tratamiento termico fue caracterizada por DRX, SEM/EDS y TEM. Despues de 20 h de molienda mecanica con recocido a 300 grados Celsios/1h en atmosfera de argon, la aleacion cuaternaria tiene una estructura cristalina hexagonal Mg{sub 2}Ni con tamano de cristalito menor a 10 nm. Las mediciones de absorcion fueron realizadas bajo una presion de 0.2 a 1.2 MPa a una temperatura de 200 grados Celsios en un micro-reactor. La cuantificacion de absorcion-desorcion de hidrogeno en el intermetalico se realizo en un calorimetro simultaneo TGA-DSC. Se determino que la cantidad maxima absorbida de hidrogeno en la aleacion cuaternaria fue de 3.24% en peso cuando la presion fue de 0.8 MPa a dicha temperatura. Polvos metalicos hidrurados-deshidrurados se caracterizaron por SEM y XRD.

  18. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhu, K.; Liu, Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence

  19. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2016-01-01

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain

  20. The PP4R1 sub-unit of protein phosphatase PP4 is essential for inhibition of NF-κB by merkel polyomavirus small tumour antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Müller, Marietta; Mehta, Rajni; Toth, Rachel; Arthur, J Simon C; Whitehouse, Adrian; Macdonald, Andrew

    2017-04-11

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. The majority of MCC cases are caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), through expression of the virus-encoded tumour antigens. Whilst mechanisms attributing tumour antigen expression to transformation are being uncovered, little is known of the mechanisms by which MCPyV persists in the host. We previously identified the MCPyV small T antigen (tAg) as a novel inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signalling and a modulator of the host anti-viral response. Here we demonstrate that regulation of NF-kB activation involves a previously undocumented interaction between tAg and regulatory sub-unit 1 of protein phosphatase 4 (PP4R1). Formation of a complex with PP4R1 and PP4c is required to bridge MCPyV tAg to the NEMO adaptor protein, allowing deactivation of the NF-kB pathway. Mutations in MCPyV tAg that fail to interact with components of this complex, or siRNA depletion of PP4R1, prevents tAg-mediated inhibition of NF-kB and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Comparison of tAg binding partners from other human polyomavirus demonstrates that interactions with NEMO and PP4R1 are unique to MCPyV. Collectively, these data identify PP4R1 as a novel target for virus subversion of the host anti-viral response.

  1. Multiorgan detection and characterization of protease-resistant prion protein in a case of variant CJD examined in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Notari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD is a prion disease thought to be acquired by the consumption of prion-contaminated beef products. To date, over 200 cases have been identified around the world, but mainly in the United Kingdom. Three cases have been identified in the United States; however, these subjects were likely exposed to prion infection elsewhere. Here we report on the first of these subjects.Neuropathological and genetic examinations were carried out using standard procedures. We assessed the presence and characteristics of protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res in brain and 23 other organs and tissues using immunoblots performed directly on total homogenate or following sodium phosphotungstate precipitation to increase PrP(res detectability. The brain showed a lack of typical spongiform degeneration and had large plaques, likely stemming from the extensive neuronal loss caused by the long duration (32 months of the disease. The PrP(res found in the brain had the typical characteristics of the PrP(res present in vCJD. In addition to the brain and other organs known to be prion positive in vCJD, such as the lymphoreticular system, pituitary and adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract, PrP(res was also detected for the first time in the dura mater, liver, pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus, and skin.Our results indicate that the number of organs affected in vCJD is greater than previously realized and further underscore the risk of iatrogenic transmission in vCJD.

  2. Characterization of thin films of the solid electrolyte Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Mees, Maarten J; Rosciano, Fabio; Radu, Iuliana P; Stesmans, Andre

    2015-11-21

    RF-sputtered thin films of spinel Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 were investigated for use as solid electrolyte. The usage of this material can enable the fabrication of a lattice matched battery stack, which is predicted to lead to superior battery performance. Spinel Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 thin films, with stoichiometry (x) ranging between 0 and 0.25, were formed after a crystallization anneal as shown by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The stoichiometry of the films was evaluated by elastic recoil detection and Rutherford backscattering and found to be slightly aluminum rich. The excellent electronic insulation properties were confirmed by both current-voltage measurements as well as by copper plating tests. The electrochemical stability window of the material was probed using cyclic voltammetry. Lithium plating and stripping was observed together with the formation of a Li-Pt alloy, indicating that Li-ions passed through the film. This observation contradicted with impedance measurements at open circuit potential, which showed no apparent Li-ion conductivity of the film. Impedance spectroscopy as a function of potential showed the occurrence of Li-ion intercalation into the Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 layers. When incorporating Li-ions in the material the ionic conductivity can be increased by 3 orders of magnitude. Therefore it is anticipated that the response of Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 is more adequate for a buffer layer than as the solid electrolyte.

  3. Formation process of micro arc oxidation coatings obtained in a sodium phytate containing solution with and without CaCO{sub 3} on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, Y.Q. [Zhejiang DunAn Light Alloy Technology CO,.LTD, Zhuji 311835 (China); Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Zhang, S.F.; Qu, B. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Guo, S.B. [Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Xiang, J.H., E-mail: xiangjunhuai@163.com [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compared to the Mg phase, the area of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase is much smaller. • The coatings are preferentially developed on the area adjacent to Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. • During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed. • Anodic coatings are developed from uneven to uniform. - Abstract: Micro arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In order to reveal the influence of alloying element Ca and CaCO{sub 3} electrolyte on the formation process and chemical compositions of MAO coatings on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy, anodic coatings after different anodizing times were prepared on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy in a base solution containing 3 g/L sodium hydroxide and 15 g/L sodium phytate with and without addition of CaCO{sub 3}. The coating formation was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that Mg-1.0Ca alloy is composed of two phases, the Mg phase and Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. After treating for 5 s, the coating began to develop and was preferentially formed on the area nearby Mg{sub 2}Ca phase, which may be resulted from the intrinsic electronegative potential of the Mg phase than that of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. Anodic coatings unevenly covered the total surface after 20 s. After 80 s, the coatings were uniformly developed on Mg-1.0Ca alloy with micro pores. During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed into inorganic phosphate. CaCO{sub 3} has minor influence on the calcium content of the obtained MAO coatings.

  4. S100 calcium binding protein B as a biomarker of delirium duration in the intensive care unit – an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan BA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babar A Khan,1–3 Mark O Farber,1 Noll Campbell,2–5 Anthony Perkins,2,3 Nagendra K Prasad,6 Siu L Hui,1–3 Douglas K Miller,1–3 Enrique Calvo-Ayala,1 John D Buckley,1 Ruxandra Ionescu,1 Anantha Shekhar,1 E Wesley Ely,7,8 Malaz A Boustani1–3 1Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 4Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, 5Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, 6Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, 7Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center (GRECC, Nashville, TN, USA Background: Currently, there are no valid and reliable biomarkers to identify delirious patients predisposed to longer delirium duration. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100β levels will be associated with longer delirium duration in critically ill patients. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the medical, surgical, and progressive intensive care units (ICUs of a tertiary care, university affiliated, and urban hospital. Sixty-three delirious patients were selected for the analysis, with two samples of S100β collected on days 1 and 8 of enrollment. The main outcome measure was delirium duration. Using the cutoff of <0.1 ng/mL and $0.1 ng/mL as normal and abnormal levels of S100β, respectively, on day 1 and day 8, four exposure groups were created: Group A, normal S100β levels on day 1 and day 8; Group B, normal S100β level on day 1 and abnormal S100β level on day 8; Group C, abnormal S100β level on day 1 and normal on day 8; and Group D, abnormal S100β levels on both day 1 and day 8. Results: Patients with abnormal levels of S100β showed a trend towards higher delirium duration (P=0.076; Group B (standard deviation (7.0 [3.2] days, Group C (5.5 [6.3] days, and Group D

  5. Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94 of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardina Grüber

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94 of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH.In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94(444-547, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94(444-547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94(444-547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 A in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94(566-663 consists of two helices with 97.8 A and 48.6 A in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94(674-793 in solution represents a chair-like shape with three architectural segments.These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding impacts on the overall structure of RH and demonstrates the

  6. Properties of morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3PbTiO3 films with submicrometre range thickness on Si-based substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Algueró , M; Stewart , M; Cain , M G; Ramos , P; Ricote , J; Calzada , M L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The electrical properties of (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3)O 3 -xPbTiO 3 films with composition in the morphotropic phase boundary region around x=0.35, submicron thickness and columnar microstructure, prepared on Si based substrates by chemical solution deposition are presented and discussed in relation to the properties of coarse and fine grained ceramics. The films show relaxor characteristics that are proposed to result from a grain size effect on the kinetics of the relaxor to ferroe...

  7. Electrical properties of Sb and Cr-doped PbZrO3-PbTiO3-PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Whatmore, Roger W.; Molter, O.; Shaw, Christopher P.

    2003-01-01

    The pyroelectric, dielectric and DC resistive properties of Sb and Cr-doped ceramics with a base composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.025(Zr0.825Ti0.175)0.975O3 have been studied. Sb doping has been shown to produce a linear reduction in Curie temperature (TC=−22z+294 °C) with concentration (z) and to give an increase in pyroelectric coefficient from 250 to 310 μCm−2 K−1 for z increasing from 0 to 3 at.%. It also produces first a reduction and then an increase in both dielectric constant and loss, ...

  8. The influence of thermal stresses on the phase composition of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Hana; Zarnik, Marina Santo; Tellier, Jenny; Hrovat, Marko; Holc, Janez; Kosec, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The influence of thermal stresses versus the phase composition for 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (0.65PMN-0.35PT) thick films is being reported. The thermal residual stresses in the films have been calculated using the finite-element method. It has been observed that in 0.65PMN-0.35PT films a compressive stress enhances the thermodynamic stability of the tetragonal phase with the space group P4mm.

  9. Electric Field Tuning Non-volatile Magnetism in Half-Metallic Alloys Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunzhu, Gesang; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-03-01

    We reported the non-volatile electric field-mediated magnetic properties in the half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure at room temperature. The remanent magnetization with different applied electric field along [100] and [01-1] directions was achieved, which showed the non-volatile remanent magnetization driven by an electric field. The two giant reversible and stable remanent magnetization states were obtained by applying pulsed electric field. This can be attributed to the piezostrain effect originating from the piezoelectric substrate, which can be used for magnetoelectric-based memory devices.

  10. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and back...

  11. Clostridium difficile Recombinant Toxin A Repeating Units as a Carrier Protein for Conjugate Vaccines: Studies of Pneumococcal Type 14, Escherichia coli K1, and Shigella flexneri Type 2a Polysaccharides in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliakova, Danka; Moncrief, J. Scott; Lyerly, David M.; Schiffman, Gerald; Bryla, Dolores A.; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Unlike the native protein, a nontoxic peptide (repeating unit of the native toxin designated rARU) from Clostridium difficile toxin A (CDTA) afforded an antigen that could be bound covalently to the surface polysaccharides of pneumococcus type 14, Shigella flexneri type 2a, and Escherichia coli K1. The yields of these polysaccharide-protein conjugates were significantly increased by prior treatment of rARU with succinic anhydride. Conjugates, prepared with rARU or succinylated (rARUsucc), were administered to mice by a clinically relevant dosage and immunization scheme. All conjugates elicited high levels of serum immunoglobulin G both to the polysaccharides and to CDTA. Conjugate-induced anti-CDTA had neutralizing activity in vitro and protected mice challenged with CDTA, similar to the rARU alone. Conjugates prepared with succinylated rARU, therefore, have potential for serving both as effective carrier proteins for polysaccharides and for preventing enteric disease caused by C. difficile. PMID:10722615

  12. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  13. Pyroelectric Study on Dipolar Alignment in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; SHEN Ming-Rong; CAO Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-Geld heating in [001], [110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals. Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples, the crystals poled by using the Rield cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃, which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal. We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.%Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-field heating in [001],[110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals.Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples,the crystals poled by using the field cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃,which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal.We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.

  14. Associations of Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome Criteria With Body Composition and Mortality in the General and Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease Populations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chen, Xiaorui; Wei, Guo; Raj, Dominic; Raphael, Kalani L; Boucher, Robert; Chonchol, Michel B; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Greene, Tom

    2017-05-01

    It is unknown whether the criteria used to define Protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome in dialysis patients reflect protein or energy wasting in the general and moderate CKD populations. In 11,834 participants in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, individual PEW syndrome criteria and the number of PEW syndrome categories were related to lean body and fat masses (measured by dual-energy absorptiometry) using linear regression in the entire cohort and CKD sub-population. Serum chemistry, body mass and muscle mass PEW criteria tended to be associated with lower lean body and fat masses, but the low dietary protein and energy intake criteria were associated with significantly higher protein and energy stores. When the number of PEW syndrome categories was defined by non-dietary categories alone, there was a monotonic inverse relationship with lean body and fat masses and strong positive relationship with mortality. In contrast, when dietary category alone was present, mean BMI was in the obesity range; additional presence of two non-dietary categories was associated with lower BMI and lower lean body and fat masses. Thus, the association of dietary category plus two additional non-dietary categories with lower protein or energy stores was driven by the presence of the two non-dietary categories. Results were similar in CKD subgroup. Hence, a definition of PEW syndrome without dietary variables has face validity and reflects protein or energy wasting.

  15. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg1sol3Nb2sol3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guisheng; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Danfeng; Duan Ziqing; Feng Chude; Chen Kai

    2005-01-01

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67 Pb(Mg 1sol3 Nb 2sol3 )O 3- 0.33 PbTiO 3 crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d 33 of the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼35 deg. C abruptly rose more than 1000 pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h. For the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼74 deg. C, in spite of a fall of 40-100 pC/N after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h, the values of d 33 rose 50-100 pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85 deg. C for 4 h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T>T RT accounted for the enhancement of d 33

  16. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O-3-0.25PbZrO(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 degrees C) and Curie temperature (T-C of 234 degrees C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol.% BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling f...

  17. Strong piezoelectric anisotropy d15/d33 in ⟨111⟩ textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank

    2015-08-01

    The shear mode piezoelectric properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZT) ceramic with 72% ⟨111⟩ texture were investigated. The piezoelectric anisotropic factor d15/d33 was as high as 8.5 in ⟨111⟩ textured ceramic as compared to 2.0 in random counterpart. The high d15/d33 indicates the "rotator" ferroelectric characteristics of PMN-PZT system and suggests that the large shear piezoelectric response contributes towards the high longitudinal piezoelectric response (d33) in non-polar direction (d33 = 1100 pC/N in ⟨001⟩ textured ceramic vs. d33 = 112 pC/N in ⟨111⟩ textured ceramic).

  18. Homogenized electromechanical properties of crystalline and ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.42PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2007-10-01

    A modelling framework that incorporates the peculiarities of microstructural features, such as the spatial correlation of crystallographic orientations and morphological texture in piezoelectrics, is established. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented using the finite element method by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. The dependence of the domain orientation on the macroscopic electromechanical properties of crystalline as well as polycrystalline ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 (PMN-42% PT) is studied based on this model. The material shows large anisotropy in the piezoelectric coefficient ejK in its crystalline form. The homogenized electromechanical moduli of polycrystalline ceramic also exhibit significantly anisotropic behaviours. An optimum texture at which the piezoceramic exhibits its maximum longitudinal piezoelectric response is identified.

  19. Structure refinement, far infrared spectroscopy, and dielectric characterization of (1-x)La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-xLa2/3TiO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak, Andrei N.; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Ferreira, Victor M.; Ribeiro, José L.; Vieira, Luís G.

    2006-05-01

    Dielectric properties of (1-x)La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-xLa2/3TiO3 [(1-x)LMT-xLT] ceramics (0infrared (FIR) frequency ranges. The crystal structure sequence in (1-x)LMT-xLT reported by different authors has been analyzed and revised. FIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the lattice contribution to the dielectric response at microwave frequencies. The complex dielectric function was evaluated from the reflectivity data and extrapolated down to a gigahertz range. Compositional variations of the fundamental microwave dielectric parameters estimated by different methods are compared and discussed. The dependence of the quality factor on the composition in LMT-LT is interpreted in terms of the reduction of spatial phonon correlations originated from the increasing amount of La vacancies. This approach could account for the compositional behavior of the dielectric loss commonly observed in a number of microwave mixed systems.

  20. Characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se multiple quantum well structure for mid-infrared device applications by contactless electroreflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J D; Lin, J W; Huang, Y S; Charles, W O; Shen, A; Zhang, Q; Tamargo, M C

    2009-01-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the intersubband transitions of a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared device applications. The CER spectrum revealed a wide range of possible optical transitions in the MQW structure. The ground state transition was assigned by comparison with the photoluminescence emission signal taken from the same structure. A comprehensive analysis of the CER spectrum led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were estimated and confirmed by FTIR measurements. The results demonstrate the potential of using CER as a complementary technique for the contactless and nondestructive characterization of the wide band gap II-VI MQW structures for mid-IR intersubband device applications.

  1. Optimized orientation of 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal for applications in medical ultrasonic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Laihui; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2008-08-01

    In order to extend the potential applications of medical ultrasonic array transducers, two optimized directions with the maximal electromechanical coefficient k33' and minimal k31 are determined for [001] and [110] poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals using the experimental method. The maximum values of k33' can reach 92.8% and 93.3%, respectively, corresponding to [001]W/[110]L and [110]W/[1-11]L cuts. Furthermore, we simulate the performances of three 3.5 MHz linear array transducers based on the determined directions by PIEZOCAD. Results indicate that under the [001]W/[110]L direction, 25% broader bandwidth, 40% shorter pulse length, and 3 dB higher sensitivity can be obtained compared to the traditional Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 transducers.

