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Sample records for units arrhenius experiments

  1. The Arrhenius equation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D; Corradini, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    The Arrhenius equation has been widely used as a model of the temperature effect on the rate of chemical reactions and biological processes in foods. Since the model requires that the rate increase monotonically with temperature, its applicability to enzymatic reactions and microbial growth, which have optimal temperature, is obviously limited. This is also true for microbial inactivation and chemical reactions that only start at an elevated temperature, and for complex processes and reactions that do not follow fixed order kinetics, that is, where the isothermal rate constant, however defined, is a function of both temperature and time. The linearity of the Arrhenius plot, that is, Ln[k(T)] vs. 1/T where T is in °K has been traditionally considered evidence of the model's validity. Consequently, the slope of the plot has been used to calculate the reaction or processes' "energy of activation," usually without independent verification. Many experimental and simulated rate constant vs. temperature relationships that yield linear Arrhenius plots can also be described by the simpler exponential model Ln[k(T)/k(T(reference))] = c(T-T(reference)). The use of the exponential model or similar empirical alternative would eliminate the confusing temperature axis inversion, the unnecessary compression of the temperature scale, and the need for kinetic assumptions that are hard to affirm in food systems. It would also eliminate the reference to the Universal gas constant in systems where a "mole" cannot be clearly identified. Unless proven otherwise by independent experiments, one cannot dismiss the notion that the apparent linearity of the Arrhenius plot in many food systems is due to a mathematical property of the model's equation rather than to the existence of a temperature independent "energy of activation." If T+273.16°C in the Arrhenius model's equation is replaced by T+b, where the numerical value of the arbitrary constant b is substantially larger than T and T

  2. Convex Arrhenius plots and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Donald G.; Kohen, Amnon

    2001-01-01

    This paper draws attention to selected experiments on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that show convex Arrhenius plots, which are very rare, and points out that Tolman's interpretation of the activation energy places a fundamental model-independent constraint on any detailed explanation of these reactions. The analysis presented here shows that in such systems, the rate coefficient as a function of energy is not just increasing more slowly than expected, it is actually decreasing. This interpretation of the data provides a constraint on proposed microscopic models, i.e., it requires that any successful model of a reaction with a convex Arrhenius plot should be consistent with the microcanonical rate coefficient being a decreasing function of energy. The implications and limitations of this analysis to interpreting enzyme mechanisms are discussed. This model-independent conclusion has broad applicability to all fields of kinetics, and we also draw attention to an analogy with diffusion in metastable fluids and glasses. PMID:11158559

  3. Non-Arrhenius protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Roberts, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation presents one of the key challenges in the development of protein biotherapeutics. It affects not only product quality but also potentially impacts safety, as protein aggregates have been shown to be linked with cytotoxicity and patient immunogenicity. Therefore, investigations of protein aggregation remain a major focus in pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. Due to the complexity of the aggregation process and temperature-dependent conformational stability, temperature-induced protein aggregation is often non-Arrhenius over even relatively small temperature windows relevant for product development, and this makes low-temperature extrapolation difficult based simply on accelerated stability studies at high temperatures. This review discusses the non-Arrhenius nature of the temperature dependence of protein aggregation, explores possible causes, and considers inherent hurdles for accurately extrapolating aggregation rates from conventional industrial approaches for selecting accelerated conditions and from conventional or more advanced methods of analyzing the resulting rate data.

  4. The Development of the Arrhenius Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, Keith J.

    1984-01-01

    Traces the development of the Arrhenius equation from its beginning, examining the more important alternate proposals and the work that supported them. Aside from its historical interest, this examination affords insight into how scientific progress is made. (JN)

  5. Erroneous Arrhenius: modified arrhenius model best explains the temperature dependence of ectotherm fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Jennifer L; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2010-08-01

    The initial rise of fitness that occurs with increasing temperature is attributed to Arrhenius kinetics, in which rates of reaction increase exponentially with increasing temperature. Models based on Arrhenius typically assume single rate-limiting reactions over some physiological temperature range for which all the rate-limiting enzymes are in 100% active conformation. We test this assumption using data sets for microbes that have measurements of fitness (intrinsic rate of population growth) at many temperatures and over a broad temperature range and for diverse ectotherms that have measurements at fewer temperatures. When measurements are available at many temperatures, strictly Arrhenius kinetics are rejected over the physiological temperature range. However, over a narrower temperature range, we cannot reject strictly Arrhenius kinetics. The temperature range also affects estimates of the temperature dependence of fitness. These results indicate that Arrhenius kinetics only apply over a narrow range of temperatures for ectotherms, complicating attempts to identify general patterns of temperature dependence.

  6. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  7. Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, M B

    1998-01-01

    Arrhenius-type plots for multifragmentation process, defined as the transverse energy dependence of the single-fragment emission-probability, -ln(p_{b}) vs 1/sqrt(E_{t}), have been studied by examining the relationship of the parameters p_{b} and E_{t} to the intermediate-mass fragment multiplicity . The linearity of these plots reflects the correlation of the fragment multiplicity with the transverse energy. These plots may not provide thermal scaling information about fragment production as previously suggested.

  8. Reconsideration on the role of the specific heat ratio in Arrhenius law applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Liu; Zonglin Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Arrhenius law implicates that only those molecules which possess the internal energy greater than the activation energy Ea can react. However, the internal energy will not be proportional to the gas temperature if the specific heat ratio y and the gas constant R vary during chemical reaction processes. The varying y may affect significantly the chemical reaction rate calculated with the Arrhenius law under the constant y assumption, which has been widely accepted in detonation and combustion simulations for many years. In this paper, the roles of variable y and R in Arrhenius law applications are reconsidered, and their effects on the chemical reaction rate are demonstrated by simulating one-dimensional C-J and two-dimensional cellular detonations. A new overall one-step detonation model with variable y and R is proposed to improve the Arrhenius law. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this improved Arrhenius law works well in predicting detonation phenomena with the numerical results being in go agreement with experimental data.

  9. Impaired protein conformational landscapes as revealed in anomalous Arrhenius prefactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zachary D. Nagel; Ming Dong; Brian J. Bahnson; Judith P. Klinman

    2011-01-01

    ...), presenting evidence for Arrhenius prefactor values that become enormously elevated above an expected value of approximately 1013 s-1 when the enzyme operates below its optimal temperature range...

  10. Temperature dependence of feedyard ammonia emissions: The Arrhenius equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards exhibit an annual pattern-like temperature. This suggests that ammonia emissions may obey the Arrhenius temperature relationship. Our objective was to determine the Arrhenius relationship between mean monthly ammonia emissions from cattle feedyards and me...

  11. Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.

  12. Relaxation mechanisms in glassy dynamics: the Arrhenius and fragile regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H George E; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Arrhenius and then to a super-Arrhenius behavior. A simple model is presented, based on the idea of competition between single-particle and cooperative dynamics. We argue that Arrhenius behavior can take place as long as there is enough free volume for the completion of a simple T1 relaxation process. Once free volume is absent one needs a cooperative mechanism to "collect" enough free volume. We show that this model captures all the qualitative behavior observed in simulations throughout the considered temperature range.

  13. Estimating Arrhenius parameters using temperature programmed molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2016-07-21

    Kinetic rates at different temperatures and the associated Arrhenius parameters, whenever Arrhenius law is obeyed, are efficiently estimated by applying maximum likelihood analysis to waiting times collected using the temperature programmed molecular dynamics method. When transitions involving many activated pathways are available in the dataset, their rates may be calculated using the same collection of waiting times. Arrhenius behaviour is ascertained by comparing rates at the sampled temperatures with ones from the Arrhenius expression. Three prototype systems with corrugated energy landscapes, namely, solvated alanine dipeptide, diffusion at the metal-solvent interphase, and lithium diffusion in silicon, are studied to highlight various aspects of the method. The method becomes particularly appealing when the Arrhenius parameters can be used to find rates at low temperatures where transitions are rare. Systematic coarse-graining of states can further extend the time scales accessible to the method. Good estimates for the rate parameters are obtained with 500-1000 waiting times.

  14. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  15. Decoupling the Arrhenius equation via mechanochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Joel M; Mack, James

    2017-08-01

    Mechanochemistry continues to reveal new possibilities in chemistry including the opportunity for "greening" reactions. Nevertheless, a clear understanding of the energetic transformations within mechanochemical systems remains elusive. We employed a uniquely modified ball mill and strategically chosen Diels-Alder reactions to evaluate the role of several ball-milling variables. This revealed three different energetic regions that we believe are defining characteristics of most, if not all, mechanochemical reactors. Relative to the locations of a given ball mill's regions, activation energy determines whether a reaction is energetically easy (Region I), challenging (Region II), or unreasonable (Region III) in a given timeframe. It is in Region II, that great sensitivity to mechanochemical conditions such as vial material and oscillation frequency emerge. Our unique modifications granted control of reaction vessel temperature, which in turn allowed control of the locations of Regions I, II, and III for our mill. Taken together, these results suggest envisioning vibratory mills (and likely other mechanochemical methodologies) as molecular-collision facilitating devices that act upon molecules occupying a thermally-derived energy distribution. This unifies ball-milling energetics with solution-reaction energetics via a common tie to the Arrhenius equation, but gives mechanochemistry the unique opportunity to influence either half of the equation. In light of this, we discuss a strategy for translating solvent-based reaction conditions to ball milling conditions. Lastly, we posit that the extra control via frequency factor grants mechanochemistry the potential for greater selectivity than conventional solution reactions.

  16. [Maternal experiences at the intensive care unit: a phenomenological experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Regina Lúcia Ribeiro; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Moreira, Rui Verlaine de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    This is a phenomenological research in Martin Heidegger's perspective with eight mothers staying with their babies in the hospital, with the aim of understanding their maternal feelings at the ICU of the Albert Sabin Infant Hospital in Fortaleza-CE. The information was obtained by means of phenomenological interviews with the following probing question, "What is it like for you as a mother to be in an ICU and at the same time follow all that goes on in the hospital unit?" and submitted to the analysis of the phenomena sited as proposed by Martins and Bicudo. The experiences of the mothers revealed safety and feer, hope and anguish, potentialities and impotence, existential concerns and expectations of a human being in the world. Beyond these aspects, the mothers showed themselves to be authentic people that got free of the occupation and deal with the pre-occupation.

  17. Interactive Classroom Graphics--Simulating Non-Linear Arrhenius Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zion, M.; Hoz, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two simulation programs using an interactive graphic display terminal that were developed for a course in physical organic chemistry. Demonstrates the energetic conditions that give rise to deviations from linearity in the Arrhenius equation. (CS)

  18. Relaxation Mechanisms in Glassy Dynamics: the Arrhenius and Fragile Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Generic glass formers exhibit at least two characteristic changes in their relaxation behavior, first to an Arrhenius-type relaxation at some characteristic temperature, and then at a lower characteristic temperature to a super-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior. We address these transitions by studying the statistics of free energy barriers for different systems at different temperatures and space dimensions. We present a clear evidence for changes in the dynamical behavior at the transition to Ar...

  19. International boundary experiences by the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the United Nations (UN) has been approached by Security Council and Member States on international boundary issues. The United Nations regards the adequate delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries as a very important element for the maintenance of peace and security in fragile post-conflict situations, establishment of friendly relationships and cross-border cooperation between States. This paper will present the main principles and framework the United Nations applies to support the process of international boundary delimitation and demarcation activities. The United Nations is involved in international boundary issues following the principle of impartiality and neutrality and its role as mediator. Since international boundary issues are multi-faceted, a range of expertise is required and the United Nations Secretariat is in a good position to provide diverse expertise within the multiple departments. Expertise in different departments ranging from legal, political, technical, administrative and logistical are mobilised in different ways to provide support to Member States depending on their specific needs. This presentation aims to highlight some of the international boundary projects that the United Nations Cartographic Section has been involved in order to provide the technical support to different boundary requirements as each international boundary issue requires specific focus and attention whether it be in preparation, delimitation, demarcation or management. Increasingly, the United Nations is leveraging geospatial technology to facilitate boundary delimitation and demarcation process between Member States. Through the presentation of the various case studies ranging from Iraq - Kuwait, Israel - Lebanon (Blue Line), Eritrea - Ethiopia, Cyprus (Green Line), Cameroon - Nigeria, Sudan - South Sudan, it will illustrate how geospatial technology is increasingly used to carry out the support. In having applied a range

  20. Education in practice: the United Kingdom experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, K

    2001-04-01

    Health care leaders, government agencies, and professional nursing associations all understand that rethinking existing delivery strategies is part of the strategic approach to workforce planning. In the United Kingdom, the demand for nurses is great and the supply inadequate. The potential for a public health crisis is challenging the way the United Kingdom educates and positions nurses within the health care industry. This article reviews past efforts and current strategies in workforce characteristics, age, educational mix, competencies, career goals, and future plans to ensure adequate nurses to care for the health needs of the people residing in the United Kingdom. The activities of the National Association of Theatre Nurses in promoting dialogue around this issue and fostering collaborative initiatives are presented in a framework of efforts designed to benefit all.

  1. [Initial experiences of an orthogeriatric unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Lampré, M P; Canales-Cortés, V; Castro-Vilela, M E; Clerencia-Sierra, M

    2015-01-01

    To report the design and outcomes obtained during the first operational years of the Orthogeriatric Unit (OGU) established in the Zaragoza-1 (Spain) Health-Sector. A total of 494 patients >70 years old treated in the OGU from February 2009 to December 2012. An analysis was performed using the following variables: demography, previous functional level, comorbidities, surgical delay, fracture type and surgical technique, complications, hospital stay, functional outcomes, destination after hospital discharge, and short and long term mortality. Mean age 85.22 years. High incidence of comorbidities (Charlson Index): 24.3%. Dementia: 38.5%. Surgical delay: 2.57 days. Mean hospital stay between admission and discharge/transfer to convalescence unit, 20.9 days (Traumatology 6.45+OGU 14.49). More than a third (34.6%) of patients suffered from delirium. Mean functional improvement (Barthel index at hospital discharge-Barthel index at hospital admission): 27.25 points. Montebello index: 0.49. In-hospital mortality: 6.9%. Hip fracture is such a frequent and disabling pathology among the geriatric population that its treatment requires an interdisciplinary approach. This must be managed by the geriatrician, who has to assure the continuity and integration of the diverse treatment and care schedules, with the participation of the entire professional team in the decision-making process. We are very satisfied with the creation of our interdisciplinary Unit that enables us to report competitive outcomes. We believe that the progression of this Unit from providing subacute to acute care will improve the general outcomes in the future. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature dependence of ion transport: the compensated Arrhenius equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2009-04-30

    The temperature-dependent conductivity originating in a thermally activated process is often described by a simple Arrhenius expression. However, this expression provides a poor description of the data for organic liquid electrolytes and amorphous polymer electrolytes. Here, we write the temperature dependence of the conductivity as an Arrhenius expression and show that the experimentally observed non-Arrhenius behavior is due to the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant contained in the exponential prefactor. Scaling the experimentally measured conductivities to conductivities at a chosen reference temperature leads to a "compensated" Arrhenius equation that provides an excellent description of temperature-dependent conductivities. A plot of the prefactors as a function of the solvent dielectric constant results in a single master curve for each family of solvents. These data suggest that ion transport in these and related systems is governed by a single activated process differing only in the activation energy for each family of solvents. Connection is made to the shift factor used to describe electrical and mechanical relaxation in a wide range of phenomena, suggesting that this scaling procedure might have broad applications.

  3. Acute surgical unit: The consultant experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Stokes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Establishment of the Acute Surgical Unit (ASU has redefined the approach to emergency surgery in Australia with quantitative data showing improvement in patient outcomes. However, as qualitative data regarding the ASU remains scarce, we sought to determine the impact of the ASU on overall surgeon job satisfaction. Aims The aim of this paper was to specifically address the impact of the ASU on consultant surgeons overall job satisfaction. Methods We designed a 34 – item questionnaire with consultant general surgeons addressing important aspects of the ASU. Themes included on – call rostering and workload, academic pursuits, surgical training, work – life balance and overall job satisfaction. Results We received responses from 88 surgeons currently working on ASU units, responding correctly and in full to the survey. Overall, our surveyed cohort reported better on – call rostering, improved surgical training and higher levels of job satisfaction and overall work – life balance with ASU implementation. Conclusion Preliminary qualitative results indicate that the ASU may improve on – call rostering, work – life balance and overall job satisfaction.

  4. A Unit Cell Laboratory Experiment: Marbles, Magnets, and Stacking Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David C.

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing face-centered, body-centered, and simple cubic unit cells is presented. Emphasis is placed on the stacking arrangement of solid spheres used to produce a particular unit cell. Marbles and spherical magnets are employed to prepare each stacking arrangement. Packing…

  5. A Simple Model for the Non-Arrhenius Ionic Conductivity in Superionic Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Indoh, Takaki; Aniya, Masaru; インドウ, タカキ; アニヤ, マサル; 犬童, 貴樹; 安仁屋, 勝

    2010-01-01

    Many superionic conducting glasses follow the Arrhenius type temperature dependence of ionic conductivity. However, in some superionic conductors it has been discovered that the conductivity deviate from the Arrhenius type behavior. In this paper, we present a simple model that describes the non-Arrhenius type ionic conductivity based on the Zwanzig model of diffusion. From the theory, the condition for the appearance of non-Arrhenius type ionic conductivity has been obtained.

  6. The temperature-dependence of elementary reaction rates: beyond Arrhenius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian W M

    2008-04-01

    The rates of chemical reactions and the dependence of their rate constants on temperature are of central importance in chemistry. Advances in the temperature-range and accuracy of kinetic measurements, principally inspired by the need to provide data for models of combustion, atmospheric, and astrophysical chemistry, show up the inadequacy of the venerable Arrhenius equation--at least, over wide ranges of temperature. This critical review will address the question of how to reach an understanding of the factors that control the rates of 'non-Arrhenius' reactions. It makes use of a number of recent kinetic measurements and shows how developments in advanced forms of transition state theory provide satisfactory explanations of complex kinetic behaviour (72 references).

  7. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  8. Computer-Aided Arrhenius-Evaluation of Kinetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, P.; Leonhardt, J.; Wagner, S.

    1995-06-01

    A new evaluation method is presented to analyse the temperature dependance of reactions with rates that can be separated into a temperature dependent and a concentration dependent part. The proposed method allows to evaluate isothermal, adiabatic, isoperibolic and temperature programmed measurements in an unified manner. To determine the activation energy an Arrhenius law but no explicite kinetic model has to be assumed. The application of the method is demonstrated using experimental data of different reactions from former investigations.

  9. Site-directed mutations of thermostable direct hemolysin from Grimontia hollisae alter its arrhenius effect and biophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Kuo; Huang, Sheng-Cih; Wu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ching; Lin, Yen-Ling; Nayak, Manoswini; Lin, Yan Ren; Chen, Wen-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Rong; Li, Thomas Tien-Hsiung; Yeh, Bo-Sou; Wu, Tung-Kung

    2011-03-31

    Recombinant thermostable direct hemolysin from Grimontia hollisae (Gh-rTDH) exhibits paradoxical Arrhenius effect, where the hemolytic activity is inactivated by heating at 60 °C but is reactivated by additional heating above 80 °C. This study investigated individual or collective mutational effect of Tyr53, Thr59, and Ser63 positions of Gh-rTDH on hemolytic activity, Arrhenius effect, and biophysical properties. In contrast to the Gh-rTDH wild-type (Gh-rTDH(WT)) protein, a 2-fold decrease of hemolytic activity and alteration of Arrhenius effect could be detected from the Gh-rTDH(Y53H/T59I) and Gh-rTDH(T59I/S63T) double-mutants and the Gh-rTDH(Y53H/T59I/S63T) triple-mutant. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that the Arrhenius effect-loss and -retaining mutants consistently exhibited higher and lower endothermic transition temperatures, respectively, than that of the Gh-rTDH(WT). Circular dichroism measurements of Gh-rTDH(WT) and Gh-rTDH(mut) showed a conspicuous change from a β-sheet to α-helix structure around the endothermic transition temperature. Consistent with the observation is the conformational change of the proteins from native globular form into fibrillar form, as determined by Congo red experiments and transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Model Arrhenius untuk Pendugaan Laju Respirasi Brokoli Terolah Minimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Imamah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed broccoli are perishable product because it still has some metabolism process during the storage period. One of the metabolism process is respiration. Respiration rate is varied depend on the commodity and storage temperature. The purpose of this research are: to review the respiration pattern of minimally processed broccoli during storage period, to study the effect of storage temperature to respiration rate, and to review the correlation between respiration rate and temperature based on Arrhenius model. Broccoli from farming organization “Agro Segar” was processed minimally and then measure the respiration rate. Closed system method is used to measure O2 and CO2 concentration. Minimally processed broccoli is stored at a temperature of 0oC, 5oC, 10oC and 15oC. The experimental design used was completely randomized design of the factors to analyze the rate of respiration. The result shows that broccoli is a climacteric vegetable. It is indicated by the increasing of O2 consumption and CO2 production during senescence phase. The respiration rate increase as high as the increasing of temperature storage. Models Arrhenius can describe correlation between respiration rate and temperature with R2 = 0.953-0.947. The constant value of activation energy (Eai and pre-exponential factor (Roi from Arrhenius model can be used to predict the respiration rate of minimally processed broccoli in every storage temperature

  11. Role of Dielectric Constant on Ion Transport: Reformulated Arrhenius Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid and nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been prepared by solution cast technique. The XRD results reveal the occurrence of complexation between chitosan (CS and the LiTf salt. The deconvolution of the diffractogram of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes demonstrates the increase of amorphous domain with increasing alumina content up to 4 wt.%. Further incorporation of alumina nanoparticles (6 to 10 wt.% Al2O3 results in crystallinity increase (large crystallite size. The morphological (SEM and EDX analysis well supported the XRD results. Similar trends of DC conductivity and dielectric constant with Al2O3 concentration were explained. The TEM images were used to explain the phenomena of space charge and blocking effects. The reformulated Arrhenius equation (σ(ε′,T=σoexp(-Ea/KBε′T was proposed from the smooth exponential behavior of DC conductivity versus dielectric constant at different temperatures. The more linear behavior of DC conductivity versus 1000/(ɛ′×T reveals the crucial role of dielectric constant in Arrhenius equation. The drawbacks of Arrhenius equation can be understood from the less linear behavior of DC conductivity versus 1000/T. The relaxation processes have been interpreted in terms of Argand plots.

  12. Sensitivity of viscosity Arrhenius parameters to polarity of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, R. B. H.; Alzamel, N. O.; Ouerfelli, N.

    2017-09-01

    Several empirical and semi-empirical equations have been proposed in the literature to estimate the liquid viscosity upon temperature. In this context, this paper aims to study the effect of polarity of liquids on the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence, considering particularly the Arrhenius type equations. To achieve this purpose, the solvents are classified into three groups: nonpolar, borderline polar and polar solvents. Based on adequate statistical tests, we found that there is strong evidence that the polarity of solvents affects significantly the distribution of the Arrhenius-type equation parameters and consequently the modeling of the viscosity-temperature dependence. Thus, specific estimated values of parameters for each group of liquids are proposed in this paper. In addition, the comparison of the accuracy of approximation with and without classification of liquids, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, shows a significant discrepancy of the borderline polar solvents. For that, we suggested in this paper new specific coefficient values of the simplified Arrhenius-type equation for better estimation accuracy. This result is important given that the accuracy in the estimation of the viscosity-temperature dependence may affect considerably the design and the optimization of several industrial processes.

  13. Application of the compensated arrhenius formalism to dielectric relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2009-12-17

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric rate constant, defined as the reciprocal of the dielectric relaxation time, is examined for several groups of organic solvents. Early studies of linear alcohols using a simple Arrhenius equation found that the activation energy was dependent on the chain length of the alcohol. This paper re-examines the earlier data using a compensated Arrhenius formalism that assumes the presence of a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant in the exponential prefactor. Scaling temperature-dependent rate constants to isothermal rate constants so that the dielectric constant dependence is removed results in calculated energies of activation E(a) in which there is a small increase with chain length. These energies of activation are very similar to those calculated from ionic conductivity data using compensated Arrhenius formalism. This treatment is then extended to dielectic relaxation data for n-alkyl bromides, n-nitriles, and n-acetates. The exponential prefactor is determined by dividing the temperature-dependent rate constants by the Boltzmann term exp(-E(a)/RT). Plotting the prefactors versus the static dielectric constant places the data on a single master curve for each group of solvents.