  2. Guided Wave Propagation in a Gold Electrode Film on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3−33%PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Single Crystal Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Nai-Xing; LÜ Tian-Quan; Zhang Rui; Wang Yu-Ling; Cao Wen-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion relations of Love mode acoustic guided waves propagation in Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 −33%PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.33 PT) single crystal with a gold electrode film are calculated. There is no cross coupling among Love wave modes, which is conducive to eliminating the cross interference between modes. The general formula is derived to precisely measure the thickness of the electrode. More acoustic energy would be concentrated inside the electrode with the increase of film thickness for a given frequency. Compared with the PZT-5 ceramic, [001] c poled PMN-33%PT single crystal has a slower attenuation of the amplitude of the acoustic guided wave. Therefore, single crystal is extremely suitable for making low loss acoustic wave devices with a high operating frequency

  3. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.D.; Huang, Y.S.; Lin, D.Y.; Charles, W.O.; Shen, A.; Tamargo, M.C.; Tiong, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We report a detailed study of a ZnxCd 1-x Se/Znx'Cdy'Mg 1-x '-y'Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structure by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) techniques. → The PL peak position yielded information of the fundamental excitonic recombinations. → Analysis of the CER spectra led to the identification of various interband transitions. →Study of the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energies indicated that main influence of temperature on the quantized transitions is through temperature dependence of the constituent material band gap in the well. - Abstract: Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and contactless electroreflectance (CER) were used to characterize a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se asymmetric coupled quantum well (ACQW) structure in the range of 10-300 K. The PL peak position yielded information of the fundamental excitonic recombinations. A detailed analysis of the CER spectra led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were then estimated and found to be in a good agreement with the previous report of Fourier-transform infrared absorption measurements. At low temperature, the PL spectra of the sample showed an asymmetric behavior with an exponential tail at the lower-energy side and were attributed to the localized excitonic recombinations due to potential fluctuations. Detailed study of the temperature dependence of the excitonic transition energies indicated that the main influence of temperature on the quantized transitions is through the temperature dependence of the band gap of the constituent material in the well.

  4. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    -keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic....... Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in combination, our studies of the gene structure of the human PiT1 and PiT2 genes (SLC20A1 and SLC20A2, respectively) and alignment of protein...

  5. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  6. Large non-volatile tuning of magnetism mediated by electric field in Fe–Al/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhendong; Gao, Cunxu; Wei, Yanping; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yutian; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhikun

    2017-01-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism is now an attractive trend to approach a new kind of fast, low-power-cost memory device. In this work, we report a strong non-volatile electric control of magnetism in an Fe–Al/Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –PbTiO 3 heterostructure. In this system, a 90° rotation of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is exhibited during the increase of the external electric field, which means the easy axis turns into a hard axis and the hard axis turns into an easy one. Additionally, a non-volatile switch of the remanence is observed after a sweeping of the electric field from 0 kV cm −1 to  ±  10 kV cm −1 , then back to 0 kV cm −1 . More interestingly, a 20% non-volatile magnetic state tuning driven by individual pulse electric fields is shown in contrast to large tuning up to 120% caused by pulse electric fields with small assistant pulse magnetic fields, which means a 180° reverse of the magnetization. These remarkable behaviors demonstrated in this heterostructure reveal a promising potential application in magnetic memory devices mediated by electric fields. (paper)

  7. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2016-08-19

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  8. Effect of Pre-Aging Conditions on Bake-Hardening Response of Al-0.4 wt%Mg-1.2 wt%Si-0.1 wt%Mn Alloy Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-jin; Woo, Kee-do

    2011-01-01

    Pre-aging heat treatment after solution heat treatment (SHT) of Al-0.4 wt%Mg-1.2 wt%Si-0.1 wt%Mn alloy sheets for auto-bodies was carried out to investigate the effect of pre-aging and its conditions on the bake-hardening response. Mechanical properties were evaluated by a tensile and Vickers hardness test. Microstructural observation was also performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was revealed that pre-aging treatments play a great role in the bake-hardening response. In addition, it was found that the sphere-shaped nanosized clusters that can directly transit to the needle-shaped β” phase during the paint-bake process, not being dissolved into the matrix, are formed at 343 K. The result, reveals that the dominant factor of the bake-hardening response is the pre-aging temperature rather than the pre-aging time.

  9. Crystal orientation dependence of the optical bandgap of (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Xinming; Zhao Xiangyong; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Luo Haosu

    2005-01-01

    The transmission spectra of rhombohedral 0.71Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.29PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.29PT) and tetragonal PMN-0.38PT single crystals were obtained in the main crystallographic directions , and . The absorption coefficients were computed and the optical bandgaps were calculated in both direct and indirect transitions. The energy of phonons contributing in the indirect transition was also calculated. For PMN-0.38PT single crystal in all the three directions, the values of direct bandgaps E gd are all slightly lower than those of PMN-0.29PT single crystal, while the indirect bandgaps E gi are all higher. For different crystallographic directions, the values of E gi for -direction are lower compared with and directions, both for PMN-0.29PT and PMN-0.38PT single crystals. Some discussions about the B-site cation d-orbits and the O-anion 2p orbits that determine the basic energy level of the single crystals are presented. The optical transition mechanism was also discussed

  10. Mild hydrothermal crystal growth of new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30: Structures, optical and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D.; Tapp, Joshua; Möller, Angela; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Two new uranium(IV) fluorides, Na3.13Mg1.43U6F30 (1) and Na2.50Mn1.75U6F30 (2), were synthesized through an in situ mild hydrothermal route, and were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds exhibit complex crystal structures composed of corner- or edge-shared UF9 and MF6 (M=Mg, Mn) polyhedra, forming hexagonal channels in the three-dimensional framework, in which ordered or disordered divalent metal and sodium atoms reside. The large hexagonal voids contain the nearly regular M(II)F6 octahedra and sodium ions, whereas the small hexagonal cavities include M(II) and sodium ions on a mixed-occupied site. Magnetic susceptibility measurements yielded effective magnetic moments of 8.36 and 11.6 μB for 1 and 2, respectively, confirming the presence and oxidation states of U(IV) and Mn(II). The large negative Weiss constants indicate the spin gap between a triplet and a singlet state in the U(IV). Magnetization data as a function of applied fields revealed that 2 exhibits paramagnetic behavior due to the nonmagnetic singlet ground state of U(IV) at low temperature. UV-vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data were also analyzed.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of (1-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-K.; Yi, J.Y.; Hong, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of (1-x)(Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 )TiO 3 -xPb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (NBT-xPMN) solid solution have been investigated. An addition of PMN into NBT transformed the structure of sintered samples from rhombohedral to pseudocubic phase where x is larger than 0.1. In calcined powders, however, the intermediate structure were observed between rhombohedral and cubic phases near x=0.1. The formation of solid solution between NBT and PMN modified the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT to be suitable for high temperature dielectric and piezoelectric material. With increasing the content of PMN, the temperature-stability of ε r (T) increased and the high temperature dielectric loss decreased. In addition, the piezoelectric property of NBT-xPMN was enhanced, for the decrease of coercive field and conductivity promoted the domain reversal under the high electric field of the poling process

  12. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-04-20

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence was observed in the microareas with M A-type (space group Cm) and M C-type (space group Pm) monoclinic structures. Interestingly, the M A-M Cphase transition temperature exhibited remarkable microareal dependence due to the spatial inhomogeneity of polar nanoregions (PNRs). The M C-cubic phase transition took place at 155 °C in both microareas, which consisted well with previous reports. These results reveal that the phase transition in PMN-33%PT single crystal is closely related with the thermal dynamics of PNRs, which will be useful for understanding the microheterogeneity in this compound.

  13. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  14. The Effect of Poling on the Properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Hana; Tellier, Jenny; Hrovat, Marko; Holc, Janez; Drnovšek, Silvo; Bobnar, Vid; Alguero, Miguel; Kosec, Marija

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the poling field on the structural and electrical properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (0.65PMN-0.35PT) ceramics were investigated. The highest piezoelectric coefficient d33, coupling coefficients kp, kt, and mechanical quality factor Qm were achieved for ceramics poled at electric fields between 2 and 3.5 kV/mm, whereas the d33, kp, kt, and Qm of ceramics poled at higher electric fields, i.e., 4 and 4.5 kV/mm, were lower. The non-poled ceramics contained 86% of the monoclinic phase with the space group Pm and 14% of the tetragonal phase with the space group P4mm. However, the ceramics poled at 2.5 kV/mm contained 99% of the monoclinic phase and the rest is the tetragonal phase. The results show that the ratio of the monoclinic to the tetragonal phases can be changed by the application of a poling electric field and that the extent of this change is dependent on the field strength.

  15. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the −6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ∕8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A −6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of −46.5 dB were achieved. PMID:19657405

  16. Strong Nonvolatile Magnon-Driven Magnetoelectric Coupling in Single-Crystal Co /[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.71[PbTiO3]0.29 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai; Shen, Lvkang; Liu, Ming; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the magnetism on interfacing ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials via electric fields to achieve an emergent multiferroic response has enormous potential for nanoscale devices with novel functionalities. Herein, a strong electric-field control of the magnetism modulation is reported for a single-crystal Co (14 nm )/(001 )Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3) 0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Co layer on a PMN-PT substrate. Electric-field-tuned ferromagnetic resonance exhibits a large resonance field shift, with a 120-Oe difference between that under positive and negative remanent polarizations, which demonstrates nonvolatile electric-field control of the magnetism. Further, considering the complexity of the twofold symmetry magnetic anisotropy, the linear change of the fourfold symmetry magnetic anisotropy, relating to the single-crystal cubic magnetocrystal anisotropy of the Co thin film, is resolved and quantified to exert a magnon-driven, strong direct magnetoelectric effect on the Co /PMN -PT interface. These results are promising for future multiferroic devices.

  17. Grain size dependent phase stabilities and presence of a monoclinic (Pm) phase in the MPB region of (1-x)Bi(Mg_1_/_2Ti_1_/_2)O_3_-_xPbTiO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, A.; Singh, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the room temperature structural studies on (1-x)Bi(Mg_1_/_2Ti_1_/_2)O_3_-_xPbTiO_3 ceramics using Rietveld analysis of the powder X-ray diffraction data in the composition range 0.28≤x≤0.45 are presented. The morphotropic phase boundary region exhibits coexistence of monoclinic (space group Pm) and tetragonal (space group P4mm) phases in the composition range 0.33≤x≤0.40. The structure is nearly single phase monoclinic (space group Pm) in the composition range 0.28≤x≤0.32. The structure for the compositions with x≥0.45 is found to be predominantly tetragonal with space group P4mm. Rietveld refinement of the structure rules out the coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region reported by earlier authors. The Rietveld structure analysis for the sample x=0.35 calcined at various temperatures reveals that phase fraction of the coexisting phases in the morphotropic phase boundary region varies with grain size. The structural parameters of the two coexisting phases also change slightly with changing grain size. (author)

  18. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ /8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  19. Theoretical study on guided wave propagation in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) single crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanwen; Zhang Rui; Cao Wenwu

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of guided waves in free standing (1 - x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -xPbTiO 3 [PMN-xPT] (x = 0.29 or 0.33) single crystal plates has been studied theoretically. The polar directions are in the (111) family directions of the cubic reference coordinates but the crystals are being polarized along [0 0 1] c , [0 1 1] c and [1 1 1] c of the cubic reference directions so that the effective microscopic symmetries are 4mm, mm2 and 3m, respectively. Multiple mode couplings appear in the dispersion curves for both the symmetric and the antisymmetric Lamb and shear horizontal modes. The velocities of most guided waves decrease rapidly with frequency. Then, after passing a minimum, they begin to increase with frequency and eventually saturate to the shear wave velocity v sz (or v 1 = 3507 m s -1 for [1 1 1] c polarized sample). For a [1 1 1] c polarized single domain PMN-0.33PT sample, the S 1 mode instead of the S 0 mode approaches the Rayleigh velocity v R at high frequencies.

  20. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  1. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures with Different Ferroelectric Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Sen; Li, Dalai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Aitian; Xu, Yang; Han, X F; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu

    2016-02-17

    Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures composed of Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) with different ferroelectric phases via changing composition and temperature is explored. It is demonstrated that the nonvolatile looplike bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization, previously found in the CoFeB/PMN-xPT heterostructures with PMN-xPT in the rhombohedral (R) phase around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), also occurs for PMN-xPTs with both R phase (far away from MPB) and monoclinic (M) phase, suggesting that the phenomenon is the common feature of CoFeB/PMN-xPT multiferroic heterostructures for PMN-xPT with different phases. The magnitude of the effect changes with increasing temperature and volatile bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization with a butterflylike behavior occurs when the ferroelectric phase changes to the tetragonal phase (T). Moreover, for the R-phase sample with x = 0.18, an abrupt and giant increase of magnetization is observed at a characteristic temperature in the temperature dependence of magnetization curve. These results are discussed in terms of coupling between magnetism and ferroelectric domains including macro- and microdomains for different ferroelectric phases. This work is helpful for understanding the phenomena of electric-field control of magnetism in FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures and is also important for applications.

  2. Mechanism of formation of perovskite phase and dielectric properties of Pb(Zn,Mg)1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics prepared by columbite precursor routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.M.; Cho, S.R.; Lee, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of formation of the perovskite phase and the dielectric properties of Pb(Zn,Mg) 1/3 Nb 2/3 O 3 (PZMN) ceramics were examined using two different types of columbite precursors, (Mg,Zn)Nb 2 O 6 (MZN) and MgNb 2 O 6 + ZnNb 2 O 6 (MN + ZN). The formation of perovskite phase in the PbO + MN + ZN system is characterized by an initial rapid formation of Mg-rich perovskite phase, followed by a sluggish formation of Zn-rich perovskite phase. On the other hand, due to the formation of pyrochlore phase of mixed divalent cations Pb 2-x (Zn,Mg) y Nb 2-y O 7-x-3y/2 , the pyrochlore/perovskite transformation in the PbO + MZN system proceeded uniformly with a spatial homogeneity. Further analysis suggested that the formation of perovskite phase is a diffusion-controlled process. The degree of diffuseness of the rhombohedral/cubic phase transition (DPT) is higher in the PbO + MN + ZN system than in the PbO + MZN specimen for T > T max (temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum), indicating a broadened compositional distribution of the B-site cations in the PbO + MN + ZN system

  3. First-principles studies of the local structure and relaxor behavior of Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-PbTiO3 -derived ferroelectric perovskite solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hengxin; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Xu, Changsong; Duan, Wenhui; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of transition-metal dopants on the local structure of the prototypical 0.75 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3-0.25 PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric. We find that these dopants give rise to very different local structure and other physical properties. For example, when Mg is partially substituted by Cu or Zn, the displacement of Cu or Zn is much larger than that of Mg and is even comparable to that of Nb. The polarization of these systems is also increased, especially for the Cu-doped solution, due to the large polarizability of Cu and Zn. As a result, the predicted maximum dielectric constant temperatures Tm are increased. On the other hand, the replacement of a Ti atom with a Mo or Tc atom dramatically decreases the displacements of the cations and the polarization, and thus, the Tm values are also substantially decreased. The higher Tm cannot be explained by the conventional argument based on the ionic radii of the cations. Furthermore, we find that Cu, Mo, or Tc doping increases the cation displacement disorder. The effect of the dopants on the temperature dispersion Δ Tm , which is the change in Tm for different frequencies, is also discussed. Our findings lay the foundation for further investigations of unexplored dopants.