  14. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  15. Evaluation of a non-Arrhenius model for therapeutic monoclonal antibody aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Veysel; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Voynov, Vladimir; Helk, Bernhard; Forrer, Kurt; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2011-07-01

    Understanding antibody aggregation is of great significance for the pharmaceutical industry. We studied the aggregation of five different therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with size-exclusion chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC), fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and light scattering methods at various temperatures with the aim of gaining insight into the aggregation process and developing models of it. In particular, we find that the kinetics can be described by a second-order model and are non-Arrhenius. Thus, we develop a non-Arrhenius model to connect accelerated aggregation experiments at high temperature to long-term storage experiments at low temperature. We evaluate our model by predicting mAb aggregation and comparing it with long-term behavior. Our results suggest that the number of monomers and mAb conformations within aggregates vary with the size and age of the aggregates, and that only certain sizes of aggregates are populated in the solution. We also propose a kinetic model based on conformational changes of proteins and monomer peak loss kinetics from SEC-HPLC. This model could be employed for a detail analysis of mAb aggregation kinetics. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. On the hydrogen-bond network and the non-Arrhenius transport properties of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N.

    2017-01-01

    We study the structural and dynamic transformations of SPC/E water with temperature, through molecular dynamics (MD), and discuss the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and orientational dynamics, and the magnitude of the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations, in the light of these transformations. Our results show that deviations from Arrhenius behavior of the self-diffusion at low temperatures cannot be exclusively explained by the reduction of water defects (interstitial waters) and the increase of the local tetrahedrality, thus, suggesting the importance of the slowdown of collective rearrangements. Interestingly we find that at high temperatures (T  ⩾  340 K) water defects lead to a slight increase of the tetrahedrality and a decrease of the self-diffusion, opposite to water at low temperatures. The relative magnitude of the breakdown of the SE and the SED relations is found to be in accord with recent experiments (Dehaoui et al 2015 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112 12020) resolving the discrepancy with previous MD results. Further, we show that SPC/E hydrogen-bond (HB) lifetimes deviate from Arrhenious behaviour at low temperatures in contrast with some previous MD studies. This deviation is nevertheless much smaller than that observed for the orientational dynamics and the transport properties of water, consistent with the relaxation times measured by several experimental methods. The HB acceptor exchange dynamics defined here by the acceptor switch and reform (librational dynamics) frequencies exhibit similar Arrhenius deviations, thus explaining to some extent the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and of the orientational dynamics of water. Our results also show that the fraction of HB switches through a bifurcated pathway follow a power law with the temperature decrease. Thus, at low temperatures HB acceptor switches are less frequent but occur on a faster time scale

  17. On the hydrogen-bond network and the non-Arrhenius transport properties of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N

    2017-01-11

    We study the structural and dynamic transformations of SPC/E water with temperature, through molecular dynamics (MD), and discuss the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and orientational dynamics, and the magnitude of the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations, in the light of these transformations. Our results show that deviations from Arrhenius behavior of the self-diffusion at low temperatures cannot be exclusively explained by the reduction of water defects (interstitial waters) and the increase of the local tetrahedrality, thus, suggesting the importance of the slowdown of collective rearrangements. Interestingly we find that at high temperatures (T  ⩾  340 K) water defects lead to a slight increase of the tetrahedrality and a decrease of the self-diffusion, opposite to water at low temperatures. The relative magnitude of the breakdown of the SE and the SED relations is found to be in accord with recent experiments (Dehaoui et al 2015 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112 12020) resolving the discrepancy with previous MD results. Further, we show that SPC/E hydrogen-bond (HB) lifetimes deviate from Arrhenious behaviour at low temperatures in contrast with some previous MD studies. This deviation is nevertheless much smaller than that observed for the orientational dynamics and the transport properties of water, consistent with the relaxation times measured by several experimental methods. The HB acceptor exchange dynamics defined here by the acceptor switch and reform (librational dynamics) frequencies exhibit similar Arrhenius deviations, thus explaining to some extent the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and of the orientational dynamics of water. Our results also show that the fraction of HB switches through a bifurcated pathway follow a power law with the temperature decrease. Thus, at low temperatures HB acceptor switches are less frequent but occur on a faster time scale

  18. Diffusion over an entropic barrier: non-Arrhenius behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2010-09-01

    We have examined the temperature dependence of noise-induced escape rate of brownian particles between two distinct regions in a two-dimensional enclosure through a narrow bottleneck. Varying cross section of the confinement results in an effective entropic barrier in reduced dimension. The strong non-Arrhenius dependence of the escape rate is observed, which can be explained in terms of a crossover between entropy-dominated regime and energy-dominated regime in presence of an interplay of gravitational bias and thermal motion.

  19. Dependence of rate constants on vibrational temperatures - An Arrhenius description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. I.; Johnson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation of the variation of rate constants with vibrational temperature is proposed which introduces parameters analogous to those of the classical Arrhenius expression. The constancy of vibrational activation energy is studied for the dissociaton of NO, the ion-molecular reaction of O(+) with N2, and the atom exchange reaction of I with H2. It is found that when a Boltzmann distribution for vibrational states is applicable, the variation of the rate constant with the vibrational temperature can be used to define a vibrational activation energy. The method has application to exchange reactions where a vibrational energy threshold exists.

  20. Impaired protein conformational landscapes as revealed in anomalous Arrhenius prefactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Zachary D; Dong, Ming; Bahnson, Brian J; Klinman, Judith P

    2011-06-28

    A growing body of data supports a role for protein motion in enzyme catalysis. In particular, the ability of enzymes to sample catalytically relevant conformational substates has been invoked to model kinetic and spectroscopic data. However, direct experimental links between rapidly interconverting conformations and the chemical steps of catalysis remain rare. We report here on the kinetic analysis and characterization of the hydride transfer step catalyzed by a series of mutant thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenases (ht-ADH), presenting evidence for Arrhenius prefactor values that become enormously elevated above an expected value of approximately 10(13) s(-1) when the enzyme operates below its optimal temperature range. Restoration of normal Arrhenius behavior in the ht-ADH reaction occurs at elevated temperatures. A simple model, in which reduced temperature alters the ability of the ht-ADH variants to sample the catalytically relevant region of conformational space, can reproduce the available data. These findings indicate an impaired landscape that has been generated by the combined condition of reduced temperature and mutation at a single, active-site hydrophobic side chain. The broader implication is that optimal enzyme function requires the maintenance of a relatively smooth landscape that minimizes low energy traps.

  1. Humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation: The reference condition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveršnik, Klemen; Jurečič, Rok

    2016-03-16

    Accelerated and stress stability data is often used to predict shelf life of pharmaceuticals. Temperature, combined with humidity accelerates chemical decomposition and the Arrhenius equation is used to extrapolate accelerated stability results to long-term stability. Statistical estimation of the humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation is not straightforward due to its non-linearity. A two stage nonlinear fitting approach is used in practice, followed by a prediction stage. We developed a single-stage statistical procedure, called the reference condition approach, which has better statistical properties (less collinearity, direct estimation of uncertainty, narrower prediction interval) and is significantly easier to use, compared to the existing approaches. Our statistical model was populated with data from a 35-day stress stability study on a laboratory batch of vitamin tablets and required mere 30 laboratory assay determinations. The stability prediction agreed well with the actual 24-month long term stability of the product. The approach has high potential to assist product formulation, specification setting and stability statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  3. A "configurational-entropy-loss" law for the non-Arrhenius relaxation in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Zhang, Jin-xiu

    2012-01-01

    Based on Nowick's self-induced ordering theory, we develop a new configurational-entropy relation to describe the non-Arrhenius temperature(T)-dependent relaxation in disordered systems. Both the configurational-entropy loss and the coupling interaction among relaxing units (RUs) are explicitly introduced in this relation; thus, it offers a novel connection between kinetics and thermodynamics that is different from the Adam-Gibbs (A-G) entropy relation, and it generalizes several well-known currently used relations. The present relation can provide direct and more accurate estimates of (i) the intrinsic activation enthalpy, (ii) the T-evolvement of the systematic configurational entropy loss and (iii) the self-induced ordering temperature Tc, which characterizes the coupling interaction among RUs. Application of the theory to experimental relaxation-time data for typical organic liquids demonstrates its validity.

  4. Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    A major mystery of glass-forming liquids is the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time. This paper briefly reviews the classical phenomenological models for non-Arrhenius behavior – the free volume model and the entropy model – and critiques against these models. We...... are anharmonic, the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time is a consequence of the fact that the instantaneous shear modulus increases upon cooling....

  5. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, George J.; Dhamija, Ashima; Bavani, Nazli; Wagner, Kenneth R.; Holland, Christy K.

    2007-06-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy Eeff of 42.0 ± 0.9 kJ mole-1. Eeff approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole-1. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  6. [Management of maxillofacial injuries in an emergency unit: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famà, Fausto; Beccaria, Antonio; Malara, Consolato; Placanica, Pantaleone; Cucinotta, Francesco; Caruso, Antonino; Estollere, Concetta; Versace, Giuseppina; Latorre, Nadia; Foti, Donatella; Falzea, Roberto; De Ponte, Francesco; Gioffrè-Florio, Maria Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are relatively frequent. These may be complicated by cranioencephalic injuries or large facial wounds. We report our experience with the initial management of these lesions in an emergency unit setting. In 2007, we observed 105 patients with maxillofacial injuries. Maxillofacial injuries were associated with cranio-encephalic injuries in 69 patients (65.7%) and with polytrauma in 31(29.5%), while in 5 cases (4.8%) they were isolated. The main causes of trauma were motorcycle accidents (60%). All patients were treated in accordance with the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines and assessed by computed tomography. No mortality was observed after diagnosis in the emergency unit or in the month following the trauma. Seventy-seven patients (73.3%) were admitted and 28 (26.7%) were treated and discharged. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate initial management yield good clinical outcomes with functional restoration and fewer aesthetic complications.

  7. Family experience survey in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Bridget; Manasia, Anthony; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Oropello, John; Gayton, Matthew; Gaffney, Christine; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    The experience of critical care is stressful for both patients and their families. This is especially true when patients are not able to make their own care decisions. This article details the creation of a Family Experience Survey in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to capture and improve overall experience. Kolcaba's "Enhanced Comfort Theory" provided the theoretical basis for question formation, specifically in regards to the four aspects of comfort: "physical," "psycho-spiritual," "sociocultural" and "environmental." Survey results were analyzed in real-time to identify and implement interventions needed for issues raised. Overall, there was a high level of satisfaction reported especially with quality of care provided to patients, communication and availability of nurses and doctors, explanations from staff, inclusion in decision making, the needs of patients being met, quality of care provided to patients and cleanliness of the unit. It was noted that 'N/A' was indicated for cultural needs and spiritual needs, a chaplain now rounds on all patients daily to ensure these services are more consistently offered. In addition, protocols for doctor communication with families, palliative care consults, daily bleach cleaning of high touch areas in patient rooms and nurse-led progressive mobility have been implemented. Enhanced comfort theory enabled the opportunity to identify and provide a more 'broad' approach to care for patients and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arrhenius thermodynamics and birth defects: chemical teratogen synergy. Untested, testable, and projected relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Morton W; Church, Charles C

    2013-03-01

    This article addresses the issue of hyperthermia-induced birth defects with an accompanying additional teratogen, be it a chemical or a physical agent (i.e., a simultaneous "combinational" exposure to two teratogens, one of which is hyperthermia). Hyperthermia per se is a recognized human and animal teratogen. An excellent example of such combinational exposures is an epileptic woman who becomes pregnant while taking valproic acid (VPA) to control seizures. VPA is a recognized chemical teratogen, and fever (hyperthermia) is not an uncommon event during pregnancy. While VPA also may occasionally induce fever as a side effect, we are concerned here with fevers arising from other, unrelated causes. There is a small but internally consistent literature on these combinational-teratogen exposures involving hyperthermia plus a chemical teratogen; in each instance, the effect level has been observed to be synergistically elevated above levels induced by the separate teratogenic components. The data were empirical. The observed synergy is, however, consistent with Arrhenius thermodynamics, a well-known chemical rate equation. The need for information about combinational teratogen exposures is acute; fever is a common occurrence during pregnancy; and there are many instances whereby there is also the simultaneous presence of some other teratogen(s). Given that the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the United States was recently presented as 1 in 88 births, it seems reasonable to suspect that such combinational regimens are much more prevalent than previously thought. Our hypothesis is that synergistic birth defect levels from combinational regimens are consistent with Arrhenius thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  10. Experience of a monographic tuberculosis unit: the first 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, Juan; García-Gasalla, Mercedes; Cifuentes Luna, Carmen; Mir Villadrich, Isabel; Pareja Bezares, Antonio; Navarro Fernández, Verónica; Serrano Bujalance, Araceli; Pérez Seco, M Cruz; Payeras Cifre, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a highly prevalent and potentially severe disease. However, since 2002 the annual incidence has been decreasing both worldwide and in Spain, where the incidence varies widely between regions. The main objective of this study is to describe the experience of a monographic TB unit in a second level hospital. A descriptive study was carried out which included all cases of TB diagnosed in a monographic unit of a secondary hospital between 2003 and 2011. Demographic, clinical, epidemiological and microbiological data were recorded. We analyzed 500 TB cases and found an increasing annual incidence in all subgroups, including native and immigrant populations. Most cases (63.8%) were male, with a median age of 36 years (range 8 months-90 years). In total, 39.8% of patients were foreign born. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus was found in 11% of cases. The pulmonary form was most frequently diagnosed (63.8%). Overall mortality was 5.8% with no significant differences between groups (including foreign born and human immunodeficiency virus positive patients). Although TB incidence is globally decreasing, in our study we found an increasing number of cases in recent years in all subgroups, which can be explained by this being a monographic unit with an intensive contact tracing program. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Arrhenius temperature dependence of in vitro tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, George J [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Dhamija, Ashima [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Bavani, Nazli [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Wagner, Kenneth R [Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States); Holland, Christy K [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0769 (United States)

    2007-06-07

    Stroke is a devastating disease and a leading cause of death and disability. Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the intravenous administration of the thrombolytic medication, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, this treatment has many contraindications and can have dangerous side effects such as intra-cerebral hemorrhage. These treatment limitations have led to much interest in potential adjunctive therapies, such as therapeutic hypothermia (T {<=} 35 deg. C) and ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Such interest may lead to combining these therapies with tPA to treat stroke, however little is known about the effects of temperature on the thrombolytic efficacy of tPA. In this work, we measure the temperature dependence of the fractional clot mass loss {delta}m(T) resulting from tPA exposure in an in vitro human clot model. We find that the temperature dependence is well described by an Arrhenius temperature dependence with an effective activation energy E{sub eff} of 42.0 {+-} 0.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. E{sub eff} approximates the activation energy of the plasminogen-to-plasmin reaction of 48.9 kJ mole{sup -1}. A model to explain this temperature dependence is proposed. These results will be useful in predicting the effects of temperature in future lytic therapies.

  12. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... and qualitative interviews, we adapted 2 previously validated North American questionnaires: "Family Satisfaction with the ICU" and "Quality of Dying and Death." Family members were asked to assess relevance and understandability of each question. Validation also included test-retest reliability and construct...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test...

  13. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty

    2015-01-01

    and qualitative interviews, we adapted 2 previously validated North American questionnaires: "Family Satisfaction with the ICU" and "Quality of Dying and Death." Family members were asked to assess relevance and understandability of each question. Validation also included test-retest reliability and construct......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test...

  14. [Management control of cardiology: the experience of a departmental unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccanelli, A; Spandonaro, F

    2000-01-01

    In most Italian hospitals, sanitary reform is being applied, while at the same time a new organization of the National Health System is being planned. The director of the medical hospital (head doctor) is becoming more and more involved in management and this aspect has modified his professional attributes. Cardiology is a branch of medicine that, through its scientific preparatory work consisting in debates, management courses, ethics, and production of managerial software, is closer to applying the reform without risking improper administrative aspects. This, obviously, comes about after thoroughly reviewing past work methods and the need to have an administrative organization, which allocates efficient use of manpower and materials, helping to eliminate any sources of inefficiency. The logical procedure foresees an actual analysis in terms of sanitary needs and availability of resources, and so attempting to better balance and harmonize both aspects of the problem. Certainly, the acquisition of theoretical norms and practices, which today are present because of the upsurge in training courses for doctors, is not enough to guarantee the achievement of optimal results. Furthermore, we find that theoretical models need to be validated and adapted to real work situations in the public hospital sector. This paper proposes, therefore, to explain the managerial experiences achieved in actual work situations at the Cardiology Department Unit of the San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital in Rome. In particular, it shows that in order to reach its clinical and economical objectives, it is essential to make available correct informative support for strategic and operational decisions. We can observe that there is a continuing lack of computer support systems being integrated into the present organization of most cardiology units. The use of software distributed to cardiology units from the Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri (ANMCO) has enabled us to partially

  15. Probing static disorder in Arrhenius kinetics by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The widely used Arrhenius equation describes the kinetics of simple two-state reactions, with the implicit assumption of a single transition state with a well-defined activation energy barrier ΔE, as the rate-limiting step. However, it has become increasingly clear that the saddle point of the free-energy surface in most reactions is populated by ensembles of conformations, leading to nonexponential kinetics. Here we present a theory that generalizes the Arrhenius equation to include static d...

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Temperature Induced Unfolding of Crambin Follow the Arrhenius Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Andrew; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used extensively to model the folding and unfolding of proteins. The rates of folding and unfolding should follow the Arrhenius equation over a limited range of temperatures. This study shows that molecular dynamic simulations of the unfolding of crambin between 500K and 560K do follow the Arrhenius equation. They also show that while there is a large amount of variation between the simulations the average values for the rate show a very high degree of correlation.

  17. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, M H

    2012-02-03

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  18. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  19. A 200-GHz telescope unit for the QUIJOTE CMB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirce, Rubén.; Etxeita, Borja; Murga, Gaizka; Fernandez, Esther; Sainz, Iñaki; Sánchez, Vicente; Viera-Curbelo, Teodora A.; Gómez, María. F.; Aguiar-Gonzalez, Marta; Hoyland, Roger J.; Pérez de Taoro, Ángeles R.; Vega, Afrodisio; Rebolo-López, Rafael; Rubiño, Jose Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Experiment QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) is a scientific collaboration, leaded by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), which can measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the range of frequency up to 200 GHz, at angular scales of 1°. The project is composed of 2 telescopes and 3 instruments, located in Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). After the successful delivery of the first telescope (operative since 2012), Idom is currently involved on the turn key supply of the second telescope (phase II). The work started in June 2013 and it will be completed in a challenging period of 12 months (operative at the beginning of July 2014), including design, factory assembly and testing, transport and final commissioning on site. This second unit will improve the opto-mechanical performance and maintainability. The telescope will have an unlimited rotation capacity in azimuth axis and a range of movement between 25°-95° in elevation axis. An integrated rotary joint will transmit fluid, power and signal to the rotary elements. The pointing and tracking accuracy will be significantly below to specification: 1.76 arcmin and 44 arcsec, respectively. This project completes Idoḿs contribution during phase I, which also comprises the integration and functional tests for the 5 polarimeters of the first instrument in Bilbao headquarters, and the design and supervision of the building which protects both telescopes, including the installation and commissioning of the mechanism for shutters aperture.

  20. Marcus Bell-Shaped Electron Transfer Kinetics Observed in an Arrhenius Plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskasi, Morteza M; Kodis, Gerdenis; Moore, Ana L; Moore, Thomas A; Gust, Devens; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-27

    The Marcus theory of electron transfer predicts a bell-shaped dependence of the reaction rate on the reaction free energy. The top of the "inverted parabola" corresponds to zero activation barrier when the electron-transfer reorganization energy and the reaction free energy add up to zero. Although this point has traditionally been reached by altering the chemical structures of donors and acceptors, the theory suggests that it can also be reached by varying other parameters of the system including temperature. We find here dramatic evidence of this phenomenon from experiments on a fullerene-porphyrin dyad. Following photoinduced electron transfer, the rate of charge recombination shows a bell-shaped dependence on the inverse temperature, first increasing with cooling and then decreasing at still lower temperatures. This non-Arrhenius rate law is a result of a strong, approximately hyperbolic temperature variation of the reorganization energy and the reaction free energy. Our results provide potentially the cleanest confirmation of the Marcus energy gap law so far since no modification of the chemical structure is involved.

  1. One year work experience in a municipal Intensive Therapy Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Enseñat Alvarez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Municipal Intensive Care Units were created in the year 2004, to better the urgency attention in the primary health level. Objective: To characterize the functioning of a Municipal Intensive Care Unit. Method: A descriptive, prospective study that included 348 patients that were received in the unit during the year 2004. The following variables were analized: patients evolution, distribution by diseases, and evolution of the diseases. Results and Conclusions: The number of remissions to the hospital dropped; 183 patients weresent to their homes, 165 were remitted to the Provincial Hospital of Cienfuegos and three of them died in the unit. The angina pectoris was the first cause of admission, followed by cardiac arritmias and cerebrovascular disease.

  2. Arrhenius Equation-Based Cell-Health Assessment: Application to Thermal Energy Management Design of a HEV NiMH Battery Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model-based cell-health-conscious thermal energy management method. An Arrhenius equation-based mathematical model is firstly identified to quantify the effect of temperature on the cell lifetime of a Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH battery pack. The cell aging datasets collected under multiple ambient temperatures are applied to extract the Arrhenius equation parameters. The model is then used as an assessment criterion and guidance for the thermal management design of battery packs. The feasibility and applicability of a pack structure with its cooling system, is then evaluated, and its design problems are studied by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis. The performance and eligibility of the design method is validated by both CFD simulations and experiments.

  3. Reduciblity, Arrhenius plots and the Uroboros Dragon, a reply to the preprint "Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots" by M.B. Tsang and P. Danielewicz

    CERN Document Server

    Moretto, L G; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J

    1997-01-01

    In a recent preprint by Tsang and Danielewicz, the authors attempt to give alternative or trivial explanations for the reducible and "thermal" nature of the intermediate mass fragment excitation functions reported previously (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1530 (1995), Phys. Lett B 361, 25 (1995), Phys. Rep. 287, 249 (1997)). We demonstrate that their proposed "self-correlation" explanation for linear Arrhenius plots is based upon a flawed autocorrelation analysis involving circular reasoning.

  4. Contribution to modeling the viscosity Arrhenius-type equation for saturated pure fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Zhang, Laibin

    2016-09-01

    Recently, Haj-Kacem et al. proposed an equation modeling the relationship between the two parameters of viscosity Arrhenius-type equations [Fluid Phase Equilibria 383, 11 (2014)]. The authors found that the two parameters are dependent upon each other in an exponential function form. In this paper, we reconsidered their ideas and calculated the two parameter values for 49 saturated pure fluids by using the experimental data in the NIST WebBook. Our conclusion is different with the ones of Haj-Kacem et al. We found that (the linearity shown by) the Arrhenius equation stands strongly only in low temperature range and that the two parameters of the Arrhenius equation are independent upon each other in the whole temperature range from the triple point to the critical point.

  5. Communication: On the origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior in water reorientation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Guillaume; Laage, Damien

    2012-07-21

    We combine molecular dynamics simulations and analytic modeling to determine the origin of the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of liquid water's reorientation and hydrogen-bond dynamics between 235 K and 350 K. We present a quantitative model connecting hydrogen-bond exchange dynamics to local structural fluctuations, measured by the asphericity of Voronoi cells associated with each water molecule. For a fixed local structure the regular Arrhenius behavior is recovered, and the global anomalous temperature dependence is demonstrated to essentially result from a continuous shift in the unimodal structure distribution upon cooling. The non-Arrhenius behavior can thus be explained without invoking an equilibrium between distinct structures. In addition, the large width of the homogeneous structural distribution is shown to cause a growing dynamical heterogeneity and a non-exponential relaxation at low temperature.

  6. Ion transport mechanism in glasses: non-Arrhenius conductivity and nonuniversal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugavel, S; Vaid, C; Bhadram, V S; Narayana, C

    2010-10-28

    In this article, we report non-Arrhenius behavior in the temperature-dependent dc conductivity of alkali ion conducting silicate glasses well below their glass transition temperature. In contrast to the several fast ion-conducting and binary potassium silicate glasses, these glasses show a positive deviation in the Arrhenius plot. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is completely reproducible in nature even after prolonged annealing close to the glass transition temperature of the respective glass sample. These results are the manifestation of local structural changes of the silicate network with temperature and give rise to different local environments into which the alkali ions hop, revealed by in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the present study provides new insights into the strong link between the dynamics of the alkali ions and different sites associated with it in the glasses.