  4. Packaging of a unit-length viral genome: the role of nucleotides and the gpD decoration protein in stable nucleocapsid assembly in bacteriophage lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2008-11-28

    The developmental pathways for a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses include packaging of viral DNA into a preformed procapsid structure, catalyzed by terminase enzymes and fueled by ATP hydrolysis. In most instances, a capsid expansion process accompanies DNA packaging, which significantly increases the volume of the capsid to accommodate the full-length viral genome. "Decoration" proteins add to the surface of the expanded capsid lattice, and the terminase motors tightly package DNA, generating up to approximately 20 atm of internal capsid pressure. Herein we describe biochemical studies on genome packaging using bacteriophage lambda as a model system. Kinetic analysis suggests that the packaging motor possesses at least four ATPase catalytic sites that act cooperatively to effect DNA translocation, and that the motor is highly processive. While not required for DNA translocation into the capsid, the phage lambda capsid decoration protein gpD is essential for the packaging of the penultimate 8-10 kb (15-20%) of the viral genome; virtually no DNA is packaged in the absence of gpD when large DNA substrates are used, most likely due to a loss of capsid structural integrity. Finally, we show that ATP hydrolysis is required to retain the genome in a packaged state subsequent to condensation within the capsid. Presumably, the packaging motor continues to "idle" at the genome end and to maintain a positive pressure towards the packaged state. Surprisingly, ADP, guanosine triphosphate, and the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) similarly stabilize the packaged viral genome despite the fact that they fail to support genome packaging. In contrast, the poorly hydrolyzed ATP analog ATP-gammaS only partially stabilizes the nucleocapsid, and a DNA is released in "quantized" steps. We interpret the ensemble of data to indicate that (i) the viral procapsid possesses a degree of plasticity that is required to

  5. Phase fragility and mechatronic reliability for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of (1-xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–xPbTiO3(PMN–xPT near their morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs are under extensive investigations for their extraordinary high dielectric and piezoelectric behavior. Applications of those single crystals facilitated the breakthrough in ultrasonic transducer materials and devices. Ferroelectric materials are known to be fragile which often leads to various reliability failures in applications involving electric loadings. In a mechanical sense, the failure modes concern the fracture under an intensive electric field, and the fatigue crack propagation under an alternating electric field. In an electrical sense, the failure is exhibited by degenerated hysteresis loop by shrinking the remnant polarization and expanding the coercive field. All these modes degrade the performance for ferroelectric devices. As a departure from the tetragonal (T ferroelectric materials, exemplified by BaTiO3 and Pb(ZrTiO3, the domain structures of PMN–PT around the MPB are versatile and intricate, depending sensitively on the composition variation, orientation and previous loading history. In this review, the attention is mainly focused on three aspects. First, the phase fragility and multiphase coexistence are presented for both [100]- and [101]-oriented PMN–PT single crystals. Second, investigations on electric field-induced fatigue crack propagation are described, along with the orientation effect on the crack propagation behavior. Third, the inverse effects of the phase transition and fatigue crack growth on the polarization behavior, or the interaction between the mechanical and electrical degradations will be elucidated. The review aims for better understanding the underlying mechanism for the ultrahigh performance of the PMN–PT single crystals, to bridge the studies of ferroelectric materials from the mechanical and electrical senses, as well as to evaluate the reliability of PMN–PT single crystals under device

  6. Electrical tuning of magnetization rotation and microwave properties in FeCoZr/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) multiferroic heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N; Ong, C K

    2015-01-01

    The permeability spectra of a multiferroic heterostructure composed of a FeCoZr thin film grown onto a [Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ] 0.68 -[PbTiO 3 ] 0.32 (011) (PMN-PT) substrate are characterized as a function of an electrical field applied through the thickness of the substrate. When the sample is in an unpoled state and the applied electrical field is increased from 0 kV cm −1 to 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency remains relatively the same. However, as the electrical field is increased beyond 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is drastically increased from 2.17 GHz to 3.28 GHz and the peak of the permeability spectra becomes much broader. When the electrical field is further increased from 2 kV cm −1 to 6 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is gradually increased and finally reaches 4 GHz. As the electrical field is reduced from 6 kV cm −1 back to 2 kV cm −1 , the resonance frequency is reduced in the same manner, and the peak disappears when the electrical field is reduced to less than 2 kV cm −1 . These behaviors are discussed in terms of the magnetization rotation and magnetic anisotropy dispersion based on the stress distribution of the piezoelectric substrate as a function of the applied electrical field. This argument is consistent with the hysteresis loops measured before and after poling. The result suggests that the electrical tunability of the magnetization rotation in multiferroic heterostructures can be employed to electrically turn on and off the microwave operation of the materials, which is promising for applications. (paper)

  7. Calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07(PO46(OH4·12H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lafuente

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcioferrite, ideally Ca4MgFe3+4(PO46(OH4·12H2O (tetracalcium magnesium tetrairon(III hexakis-phosphate tetrahydroxide dodecahydrate, is a member of the calcioferrite group of hydrated calcium phosphate minerals with the general formula Ca4AB4(PO46(OH4·12H2O, where A = Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+ and B = Al, Fe3+. Calcioferrite and the other three known members of the group, montgomeryite (A = Mg, B = Al, kingsmountite (A = Fe2+, B = Al, and zodacite (A = Mn2+, B = Fe3+, usually occur as very small crystals, making their structure refinements by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction challenging. This study presents the first structure determination of calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07(PO46(OH4·12H2O based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the Moculta quarry in Angaston, Australia. Calcioferrite is isostructural with montgomeryite, the only member of the group with a reported structure. The calcioferrite structure is characterized by (Fe/AlO6 octahedra (site symmetries 2 and -1 sharing corners (OH to form chains running parallel to [101]. These chains are linked together by PO4 tetrahedra (site symmetries 2 and 1, forming [(Fe/Al3(PO43(OH2] layers stacking along [010], which are connected by (Ca/Sr2+ cations (site symmetry 2 and Mg2+ cations (site symmetry 2; half-occupation. Hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the water molecules (one of which is equally disordered over two positions and OH function are also present between these layers. The relatively weaker bonds between the layers account for the cleavage of the mineral parallel to (010.

  8. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-03-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 °C) and Curie temperature (TC of 234 °C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling factor (k31) of T-5BT ceramic started to degrade from 75 °C while the random counterpart showed a very stable tendency up to 180 °C. This degradation was associated with the "interface region" formed in the vicinity of BT template. MnO2 doped PMN-PZT ceramics textured with 3 vol. % BT and subsequently poled at 140 °C (T-3BT140) exhibited very stable and high k31 (>0.53) in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 130 °C through reduction in the interface region volume. Further, the T-3BT140 ceramic exhibited excellent hard and soft combinatory piezoelectric properties of d33 = 720 pC/N, k31 = 0.53, Qm = 403, tan δ = 0.3% which are very promising for high power and magnetoelectric applications.

  9. Dielectric response of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 in the nonergodic state after a DC electric field is turned off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakova, N. N.; Czarnecki, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) relaxor system is used as an example to analyze the temperature dependences of the low-frequency dielectric permitivity (ε'(T)) measured during zero-field heating (ZFH) from T = 10 K to T = 300 K after using different field cooling (FC) conditions. No changes in the temperature dependences of the permittivity have been detected during the transition from a nonergodic relaxor state (NERS) into an ergodic relaxor state (ERS) (at T f ∼ 216 K). However, the difference Δε'(T) between the curves corresponding to different field cooling conditions in the same electric field has different shapes and different values below and above T → (T f + 9 K) - (for E dc = 1.52 kV/cm). The reduced permittivities ε' r (T, f) recorded under different cooling conditions are shown to change their behavior when passing through T = T f + 9 K. In NERS, these curves diverge: the stronger the field (0 ≤ E dc ≤ 3 kV/cm), the larger the divergence. In ERS, however, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide under different cooling conditions irrespective of the field. The character of the changes in Δε'(T) and ε' r (T, f) during the NERS-ERS transition is frequency-independent. The difference in the behavior of the dielectric response during ZFH after cooling in different (ZFC, FC) modes (even in a weak field), for both transition through T f and cooling down to T = 10 K, indicates different NERSs forming under these conditions. The contribution to ε'(T) from slowly relaxing regions (ω ∼ 0.1 mHz), whose polarization is reoriented after the field is turned off, is responsible for the fact that, during the NERS-ERS transition, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide at a temperature that is higher than T = T f

  10. The depolarization performances of 0.97PbZrO3-0.03Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rigu; Nie, Hengchang; Liu, Zhen; Peng, Ping; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Wang, Genshui

    2018-02-01

    Several 0.97PbZrO3-0.03Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (0.97PZ-0.03BMN) ceramics were prepared via the columbite precursor method. Their microstructures and pressure-dependent ferroelectric and depolarization performances were then studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns of ground and fresh samples indicate that a main rhombohedral symmetry crystal structure is present in the bulk and that it sits alongside a trace quantity of an orthorhombic antiferroelectric phase that results from the effect of grinding on the surface. The remanent polarization (Pr) of the 0.97PZ-0.03BMN reached 32.4 μC/cm2 at 4.5 kV/mm and ambient pressure. In an in situ pressure-induced current measurement, more than 91% of the retained Pr of the pre-poled sample was released when the pressure was increased from 194 MPa to 238 MPa. That this pressure-driven depolarization should be attributed to the pressure-induced ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition is supported by the emergence of double P-E loops at high hydrostatic pressures. Moreover, the 0.97PZ-0.03BMN ceramics exhibit no temperature-induced phase transitions and little related polarization loss up to 125 °C, which suggests that Pr has excellent thermal stability. The sharp depolarization behavior at low pressures and excellent temperature stability reveal that our 0.97PZ-0.03BMN ceramics exhibit superior performances in mechanical-electrical energy conversion applications.

  11. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  12. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga

    Full Text Available YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  13. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein as a marker for intra-abdominal pressure-related complications in patients admitted to the intensive care unit; study protocol for a prospective cohort study (I-Fabulous study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Steven G; Van Waes, Oscar J F; Van der Hoven, Ben; Ali, Samir; Verhofstad, Michael H J; Pickkers, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-01-16

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have detrimental effects on all organ systems and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Intra-bladder measurement of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is currently the gold standard. However, IAH is not always indicative of intestinal ischemia, which is an early and rapidly developing complication. Sensitive biomarkers for intestinal ischemia are needed to be able to intervene before damage becomes irreversible. Gut wall integrity loss, including epithelial cell disruption and tight junctions breakdown, is an early event in intestinal damage. Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein (I-FABP) is excreted in urine and blood specifically from damaged intestinal epithelial cells. Claudin-3 is a specific protein which is excreted in urine following disruption of intercellular tight junctions. This study aims to investigate if I-FABP and Claudin-3 can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying patients at risk for IAP-related complications. In a multicenter, prospective cohort study 200 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with at least two risk factors for IAH as defined by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) will be included. Patients in whom an intra-bladder IAP measurement is contra-indicated or impossible and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases that may affect I-FABP levels will be excluded. The IAP will be measured using an intra-bladder technique. During the subsequent 72 hours, the IAP measurement will be repeated every six hours. At these time points, a urine and serum sample will be collected for measurement of I-FABP and Claudin-3 levels. Clinical outcome of patients during their stay at the intensive care unit will be monitored using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the eventual

  14. Evidence for anisotropic polar nanoregions in relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3: A neutron study of the elastic constants and anomalous TA phonon damping in PMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C.; Gehring, P. M.; Hiraka, H.; Swainson, I.; Xu, Guangyong; Ye, Z.-G.; Luo, H.; Li, J.-F.; Viehland, D.

    2012-09-01

    We use neutron inelastic scattering to characterize the acoustic phonons in the relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and demonstrate the presence of a highly anisotropic damping mechanism that is directly related to short-range polar correlations. For a large range of temperatures above Tc˜210 K, where dynamic, short-range polar correlations are present, acoustic phonons propagating along [11¯0] and polarized along [110] (TA2 phonons) are overdamped and softened across most of the Brillouin zone. By contrast, acoustic phonons propagating along [100] and polarized along [001] (TA1 phonons) are overdamped and softened for a more limited range of wave vectors q. The anisotropy and temperature dependence of the acoustic phonon energy linewidth Γ are directly correlated with neutron diffuse scattering cross section, indicating that polar nanoregions are the cause of the anomalous behavior. The damping and softening vanish for q→0, i.e., for long-wavelength acoustic phonons near the zone center, which supports the notion that the anomalous damping is a result of the coupling between the relaxational component of the diffuse scattering and the harmonic TA phonons. Therefore, these effects are not due to large changes in the elastic constants with temperature because the elastic constants correspond to the long-wavelength limit. We compare the elastic constants we measure to those from Brillouin scattering experiments and to values reported for pure PbTiO3. We show that while the values of C44 are quite similar, those for C11 and C12 are significantly less in PMN and result in a softening of (C11-C12) over PbTiO3. The elastic constants also show an increased elastic anisotropy [2C44/(C11-C12)] in PMN versus that in PbTiO3. These results are suggestive of an instability to TA2 acoustic fluctuations in PMN and other relaxor ferroelectrics. We discuss our results in the context of the current debate over the “waterfall” effect and show that they are inconsistent with

  15. Dielectric properties of BaMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2015-11-01

    Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMN) doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC) of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (˜38%) with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM). This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300-450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE) and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE), the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF). The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  16. Structure-property relations in sputter deposited epitaxial (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joshua C.

    Lead-based ferroelectric materials are of significant technological importance for sensing and actuation due to their high piezoelectric performance (i.e., the ability to convert an electrical signal to mechanical displacement, and vice versa). Traditionally, bulk ceramic or single crystals materials have filled these roles; however, emerging technologies stand to benefit by incorporating thin films to achieve miniaturization while maintaining high efficiency and sensitivity. Currently, chemical systems that have been well characterized in bulk form (e.g. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- xPbTiO3, or PMN-xPT) require further study to optimize both the chemistry and structure for deployment in thin film devices. Furthermore, the effect of internal electric fields is more significant at the length scales of thin films, resulting in self biases that require compensation to reveal their intrinsic dielectric response. To this end, the structure-property relations of epitaxial PMN-xPT films sputter deposited on a variety of substrates were investigated. Attention was paid to how the structure (i.e., strain state, crystal structure, domain configuration, and defects) gave rise to the ferroelectric, dielectric, and piezoelectric response. Three-dimensional visualization of the dielectric response as a simultaneous function of electric field and temperature revealed the true phase transition of the films, which was found to correspond to the strain state and defect concentration. A lead-buffered anneal process was implemented to enhance the ferroelectric and dielectric response of the films without altering their stoichiometry. It was discovered that PMN- xPT films could be domain-engineered to exhibit a mixed domain state through chemistry and substrate choice. Such films exhibited a monoclinic distortion similar to that of the bulk compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. Finally, it was revealed that the piezoelectric response could be greatly enhanced by declamping the film

  17. Non-monotonic compositional dependence of isothermal bulk modulus of the (Mg1–xMnxCr2O4 spinel solid solutions, and its origin and implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressibility of the spinel solid solutions, (Mg1−xMnxCr2O4 with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, has been investigated by using a diamond-anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation up to ∼10 GPa (ambient T. The second-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state was used to fit the PV data, yielding the following values for the isothermal bulk moduli (KT, 198.2 (36, 187.8 (87, 176.1 (32, 168.7 (52, 192.9 (61 and 199.2 (61 GPa, for the spinel solid solutions with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, respectively (KT′ fixed as 4. The KT value of the MgCr2O4 spinel is in good agreement with existing experimental determinations and theoretical calculations. The correlation between the KT and x is not monotonic, with the KT values similar at both ends of the binary MgCr2O4MnCr2O4, but decreasing towards the middle. This non-monotonic correlation can be described by two equations, KT = −49.2 (11x + 198.0 (4 (x ≤ ∼0.6 and KT = 92 (41x + 115 (30 (x ≥ ∼0.6, and can be explained by the evolution of the average bond lengths of the tetrahedra and octahedra of the spinel solid solutions. Additionally, the relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient and composition is correspondingly reinterpreted, the continuous deformation of the oxygen array is demonstrated, and the evolution of the component polyhedra is discussed for this series of spinel solid solutions. Our results suggest that the correlation between the KT and composition of a solid solution series may be complicated, and great care should be paid while estimating the KT of some intermediate compositions from the KT of the end-members.

  18. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  19. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  20. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  1. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  2. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  3. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast in Caucasian and African American women: The Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Horne, Hisani N; Xiang, Jackie; Pollak, Michael; Brinton, Louise A; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Sherman, Mark E; Gierach, Gretchen L; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-02-22

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions. Among 715 Caucasian and 283 African American (AA) women who donated normal breast tissue samples to the Komen Tissue Bank between 2009 and 2012 (75% premenopausal), serum concentrations of IGF-I and binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxilyn and eosin-stained tissue sections were assessed for numbers of TDLUs ("TDLU count"). Zero-inflated Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimator were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for association of IGF measures (tertiles) with TDLU count by race and menopausal status, adjusting for potential confounders. AA (vs. Caucasian) women had higher age-adjusted mean levels of serum IGF-I (137 vs. 131 ng/mL, p = 0.07) and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (4165 vs. 4684 ng/mL, p IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratios were associated with higher TDLU count in Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75, p-trend = 0.04), but not in AA (RR T3vs.T1 =0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.00, p-trend = 0.05), women. Our data suggest a role of the IGF system, particularly IGFBP-3, in TDLU involution of the normal breast, a breast cancer risk factor, among Caucasian and AA women. © 2018 UICC.

  4. Sound velocities and hypersonic dampings of Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.45Ti0.55]O3 single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2010-12-08

    A Brillouin spectroscopic investigation was carried out on PMN-55%PT single crystals, which are known to have no chemically ordered regions and undergo a well-defined structural phase transition at T(C) ∼ 521 K. The longitudinal and transverse sound velocities probed on a right-angle scattering geometry exhibited a remarkable softening and increasing hypersonic damping on approaching T(C) from T(B) ∼ 610 K that was characterized by the deviation of the dielectric permittivity from the high-temperature Curie-Weiss behavior. The acoustic anomalies of the longitudinal acoustic mode at the backward scattering were more substantial than those observed at the right-angle scattering, which could be understood in the framework of normal acoustic dispersion considering the difference in the acoustic frequency. The softening of the transverse sound velocity was more significant than that of the longitudinal one upon cooling toward T(C), suggesting that this acoustic anomaly may be related to the local rhombohedral transformation, occurring in polar nano-regions (PNRs). The observed acoustic behaviors combined with the central peak dynamics clearly indicated the existence of dynamic polar nano-regions in PMN-55%PT where there are no chemically ordered regions, and seem to suggest that the order parameter fluctuations due to two kinds of coupling contribute to the acoustic anomalies in the temperature range of T(C) ∼ T(B): electrostrictive coupling between the acoustic waves and the dynamic PNRs, and linear coupling between the acoustic waves and the precursor polar clusters, i.e., the ordering unit responsible for the order-disorder-type slowing down behavior probed by the central peak.

  5. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  6. Co-hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C nano-hybrid cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Luo, Shaohua; Chang, Longjiao; Hao, Aimin; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yanguo; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A co-hydrothermal approach to synthesize LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material in water/PEG system is present. • The Mn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4 precursor is prepared by precipitation reaction. • Co-modified with Mg"2"+ doping and LiAlO_2 compositing strategies play an important role in improving the electronic conductivity and facilitating the diffusion of lithium ion. • LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material exhibits a high specific discharge capacity of 151.8 mAh/g at 0.05C. - Abstract: LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C is synthesized by a co-hydrothermal method in water/PEG system using Li_2CO_3, AAO and Mn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4 as raw material. The electronic structure and micromorphology of multi-component compound LiMn_1_-_xMg_xPO_4/C (x = 0, 1/24, 1/12, 1/6) and nano-hybrid LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C cathode materials are studied by first-principles calculation and experimental research including XRD, SEM, TEM. The calculated band gap of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4/C is 2.296 eV, which is lower than other percentages Mg"2"+ doping samples. Electrochemical tests exhibit LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4/C has better cycling performance and rate capability than other contents Mg"2"+ doping samples with the discharge capacity of 143.5 mAh/g, 141.5 mAh/g, 139.2 mAh/g and 136.3 mAh/g at 0.05C, 0.1C, 0.5C and 1C in order. After compositing and preparation of LiMn_2_3_/_2_4Mg_1_/_2_4PO_4·LiAlO_2/C composite material by co-hydrothermal route, the initial discharge capacity reaches up to 151.8 mAh/g, which suggests that co-modified with Mg"2"+ doping and LiAlO_2 compositing material can improve the electronic conductivity of LiMnPO_4/C by facilitating the lithium ion diffusion rate in the interior of the materials.

  7. Microcontroller Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  9. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  10. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  11. New quaternary carbide Mg1.52Li0.24Al0.24C0.86 as a disorder derivative of the family of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures and the effect of structure modification on the electrochemical behaviour of the electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Kulawik, Damian; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Pavlyuk, Nazar; Dmytriv, Grygoriy

    2018-03-01

    Magnesium alloys are the basis for the creation of light and ultra-light alloys. They have attracted attention as potential materials for the accumulation and storage of hydrogen, as well as electrode materials in metal-hydride and magnesium-ion batteries. The search for new metal hydrides has involved magnesium alloys with rare-earth transition metals and doped by p- or s-elements. The synthesis and characterization of a new quaternary carbide, namely dimagnesium lithium aluminium carbide, Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 C 0.86 , belonging to the family of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures, are reported. The title compound crystallizes with hexagonal symmetry (space group P-6m2), where two sites with -6m2 symmetry and one site with 3m. symmetry are occupied by an Mg/Li statistical mixture (in Wyckoff position 1a), an Mg/Al statistical mixture (in position 1d) and C atoms (2i). The cuboctahedral coordination is typical for Mg/Li and Mg/Al, and the C atom is enclosed in an octahedron. Electronic structure calculations were used for elucidation of the ability of lithium or aluminium to substitute magnesium, and evaluation of the nature of the bonding between atoms. The presence of carbon in the carbide phase improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 C 0.86 alloy compared to the ternary Mg 1.52 Li 0.24 Al 0.24 alloy and Mg.

  12. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  13. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  14. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  15. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  16. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein as a marker for intra-abdominal pressure-related complications in patients admitted to the intensive care unit; study protocol for a prospective cohort study (I-Fabulous study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D. Strang; O.J.F. van Waes (Oscar); B. van der Hoven (Ben); S. Ali (Samir); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); P. Pickkers (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have detrimental effects on all organ systems and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Intra-bladder measurement of the

  17. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein as a marker for intra-abdominal pressure-related complications in patients admitted to the intensive care unit; study protocol for a prospective cohort study (I-Fabulous study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strang, S.G.; Waes, O.J. van; Hoven, B. van der; Ali, S.; Verhofstad, M.H.J.; Pickkers, P.; Lieshout, E.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have detrimental effects on all organ systems and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Intra-bladder measurement of the

  18. Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rule, D.M.; Nolting, S.P.; Prasfika, P.L.; Storer, N.P.; Hopkins, B.W.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Siebert, M.W.; Hendrix, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range of lepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to

  19. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  20. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  1. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  2. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  3. Protein Adsorption in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    initially-adsorbed protein. Interphase protein concentration CI increases as VI decreases, resulting in slow reduction in interfacial energetics. Steady-state is governed by a net partition coefficient P=(/CBCI). In the process of occupying space within the interphase, adsorbing protein molecules must displace an equivalent volume of interphase water. Interphase water is itself associated with surface-bound water through a network of transient hydrogen bonds. Displacement of interphase water thus requires an amount of energy that depends on the adsorbent surface chemistry/energy. This “adsorption-dehydration” step is the significant free-energy cost of adsorption that controls the maximum amount of protein that can be adsorbed at steady state to a unit adsorbent-surface area (the adsorbent capacity). As adsorbent hydrophilicity increases, protein adsorption monotonically decreases because the energetic cost of surface dehydration increases, ultimately leading to no protein adsorption near an adsorbent water wettability (surface energy) characterized by a water contact angle θ → 65°. Consequently, protein does not adsorb (accumulate at interphase concentrations greater than bulk solution) to more hydrophilic adsorbents exhibiting θ protein/surface interactions can be highly favorable, causing protein to adsorb in multilayers in a relatively thick interphase. A straightforward, three-component free energy relationship captures salient features of protein adsorption to all surfaces predicting that the overall free energy of protein adsorption ΔGadso is a relatively small multiple of thermal energy for any surface chemistry (except perhaps for bioengineered surfaces bearing specific ligands for adsorbing protein) because a surface chemistry that interacts chemically with proteins must also interact with water through hydrogen bonding. In this way, water moderates protein adsorption to any surface by competing with adsorbing protein molecules. This Leading Opinion ends

  4. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  5. Structures composing protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrycht, Jaroslav; Sigler, Karel; Souček, Pavel; Hudeček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    This review summarizes available data concerning intradomain structures (IS) such as functionally important amino acid residues, short linear motifs, conserved or disordered regions, peptide repeats, broadly occurring secondary structures or folds, etc. IS form structural features (units or elements) necessary for interactions with proteins or non-peptidic ligands, enzyme reactions and some structural properties of proteins. These features have often been related to a single structural level (e.g. primary structure) mostly requiring certain structural context of other levels (e.g. secondary structures or supersecondary folds) as follows also from some examples reported or demonstrated here. In addition, we deal with some functionally important dynamic properties of IS (e.g. flexibility and different forms of accessibility), and more special dynamic changes of IS during enzyme reactions and allosteric regulation. Selected notes concern also some experimental methods, still more necessary tools of bioinformatic processing and clinically interesting relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast: a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Khodr, Zeina G; Falk, Roni T; Pollak, Michael; Patel, Deesha A; Palakal, Maya M; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Geller, Berta; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Chicoine, Rachael; Shepherd, John; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Herschorn, Sally; Hewitt, Stephen M; Brinton, Louise A; Gierach, Gretchen L

    2016-02-18

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the primary structures from which breast cancers and their precursors arise. Decreased age-related TDLU involution and elevated mammographic density are both correlated and independently associated with increased breast cancer risk, suggesting that these characteristics of breast parenchyma might be linked to a common factor. Given data suggesting that increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) factors are related to reduced TDLU involution and increased mammographic density, we assessed these relationships using validated quantitative methods in a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratios were measured in 228 women, ages 40-64, who underwent diagnostic breast biopsies yielding benign diagnoses at University of Vermont affiliated centers. Biopsies were assessed for three separate measures inversely related to TDLU involution: numbers of TDLUs per unit of tissue area ("TDLU count"), median TDLU diameter ("TDLU span"), and number of acini per TDLU ("acini count"). Regression models, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to assess the associations of TDLU count, median TDLU span and median acini count per TDLU with tertiles of circulating IGFs. Given that mammographic density is associated with both IGF levels and breast cancer risk, we also stratified these associations by mammographic density. Higher IGF-I levels among postmenopausal women and an elevated IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio among all women were associated with higher TDLU counts, a marker of decreased lobular involution (P-trend = 0.009 and breast cancer risk. If confirmed in prospective studies with cancer endpoints, these data may suggest that evaluation of IGF signaling and its downstream effects may have value for risk prediction and suggest strategies for breast cancer chemoprevention through inhibition of the IGF system.

  7. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...

  8. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  9. Beam-Mode Piezoelectric Properties of Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Single Crystals for Medical Linear Array Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Yaoyao; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the dielectric and beam-mode piezoelectric properties of ternary 0.35Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 (PIMNT35/35/30) piezoelectric single crystals were investigated. The Curie temperature ( T C) and rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase-transition temperature ( T rt) are 187°C and 127°C, about 30°C higher than those of PMNT crystals. The beam-mode coupling coefficient k {33/ w } was found to be 90.3%. Furthermore, 3.5-MHz linear arrays based on PIMNT35/35/30 crystals and Pb(Zr1- x Ti x )O3 ceramic (PZT-5H) were simulated using PiezoCAD software. The results indicate that the sensitivity and -6 dB bandwidth of a PIMNT35/35/30 transducer would be approximately 4 dB and 20% higher, respectively, compared with a traditional PZT transducer.

  10. Electric-Field-Tunable Ferroelastic Control of Nonvolatile Resistivity and Ferromagnetic Switching in Multiferroic La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.7[PbTiO3]0.3 Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2016-04-01

    The electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistivity and magnetization switching in elastically coupled La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 substrates is achieved through the ferroelastic effect. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric and non-180° ferroelastic domain switching, we identify that such changes in order parameters stem from domain-switching-induced strain rather than accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Specifically, the strong correlation between the ferroelastic strain and the magnetic field is manifested not only by the strain-tunable magnetoresistance effect but also by the magnetically manipulated strain effect, which is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating the essential physics of the ferroelastic-strain effect and delivering prototype devices for energy-efficient and nonvolatile information storage.

  11. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-02

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  12. Effects of thermal treatment conditions on the phase formation and the morphological changes of sol-gel derived 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sun A; Han, Jin Kyu; Choi, Yong Chan; Bu, Sang Don

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) thin films and the effects of thermal conditions on their surface morphologies and phase formation behaviors. The PMN-PT thin films were prepared by spin-coating PMN-PT sol-gel solutions on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates and subsequent thermal treatments including pyrolysis, annealing, and additional pre-annealing. We found that the surface morphologies and the formation of the perovskite phase were strongly affected by the final annealing temperature. The grain size of perovskite phase and the amount of the perovskite phase increased as the annealing temperature was increased from 550 to 800 .deg. C. We also found that the voids started to form on the surface of the film at an annealing temperature of 650 .deg. C and that their areas increased with increasing in annealing temperature. The void formation was found to depend on the time period of pyrolysis and on the pre-annealing process between pyrolysis and final annealing. Dense PMN-PT films with relatively high amounts of the perovskite phase were obtained when additional pre-annealing at 750 .deg. C for 5 min was performed.

  13. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  14. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  15. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  16. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  17. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  18. Protein improvement in crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabson, R

    1974-07-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  19. Protein improvement in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabson, R.

    1974-01-01

    There are compelling reasons for attempting to increase the quality and quantity of protein available in crop plants through plant breeding, despite the fact that some critics have argued that no worldwide protein shortage exists. What used to be thought of as a 'protein gap' has now come to be considered in terms of protein-calorie malnutrition. This is only right since protein and calorie nutrition are inextricable. t the moment there are still unanswered questions as to the precise protein requirements of humans as a function of age, health and ambient conditions. There are, in addition, some indications that the incidence of Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency disease) is increasing in different parts of the world. At a recent meeting of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, Dr. Jean Mayer, an eminent human nutritionist of Harvard University, U.S.A., indicated the reasons for concern for the current food situation generally, and the protein food supply in particular. These factors include: - Immoderate continuing human population increases, most pronounced in some poor developing countries. - The highly accelerated consumption of animal foods associated with increasing affluence in the richer countries of the world. The production of such foods as meat demands great expenditures of grain, which is an inefficient mode of obtaining the required calories and protein for human consumption. - The over-exploitation of many of the world's fishery resources resulting in reduced yields, perhaps irreversibly, of some fishes. - Recent price increases in petroleum and fertilizer products which have imposed a major obstacle to increasing crop production. - The apparent alteration of climates in places like Africa, Asia and other parts of the Northern hemisphere which may put significant restrictions on crop production. hey are cogent reasons to be seriously concerned about these matters. (author)

  20. Nosocomial Infections in Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9] ... Detailed history and physical examination notes were reviewed in all ... related. UTI was related to the catheter and pneumonia to ventilator. ... protein. UTI: Urinary tract infection, CVP: Central venous pressure, CFU: Colony-forming unit,.

  1. New Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 Quaternary Ceramics: Morphotropic Phase Boundary Design and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nengneng; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Qiang; Xu, Chao; Yang, Zhanlue; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Shrout, Thomas R

    2016-06-22

    Four series of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PIN-PZ-PT) quaternary ceramics with compositions located at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) regions were prepared. The MPBs of the multicomponent system were predicted using a linear combination rule and experimentally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and electrical measurement. The positions of MPBs in multicomponent systems were found in linear correlation with the tolerance factor and ionic radii of non-PT end-members. The phase structure, piezoelectric coefficient, electromechanical coupling coefficient, unipolar strains, and dielectric properties of as-prepared ceramics were systematically investigated. The largest d33s were obtained at S36.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the corresponding values of 580, 450, 420, and 530 pC/N, respectively, while the largest kps were found at S34.8, L37.4, M39.6, and N35.8, with the respective values of 0.54, 0.50, 0.47, and 0.53. The largest unipolar strain Smax and high-field piezoelectric strain coefficients d33* were also observed around the respective MPB regions. The rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase transition temperature Trt increased with increasing PIN and PZ contents. Of particular importance is that high Trt of 140-197 °C was achieved in the M series with PZ and PIN contents being around 0.208 and 0.158, which will broaden the temperature usage range.

  2. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  3. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  4. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  5. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  6. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  7. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  8. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  9. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  10. My 65 years in protein chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheraga, Harold A

    2015-05-01

    This is a tour of a physical chemist through 65 years of protein chemistry from the time when emphasis was placed on the determination of the size and shape of the protein molecule as a colloidal particle, with an early breakthrough by James Sumner, followed by Linus Pauling and Fred Sanger, that a protein was a real molecule, albeit a macromolecule. It deals with the recognition of the nature and importance of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in determining the structure, properties, and biological function of proteins until the present acquisition of an understanding of the structure, thermodynamics, and folding pathways from a linear array of amino acids to a biological entity. Along the way, with a combination of experiment and theoretical interpretation, a mechanism was elucidated for the thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to a fibrin blood clot and for the oxidative-folding pathways of ribonuclease A. Before the atomic structure of a protein molecule was determined by x-ray diffraction or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, experimental studies of the fundamental interactions underlying protein structure led to several distance constraints which motivated the theoretical approach to determine protein structure, and culminated in the Empirical Conformational Energy Program for Peptides (ECEPP), an all-atom force field, with which the structures of fibrous collagen-like proteins and the 46-residue globular staphylococcal protein A were determined. To undertake the study of larger globular proteins, a physics-based coarse-grained UNited-RESidue (UNRES) force field was developed, and applied to the protein-folding problem in terms of structure, thermodynamics, dynamics, and folding pathways. Initially, single-chain and, ultimately, multiple-chain proteins were examined, and the methodology was extended to protein-protein interactions and to nucleic acids and to protein-nucleic acid interactions. The ultimate results led to an understanding

  11. Protein-crystal growth experiment (planned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S.; Asano, K.; Hashitani, T.; Kitakohji, T.; Nemoto, H.; Kitamura, S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a microgravity environment on protein crystal growth, a system was developed using 5 cubic feet Get Away Special payload canister. In the experiment, protein (myoglobin) will be simultaneously crystallized from an aqueous solution in 16 crystallization units using three types of crystallization methods, i.e., batch, vapor diffusion, and free interface diffusion. Each unit has two compartments: one for the protein solution and the other for the ammonium sulfate solution. Compartments are separated by thick acrylic or thin stainless steel plates. Crystallization will be started by sliding out the plates, then will be periodically recorded up to 120 hours by a still camera. The temperature will be passively controlled by a phase transition thermal storage component and recorded in IC memory throughout the experiment. Microgravity environment can then be evaluated for protein crystal growth by comparing crystallization in space with that on Earth.