  7. On the validity of the Arrhenius equation for electron attachment rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, Ilya I; Hotop, Hartmut

    2008-03-28

    The validity of the Arrhenius equation for dissociative electron attachment rate coefficients is investigated. A general analysis allows us to obtain estimates of the upper temperature bound for the range of validity of the Arrhenius equation in the endothermic case and both lower and upper bounds in the exothermic case with a reaction barrier. The results of the general discussion are illustrated by numerical examples whereby the rate coefficient, as a function of temperature for dissociative electron attachment, is calculated using the resonance R-matrix theory. In the endothermic case, the activation energy in the Arrhenius equation is close to the threshold energy, whereas in the case of exothermic reactions with an intermediate barrier, the activation energy is found to be substantially lower than the barrier height.

  8. Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    then discuss a recently proposed model according to which the activation energy of the average relaxation time is determined by the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid to create space needed for a "flow event". In this model, which is based on the fact that intermolecular interactions......A major mystery of glass-forming liquids is the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time. This paper briefly reviews the classical phenomenological models for non-Arrhenius behavior – the free volume model and the entropy model – and critiques against these models. We...... are anharmonic, the non-Arrhenius temperature-dependence of the average relaxation time is a consequence of the fact that the instantaneous shear modulus increases upon cooling....

  9. Transition from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of structural relaxation time in glass-forming liquids: Continuous versus discontinuous scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V. A.; Surovtsev, N. V.

    2014-09-01

    The temperature dependences of α relaxation time τα(T) of three glass-forming liquids (salol, o-terphenyl, and α-picoline) were investigated by a depolarized light scattering technique. A detailed description of τα(T) near TA, the temperature of the transition from the Arrhenius law at high temperatures to a non-Arrhenius behavior of τα(T) at lower temperatures, was done. It was found that this transition is quite sharp. If the transition is described as switching from the Arrhenius law to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, it occurs within the temperature range of about 15 K or less. Most of the known expressions for τα(T) cannot describe this sharp transition. Our analysis revealed that this transition can be described either as a discontinuous transition in the spirit of the frustration-limited domain theory [D. Kivelson, G. Tarjus, X. Zhao, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. E 53, 751 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevE.53.751], implying a phase transition, or by a phenomenological expression recently suggested [B. Schmidtke, N. Petzold, R. Kahlau, M. Hofmann, and E. A. Rössler, Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.041507], where the activation energy includes the term depending exponentially on temperature.

  10. Transition from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of structural relaxation time in glass-forming liquids: continuous versus discontinuous scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V A; Surovtsev, N V

    2014-09-01

    The temperature dependences of α relaxation time τ(α)(T) of three glass-forming liquids (salol, o-terphenyl, and α-picoline) were investigated by a depolarized light scattering technique. A detailed description of τ(α)(T) near T(A), the temperature of the transition from the Arrhenius law at high temperatures to a non-Arrhenius behavior of τ(α)(T) at lower temperatures, was done. It was found that this transition is quite sharp. If the transition is described as switching from the Arrhenius law to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, it occurs within the temperature range of about 15 K or less. Most of the known expressions for τ(α)(T) cannot describe this sharp transition. Our analysis revealed that this transition can be described either as a discontinuous transition in the spirit of the frustration-limited domain theory [D. Kivelson, G. Tarjus, X. Zhao, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. E 53, 751 (1996)], implying a phase transition, or by a phenomenological expression recently suggested [B. Schmidtke, N. Petzold, R. Kahlau, M. Hofmann, and E. A. Rössler, Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)], where the activation energy includes the term depending exponentially on temperature.

  11. Super-Arrhenius diffusion in an undercooled binary Lennard-Jones liquid results from a quantifiable correlation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa K; Wales, David J

    2006-02-10

    On short time scales an underlying Arrhenius temperature dependence of the diffusion constant can be extracted from the fragile, super-Arrhenius diffusion of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture. This Arrhenius diffusion is related to the true super-Arrhenius behavior by a factor that depends on the average angle between steps in successive time windows. The correction factor accounts for the fact that on average, successive displacements are negatively correlated, and this effect can therefore be linked directly with the higher apparent activation energy for diffusion at low temperature.

  12. Arrhenius analysis of the electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Jesse; Nguyen, Tina; Britt, B Mark

    2003-06-01

    Ellman's method was used to determine the Michaelis-Menten parameters for the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine by Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase from 12 to 37 degrees C. Arrhenius analysis revealed that the activation energy for formation of the enzyme/substrate complex is 22.2 +/- 1.1 kJ/mole. The Arrhenius plot of k(cat) is markedly curved and attributed to comparable rates of acylation and deacylation due to the absence of evidence for a temperature-dependent enzyme conformational change by differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Elastic models for the non-Arrhenius viscosity of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil; Olsen, Niels Boye

    2006-01-01

    on to review several related explanations for the non-Arrhenius viscosity. Most of these are also ‘elastic models’, i.e., they express the viscosity activation energy in terms of short-time elastic properties of the liquid. Finally, two alternative arguments for elastic models are given, a general solid......This paper first reviews the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius viscosity of viscous liquids. According to this model the main contribution to the activation energy of a flow event is the energy needed for molecules to shove aside the surrounding, an energy which is proportional...

  14. Arrhenius' law in turbulent media and an equivalent tunnel effect. [in binary exchange chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, S.; Sagara, K.

    1978-01-01

    The indeterminacy inherent to the formal extension of Arrhenius' law to reactions in turbulent flows is shown to be surmountable in the case of a binary exchange reaction with a sufficiently high activation energy. A preliminary calculation predicts that the turbulent reaction rate is invariant in the Arrhenius form except for an equivalently lowered activation energy. This is a reflection of turbulence-augmented molecular vigor, and causes an appreciable increase in the reaction rate. A similarity to the tunnel effect in quantum mechanics is indicated. The anomaly associated with the mild ignition of oxy-hydrogen mixtures is discussed in this light.

  15. Experimental Evidence for Hydrogen Tunneling when the Isotopic Arrhenius Prefactor (AH/AD) is Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhir C.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (AH/AD) of unity are generally ascribed to a semi-classical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an AH/AD of unity and highly elevated (non-classical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semi-classical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio. PMID:19061319

  16. Maximizing Tactical Fighter Aircrew Experience in Combat Ready Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified ISa . DECL ASSI FICATION/DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION...which has a primary mission of conducting formal aircrew training courses and does not have a commitment to go to war. Replacement Training Unit ( RTU ...percentages shown for the 26 2T total weapon system since the training wings (TFTSs and RTUs ) are manned with only experienced pilots to serve as

  17. Applicability of an Arrhenius Model for the Combined Effect of Temperature and CO2 Packaging on the Spoilage Microflora of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P.; Taoukis, Petros S.; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature behavior of the natural microflora on the Mediterranean fish red mullet (Mullus barbatus) was examined as a case study. The growth of the spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria was modeled as a function of temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide in modified atmosphere packaging. Combined models were developed and comparatively assessed based on polynomial, Belehradek, and Arrhenius equations. The activation energy parameter of the Arrhenius model, EA, was independent of the packaging atmosphere and ranged from 75 to 85 kJ/mol for the different bacteria, whereas the preexponential constant decreased exponentially with the packaging CO2 concentration. We evaluated the applicability of the models developed by using experimental bacterial growth rates obtained from 42 independent experiments performed with three Mediterranean fish species and growth rates predicted from the models under the same temperature and packaging conditions. The accuracy factor and bias factor were used as statistical tools for evaluation, and the developed Arrhenius model and the Belehradek model were judged satisfactory overall. PMID:10919817

  18. Level 0 trigger decision unit for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    LHCb, présenté par J. Laubser, à paraître dans les proceedings; International audience; The Level-0 Decision Unit( L0DU)is the central part of the first trigger level of the LHCb detector. The L0DU receives information from the Calorimeter, Muon and Pile-Up sub-triggers, with fixed latencies, at 40 MHz via 24 high speed optical fiber links running at 1.6 Gb/s. The L0DU performs simple physics algorithm to compute the decision in order to reduce the data flow down to 1 MHz for the next trigger...

  19. Universal arrhenius temperature activated charge transport in diodes from disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, N. I.; Wildeman, J.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Charge transport models developed for disordered organic semiconductors predict a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence ln(mu) proportional to 1/T(2) for the mobility mu. We demonstrate that in space-charge limited diodes the hole mobility (mu(h)) of a large variety of organic semiconductors shows a

  20. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H

    2010-03-01

    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  1. Elastic models for the non-Arrhenius relaxation time of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short...

  2. Understanding the Relationship among Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seoung-Hey

    2015-01-01

    Many studies suggest that students have difficulties in learning acid-base concepts. This study presents some conflicts in the textbook descriptions of these concepts and proposes these to be the cause of the students' difficulties. This is especially true regarding the description of the relationship among the Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis…

  3. Elastic models for the Non-Arrhenius Relaxation Time of Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short...

  4. Motor-substrate interactions in mycoplasma motility explains non-Arrhenius temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Neu, John; Miyata, Makoto; Oster, George

    2009-12-02

    Mycoplasmas exhibit a novel, substrate-dependent gliding motility that is driven by approximately 400 "leg" proteins. The legs interact with the substrate and transmit the forces generated by an assembly of ATPase motors. The velocity of the cell increases linearly by nearly 10-fold over a narrow temperature range of 10-40 degrees C. This corresponds to an Arrhenius factor that decreases from approximately 45 k(B)T at 10 degrees C to approximately 10 k(B)T at 40 degrees C. On the other hand, load-velocity curves at different temperatures extrapolate to nearly the same stall force, suggesting a temperature-insensitive force-generation mechanism near stall. In this article, we propose a leg-substrate interaction mechanism that explains the intriguing temperature sensitivity of this motility. The large Arrhenius factor at low temperature comes about from the addition of many smaller energy barriers arising from many substrate-binding sites at the distal end of the leg protein. The Arrhenius dependence attenuates at high temperature due to two factors: 1), the reduced effective multiplicity of energy barriers intrinsic to the multiple-site binding mechanism; and 2), the temperature-sensitive weakly facilitated leg release that curtails the power stroke. The model suggests an explanation for the similar steep, sub-Arrhenius temperature-velocity curves observed in many molecular motors, such as kinesin and myosin, wherein the temperature behavior is dominated not by the catalytic biochemistry, but by the motor-substrate interaction.

  5. Effect of temperature on microbial growth rate - thermodynamic analysis, the arrhenius and eyring-polanyi connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop a new thermodynamic mathematical model for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of microbial growth. The new mathematical model is derived by combining the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring-Polanyi transition theory. The new model, suitable for ...