  12. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  13. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  14. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  15. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  16. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  17. Nonlinear dielectric properties and tunability of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-0.1 PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Hall, A.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dielectric properties of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3•0.1PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) and Ba[Ti0.85,Sn0.15]O3 (BTS) paraelectrics experimentally and theoretically. We measure the nonlinear dielectric response in the parallel plate capacitor configuration, whereby we obtain the low frequency linear permittivity (ε33), and the higher order permittivities (ε3333,ε333333) at 298K as ε33PMN-PT=2.1×10-7 and ε33BTS=4.1×10-8F /m, ε3333PMN-PT=-4.9×10-20 and ε3333BTS=-7.3×10-21F3m /C2, and ε333333PMN-PT=7.6×10-33 and ε333333BTS=9.85×10-34F5m3/C4. By using a self-consistent thermodynamic theory in conjunction with the experimental data, we compute the E3 dependence of electrostatic free energy ΔG, the field-induced polarization P3, and the thermodynamic tunability ∂2P3/∂E32, and prove that electrostatic free energy has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in the electric field to define the critical field ∣E3*∣ at which maximum tunability is attained. We also show that ∣E3*∣ is a function on ∣ε3333∣/ε333333 only. Consequently, we find ∣E3*∣PMN-PT=8.0×105V /m and ∣E3*∣BTS=8.6×105V/m. We compute the engineering tunabilities as ΓPMN-PT=65% and ΓBTS=55%, and then define a normalized tunability ξ to take into account the ∣E3*∣ parameter. Thereof, we determine ∣ξ ∣PMT-PT=8.1×10-5%/Vm-1 and ∣ξ∣BTS=6.4×10-5%/Vm-1. Our results reveal that ∣E3*∣BTS>∣E3*∣PMN-PT although ΓBTS<ΓPMN-PT, unequivocally showing the need for defining a critical field parameter in evaluating the nonlinear dielectric response and tunability, in particular, and in nonlinear dielectrics in general. The results also indicate that the nonlinear dielectric properties of PMN-PT are an order of magnitude higher than that of BTS, which we discuss in the context of structure-property relations of relaxors.

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  19. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  1. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  2. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  3. A thermodynamic definition of protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren L; Rose, George D

    2012-06-12

    Protein domains are conspicuous structural units in globular proteins, and their identification has been a topic of intense biochemical interest dating back to the earliest crystal structures. Numerous disparate domain identification algorithms have been proposed, all involving some combination of visual intuition and/or structure-based decomposition. Instead, we present a rigorous, thermodynamically-based approach that redefines domains as cooperative chain segments. In greater detail, most small proteins fold with high cooperativity, meaning that the equilibrium population is dominated by completely folded and completely unfolded molecules, with a negligible subpopulation of partially folded intermediates. Here, we redefine structural domains in thermodynamic terms as cooperative folding units, based on m-values, which measure the cooperativity of a protein or its substructures. In our analysis, a domain is equated to a contiguous segment of the folded protein whose m-value is largely unaffected when that segment is excised from its parent structure. Defined in this way, a domain is a self-contained cooperative unit; i.e., its cooperativity depends primarily upon intrasegment interactions, not intersegment interactions. Implementing this concept computationally, the domains in a large representative set of proteins were identified; all exhibit consistency with experimental findings. Specifically, our domain divisions correspond to the experimentally determined equilibrium folding intermediates in a set of nine proteins. The approach was also proofed against a representative set of 71 additional proteins, again with confirmatory results. Our reframed interpretation of a protein domain transforms an indeterminate structural phenomenon into a quantifiable molecular property grounded in solution thermodynamics.

  4. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  5. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  6. The R117A variant of the Escherichia coli transacylase FabD synthesizes novel acyl-(acyl carrier proteins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Aaron M; Barb, Adam W

    2017-12-01

    The commercial impact of fermentation systems producing novel and biorenewable chemicals will flourish with the expansion of enzymes engineered to synthesize new molecules. Though a small degree of natural variability exists in fatty acid biosynthesis, the molecular space accessible through enzyme engineering is fundamentally limitless. Prokaryotic fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes build carbon chains on a functionalized acyl carrier protein (ACP) that provides solubility, stability, and a scaffold for interactions with the synthetic enzymes. Here, we identify the malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA)/holo-ACP transacylase (FabD) from Escherichia coli as a platform enzyme for engineering to diversify microbial fatty acid biosynthesis. The FabD R117A variant produced novel ACP-based primer and extender units for fatty acid biosynthesis. Unlike the wild-type enzyme that is highly specific for malonyl-CoA to produce malonyl-ACP, the R117A variant synthesized acetyl-ACP, succinyl-ACP, isobutyryl-ACP, 2-butenoyl-ACP, and β-hydroxybutyryl-ACP among others from holo-ACP and the corresponding acyl-CoAs with specific activities from 3.7 to 120 nmol min -1  mg -1 . FabD R117A maintained K M values for holo-ACP (~ 40 μM) and displayed small changes in K M for acetoacetyl-CoA (110 ± 30 μM) and acetyl-CoA (200 ± 70 μM) when compared to malonyl-CoA (80 ± 30 μM). FabD R117A represents a novel catalyst that synthesizes a broad range of acyl-acyl-ACPs.

  7. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  8. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  9. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  10. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  11. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  12. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  13. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  14. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  15. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  16. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  17. Complicações gastrointestinais e adequação calórico-protéica de pacientes em uso de nutrição enteral em uma unidade de terapia intensiva Gastrointestinal complications and protein-calorie adequacy in intensive care unit enteral nutrition patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Meira de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de complicações gastrointestinais e a adequação calórico-protéica de pacientes críticos em uso de terapia de nutrição enteral. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, onde foram coletados, mediante análise das fichas de acompanhamento nutricional, as complicações gastrointestinais mais freqüentes durante o período de internamento do paciente, bem como a necessidade e a oferta calórico-protéica. Considerou-se como ofertado, o volume e o tipo de fórmula efetivamente recebido pelo paciente no último dia de internamento hospitalar. Foi utilizado o programa SPSS, versão 13 para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 77 pacientes com idade 54,7 ± 18,1 anos e predominância do sexo feminino (54,5%. A dieta ofertada foi adequada e todos os pacientes apresentaram algum tipo de complicação gastrointestinal, sendo o retorno gástrico o mais prevalente (39%, seguido da constipação com 36,4%. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da elevada prevalência de complicações gastrointestinais, não foi observada uma inadequação na oferta calórica-protéica. As condutas multidisciplinares frente à resolução dessas complicações necessitam ser padronizadas para que soluções precoces possam ser tomadas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of gastrointestinal complications and protein-calorie adequacy in critical patients using enteral nutrition therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in the intensive care unit of the Hospital das Clinicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco involving analysis of nutritional records evaluating the most frequent gastrointestinal complications during the patients' hospitalization and protein-calorie supply requirements. It was considered offered, the volume and formula effectively received by the patient on the last hospitalization day. The SPSS version

  18. Protein surface shielding agents in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hašek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process can be controlled by protein surface shielding agents blocking undesirable competitive adhesion modes during non-equilibrium processes of deposition of protein molecules on the surface of growing crystalline blocks. The hypothesis is based on a number of experimental proofs from diffraction experiments and also retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The molecules adhering temporarily on the surface of protein molecules change the propensity of protein molecules to deposit on the crystal surface in a definite position and orientation. The concepts of competitive adhesion modes and protein surface shielding agents acting on the surface of molecules in a non-equilibrium process of protein crystallization provide a useful platform for the control of crystallization. The desirable goal, i.e. a transient preference of a single dominating adhesion mode between protein molecules during crystallization, leads to uniform deposition of proteins in a crystal. This condition is the most important factor for diffraction quality and thus also for the accuracy of protein structure determination. The presented hypothesis is a generalization of the experimentally well proven behaviour of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of protein molecules of other compounds

  19. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  20. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  1. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  2. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  3. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  4. UnitedHealth Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  5. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  6. Flywheel and power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R.W.

    1992-10-28

    A power unit, e.g. for an electrically driven vehicle, incorporates a flywheel for storing kinetic energy and a battery for storing electrical energy. The battery is incorporated as a substantial part of the rotating mass of the flywheel. Preferably the unit further includes an electrical machine being a motor or generator or machine operable either as a motor or a generator for transferring energy between the battery and the flywheel and/or for the input or output of rotary energy therefrom or thereto. The motor may be used for powering the flywheel and may also operate in a regenerative mode for recharging the unit on de-acceleration of the vehicle. The unit of the invention may also be utilized as an electrical stored power source, e.g. wind or water driven. (author)

  7. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  8. UniTed

    OpenAIRE

    Harma, Eero

    2010-01-01

    UniTed on Teddy boy- tyylistä inspiroitunut kevät/kesä mallisto naisille.Mallistossa yhdistyy perinteinen teddy boy- vaatetus ja klassinen feminiinisyys, sekä menneisyys ja nykyisyys. Suunnittelun lähtökohtia olivat naisellisuus, tyylikkyys ja pyrkimys luoda nykyaikaista suunnittelua menneisyydestä lainaillen. United is a teddy boy- style inspired spring/summer collection for women. The collection combines traditional Teddy boy style with classical feminity and past with the present. The b...

  9. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  10. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2011-01-01

    low-risk women intending FMU birth and a matched control group of 839 low-risk women intending OU birth were included at the start of care in labour. OU women were individually chosen to match selected obstetric/socio-economic characteristics of FMU women. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main......Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839...... women were significantly less likely to experience an abnormal fetal heart rate (RR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5), fetal–pelvic complications (0.2, 0.05 to 0.6), shoulder dystocia (0.3, 0.1 to 0.9), occipital–posterior presentation (0.5, 0.3 to 0.9) and postpartum haemorrhage >500 ml (0.4, 0.3 to 0...

  11. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  12. Amino acids and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balanced, safe diet with proteins is important to meet nutritional requirements. Proteins occur in animal as well as vegetable products in important quantities. In some countries, many people obtain much of their protein from animal products. In other regions, the major portion of dietary protein ...

  13. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  14. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  15. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  16. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2015-04-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  18. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A; Pace, Michael L; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km 3  yr −1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km 3  yr −1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  20. Gas-centrifuge unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    An isotope-enrichment unit is described for separating a gaseous mixture feedstock including a compound of a light nuclear isotope at a predetermined concentration and a compound of a heavy nuclear isotope at a predetermined concentration into at least two unit-output fractions including a waste fraction depleted in the light isotope to a predetermined concentration and a product fraction enriched in the light isotope to a predetermined concentration. The unit comprises a first group of cascades of gas centrifuges, each cascade having an enriching stage, a stripping stage, an input, a light-fraction output, and a heavy-fraction output for separating the gaseous-mixture feed stock into light and heavy gaseous-mixture fractions; and an auxillary cascade

  1. Mechanical strainer unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, J.B.; Netkowicz, R.J.; Schnall, I.H.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical strainer unit is connected to a flanged conduit which originates in and extends out of a suppression chamber in a nuclear reactor. The strainer includes a plurality of centrally apertured plates positioned along a common central axis and in parallel and spaced relationship. The plates have a plurality of bores radially spaced about the central axis. Spacer means such as washers are positioned between adjacent plates to maintain the plates is spaced relationship and form communicating passages of a predetermined size to the central apertures. Connecting means such as bolts or studs extend through the aligned bores to maintain the unit in assembled relationship and secure the unit to the pipe. By employing perforated plates and blocking off certain of the communicating passages, a dual straining effect can be achieved

  2. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  3. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  4. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction network. Based on different complex sets detected by various algorithms, we can obtain different prediction sets of protein-protein interactions. The reliability of the predicted interaction sets is proved by using estimations with statistical tests and direct confirmation of the biological data. In comparison with the approaches which predict the interactions based on the cliques, the overlap of the predictions is small. Similarly, the overlaps among the predicted sets of interactions derived from various complex sets are also small. Thus, every predicted set of interactions may complement and improve the quality of the original network data. Meanwhile, the predictions from the proposed method replenish protein-protein interactions associated with protein complexes using only the network topology.

  5. Mobile emergency response unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, W.J.; Trolan, R.T.; Becker, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The Hotspot quick-response unit was the solution to a requirement to find, identify, and control areas of radioactive contamination at the scene of a nuclear weapons accident. The unit consists of two trucks and two trailers, and is designed to be transported by one U.S. Air Force C-141. One truck (generator truck) carries a 40 kW generator-heater-air conditioner combination, spare tires, and accessories. The other (water truck) carries supplies and a 250-gal water tank. One trailer (counting trailer) contains detecting, counting, and recording equipment. The other (decontaminating trailer) contains a shower, sink, 30-gal hot water tank, and supplies

  6. Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein energy malnutrition. MH Etukudo, EO Agbedana, OO Akinyinka, BOA Osifo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 7-11. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  7. Protein metabolism in marine animals: the underlying mechanism of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Keiron P P; Rogers, Alex D

    2007-01-01

    comprise a significant proportion of overall metabolic costs in marine organisms, accurate estimates of the energetic cost per unit of synthesised protein are important. Measured costs of protein metabolism are reviewed, and the very high variability in reported costs highlighted. Two major determinants of protein synthesis rates are the tissue concentration of RNA, often expressed as the RNA to protein ratio, and the RNA activity (k(RNA)). The effects of temperature, nutrition and developmental stage on RNA concentration and activity are considered. This chapter highlights our complete lack of knowledge of protein metabolism in many groups of marine organisms, and the fact we currently have only limited data for animals held under a narrow range of experimental conditions. The potential assistance that genomic methods may provide in increasing our understanding of protein metabolism is described.

  8. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  9. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  10. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  11. United Kingdom's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation

  12. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  13. Multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Uralskij, V. I.; Uralskij, A. V.; Sinitsa, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents scientific and engineering developments of multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit in which the selective effect of grinding bodies on the crushing material is realized, depending on its physical and mechanical characteristics and various schemes for organizing the technological process

  14. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  15. Unit III: International Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    This lesson helps students understand the global network involved in international events. Students have an opportunity to examine the impact of international law and the role of international organizations, national governments, and private individuals in the effort to secure the release of United States hostages in Iran. (AM)

  16. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  17. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  18. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  19. Decomposition of overlapping protein complexes: A graph theoretical method for analyzing static and dynamic protein associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Katia S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cellular processes are carried out by multi-protein complexes, groups of proteins that bind together to perform a specific task. Some proteins form stable complexes, while other proteins form transient associations and are part of several complexes at different stages of a cellular process. A better understanding of this higher-order organization of proteins into overlapping complexes is an important step towards unveiling functional and evolutionary mechanisms behind biological networks. Results We propose a new method for identifying and representing overlapping protein complexes (or larger units called functional groups within a protein interaction network. We develop a graph-theoretical framework that enables automatic construction of such representation. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to TNFα/NF-κB and pheromone signaling pathways. Conclusion The proposed representation helps in understanding the transitions between functional groups and allows for tracking a protein's path through a cascade of functional groups. Therefore, depending on the nature of the network, our representation is capable of elucidating temporal relations between functional groups. Our results show that the proposed method opens a new avenue for the analysis of protein interaction networks.

  20. The Rise and Fall of Protein Malnutrition in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    From the 1950s to the mid-1970s, United Nations (UN) agencies were focused on protein malnutrition as the major worldwide nutritional problem. The goal of this review is to examine this era of protein malnutrition, the reasons for its demise, and the aftermath. The UN Protein Advisory Group was established in 1955. International conferences were largely concerned about protein malnutrition in children. By the early 1970s, UN agencies were ringing the alarm about a 'protein gap'. In The Lancet in 1974, Donald McLaren branded these efforts as 'The Great Protein Fiasco', declaring that the 'protein gap' was a fallacy. The following year, John Waterlow, the scientist who led most of the efforts on protein malnutrition, admitted that a 'protein gap' did not exist and that young children in developing countries only needed sufficient energy intake. The emphasis on protein malnutrition waned. It is recently apparent that quality protein and essential amino acids are missing in the diet and may have adverse consequences for child growth and the reduction of child stunting. Key Messages: It may be time to re-include protein and return protein malnutrition in the global health agenda using a balanced approach that includes all protective nutrients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  2. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  3. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ...

  4. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  5. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full

  6. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  7. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interactions with other proteins, or binding of small molecules. Covalent .... vealed through structural elucidation of the protein in free and oxygen-bound forms .... stance, molecular dynamic simulation of glutamine binding pro- tein shows that ...

  8. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-01-03

    Jan 3, 2005 ... covering all the systems, so far discovered.5,7,8,12. With the increasing ... Structural investigations on proteins by NMR are, currently ... rapid analysis of unfolded proteins. ...... and hence help in design of drugs against them.

  9. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  10. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    . For safe identification of the crystal form the experimental patterns have to be compared with patterns calculated from known crystal structures. Very good agreement with Protein Data Bank data was obtained after including corrections for background, unit cell parameters, disordered bulk......Collecting protein powder diffraction data on standard in-house powder diffractometers requires careful handling of the samples. Specially designed sample holders combined with optimized collimation were found to be the key factors in improving the data quality and reducing the data collection time......-solvent, and geometric factors. The data collection and correction procedures were demonstrated by the identification of three different crystal forms of insulin....

  11. Detection of proteins on blot transfer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-11-01

    In the basic and alternate protocols of this unit, proteins are stained after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot transfer membranes. If the samples of interest are electrophoresed in duplicate and transferred to a blot transfer membrane, half of the membrane can be stained to determine the efficiency of transfer to the membrane and the other half can be used for immunoblotting (i.e., western blotting). Detection limits of each staining method are given along with a list of compatible blot transfer membranes and gels. A support protocol describes a method for alkali treatment that enhances subsequent staining of bound proteins.

  12. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  13. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... contact surface from the rest of the protein surface have been used to identify ..... interfaces the contribution of the charged residues, such as. Lys, Asp and ..... Lawrence M C and Colman P M 1993 Shape complementarity at.