  6. Effect of Heat (Arrhenius Effect) on Crude Hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwatani, Toshio; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Sakurai, Jun; Yoshihara, Akiko; Taga, Sekiko

    1972-01-01

    Crude hemolysins prepared from various strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which give positive Kanagawa phenomenon, were partly inactivated by heating at 60 C, but not inactivated significantly by heating at 80 to 90 C. The similar phenomenon has been reported as the Arrhenius effect in staphylococcal alpha toxin. Images PMID:4638496

  7. Universal arrhenius temperature activated charge transport in diodes from disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, N. I.; Wildeman, J.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Charge transport models developed for disordered organic semiconductors predict a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence ln(mu) proportional to 1/T(2) for the mobility mu. We demonstrate that in space-charge limited diodes the hole mobility (mu(h)) of a large variety of organic semiconductors shows a

  8. Are tropical small mammals physiologically vulnerable to Arrhenius effects and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Canale, Cindy; Levesque, Danielle; Fluch, Gerhard; Reháková-Petrů, Milada; Ruf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is some urgency in the necessity to incorporate physiological data into mechanistic, trait-based, demographic climate change models. Physiological responses at the individual level provide the mechanistic link between environmental changes and individual performances and hence population dynamics. Here we consider the causal relationship between ambient temperature (Ta) and metabolic rate (MR), namely, the Arrhenius effect, which is directly affected by global warming through increases in average global air temperatures and the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. We measured and collated data for several small, free-ranging tropical arboreal mammals and evaluated their vulnerability to Arrhenius effects and putative heat stress associated with climate change. Skin temperatures (Tskin) were obtained from free-ranging tarsiers (Tarsius syrichta) on Bohol Island, Philippines. Core body temperature (Tb) was obtained from the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus) and the gray brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis) from Ankarafantsika, Madagascar. Tskin for another mouse lemur, Microcebus griseorufus, was obtained from the literature. All four species showed evidence of hyperthermia during the daytime rest phase in the form of either Tskin or Tb that was higher than the normothermic Tb during the nighttime active phase. Potentially, tropical arboreal mammals with the lowest MRs and Tb, such as tarsiers, are the most vulnerable to sustained heat stress because their Tb is already close to Ta. Climate change may involve increases in MRs due to Arrhenius effects, especially during the rest phase or during torpor and hibernation. The most likely outcome of increased Arrhenius effects with climate change will be an increase in energy expenditure at the expense of other critical functions such as reproduction or growth and will thus affect fitness. However, we propose that these hypothetical Arrhenius costs can be, and in some

  9. Improving Accuracy in Arrhenius Models of Cell Death: Adding a Temperature-Dependent Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John A

    2015-12-01

    The Arrhenius formulation for single-step irreversible unimolecular reactions has been used for many decades to describe the thermal damage and cell death processes. Arrhenius predictions are acceptably accurate for structural proteins, for some cell death assays, and for cell death at higher temperatures in most cell lines, above about 55 °C. However, in many cases--and particularly at hyperthermic temperatures, between about 43 and 55 °C--the particular intrinsic cell death or damage process under study exhibits a significant "shoulder" region that constant-rate Arrhenius models are unable to represent with acceptable accuracy. The primary limitation is that Arrhenius calculations always overestimate the cell death fraction, which leads to severely overoptimistic predictions of heating effectiveness in tumor treatment. Several more sophisticated mathematical model approaches have been suggested and show much-improved performance. But simpler models that have adequate accuracy would provide useful and practical alternatives to intricate biochemical analyses. Typical transient intrinsic cell death processes at hyperthermic temperatures consist of a slowly developing shoulder region followed by an essentially constant-rate region. The shoulder regions have been demonstrated to arise chiefly from complex functional protein signaling cascades that generate delays in the onset of the constant-rate region, but may involve heat shock protein activity as well. This paper shows that acceptably accurate and much-improved predictions in the simpler Arrhenius models can be obtained by adding a temperature-dependent time delay. Kinetic coefficients and the appropriate time delay are obtained from the constant-rate regions of the measured survival curves. The resulting predictions are seen to provide acceptably accurate results while not overestimating cell death. The method can be relatively easily incorporated into numerical models. Additionally, evidence is presented

  10. De Svante Arrhenius ao peagâmetro digital: 100 anos de medida de acidez From Svante Arrhenius to the digital ph meter: a century of acidity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle da Silva Gama; Júlio Carlos Afonso

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the establishment of the concept of pH and the evolution of its measurement. The origin of the pH definition can be found in the development of the chemistry of aqueous solutions during the XIXth century. The electrolytic dissociation theory by Svante Arrhenius played a central role. After the proposal of the pH scale by Sörensen, many years were necessary for the acceptance of this new parameter among chemists in general. Its importance was first recognized in biochemistr...

  11. Cardiac transplantation for amyloid heart disease: the United Kingdom experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrey, Simon W; Burke, Margaret M; Hawkins, Philip N; Banner, Nicholas R

    2004-10-01

    Heart transplantation (TX) for cardiac amyloidosis is uncommon because of concern about progression of amyloid in other organs and the possibility of amyloid deposition in the donor heart. Records of all 24 patients with amyloid heart disease who have undergone TX in the United Kingdom were examined. Seventeen patients had AL amyloidosis (AL) and 7 had non-AL forms of amyloidosis (non-AL). Survival of the 10 patients with AL who underwent TX but had no additional chemotherapy was 50%, 50%, and 20% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively; amyloid recurred in the grafts of these patients after a median of 11 months, and extra-cardiac amyloid deposition contributed to mortality in 70% of these patients. Survival of 7 patients with AL who also had chemotherapy was 71%, 71%, and 36% respectively and 2 patients remain alive. Survival of the 7 patients with non-AL was 86%, 86%, and 64% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively; 5 patients remain alive. One patient from this group had recurrence of amyloid in the graft at 60 months. Five-year survival for all 24 amyloid patients was 38%, compared to patients undergoing TX in the UK for other indications (n = 4,058) for whom it was 67% (p = 0.013). Regardless of the use of adjunctive chemotherapy, the 5-year survival after TX for cardiac AL amyloidosis was less than that after TX for other indications, and progression of the systemic disease contributed substantially to the increased mortality. In contrast, the 5-year survival after TX for non-AL amyloid, combined as necessary with liver or kidney TX, was similar to that after TX in general.

  12. Transition from neonatal intensive care unit to special care nurseries: Experiences of parents and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, O.K.; Verweij, J.C.M.; Staa, A.L. van

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five comm

  13. Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester's Personal Experiences: United States, World War Two, Soviet Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paula Popow

    This family history recounts the life and personal experiences of Marianne Wahnschaff Ballester who was born in the United States in 1929 to German parents. Marianne and her mother spent the World War II years in Stassfurt, Germany, and returned to the United States in 1946. The overview of her life includes a reunion with her father, attendance…

  14. Transition from neonatal intensive care unit to special care nurseries: Experiences of parents and nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Verweij; O.K. Helder; Dr. A.L. van Staa

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five comm

  15. Women’s experience of transfer from midwifery unit to hospital obstetric unit during labour: a qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Rachel E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwifery units offer care to women with straightforward pregnancies, but unforeseen complications can arise during labour or soon after birth, necessitating transfer to a hospital obstetric unit. In England, 21% of women planning birth in freestanding midwifery units are transferred; in alongside units, the transfer rate is 26%. There is little high quality contemporary evidence on women’s experience of transfer. Methods We carried out a qualitative interview study, using semi-structured interviews, with women who had been transferred from a midwifery unit (freestanding or alongside in England up to 12 months prior to interview. Maximum variation sampling was used. Interviews with 30 women took place between March 2009 and March 2010. Thematic analysis using constant comparison and exploration of deviant cases was carried out. Results Most women hoped for or expected a natural birth and did not expect to be transferred. Transfer was disappointing for many; sensitive and supportive care and preparation for the need for transfer helped women adjust to their changing circumstances. A small number of women, often in the context of prolonged labour, described transfer as a relief. For women transferred from freestanding units, the ambulance journey was a “limbo” period. Women wondered, worried or were fearful about what was to come and could be passive participants who felt like they were being “transported” rather than cared for. For many this was a direct contrast with the care they experienced in the midwifery unit. After transfer, most women appreciated the opportunity to talk about their experience to make sense of what happened and help them plan for future pregnancies, but did not necessarily seek this out if it was not offered. Conclusions Transfer affects a significant minority of women planning birth in midwifery units and is therefore a concern for women and midwives. Transfer is not expected by women, but

  16. Arrhenius parameter determination as a function of heating method and cellular microenvironment based on spatial cell viability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Jon; Carswell, William; Rylander, Nichole

    2013-06-01

    Predictions of injury in response to photothermal therapy in vivo are frequently made using Arrhenius parameters obtained from cell monolayers exposed to laser or water bath heating. However, the impact of different heating methods and cellular microenvironments on Arrhenius predictions has not been thoroughly investigated. This study determined the influence of heating method (water bath and laser irradiation) and cellular microenvironment (cell monolayers and tissue phantoms) on Arrhenius parameters and spatial viability. MDA-MB-231 cells seeded in monolayers and sodium alginate phantoms were heated with a water bath for 3-20 min at 46, 50, and 54 °C or laser irradiated (wavelength of 1064 nm and fluences of 40 W/cm(2) or 3.8 W/cm(2) for 0-4 min) in combination with photoabsorptive carbon nanohorns. Spatial viability was measured using digital image analysis of cells stained with calcein AM and propidium iodide and used to determine Arrhenius parameters. The influence of microenvironment and heating method on Arrhenius parameters and capability of parameters derived from more simplistic experimental conditions (e.g. water bath heating of monolayers) to predict more physiologically relevant systems (e.g. laser heating of phantoms) were assessed. Arrhenius predictions of the treated area (Arrhenius parameters, with heating method having the greater impact.

  17. Two years experience with the 100 kW SOFC Cogeneration Unit at Arnhem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukkel, Jaap [NUON, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Since January 1998, the 100 kWe EDB/EIsam solid oxide fuel cell cogeneration unit is in operation in Westervoort. The projects objectives are to: 1) demonstrate the high efficiency and low emissions of the Westinghouse SOFC technology on a 100 kWe scale, 2) gain experience on the operation and maintenance of the SOFC as a cogeneration unit, 3) establish technical characteristics (in-/output, availability/durability and low emissions) of the SOFC technology, and 4) determine the technical and economical possibilities of the SOFC technology. In the first half of 1998 the unit operated at nominal power conditions for almost 3700 hours. After a revision in the U.S., the unit started operations in March 1999, and operated for more than 8000 hours (April 2000). The experience with the operation of the unit and some test results are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  19. Renewables-Friendly Grid Development Strategies. Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with "renewables-friendly"" grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  20. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  1. Universal arrhenius temperature activated charge transport in diodes from disordered organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, N I; Wildeman, J; Blom, P W M

    2008-02-08

    Charge transport models developed for disordered organic semiconductors predict a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence ln(mu) proportional, variant1/T(2) for the mobility mu. We demonstrate that in space-charge limited diodes the hole mobility (micro(h)) of a large variety of organic semiconductors shows a universal Arrhenius temperature dependence micro(h)(T) = micro(0)exp(-Delta/kT) at low fields, due to the presence of extrinsic carriers from the Ohmic contact. The transport in a range of organic semiconductors, with a variation in room temperature mobility of more than 6 orders of magnitude, is characterized by a universal mobility micro(0) of 30-40 cm(2)/V s. As a result, we can predict the full temperature dependence of their charge transport properties with only the mobility at one temperature known.

  2. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  3. Compensated Arrhenius formalism applied to a conductivity study in poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F.; Derouiche, Y.; Leblond, J. M.; Maschke, U.; Douali, R.

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is studied in a series of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers. The experimental data are analyzed by means of the approach recently proposed by Petrowsky et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 5996 (2009), 10.1021/jp810095g]. This so-called compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) approach takes into account the influence of the dielectric permittivity on the exponential prefactor in the classical Arrhenius equation. The experimental data presented in this paper show a good agreement with the CAF; this means that the exponential prefactor is principally dielectric permittivity dependent. The compensated data revealed two conduction processes with different activation energies; they correspond to low and high temperature ranges, respectively.

  4. A speculative study of non-linear Arrhenius plot by using fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lemes, Nelson H T; Santos, José P C dos

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Van't Hoff differential equation is taken under consideration by making use of fractional derivative tools. In this context, the nonlinear Arrhenius behaviour can be obtained and some experimental values of reaction rate as function of temperature were fitted, with the proposed model. The new model showed better performance to fit rate constant data for different kinetics process, when compared with Arrhenius law. In these case, the Van't Hoff differential equation with noniteger order found relative percentage error less that 3% within experimental error. The fractional order plays an important role in modeling temperature dependence of these kinetic processes. Thus it provides a new perspective in the handling of many problems (e.g., as solubility as function of temperature; temperature dependency of the viscosity and conductivity, etc).

  5. Compensated Arrhenius formalism applied to a conductivity study in poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F; Derouiche, Y; Leblond, J M; Maschke, U; Douali, R

    2015-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is studied in a series of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate monomers. The experimental data are analyzed by means of the approach recently proposed by Petrowsky et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 5996 (2009)10.1021/jp810095g]. This so-called compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) approach takes into account the influence of the dielectric permittivity on the exponential prefactor in the classical Arrhenius equation. The experimental data presented in this paper show a good agreement with the CAF; this means that the exponential prefactor is principally dielectric permittivity dependent. The compensated data revealed two conduction processes with different activation energies; they correspond to low and high temperature ranges, respectively.