  14. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  15. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  16. Uranium chemistry research unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The initial field of research of this Unit, established in 1973, was the basic co-ordination chemistry of uranium, thorium, copper, cobalt and nickel. Subsequently the interest of the Unit extended to extractive metallurgy relating to these metals. Under the term 'co-ordination chemistry' is understood the interaction of the central transition metal ion with surrounding atoms in its immediate vicinity (within bonding distance) and the influence they have on each other - for example, structural studies for determining the number and arrangement of co-ordinated atoms and spectrophotometric studies to establish how the f electron energy levels of uranium are influenced by the environment. New types of uranium compounds have been synthesized and studied, and the behaviour of uranium ions in non-aqueous systems has also received attention. This work can be applied to the development and study of extractants and new extractive processes for uranium

  17. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  18. Optimally Locating MARFORRES Units

    OpenAIRE

    Salmeron, Javier; Dell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Javier Salmeron and Rob Dell The U.S. Marine Forces Reserve (USMCR, MARFORRES) is conducting realignment studies where discretionary changes may benefit from formal mathematical analysis. This study has developed an optimization tool to guide and/or support Commander, MARFORRES (CMFR) decisions. A prototype of the optimization tool has been tested with data from the units and Reserve Training Centers (RTCs) in the San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA areas. Prepared for: MARFORRES, POC:...

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  1. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  2. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  3. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  4. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  5. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  6. Racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2012-01-01

    Although natural proteins are chiral and are all of one "handedness," their mirror image forms can be prepared by chemical synthesis. This opens up new opportunities for protein crystallography. A racemic mixture of the enantiomeric forms of a protein molecule can crystallize in ways that natural proteins cannot. Recent experimental data support a theoretical prediction that this should make racemic protein mixtures highly amenable to crystallization. Crystals obtained from racemic mixtures also offer advantages in structure determination strategies. The relevance of these potential advantages is heightened by advances in synthetic methods, which are extending the size limit for proteins that can be prepared by chemical synthesis. Recent ideas and results in the area of racemic protein crystallography are reviewed.

  7. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  8. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  9. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  10. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  11. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  12. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  13. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  15. Reassembly of S-layer proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in a broad range of bacteria and archaea. They are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. They are highly porous protein mesh works with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. S-layers are usually 5 to 20 nm thick (in archaea, up to 70 nm). S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. One of their key features, and the focus of this review, is the intrinsic capability of isolated native and recombinant S-layer proteins to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in suspension, at solid supports, the air-water interface, planar lipid films, liposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles. The reassembly is entropy-driven and a fascinating example of matrix assembly following a multistage, non-classical pathway in which the process of S-layer protein folding is directly linked with assembly into extended clusters. Moreover, basic research on the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly, and function of S-layer proteins laid the foundation for their application in novel approaches in biotechnology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology. (topical review)

  16. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, L; Rubio-Moraga, A; Ahrazem, O

    2011-03-01

    Plants have developed many mechanisms to protect themselves against most potential microbial pathogens and diseases. Among these mechanisms, pathogenesis-related proteins are produced as part of the active defence to prevent attack. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding the CsPR10 protein was identified in fresh saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus). The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the coding region showed homology with PR10 proteins. The clone expressed as a protein in fusion with a GST tag produced a 47-kDa protein in E. coli. CsPR10 had ribonuclease activity, with features common to class II-type ribonucleases; its specific activity was quantified as 68.8 U·mg(-1) protein, thus falling within the range of most PR10 proteins exhibiting RNase activity. Antifungal activity of CsPR10 was assayed against Verticillium dahliae, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. CsPR10 inhibited only F. oxysporum growth, and antifungal potency was reflected in a IC(50) of 8.3 μm. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in anther and tepal tissues, low levels in stigmas and roots, and no signal detected in leaves. This protein seems to be involved in the active defence response through activation of the jasmonic acid pathway. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Specificity and affinity quantification of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Liyong; Hu, Liang; Wang, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Most biological processes are mediated by the protein-protein interactions. Determination of the protein-protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein-protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein-protein complexes. The scoring function of protein-protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein-protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein-protein complex against competitive ones. We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein-protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein-protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein-protein structure and affinity. The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp.

  18. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  19. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scoring functions for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Moretti, Rocco; Baker, David; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The computational evaluation of protein-protein interactions will play an important role in organising the wealth of data being generated by high-throughput initiatives. Here we discuss future applications, report recent developments and identify areas requiring further investigation. Many functions have been developed to quantify the structural and energetic properties of interacting proteins, finding use in interrelated challenges revolving around the relationship between sequence, structure and binding free energy. These include loop modelling, side-chain refinement, docking, multimer assembly, affinity prediction, affinity change upon mutation, hotspots location and interface design. Information derived from models optimised for one of these challenges can be used to benefit the others, and can be unified within the theoretical frameworks of multi-task learning and Pareto-optimal multi-objective learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-resolution diffraction from crystals of a membrane-protein complex: bacterial outer membrane protein OmpC complexed with the antibacterial eukaryotic protein lactoferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundara Baalaji, N.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Singh, T. P.; Krishnaswamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of the complex formed between the bacterial membrane protein OmpC and the antibacterial protein lactoferrin suitable for high-resolution structure determination have been obtained. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å. Crystals of the complex formed between the outer membrane protein OmpC from Escherichia coli and the eukaryotic antibacterial protein lactoferrin from Camelus dromedarius (camel) have been obtained using a detergent environment. Initial data processing suggests that the crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116.3, c = 152.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. This indicated a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.3 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to a possible molecular complex involving four molecules of lactoferrin and two porin trimers in the unit cell (4832 amino acids; 533.8 kDa) with 63% solvent content. A complete set of diffraction data was collected to 3 Å resolution at 100 K. Structure determination by molecular replacement is in progress. Structural study of this first surface-exposed membrane-protein complex with an antibacterial protein will provide insights into the mechanism of action of OmpC as well as lactoferrin

  2. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    Proteins are the major functional group of molecules in biology. The impact of protein science on medicine and chemical productions is rapidly increasing. However, the greatest potential remains to be realized. The fi eld of protein design has advanced computational modeling from a tool of support...... to a central method that enables new developments. For example, novel enzymes with functions not found in natural proteins have been de novo designed to give enough activity for experimental optimization. This thesis presents the current state-of-the-art within computational design methods together...... with a novel method based on probability theory. With the aim of assembling a complete pipeline for protein design, this work touches upon several aspects of protein design. The presented work is the computational half of a design project where the other half is dedicated to the experimental part...

  3. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  4. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The history of nuclear development in the United Kingdom is traced, together with the factors (eg electricity demand, fossil fuel prices, political policy) that have influenced policy choices. Many of the research establishments and the fissile material production plants were established in the late 1940s. In these early years the civil and military development programmes were not separate. The initial growth period was in the 1950s when the plan was to build twelve reactors in three groups of four over ten years. The first were to be Magnox type reactors. This was trebled in 1957 and the advanced gas cooled reactor was developed. The Windscale fire in 1957 affected confidence in the nuclear programme. However, five AGR twin-reactor stations were ordered in 1964. These ran into construction problems and delay and it was not until 1980 that more new units were contemplated. The plan then was to build a pressurized water reactor at Sizewell-B. A delay to allow for the public inquiry put back the start of this until 1987 with commissioning planned for 1994. A list of the UK nuclear power stations is given and their operating performance discussed. The present situation and future prospects for nuclear power are reviewed. (U.K.)

  5. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  6. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  7. Yeast ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaka, E.; Kobata, K.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic 80s ribosomal proteins from the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seventyfour proteins were identified and consecutively numbered from 1 to 74. Upon oxidation of the 80s proteins with performic acid, ten proteins (no. 15, 20, 35, 40, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54 and 55) were dislocated on the gel without change of the total number of protein spots. Five proteins (no. 8, 14, 16, 36 and 74) were phosphorylated in vivo as seen in 32 P-labelling experiments. The large and small subunits separated in low magnesium medium were analyzed by the above gel electrophoresis. At least forty-five and twenty-eight proteins were assumed to be in the large and small subunits, respectively. All proteins found in the 80s ribosomes, except for no. 3, were detected in either subunit without appearance of new spots. The acidic protein no. 3 seems to be lost during subunit dissociation. (orig.) [de

  8. Physics of protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, A. V.; Galzitskaya, O. V.

    2004-04-01

    Protein physics is grounded on three fundamental experimental facts: protein, this long heteropolymer, has a well defined compact three-dimensional structure; this structure can spontaneously arise from the unfolded protein chain in appropriate environment; and this structure is separated from the unfolded state of the chain by the “all-or-none” phase transition, which ensures robustness of protein structure and therefore of its action. The aim of this review is to consider modern understanding of physical principles of self-organization of protein structures and to overview such important features of this process, as finding out the unique protein structure among zillions alternatives, nucleation of the folding process and metastable folding intermediates. Towards this end we will consider the main experimental facts and simple, mostly phenomenological theoretical models. We will concentrate on relatively small (single-domain) water-soluble globular proteins (whose structure and especially folding are much better studied and understood than those of large or membrane and fibrous proteins) and consider kinetic and structural aspects of transition of initially unfolded protein chains into their final solid (“native”) 3D structures.

  9. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  10. Protein Modification: A Proposed Mechanism for the Long-Term Pathogenesis of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Protein A affinity chromatography (HiTrap Protein A HP column (17-0403-01; GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) on a GE ÄKTA FPLC fast...protein liquid chromatography instrument (FPLC; 18-1900-26; GE Healthcare), aliquoted for single-use and stored at -80°C. Immunodetection of...II: Springer Protocols Handbooks . 22. Boyd-Kimball D, Castegna A, Sultana R, Poon H, Petroze R, et al. 2005. Proteomic identification of proteins

  11. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  12. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  13. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  14. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  15. Chaperonin Structure - The Large Multi-Subunit Protein Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Roterman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity distribution. The proteins of this group assist protein folding supported by ATP. The specific axial symmetry GroEL structure (two rings of seven units stacked back to back - 524 aa each and the GroES (single ring of seven units - 97 aa each polypeptide chains are analyzed using the hydrophobicity distribution expressed as excess/deficiency all over the molecule to search for structure-to-function relationships. The empirically observed distribution of hydrophobic residues is confronted with the theoretical one representing the idealized hydrophobic core with hydrophilic residues exposure on the surface. The observed discrepancy between these two distributions seems to be aim-oriented, determining the structure-to-function relation. The hydrophobic force field structure generated by the chaperonin capsule is presented. Its possible influence on substrate folding is suggested.

  16. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  17. Azurophil granule proteins constitute the major mycobactericidal proteins in human neutrophils and enhance the killing of mycobacteria in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mohanty, Tirthankar

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in, and are in turn controlled by, macrophages. However, emerging data suggest that neutrophils also play a critical role in innate immunity to tuberculosis, presumably by their different antibacterial granule proteins. In this study, we purified neutrophil azurophil...... and specific granules and systematically analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of some purified azurophil and specific granule proteins against M. smegmatis, M. bovis-BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Using gel overlay and colony forming unit assays we showed that the defensin-depleted azurophil granule...... proteins (AZP) were more active against mycobacteria compared to other granule proteins and cytosolic proteins. The proteins showing antimycobacterial activity were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the AZP disintegrate bacterial cell membrane...

  18. UNITED KINGDOM: under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data

  19. United Kingdom national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    Report of the United Kingdom deals with life extension granted to Calder Hall and Chapelcross reactors for further 10 years operation. The two well recognised life-limiting features of Magnox type reactors are graphite core ageing and materials properties of the reactor pressure circuit components. These features have been scrutinised particularly closely and the conclusion has been reached that there are no safety factors which will necessarily limit the plant life to less than 50 years. Two other life-limiting factors are hear exchanger tubes and the heat exchanger tube failures internal to boiler shells and the integrity of the main engineering structures of the plant. It was concluded that appropriate routine ageing monitoring programs are in place in respect to these features to support continuing operation beyond 40 years

  20. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  1. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-01-01

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO 2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O 2 /kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15 N in urea after oral 15 N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  2. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  3. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.

    1976-10-01

    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  4. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    International System of Units abbreviated as SI units has been adopted by most of the countries of the world. Following this development, the implementation of SI units has become mandatory with a transition period of about ten years. Some of the journals have already adopted the SI units and any material sent for publication to them must use only these. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) published letters in several journals including Physics in Medicine and Biology, Health Physics, British Journal of Radiology, etc. outlining the latest recommendations on SI units to elicit the reactions of scientists in the general field of radiological sciences. Reactions to the letters were numerous as can be seen in the correspondence columns of these journals for the last few years and ranged from great misgivings and apprehension to support and appreciation. SI units have also been the subject of editorial comments in several journals. On the basis of a survey of this literature, it may be said that there was general agreement on the long term advantage of SI units inspite of some practical difficulties in their use particularly in the initial stages. This report presents a review of SI units in radiological sciences with a view to familiarize the users with the new units in terms of the old. A time table for the gradual changeover to the SI units is also outlined. (auth.)

  5. SI units in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liden, K.

    1975-01-01

    The International commission on radiation units and measurements (ICRU), during the period from 1953 to 1962 presented its definitions of the quantities absorbed dose, exposure, activity, and dose equivalent and the corresponding special units the rad, the roentgen, the curie, and the rem. At the same time an international practical system of units was developed, Le Systeme International d'Unites (SI). It was adopted by the 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) in 1960 and is now officially introduced in almost all countries. The general implementation of the SI means difficulties for the future use of the special radiation units, because the numerical factors involved prevent their adoption as SI units. In view of this, and after having sampled the opinion in the radiological field, the ICRU prepared a Statement on Units in July, 1974 which was forwarded to the Comite International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) and its Comite Consultatif des Unites (CCU) for consideration. As a result of this statement the CIPM has now proposed, that the 15rh CGPM adopt special names for two SI units, namely the becquerel, symbol Bq, for the unit of activity of radionuclides equal to the reciprocal second, s 1- , and the gray, symbol Gy, for the unit of absorbed dose equal to the joule per kilogram, J/kg. The 15th CGPM will consider this matter in May, 1975. (author)

  6. Advances in Protein Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are biological macromolecules, which are among the key components of all living organisms. Proteins are nowadays present in all fields of biotech industry, such as food and feed, synthetic and pharmaceutical industry. They are isolated from their natural sources or produced in different

  7. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  8. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  9. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  10. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  11. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  12. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  14. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  15. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  16. An M/G/1 queue with multiple types of feedback and gated vacations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); U. Yechiali

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a single-server queue with Poisson arrivals and multiple customer feedbacks. If the first service attempt of a newly arriving customer is not successful, he returns to the end of the queue for another service attempt, with a different service time distribution. He

  17. Quorum sensing-controlled biofilm development in Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labbate, M.; Queek, S.Y.; Koh, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    aggregates and differentiated cell chains. Signal-based complementation of this mutant resulted in a biofilm with the wild-type architecture. Two quorum-sensing-regulated genes (bsmA and bsmB) involved in biofilm development were identified, and we propose that these genes are engaged in fine...

  18. Biquadratic Exchange in CsMnxMg1-xBr3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1984-01-01

    The importance of higher-order exchange interaction in localized S-state systems is discussed. The equation of motion is solved for a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling. It is shown that the biquadratic exchange interaction usually cannot be derived from...

  19. The M/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    In modern teletraffic applications of queueing theory, service time distributions B(t) with a heavy tail occur, i.e., 1-B(t)~Ct-v for t¿8 with v>1. For such service time distributions, not much explicit information is available concerning the tail probabilities of the corresponding waiting time

  20. Die-cast heterophase composites with AlSi13Mg1CuNi matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyzia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the performed tests, an advantageous interaction of glassy carbon particles in a couple consisting of a heterophase composite and a spheroidal cast iron has been corroborated. It was found that, the presence of glassy carbon in the heterophase composite (SiC+C affects the stabilization of the friction coefficient value as a function of the friction distance and reduces the intensity of the wearing-in stage of the interacting surfaces. Both a decrease of the friction coefficient and the wear of the heterophase composites may be connected with the carbon particles' chipping effect and the deposition of its fragments on the surface of the interacting components of the friction couple, which forms a kind of a solid lubricating agent in the system. This should allow applying of this material to the composite piston - cylinder sleeve system in piston air-compressors. Further works will concern the selection of the matrix alloy composition with the purpose of reducing the phenomenon of particles chipping during machining. It seems that one of the possibilities is the application of a more plastic matrix and optimizing the fraction of reinforcing phases and their gradient distribution in the casting.

  1. Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes as an Activating Step for Protein Interactions with Cross-linking/MS Analysis. / Chen, Zhuo; Rasmussen, Morten; Tahir, Salman; Clark, C.A.C; Barlow, Paul; Rappsilber, Juri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    of C3 to its active form C3b. C3 (187kDa) is a twelve domain protein (ANA, CUB, TED and MG1 to MG9). During the conversion of C3 to C3b, one domain, ANA (99 residues), is proteolytically removed and a number of domains change their position. This exposes protein-binding sites for downstream...... interactions in the complement response.   Methods 250 pmol of C3 and C3b were both cross-linked with a 1000X excess of cross-linkers. BS2G, BS3, and sulfo-EGS were applied respectively. The cross-linking products were separated with 1D-PAGE gel. Monomer bands were sliced and digested with trypsin. Cross......-terminus. The TED domain relocates as is revealed by three cross-links to the ANA domain in C3 and four cross-links to the MG1 domain in C3b, a domain that is remote in C3. In C3b case, a cross-link within the CUB domain suggests a folded structure of this domain, a matter of dispute in the competing crystal...