  6. Correlated parameter fit of arrhenius model for thermal denaturation of proteins and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Balasubramanian, Saravana Kumar; Wolkers, Willem F; Pearce, John A; Bischof, John C

    2014-12-01

    Thermal denaturation of proteins is critical to cell injury, food science and other biomaterial processing. For example protein denaturation correlates strongly with cell death by heating, and is increasingly of interest in focal thermal therapies of cancer and other diseases at temperatures which often exceed 50 °C. The Arrhenius model is a simple yet widely used model for both protein denaturation and cell injury. To establish the utility of the Arrhenius model for protein denaturation at 50 °C and above its sensitivities to the kinetic parameters (activation energy E a and frequency factor A) were carefully examined. We propose a simplified correlated parameter fit to the Arrhenius model by treating E a, as an independent fitting parameter and allowing A to follow dependently. The utility of the correlated parameter fit is demonstrated on thermal denaturation of proteins and cells from the literature as a validation, and new experimental measurements in our lab using FTIR spectroscopy to demonstrate broad applicability of this method. Finally, we demonstrate that the end-temperature within which the denaturation is measured is important and changes the kinetics. Specifically, higher E a and A parameters were found at low end-temperature (50 °C) and reduce as end-temperatures increase to 70 °C. This trend is consistent with Arrhenius parameters for cell injury in the literature that are significantly higher for clonogenics (45-50 °C) vs. membrane dye assays (60-70 °C). Future opportunities to monitor cell injury by spectroscopic measurement of protein denaturation are discussed.

  7. Arrhenius plot for a reaction catalyzed by a single molecule of β-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Douglas B; Chase, Linden N

    2012-02-21

    The activity of a single enzyme molecule of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase was measured using a capillary electrophoresis continuous flow assay. As the enzyme molecule traversed the capillary the incubation temperature was increased from 27 to 37 °C, providing a continuous record of the change in rate with temperature. This data was used to develop a single enzyme molecule Arrhenius plot, from which the activation energy of the reaction was determined to be 31 kJ mol(-1).

  8. Topological insight into the non-Arrhenius mode hopping of semiconductor ring lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Beri, S; Mestre, M; Van der Sande, G; Verschaffelt, G; Scire, A; Mezosi, G; Sorel, M; Danckaert, J; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.093903

    2009-01-01

    We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the stochastic switching between two counter-propagating lasing modes of a semiconductor ring laser. Experimentally, the residence time distribution cannot be described by a simple one parameter Arrhenius exponential law and reveals the presence of two different mode-hop scenarios with distinct time scales. In order to elucidate the origin of these two time scales, we propose a topological approach based on a two-dimensional dynamical system.

  9. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined.

  10. Probing static disorder in Arrhenius kinetics by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Ling; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Li, Jingyuan; Barel, Itay; Lu, Hui; Berne, Bruce J.; Urbakh, Michael; Klafter, Joseph; Fernández, Julio M.

    2010-01-01

    The widely used Arrhenius equation describes the kinetics of simple two-state reactions, with the implicit assumption of a single transition state with a well-defined activation energy barrier ΔE, as the rate-limiting step. However, it has become increasingly clear that the saddle point of the free-energy surface in most reactions is populated by ensembles of conformations, leading to nonexponential kinetics. Here we present a theory that generalizes the Arrhenius equation to include static disorder of conformational degrees of freedom as a function of an external perturbation to fully account for a diverse set of transition states. The effect of a perturbation on static disorder is best examined at the single-molecule level. Here we use force-clamp spectroscopy to study the nonexponential kinetics of single ubiquitin proteins unfolding under force. We find that the measured variance in ΔE shows both force-dependent and independent components, where the force-dependent component scales with F2, in excellent agreement with our theory. Our study illustrates a novel adaptation of the classical Arrhenius equation that accounts for the microscopic origins of nonexponential kinetics, which are essential in understanding the rapidly growing body of single-molecule data. PMID:20534507

  11. Absorbing states in a catalysis model with anti-Arrhenius behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, M F; Figueiredo, W

    2012-04-28

    We study a model of heterogeneous catalysis with competitive reactions between two monomers A and B. We assume that reactions are dependent on temperature and follow an anti-Arrhenius mechanism. In this model, a monomer A can react with a nearest neighbor monomer A or B, however, reactions between monomers of type B are not allowed. We assume attractive interactions between nearest neighbor monomers as well as between monomers and the catalyst. Through mean-field calculations, at the level of site and pair approximations, and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we determine the phase diagram of the model in the plane y(A) versus temperature, where y(A) is the probability that a monomer A reaches the catalyst. The model exhibits absorbing and active phases separated by lines of continuous phase transitions. We calculate the static, dynamic, and spreading exponents of the model, and despite the absorbing state be represented by many different microscopic configurations, the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class in two dimensions. Both reaction mechanisms, Arrhenius and anti-Arrhenius, give the same set of critical exponents and do not change the nature of the universality class of the catalytic models.

  12. Use of Direct Dynamics Simulations to Determine Unimolecular Reaction Paths and Arrhenius Parameters for Large Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sun, Rui; Hase, William L

    2011-11-08

    In a previous study (J. Chem. Phys.2008, 129, 094701) it was shown that for a large molecule, with a total energy much greater than its barrier for decomposition and whose vibrational modes are harmonic oscillators, the expressions for the classical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) (i.e., RRK) and classical transition-state theory (TST) rate constants become equivalent. Using this relationship, a molecule's unimolecular rate constants versus temperature may be determined from chemical dynamics simulations of microcanonical ensembles for the molecule at different total energies. The simulation identifies the molecule's unimolecular pathways and their Arrhenius parameters. In the work presented here, this approach is used to study the thermal decomposition of CH3-NH-CH═CH-CH3, an important constituent in the polymer of cross-linked epoxy resins. Direct dynamics simulations, at the MP2/6-31+G* level of theory, were used to investigate the decomposition of microcanonical ensembles for this molecule. The Arrhenius A and Ea parameters determined from the direct dynamics simulation are in very good agreement with the TST Arrhenius parameters for the MP2/6-31+G* potential energy surface. The simulation method applied here may be particularly useful for large molecules with a multitude of decomposition pathways and whose transition states may be difficult to determine and have structures that are not readily obvious.

  13. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  14. Origin of the Non-Arrhenius Behavior of the Rates of Enzymatic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhendu; Schopf, Patrick; Warshel, Arieh

    2017-07-13

    The origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the rate constant for hydride transfer enzymatic reactions has been a puzzling problem since its initial observation. This effect has been used originally to support the idea that enzymes work by dynamical effects and more recently to suggest an entropy funnel model. Our analysis, however, has advanced the idea that the reason for the non-Arrhenius trend reflects the temperature dependence of the rearrangements of the protein polar groups in response to the change in the charge distribution of the reacting system during the transition from the ground state (GS) to the transition state (TS). Here we examine the validity of our early proposal by simulating the catalytic reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and determine the microscopic origin of the entropic and enthalpic contributions to the activation barrier. The corresponding analysis establishes the origin of the non-Arrhenius behaviors and quantifies our original suggestion that the classical effect is due to the entropic contributions of the environment. We also find that the quantum effects reflect in part the temperature dependence of the donor-acceptor distance.

  15. Correlation between Fragility and the Arrhenius Crossover Phenomenon in Metallic, Molecular, and Network Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Kelton, K F; Schweizer, Kenneth S; Zhang, Yang

    2016-11-11

    We report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θ_{A}=T_{A}/T_{g} in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θ_{A}≈2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θ_{A}≈1.4 and usually in their supercooled states. The θ_{A} values for strong network liquids spans a wide range higher than 2. Intriguingly, the high-temperature activation barrier E_{∞} is universally found to be ∼11k_{B}T_{g} and uncorrelated with the fragility or the reduced crossover temperature θ_{A} for metallic and molecular liquids. These observations provide a way to estimate the low-temperature glassy characteristics (T_{g} and m) from the high-temperature liquid quantities (E_{∞} and θ_{A}).

  16. Probing static disorder in Arrhenius kinetics by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Ling; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Li, Jingyuan; Barel, Itay; Lu, Hui; Berne, Bruce J; Urbakh, Michael; Klafter, Joseph; Fernández, Julio M

    2010-06-22

    The widely used Arrhenius equation describes the kinetics of simple two-state reactions, with the implicit assumption of a single transition state with a well-defined activation energy barrier DeltaE, as the rate-limiting step. However, it has become increasingly clear that the saddle point of the free-energy surface in most reactions is populated by ensembles of conformations, leading to nonexponential kinetics. Here we present a theory that generalizes the Arrhenius equation to include static disorder of conformational degrees of freedom as a function of an external perturbation to fully account for a diverse set of transition states. The effect of a perturbation on static disorder is best examined at the single-molecule level. Here we use force-clamp spectroscopy to study the nonexponential kinetics of single ubiquitin proteins unfolding under force. We find that the measured variance in DeltaE shows both force-dependent and independent components, where the force-dependent component scales with F(2), in excellent agreement with our theory. Our study illustrates a novel adaptation of the classical Arrhenius equation that accounts for the microscopic origins of nonexponential kinetics, which are essential in understanding the rapidly growing body of single-molecule data.

  17. Investigation of a Coupled Arrhenius-Type/Rossard Equation of AH36 Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Tian, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Peng

    2017-04-13

    High-temperature tensile testing of AH36 material in a wide range of temperatures (1173-1573 K) and strain rates (10(-4)-10(-2) s(-1)) has been obtained by using a Gleeble system. These experimental stress-strain data have been adopted to develop the constitutive equation. The constitutive equation of AH36 material was suggested based on the modified Arrhenius-type equation and the modified Rossard equation respectively. The results indicate that the constitutive equation is strongly influenced by temperature and strain, especially strain. Moreover, there is a good agreement between the predicted data of the modified Arrhenius-type equation and the experimental results when the strain is greater than 0.02. There is also good agreement between the predicted data of the Rossard equation and the experimental results when the strain is less than 0.02. Therefore, a coupled equation where the modified Arrhenius-type equation and Rossard equation are combined has been proposed to describe the constitutive equation of AH36 material according to the different strain values in order to improve the accuracy. The correlation coefficient between the computed and experimental flow stress data was 0.998. The minimum value of the average absolute relative error shows the high accuracy of the coupled equation compared with the two modified equations.

  18. Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by Arrhenius equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Maria Aparecida; Siqueira, Evandro Luiz; Bombana, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira, Gabriella Guimarães de

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degradation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 degrees C) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 degrees C (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 degrees C, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 degrees C. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

  19. De Svante Arrhenius ao peagâmetro digital: 100 anos de medida de acidez From Svante Arrhenius to the digital ph meter: a century of acidity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle da Silva Gama

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the establishment of the concept of pH and the evolution of its measurement. The origin of the pH definition can be found in the development of the chemistry of aqueous solutions during the XIXth century. The electrolytic dissociation theory by Svante Arrhenius played a central role. After the proposal of the pH scale by Sörensen, many years were necessary for the acceptance of this new parameter among chemists in general. Its importance was first recognized in biochemistry and related areas. Twenty years after, its importance had been recognized in many industrial and laboratorial practices. The previous methods were based on colorimetric and electrometric methods, but both suffered from many problems. Acceptance of pH in Chemistry was only possible after the development of experimental trustable measurements. The invention of the pH meter was the primordial step.

  20. Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Data to Assess Impact Crater Modification in the Arrhenius Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2000-01-01

    This study combines MOLA altimetry with photographic imagery to begin assessing the extent to which sedimentary and volcanic processes have affected impact crater morphology in the Arrhenius region of Mars.

  1. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

  2. Midwives' experiences of facilitating normal birth in an obstetric-led unit: a feminist perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Annette

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: to explore midwives\\' experiences of facilitating normal birth in an obstetric-led unit. DESIGN: a feminist approach using semi-structured interviews focusing on midwives\\' perceptions of normal birth and their ability to facilitate this birth option in an obstetric-led unit. SETTING: Ireland. PARTICIPATION: a purposeful sample of 10 midwives with 6-30 years of midwifery experience. All participants had worked for a minimum of 6 years in a labour ward setting, and had been in their current setting for the previous 2 years. FINDINGS: the midwives\\' narratives related to the following four concepts of patriarchy: \\'hierarchical thinking\\

  3. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  4. Nursing students’ experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION / OBJECTIVE The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on nursing students’ experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit. More specifically the research questions are: How do nursing students...... describe their experiences of professional patient care in a hospital unit? What kinds of experiences do nursing students have in professional patient care encounters? INCLUSION CRITERIA Types of participants This review will consider studies that include undergraduate and postgraduate nursing students...... experiences of professional patient care encounters where students engage with patients and provide nursing care within the basic principles of nursing care relating to the patients’ physiological and psychological needs. Studies that reflect nursing students’ comprehension of or attitudes towards nursing...