  2. Coarse-grain modelling of protein-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaden, Marc; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review recent advances towards the modelling of protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the coarse-grained (CG) level, a technique that is now widely used to understand protein affinity, aggregation and self-assembly behaviour. PPI models of soluble proteins and membrane proteins are

  3. Protein-Protein Docking in Drug Design and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Bartuzi, Damian; Stępniewski, Tomasz Maciej; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Selent, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are responsible for a number of key physiological processes in the living cells and underlie the pathomechanism of many diseases. Nowadays, along with the concept of so-called "hot spots" in protein-protein interactions, which are well-defined interface regions responsible for most of the binding energy, these interfaces can be targeted with modulators. In order to apply structure-based design techniques to design PPIs modulators, a three-dimensional structure of protein complex has to be available. In this context in silico approaches, in particular protein-protein docking, are a valuable complement to experimental methods for elucidating 3D structure of protein complexes. Protein-protein docking is easy to use and does not require significant computer resources and time (in contrast to molecular dynamics) and it results in 3D structure of a protein complex (in contrast to sequence-based methods of predicting binding interfaces). However, protein-protein docking cannot address all the aspects of protein dynamics, in particular the global conformational changes during protein complex formation. In spite of this fact, protein-protein docking is widely used to model complexes of water-soluble proteins and less commonly to predict structures of transmembrane protein assemblies, including dimers and oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this chapter we review the principles of protein-protein docking, available algorithms and software and discuss the recent examples, benefits, and drawbacks of protein-protein docking application to water-soluble proteins, membrane anchoring and transmembrane proteins, including GPCRs.

  4. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  5. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  6. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  7. United Kingdom position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined

  8. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  9. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  10. Biobank Report: United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Bell, Jessica; Briceno, Linda; Mitchell, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The United Kingdom is a leader in genomics research, and the presence of numerous types of biobanks and the linking of health data and research within the UK evidences the importance of biobank-based research in the UK. There is no biobank-specific law in the UK and research on biobank materials is governed by a confusing set of statutory law, common law, regulations, and guidance documents. Several layers of applicable law, from European to local, further complicate an understanding of privacy protections. Finally, biobanks frequently contain data in addition to the samples; the legal framework in the UK generally differentiates between data and samples and the form of the data affects the applicability of legal provisions. Biobanks must be licensed by the Human Tissue Authority; certain projects must be reviewed by Research Ethics Committees, and all projects are encouraged to be reviewed by them. Data Access Committees in biobanks are also common in the UK. While this confusing array of legal provisions leaves privacy protections in biobanking somewhat unclear, changes at the EU level may contribute to harmonization of approaches to privacy. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  11. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, S.; Williams, P.

    1991-01-01

    The possession of nuclear weapons by the United Kingdom has long been a controversial issue in British politics, and among historians and strategists. Part of the controversy has revolved around questions of motivation. Why did the British Government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee develop nuclear weapons? Why have successive British governments maintained and, in fact, modernized the national nuclear force? This paper reports that a frequent response to these questions is to place the issue of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the UK into a post-colonial context. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Britain was a great power with global assets and commitments. After the Empire was reduced in size and importance, however, and eventually swept away, Britain could not longer claim to be a superpower in any modern sense. Nevertheless, it is suggested, British policy makers had developed a foreign policy based upon certain assumptions about Britain's position and power and they were reluctant to relinquish these assumptions. Furthermore, it is contended, the decision to develop nuclear weapons was taken to reinforce what were the pretensions of a medium power, and the continued obsession of successive British governments with nuclear weapons provides evidence that Britain has still not come to terms with its reduced role and limited influence. In short, the British infatuation with nuclear weapons over the past 40 years is best explained in terms of concerns about status

  12. Units of rotational information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping

    2017-12-01

    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  13. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  14. Endometrial proteins: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Riittinen, L; Koistinen, R

    1992-06-01

    Uterine factors influence reproduction at the macro-anatomy level, and the effects of hormonal steroids on endometrial morphology are well recognized in the histopathological diagnosis of dysfunctional bleeding and infertility. During the past decade, attention has been paid to endometrial protein synthesis and secretion with respect to endocrine stimuli and implantation, and to the paracrine/autocrine effects of endometrial peptide growth factors, their binding proteins and other factors. The emphasis of this presentation is on protein secretion of the secretory endometrium, in which progesterone plays a pivotal role. Insulin-like growth factors have receptors on the endometrium, and IGF-binding proteins, stimulated by progesterone, modulate the effects of IGFs locally. Also other protein products of the secretory endometrium have been reviewed in this communication, with special emphasis on studies of a progesterone-associated endometrial protein which has many names in the literature, such as PEP, PP14, alpha 2-PEG and AUP. Extensive studies are ongoing in many laboratories to elucidate the regulation, function, interplay at tissue and cellular levels, and clinical significance of these proteins.

  15. Protein trapping of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Joo C.; Lin, Jack M.; Yaron, Peter N.; White, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We have observed the formation of protein-nanoparticle complexes at the air-water interfaces from three different methods of presenting the nanoparticles to proteins. The structures formed resemble the 'protein-nanoparticle corona' proposed by Lynch et al. [1-3) in relation to a possible route for nanoparticle entry into living cells. To do this, the methods of x-ray and neutron reflectivity (with isotopic contrast variation between the protein and nanoparticles) have been used to study the structures formed at the air-water interface of l 3 - casein presented to silica nanoparticle dispersions. Whilst the silica dispersions showed no observable reflectivity, strong signals appear in the reflectivity when protein is present. Drop-wise spreading of a small amount of protein at the air-silica sol interface and presentation of the silica sol to an isolated monomolecular protein film (made by the 'flow-trough' method [4]) gave an immediate signal. Mixing the components in solution only produces a slow response but in all cases a similar structure is formed. The different responses are interpreted in structural and stoichiometric ways.

  16. Intercellular protein-protein interactions at synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Hou, Dongmei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions through which neurons send nerve impulses to communicate with other neurons or excitable cells. The appropriate formation of synapses, both spatially and temporally, is essential for brain function and depends on the intercellular protein-protein interactions of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at synaptic clefts. The CAM proteins link pre- and post-synaptic sites, and play essential roles in promoting synapse formation and maturation, maintaining synapse number and type, accumulating neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, controlling neuronal differentiation, and even regulating synaptic plasticity directly. Alteration of the interactions of CAMs leads to structural and functional impairments, which results in many neurological disorders, such as autism, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the functions of CAMs during development and in the mature neural system, as well as in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Here, we review the function of the major classes of CAMs, and how dysfunction of CAMs relates to several neurological disorders.

  17. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions...

  18. Mis-translation of a Computationally Designed Protein Yields an Exceptionally Stable Homodimer: Implications for Protein Engineering and Evolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Gautam; Watters, Alexander L.; Lunde, Bradley; Eletr, Ziad; Isern, Nancy G.; Roseman, Toby; Lipfert, Jan; Doniach, Sebastian; Tompa, Martin; Kuhlman, Brian; Stoddard, Barry L.; Varani, Gabriele; Baker, David

    2006-10-06

    We recently used computational protein design to create an extremely stable, globular protein, Top7, with a sequence and fold not observed previously in nature. Since Top7 was created in the absence of genetic selection, it provides a rare opportunity to investigate aspects of the cellular protein production and surveillance machinery that are subject to natural selection. Here we show that a portion of the Top7 protein corresponding to the final 49 C-terminal residues is efficiently mistranslated and accumulates at high levels in E. coli. We used circular dichroism spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultra-centrifugation, and NMR spectroscopy to show that the resulting CFr protein adopts a compact, extremely-stable, obligate, symmetric, homo-dimeric structure. Based on the solution structure, we engineered an even more stable variant of CFr by disulfide-induced covalent circularisation that should be an excellent platform for design of novel functions. The accumulation of high levels of CFr exposes the high error rate of the protein translation machinery, and the rarity of correspondingly stable fragments in natural proteins implies a stringent evolutionary pressure against protein sub-fragments that can independently fold into stable structures. The symmetric self-association between two identical mistranslated CFr sub-units to generate an extremely stable structure parallels a mechanism for natural protein-fold evolution by modular recombination of stable protein sub-structures.

  19. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  20. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  1. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  2. Pierced Lasso Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Patricia

    Entanglement and knots are naturally occurring, where, in the microscopic world, knots in DNA and homopolymers are well characterized. The most complex knots are observed in proteins which are harder to investigate, as proteins are heteropolymers composed of a combination of 20 different amino acids with different individual biophysical properties. As new-knotted topologies and new proteins containing knots continue to be discovered and characterized, the investigation of knots in proteins has gained intense interest. Thus far, the principle focus has been on the evolutionary origin of tying a knot, with questions of how a protein chain `self-ties' into a knot, what the mechanism(s) are that contribute to threading, and the biological relevance and functional implication of a knotted topology in vivo gaining the most insight. Efforts to study the fully untied and unfolded chain indicate that the knot is highly stable, remaining intact in the unfolded state orders of magnitude longer than first anticipated. The persistence of ``stable'' knots in the unfolded state, together with the challenge of defining an unfolded and untied chain from an unfolded and knotted chain, complicates the study of fully untied protein in vitro. Our discovery of a new class of knotted proteins, the Pierced Lassos (PL) loop topology, simplifies the knotting approach. While PLs are not easily recognizable by the naked eye, they have now been identified in many proteins in the PDB through the use of computation tools. PL topologies are diverse proteins found in all kingdoms of life, performing a large variety of biological responses such as cell signaling, immune responses, transporters and inhibitors (http://lassoprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/). Many of these PL topologies are secreted proteins, extracellular proteins, as well as, redox sensors, enzymes and metal and co-factor binding proteins; all of which provide a favorable environment for the formation of the disulphide bridge. In the PL

  3. Determination of phosphorus in small amounts of protein samples by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Boulyga, Sergei F; Pickhardt, Carola; Becker, J; Buddrus, Stefan; Przybylski, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for phosphorus determination in protein samples. A small amount of solid protein sample (down to 1 micro g) or digest (1-10 micro L) protein solution was denatured in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide by closed-microvessel microwave digestion. Phosphorus determination was performed with an optimized analytical method using a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) and quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS). For quality control of phosphorus determination a certified reference material (CRM), single cell proteins (BCR 273) with a high phosphorus content of 26.8+/-0.4 mg g(-1), was analyzed. For studies on phosphorus determination in proteins while reducing the sample amount as low as possible the homogeneity of CRM BCR 273 was investigated. Relative standard deviation and measurement accuracy in ICP-QMS was within 2%, 3.5%, 11% and 12% when using CRM BCR 273 sample weights of 40 mg, 5 mg, 1 mg and 0.3 mg, respectively. The lowest possible sample weight for an accurate phosphorus analysis in protein samples by ICP-MS is discussed. The analytical method developed was applied for the analysis of homogeneous protein samples in very low amounts [1-100 micro g of solid protein sample, e.g. beta-casein or down to 1 micro L of protein or digest in solution (e.g., tau protein)]. A further reduction of the diluted protein solution volume was achieved by the application of flow injection in ICP-SFMS, which is discussed with reference to real protein digests after protein separation using 2D gel electrophoresis.The detection limits for phosphorus in biological samples were determined by ICP-SFMS down to the ng g(-1) level. The present work discusses the figure of merit for the determination of phosphorus in a small amount of protein sample with ICP-SFMS in comparison to ICP-QMS.

  4. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  5. Judicial Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the judicial process. The unit was designed with two major purposes in mind. First, it helps pupils understand judicial decision-making, and second, it provides for the study of the rights guaranteed by the federal Constitution. Both…

  6. The Executive Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the executive process. The unit uses case studies of presidential decision making such as the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Cuba Bay of Pigs and quarantine decisions, and the Little Rock decision. A case study of…

  7. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  8. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  9. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  10. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  11. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  12. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  13. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  14. MicroProteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining...... characteristics of a miP. In this opinion article, we clearly state the characteristics of a miP as evidenced by known proteins that fit the definition; we explain why modulatory proteins misrepresented as miPs do not qualify as true miPs. We also discuss the evolutionary history of miPs, and how the miP concept...

  15. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  16. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  17. The protein protocols handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John M

    2002-01-01

    .... The new chapters cover with many rapidly developing areas, particularly the application of mass spectrometry in protein characterization, as well as the now well-established 2-D PAGE technique in proteomics...

  18. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  19. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  20. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  1. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  2. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  3. Proteins and their crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Hogg, T.; Hilgenfeld, R.; Grandori, R.; Carey, J.; Vácha, František; Štys, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2003), s. 31-32 ISSN 1211-5894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA ČR GA206/00/D007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902; CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : pokeweed antiviral protein * flavodoxin-like protein * PSII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. The tubby family proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Jackson, Peter K

    2011-01-01

    The tubby mouse shows a tripartite syndrome characterized by maturity-onset obesity, blindness and deafness. The causative gene Tub is the founding member of a family of related proteins present throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, each characterized by a signature carboxy-terminal tubby domain. This domain consists of a β barrel enclosing a central α helix and binds selectively to specific membrane phosphoinositides. The vertebrate family of tubby-like proteins (TULPs) includes the foun...

  5. The caveolin proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Terence M; Lisanti, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3. So far, most caveolin-related research has been conducted in mammals, but the proteins have also been found in other animals, including Xenopus laevis, Fugu rubripes, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Caveolins can serve as protein markers of caveolae ('little caves'), invaginations in the plasma membrane 50-100 nanometers in diameter. Caveolins are found predominantly at the plasma membrane but also ...

  6. Protein Structure and the Sequential Structure of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren; Engelbrecht, Jacob

    1996-01-01

    entries in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank produced 719 protein chains with matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence, and secondary structure assignment, By neural network analysis, we found strong signals in mRNA sequence regions surrounding helices and sheets, These signals do not originate from......A direct comparison of experimentally determined protein structures and their corresponding protein coding mRNA sequences has been performed, We examine whether real world data support the hypothesis that clusters of rare codons correlate with the location of structural units in the resulting...... protein, The degeneracy of the genetic code allows for a biased selection of codons which may control the translational rate of the ribosome, and may thus in vivo have a catalyzing effect on the folding of the polypeptide chain, A complete search for GenBank nucleotide sequences coding for structural...

  7. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  8. Electrophoretic transfer protein zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Hill, Adam P; Kashou, Anthony; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2011-04-15

    Zymography detects and characterizes proteolytic enzymes by electrophoresis of protease-containing samples into a nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel containing a copolymerized protein substrate. The usefulness of zymography for molecular weight determination and proteomic analysis is hampered by the fact that some proteases exhibit slower migration through a gel that contains substrate protein. This article introduces electrophoretic transfer protein zymography as one solution to this problem. In this technique, samples containing proteolytic enzymes are first resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE on a gel without protein substrate. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel previously prepared with a copolymerized protein substrate. The receiving gel is then developed as a zymogram to visualize clear or lightly stained bands in a dark background. Band intensities are linearly related to the amount of protease, extending the usefulness of the technique so long as conditions for transfer and development of the zymogram are kept constant. Conditions of transfer, such as the pore sizes of resolving and receiving gels and the transfer time relative to the molecular weight of the protease, are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. More protein in cereals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  10. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  11. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Is Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR) Gene Expression Involved in Breast Cancer Suppression by Dietary Soybean Protein?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Salil

    2006-01-01

    .... It has been established that women in Asian countries consume more soy protein than women in the United States and that the incidence of breast cancer in women in Asian countries is generally lower...

  13. Protein and lipid deposition rates in growing pigs following a period ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal and Poultry Science

    Experimental evidence indicates that animals which are fatter than their desired level, show a reduction in .... composition and respective protein and lipid growth rates, an individual pig was the experimental unit. The ..... Cubana Ciencia Agric.

  14. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  15. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  16. Accelerating Molecular Dynamic Simulation on Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Mark S.; Eastman, Peter; Vaidyanathan, Vishal; Houston, Mike; Legrand, Scott; Beberg, Adam L.; Ensign, Daniel L.; Bruns, Christopher M.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a complete implementation of all-atom protein molecular dynamics running entirely on a graphics processing unit (GPU), including all standard force field terms, integration, constraints, and implicit solvent. We discuss the design of our algorithms and important optimizations needed to fully take advantage of a GPU. We evaluate its performance, and show that it can be more than 700 times faster than a conventional implementation running on a single CPU core. PMID:19191337

  17. A tensegrity model for hydrogen bond networks in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Bywater

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bonding networks in proteins considered as structural tensile elements are in balance separately from any other stabilising interactions that may be in operation. The hydrogen bond arrangement in the network is reminiscent of tensegrity structures in architecture and sculpture. Tensegrity has been discussed before in cells and tissues and in proteins. In contrast to previous work only hydrogen bonds are studied here. The other interactions within proteins are either much stronger − covalent bonds connecting the atoms in the molecular skeleton or weaker forces like the so-called hydrophobic interactions. It has been demonstrated that the latter operate independently from hydrogen bonds. Each category of interaction must, if the protein is to have a stable structure, balance out. The hypothesis here is that the entire hydrogen bond network is in balance without any compensating contributions from other types of interaction. For sidechain-sidechain, sidechain-backbone and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins, tensegrity balance (“closure” is required over the entire length of the polypeptide chain that defines individually folding units in globular proteins (“domains” as well as within the repeating elements in fibrous proteins that consist of extended chain structures. There is no closure to be found in extended structures that do not have repeating elements. This suggests an explanation as to why globular domains, as well as the repeat units in fibrous proteins, have to have a defined number of residues. Apart from networks of sidechain-sidechain hydrogen bonds there are certain key points at which this closure is achieved in the sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonds and these are associated with demarcation points at the start or end of stretches of secondary structure. Together, these three categories of hydrogen bond achieve the closure that is necessary for the stability of globular protein domains as well as repeating

  18. A tensegrity model for hydrogen bond networks in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen-bonding networks in proteins considered as structural tensile elements are in balance separately from any other stabilising interactions that may be in operation. The hydrogen bond arrangement in the network is reminiscent of tensegrity structures in architecture and sculpture. Tensegrity has been discussed before in cells and tissues and in proteins. In contrast to previous work only hydrogen bonds are studied here. The other interactions within proteins are either much stronger - covalent bonds connecting the atoms in the molecular skeleton or weaker forces like the so-called hydrophobic interactions. It has been demonstrated that the latter operate independently from hydrogen bonds. Each category of interaction must, if the protein is to have a stable structure, balance out. The hypothesis here is that the entire hydrogen bond network is in balance without any compensating contributions from other types of interaction. For sidechain-sidechain, sidechain-backbone and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins, tensegrity balance ("closure") is required over the entire length of the polypeptide chain that defines individually folding units in globular proteins ("domains") as well as within the repeating elements in fibrous proteins that consist of extended chain structures. There is no closure to be found in extended structures that do not have repeating elements. This suggests an explanation as to why globular domains, as well as the repeat units in fibrous proteins, have to have a defined number of residues. Apart from networks of sidechain-sidechain hydrogen bonds there are certain key points at which this closure is achieved in the sidechain-backbone hydrogen bonds and these are associated with demarcation points at the start or end of stretches of secondary structure. Together, these three categories of hydrogen bond achieve the closure that is necessary for the stability of globular protein domains as well as repeating elements in fibrous proteins.

  19. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  20. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  1. NZG 201 portable spectrometric unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursa, P.; Novakova, O.; Slezak, V.

    The NZG 201 spectrometric unit is a portable single-channel processing unit supplied from the mains or a battery which allows the qualitative and quantitative measurement of different types of ionizing radiation when connected to a suitable detection unit. The circuit layout and the choice of control elements makes the spectrometric unit suitable for use with scintillation detector units. The spectrometric unit consists of a pulse amplifier, an amplitude pulse analyzer, a pulse counter, a pulse rate counter with an output for a recorder, a high voltage source and a low voltage source. The block diagram is given. All circuits are modular and are mounted on PCB's. The apparatus is built in a steel cabinet with a raised edge which protects the control elements. The linear pulse amplifier has a maximum gain of 1024, the pulse counter has a maximum capacity of 10 6 -1 imp and time resolution better than 0.5 μs. The temperature interval at which the apparatus is operational is 0 to 45 degC, its weight is 12.5 kg and dimensions 36x280x310 mm, energy range O.025 to 2.5 MeV, for 137 Cs the energy resolution is 8 to 10%. The spectrometric unit NZG 2O1 may, with regard to its parameters, number and range of control elements, be used as a universal measuring unit. (J.P.)

  2. Imagine There's No Carnegie Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevgaard, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the Alberta Education High School Flexibility Enhancement Pilot Project allowed 16 high schools in Alberta, Canada, to remove the restrictions of the Carnegie unit, the seat time per credit requirement that has been widely used since 1906. The two purposes of the project were to determine whether the Carnegie unit should…

  3. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  4. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  5. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  6. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim with this investigation was to quantify the impact of different veld condition classes, viz. poor, moderate and good on soil-water utilization (SWU: crude protein produced per unit of evapotranspiration), during four growing seasons (2000/01 – 2003/2004). Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the ...

  7. Import of peroxisomal matrix proteins in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunkel, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes form the three kingdoms of life. The smallest unit of life, which can exist independently, is a cell. Archaea and prokaryotes have a relatively very simple architecture. The cytoplasm (cellulars pace), containing all metabolites, proteins and genetic material

  8. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  9. Bioinformatics and moonlighting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biochemical functions. Usually, moonlighting proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. For this reason, it would be helpful that Bioinformatics could predict this multifunctionality, especially because of the large amounts of sequences from genome projects. In the present work, we analyse and describe several approaches that use sequences, structures, interactomics and current bioinformatics algorithms and programs to try to overcome this problem. Among these approaches are: a remote homology searches using Psi-Blast, b detection of functional motifs and domains, c analysis of data from protein-protein interaction databases (PPIs, d match the query protein sequence to 3D databases (i.e., algorithms as PISITE, e mutation correlation analysis between amino acids by algorithms as MISTIC. Programs designed to identify functional motif/domains detect mainly the canonical function but usually fail in the detection of the moonlighting one, Pfam and ProDom being the best methods. Remote homology search by Psi-Blast combined with data from interactomics databases (PPIs have the best performance. Structural information and mutation correlation analysis can help us to map the functional sites. Mutation correlation analysis can only be used in very specific situations –it requires the existence of multialigned family protein sequences - but can suggest how the evolutionary process of second function acquisition took place. The multitasking protein database MultitaskProtDB (http://wallace.uab.es/multitask/, previously published by our group, has been used as a benchmark for the all of the analyses.

  10. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  11. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  12. A computational model of the LGI1 protein suggests a common binding site for ADAM proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Leonardi

    Full Text Available Mutations of human leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1 gene encoding the epitempin protein cause autosomal dominant temporal lateral epilepsy (ADTLE, a rare familial partial epileptic syndrome. The LGI1 gene seems to have a role on the transmission of neuronal messages but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In contrast to other genes involved in epileptic disorders, epitempin shows no homology with known ion channel genes but contains two domains, composed of repeated structural units, known to mediate protein-protein interactions.A three dimensional in silico model of the two epitempin domains was built to predict the structure-function relationship and propose a functional model integrating previous experimental findings. Conserved and electrostatic charged regions of the model surface suggest a possible arrangement between the two domains and identifies a possible ADAM protein binding site in the β-propeller domain and another protein binding site in the leucine-rich repeat domain. The functional model indicates that epitempin could mediate the interaction between proteins localized to different synaptic sides in a static way, by forming a dimer, or in a dynamic way, by binding proteins at different times.The model was also used to predict effects of known disease-causing missense mutations. Most of the variants are predicted to alter protein folding while several other map to functional surface regions. In agreement with experimental evidence, this suggests that non-secreted LGI1 mutants could be retained within the cell by quality control mechanisms or by altering interactions required for the secretion process.

  13. Bacterial-based systems for expression and purification of recombinant Lassa virus proteins of immunological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman Kathleen A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (LASV proteins may serve as valuable tools in diverse antiviral applications. Bacterial-based systems were engineered for expression and purification of recombinant LASV nucleoprotein (NP, glycoprotein 1 (GP1, and glycoprotein 2 (GP2. Results Full-length NP and the ectodomains of GP1 and GP2 were generated as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusions in the Rosetta strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli using pMAL-c2x vectors. Average fusion protein yields per liter of culture for MBP-NP, MBP-GP1, and MBP-GP2 were 10 mg, 9 mg, and 9 mg, respectively. Each protein was captured from cell lysates using amylose resin, cleaved with Factor Xa, and purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC. Fermentation cultures resulted in average yields per liter of 1.6 mg, 1.5 mg, and 0.7 mg of purified NP, GP1 and GP2, respectively. LASV-specific antibodies in human convalescent sera specifically detected each of the purified recombinant LASV proteins, highlighting their utility in diagnostic applications. In addition, mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluids (MHAF against a panel of Old and New World arenaviruses demonstrated selective cross reactivity with LASV proteins in Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential for developing broadly reactive immunological assays that employ all three arenaviral proteins individually and in combination.

  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 654346314 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein Mastigocoleus testarum MLEQIELKPNWERNQVAFLDFIVNGTSLHDQFDHPQVRDLCTVFTSDQYEFDGKSSAAIHASWFLGYGETPFPDDRIPVYICSSGDFDCGTVTAYLTVNDGTIKWSEFRIERLTEELQDQPIELTSVKQCVFERNAYEKLFQPFLRKVID

  15. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  16. Protein Correlation Profiles Identify Lipid Droplet Proteins with High Confidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Natalie; Hilger, Maximiliane; Kory, Nora; Wilfling, Florian; Stoehr, Gabriele; Mann, Matthias; Farese, Robert V.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important organelles in energy metabolism and lipid storage. Their cores are composed of neutral lipids that form a hydrophobic phase and are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer that harbors specific proteins. Most well-established LD proteins perform important functions, particularly in cellular lipid metabolism. Morphological studies show LDs in close proximity to and interacting with membrane-bound cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endosomes. Because of these close associations, it is difficult to purify LDs to homogeneity. Consequently, the confident identification of bona fide LD proteins via proteomics has been challenging. Here, we report a methodology for LD protein identification based on mass spectrometry and protein correlation profiles. Using LD purification and quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified LD proteins by correlating their purification profiles to those of known LD proteins. Application of the protein correlation profile strategy to LDs isolated from Drosophila S2 cells led to the identification of 111 LD proteins in a cellular LD fraction in which 1481 proteins were detected. LD localization was confirmed in a subset of identified proteins via microscopy of the expressed proteins, thereby validating the approach. Among the identified LD proteins were both well-characterized LD proteins and proteins not previously known to be localized to LDs. Our method provides a high-confidence LD proteome of Drosophila cells and a novel approach that can be applied to identify LD proteins of other cell types and tissues. PMID:23319140

  17. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact...

  18. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  19. Changes in protein composition and protein phosphorylation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in protein profiles and protein phosphorylation were studied in various stages of germinating somatic and zygotic embryos. Many proteins, which were expressed in cotyledonary stage somatic embryos, were also present in the zygotic embryos obtained from mature dry seed. The intensity of 22 kDa protein was ...

  20. Função renal de pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva: creatinina plasmática e proteína carreadora do retinol urinário Renal function of intensive care unit patients: plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satoko Mizoi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A avaliação precoce da disfunção renal usando marcadores usuais não supre uma indicação quer da sensitividade e da especificidade da disfunção renal de pacientes críticos. Seriam desejáveis marcadores mais específicos e sensíveis para a detecção precoce de um processo fisiopatológico renal em fase inicial. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário poderia ser um método alternativo para avaliação precoce da função renal destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: O estudo acompanhou 100 pacientes em terapia intensiva e avaliou suas variáveis clinicas e laboratoriais, incluindo a dosagem de creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urinário e as variáveis demográficas. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi caracterizada por pacientes geriátricos (63,4±15,6 anos, homens (68%, sendo 53% cirúrgicos. Análise estatística mostrou associação entre creatinina plasmática e as seguintes variáveis: gênero (p=0,026, idade (p=0,038, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,003, proteinúria (p=0,025, escore Acute Physiological Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (p=0,000, uréia (p=0,000, potássio (p=0,003 clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário correlacionava-se com outras variáveis: peso usa de ventilação invasiva (p=0,000, uso de medicamentos antinfamatórios não-esteróides (p=0,018, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,021, temperatura alta (>37,5ºC (p=0,005, proteinúria (p=0,000, bilirubinúria (p=0,004, fluxo urinário (p=0,019, pressão diastólica mínima (p=0,032, pressão sistólica mínima (p=0,029, APACHE II (p=0.000, creatinina (p=0,001, uréia (p=0,001 e clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário também tende a ser associada com doença renal anterior, vasculopatias e neoplasias. Na análise univariada, a fração de excreção de sódio se correlacionou com creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urin

  1. Reproduction of the FC/DFC units in nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Evgeny; Hornáček, Matúš; Kováčik, Lubomír; Mazel, Tomáš; Schröfel, Adam; Svidenská, Silvie; Skalníková, Magdalena; Bartová, Eva; Cmarko, Dušan; Raška, Ivan

    2016-04-25

    The essential structural components of the nucleoli, Fibrillar Centers (FC) and Dense Fibrillar Components (DFC), together compose FC/DFC units, loci of rDNA transcription and early RNA processing. In the present study we followed cell cycle related changes of these units in 2 human sarcoma derived cell lines with stable expression of RFP-PCNA (the sliding clamp protein) and GFP-RPA43 (a subunit of RNA polymerase I, pol I) or GFP-fibrillarin. Correlative light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the pol I and fibrillarin positive nucleolar beads correspond to individual FC/DFC units. In vivo observations showed that at early S phase, when transcriptionally active ribosomal genes were replicated, the number of the units in each cell increased by 60-80%. During that period the units transiently lost pol I, but not fibrillarin. Then, until the end of interphase, number of the units did not change, and their duplication was completed only after the cell division, by mid G1 phase. This peculiar mode of reproduction suggests that a considerable subset of ribosomal genes remain transcriptionally silent from mid S phase to mitosis, but become again active in the postmitotic daughter cells.

  2. A Stevedore's protein knot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bölinger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein knots, mostly regarded as intriguing oddities, are gradually being recognized as significant structural motifs. Seven distinctly knotted folds have already been identified. It is by and large unclear how these exceptional structures actually fold, and only recently, experiments and simulations have begun to shed some light on this issue. In checking the new protein structures submitted to the Protein Data Bank, we encountered the most complex and the smallest knots to date: A recently uncovered alpha-haloacid dehalogenase structure contains a knot with six crossings, a so-called Stevedore knot, in a projection onto a plane. The smallest protein knot is present in an as yet unclassified protein fragment that consists of only 92 amino acids. The topological complexity of the Stevedore knot presents a puzzle as to how it could possibly fold. To unravel this enigma, we performed folding simulations with a structure-based coarse-grained model and uncovered a possible mechanism by which the knot forms in a single loop flip.

  3. Protein Annotation from Protein Interaction Networks and Gene Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Cao D.; Gardiner, Katheleen J.; Cios, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for annotating protein function that combines Naïve Bayes and association rules, and takes advantage of the underlying topology in protein interaction networks and the structure of graphs in the Gene Ontology. We apply our method to proteins from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and show that, in comparison with other approaches, it predicts protein functions with significantly higher recall with no loss of precision. Specifically, it achieves 51% precis...

  4. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  5. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  7. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  8. Can infrared spectroscopy provide information on protein-protein interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Parvez I

    2010-08-01

    For most biophysical techniques, characterization of protein-protein interactions is challenging; this is especially true with methods that rely on a physical phenomenon that is common to both of the interacting proteins. Thus, for example, in IR spectroscopy, the carbonyl vibration (1600-1700 cm(-1)) associated with the amide bonds from both of the interacting proteins will overlap extensively, making the interpretation of spectral changes very complicated. Isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy, where one of the interacting proteins is uniformly labelled with (13)C or (13)C,(15)N has been introduced as a solution to this problem, enabling the study of protein-protein interactions using IR spectroscopy. The large shift of the amide I band (approx. 45 cm(-1) towards lower frequency) upon (13)C labelling of one of the proteins reveals the amide I band of the unlabelled protein, enabling it to be used as a probe for monitoring conformational changes. With site-specific isotopic labelling, structural resolution at the level of individual amino acid residues can be achieved. Furthermore, the ability to record IR spectra of proteins in diverse environments means that isotope-edited IR spectroscopy can be used to structurally characterize difficult systems such as protein-protein complexes bound to membranes or large insoluble peptide/protein aggregates. In the present article, examples of application of isotope-edited IR spectroscopy for studying protein-protein interactions are provided.

  9. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com)....

  10. Protein: FBA7 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FBA7 claudin-zona occluden Tjp1 Zo1 Tight junction protein ZO-1 Tight junction protein 1, Zona occludens pr...otein 1, Zonula occludens protein 1 10090 Mus musculus 21872 P39447 2RRM P39447 21431884 ...

  11. Protein: FEA3 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEA3 AREB pathway: Signaling proteins At4g11890/T26M18_100 At4g11890, Protein kinase family pr...otein, Putative uncharacterized protein At4g11890/T26M18_100 3702 Arabidopsis thaliana 826796 Q8GY82 22225700 ...

  12. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de

  14. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, M.; Muraki, T.; Kitade, K. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 ..mu..m or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here.

  15. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Mitsuyoshi; Muraki, Takeshi; Kitade, Kooichi

    1981-01-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 μm or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here. (author)

  16. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  17. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...

  18. The recombinant 120-kilodalton protein of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a potential diagnostic tool.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, X J; Crocquet-Valdes, P; Cullman, L C; Walker, D H

    1996-01-01

    DNA encoding two repeat units of 120-kDa protein of Ehrlichia chaffeensis was cloned into the expression vector pGEX and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sensitivity and specificity of a dot blot assay for detection of human antibodies with the recombinant protein were 86 and 100%, respectively, compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay.

  19. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameter...

  20. Reprogramming Acyl Carrier Protein Interactions of an Acyl-CoA Promiscuous trans-Acyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Zhixia; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Protein interactions between acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) and trans-acting acyltransferase domains (trans-ATs) are critical for regioselective extender unit installation by many polyketide synthases, yet little is known regarding the specificity of these interactions, particularly for trans-ATs w...