  5. Arrhenius equation for modeling feedyard ammonia emissions using temperature and diet crude protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M; Aiken, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Temperature controls many processes of NH volatilization. For example, urea hydrolysis is an enzymatically catalyzed reaction described by the Arrhenius equation. Diet crude protein (CP) controls NH emission by affecting N excretion. Our objectives were to use the Arrhenius equation to model NH emissions from beef cattle () feedyards and test predictions against observed emissions. Per capita NH emission rate (PCER), air temperature (), and CP were measured for 2 yr at two Texas Panhandle feedyards. Data were fitted to analogs of the Arrhenius equation: PCER = () and PCER = (,CP). The models were applied at a third feedyard to predict NH emissions and compare predicted to measured emissions. Predicted mean NH emissions were within -9 and 2% of observed emissions for the () and (T,CP) models, respectively. Annual emission factors calculated from models underestimated annual NH emission by 11% [() model] or overestimated emission by 8% [(,CP) model]. When from a regional weather station and three classes of CP drove the models, the () model overpredicted annual NH emission of the low CP class by 14% and underpredicted emissions of the optimum and high CP classes by 1 and 39%, respectively. The (,CP) model underpredicted NH emissions by 15, 4, and 23% for low, optimum, and high CP classes, respectively. Ammonia emission was successfully modeled using only, but including CP improved predictions. The empirical () and (,CP) models can successfully model NH emissions in the Texas Panhandle. Researchers are encouraged to test the models in other regions where high-quality NH emissions data are available. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  7. Parents' Experiences during Their Infant's Transition from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to Home: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Sharon W.; Spillet, Marydee A.; Cronin, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Limited literature exists which examines how parents of infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) transition from their infant's NICU hospital stay to home. This study examines the question, "What are the experiences of parents during their infant's transition from the NICU to home?" Grounded theory methods served as the…

  8. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  9. Distance Higher Education Experiences of Arab Gulf Students in the United States: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological research study that was undertaken to provide cultural understanding about the nature of distance education experiences of Arab graduate students pursuing degree programs in the United States. As a theoretical framework, Hofstede's international difference dimensions and Hall's concept of low and high…

  10. United Kingdom's experience. [Power system transmission open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation.

  11. De Svante Arrhenius ao peagâmetro digital: 100 anos de medida de acidez

    OpenAIRE

    Gama,Michelle da Silva; Afonso,Júlio Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the establishment of the concept of pH and the evolution of its measurement. The origin of the pH definition can be found in the development of the chemistry of aqueous solutions during the XIXth century. The electrolytic dissociation theory by Svante Arrhenius played a central role. After the proposal of the pH scale by Sörensen, many years were necessary for the acceptance of this new parameter among chemists in general. Its importance was first recognized in biochemistr...

  12. Elastic models for the non-Arrhenius relaxation time of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short......-time elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  13. Elastic models for the Non-Arrhenius Relaxation Time of Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short......-time elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  14. Second Law Analysis for a Variable Viscosity Reactive Couette Flow under Arrhenius Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kobo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the inherent irreversibility associated with the Couette flow of a reacting variable viscosity combustible material under Arrhenius kinetics. The nonlinear equations of momentum and energy governing the flow system are solved both analytically using a perturbation method and numerically using the standard Newton Raphson shooting method along with a fourth-order Runge Kutta integration algorithm to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions which essentially expedite to obtain expressions for volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio, and the Bejan number in the flow field.

  15. Single-exponential activation behavior behind the super-Arrhenius relaxations in glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen; Li, Jiangong; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2010-11-17

    The reported relaxation time for several typical glass-forming liquids was analyzed by using a kinetic model for liquids which invoked a new kind of atomic cooperativity--thermodynamic cooperativity. The broadly studied 'cooperative length' was recognized as the kinetic cooperativity. Both cooperativities were conveniently quantified from the measured relaxation data. A single-exponential activation behavior was uncovered behind the super-Arrhenius relaxations for the liquids investigated. Hence the mesostructure of these liquids and the atomic mechanism of the glass transition became clearer.

  16. Elastic Models for the Non-Arrhenius Relaxation Time of Glass-Forming Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2006-05-01

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short-time elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion.

  17. Children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond;

    2012-01-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU......). This study explored the experiences of eight children aged 8–10 years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate the children’s own experiences of being hospitalised in a PEAU. Thematic content analyses were used. Three major themes were identified: the children’s understanding of disease......, treatment and procedures; the children’s experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home...

  18. Nordic cosmogonies: Birkeland, Arrhenius and fin-de-siècle cosmical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2013-09-01

    During the two decades before World War I, many physicists, astronomers and earth scientists engaged in interdisciplinary research projects with the aim of integrating terrestrial, solar and astronomical phenomena. Under the umbrella label "cosmical physics" they studied, for example, geomagnetic storms, atmospheric electricity, cometary tails and the aurora borealis. According to a few of the cosmical physicists, insights in solar-terrestrial and related phenomena might be extrapolated to the entire solar system or beyond it. Inspired by their research in the origin and nature of the aurora, Kristian Birkeland from Norway and Svante Arrhenius from Sweden proposed new theories of the universe that were of a physical rather than astronomical nature. Whereas Birkeland argued that electrons and other charged particles penetrated the entire universe - and generally that electromagnetism was of no less importance to cosmology than gravitation - Arrhenius built his cosmology on the hypothesis of dust particles being propelled throughout the cosmos by stellar radiation pressure. Both of the Scandinavian scientists suggested that the universe was infinitely filled with matter and without a beginning or an end in time. Although their cosmological speculations did not survive for long, they are interesting early attempts to establish physical cosmologies and for a while they attracted a good deal of attention.

  19. Modelling drug degradation in a spray dried polymer dispersion using a modified Arrhenius equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Adele; Ferreira, Ana P; Banks, Elizabeth; Skeene, Kirsty; Clarke, Graham; Nicholson, Sarah; Rawlinson-Malone, Clare

    2015-01-15

    The Pharmaceutical industry is increasingly utilizing amorphous technologies to overcome solubility challenges. A common approach is the use of drug in polymer dispersions to prevent recrystallization of the amorphous drug. Understanding the factors affecting chemical and physical degradation of the drug within these complex systems, e.g., temperature and relative humidity, is an important step in the selection of a lead formulation, and development of appropriate packaging/storage control strategies. The Arrhenius equation has been used as the basis of a number of models to predict the chemical stability of formulated product. In this work, we investigate the increase in chemical degradation seen for one particular spray dried dispersion formulation using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS). Samples, prepared using polymers with different substitution levels, were placed on storage for 6 months under a range of different temperature and relative humidity conditions and the degradant level monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While the data clearly illustrates the impact of temperature and relative humidity on the degradant levels detected, it also highlighted that these terms do not account for all the variability in the data. An extension of the Arrhenius equation to include a term for the polymer chemistry, specifically the degree of succinoyl substitution on the polymer backbone, was shown to improve the fit of the model to the data.

  20. Arrhenius analysis of anisotropic surface self-diffusion on the prismatic facet of ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladich, Ivan; Pfalzgraff, William; Maršálek, Ondřej; Jungwirth, Pavel; Roeselová, Martina; Neshyba, Steven

    2011-11-28

    We present an Arrhenius analysis of self-diffusion on the prismatic surface of ice calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. The six-site water model of Nada and van der Eerden was used in combination with a structure-based criterion for determining the number of liquid-like molecules in the quasi-liquid layer. Simulated temperatures range from 230 K-287 K, the latter being just below the melting temperature of the model, 289 K. Calculated surface diffusion coefficients agree with available experimental data to within quoted precision. Our results indicate a positive Arrhenius curvature, implying a change in the mechanism of self-diffusion from low to high temperature, with a concomitant increase in energy of activation from 29.1 kJ mol(-1) at low temperature to 53.8 kJ mol(-1) close to the melting point. In addition, we find that the surface self-diffusion is anisotropic at lower temperatures, transitioning to isotropic in the temperature range of 240-250 K. We also present a framework for self-diffusion in the quasi-liquid layer on ice that aims to explain these observations.

  1. Non-Arrhenius ionic conductivities in glasses due to a distribution of activation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, C; Schuller, K; Beckman, S P; Martin, S W

    2012-08-17

    Previously observed non-Arrhenius behavior in fast ion conducting glasses [J. Kincs and S. W. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 70 (1996)] occurs at temperatures near the glass transition temperature, T(g), and is attributed to changes in the ion mobility due to ion trapping mechanisms that diminish the conductivity and result in a decreasing conductivity with increasing temperature. It is intuitive that disorder in glass will also result in a distribution of the activation energies (DAE) for ion conduction, which should increase the conductivity with increasing temperature, yet this has not been identified in the literature. In this Letter, a series of high precision ionic conductivity measurements are reported for 0.5Na(2)S + 0.5[xGeS(2) + (1-x)PS(5/2)] glasses with compositions ranging from 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The impact of the cation site disorder on the activation energy is identified and explained using a DAE model. The absence of the non-Arrhenius behavior in other glasses is explained and it is predicted which glasses are expected to accentuate the DAE effect on the ionic conductivity.

  2. Application of the compensated Arrhenius formalism to fluidity data of polar organic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger

    2013-03-14

    The temperature dependence of viscosity (the reciprocal of fluidity) in polar liquids has been studied for over a century, but the available theoretical models have serious limitations. Consequently, the viscosity is often described with empirical equations using adjustable fitting parameters that offer no insight into the molecular mechanism of transport. We have previously reported a novel approach called the compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) to describe ionic conductivity, self-diffusion, and dielectric relaxation in terms of molecular and system properties. Here the CAF is applied to fluidity data of pure n-acetates, 2-ketones, n-nitriles, and n-alcohols over the temperature range 5-85 °C. The fluidity is represented as an Arrhenius-like expression that includes a static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The dielectric constant dependence results from the dependence of mass and charge transport on the molecular dipole moment and the solvent dipole density. The CAF is the only self-consistent description of fluid transport in polar liquids written solely in terms of molecular and system parameters. A scaling procedure is used to calculate the activation energy for transport. We find that the activation energies for fluidity of the aprotic liquids are comparable in value, whereas a higher average E(a) value is observed for the n-alcohol data. Finally, we contrast the molecular description of transport presented here with the conventional hydrodynamic model.

  3. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  4. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  5. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza: Experience from a critical care unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series details our experience with seven patients with pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in India. All the patients had respiratory failure requiring ventilation except one; two patients developed pneumothorax. Of the seven patients, two died (28.5% and five recovered. Four patients had co-morbid conditions and one was morbidly obese; all the five patients were discharged alive.

  6. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the United Kingdom's Labour Market: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from heteronormativity affect labour market dynamics. Hierarchies of sexual orientation can result in job dismissals, wage discrimination, and the failure to promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks. In this paper, I report on a field experiment (144 job-seekers and their correspondence with 5,549 firms) that tested the extent to which sexual orientation affects the labour market outcomes of gay and lesbian job-seekers in the United Kingdom. Their minority sexual orientatio...

  7. Application of the compensated Arrhenius formalism to explain the dielectric constant dependence of rates for Menschutkin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Glatzhofer, Daniel T; Frech, Roger

    2013-11-21

    The dependence of the reaction rate on solvent dielectric constant is examined for the reaction of trihexylamine with 1-bromohexane in a series of 2-ketones over the temperature range 25-80 °C. The rate constant data are analyzed using the compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF), where the rate constant assumes an Arrhenius-like equation that also contains a dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The CAF activation energies are substantially higher than those obtained using the simple Arrhenius equation. A master curve of the data is observed by plotting the prefactors against the solvent dielectric constant. The master curve shows that the reaction rate has a weak dependence on dielectric constant for values approximately less than 10 and increases more rapidly for dielectric constant values greater than 10.

  8. Penentuan Umur Simpan Lengkuas dengan Model Arrhenius Berdasarkan Kadar Air dan Kadar Sari Larut dalam Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Khathir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Lengkuas (Alpinia galanga adalah salah satu tanaman penting bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Tanaman ini dapat digunakan untuk bumbu masakan dan obat herbal. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menduga umur simpan lengkuas segar dengan menggunakan model Arrhenius. Lengkuas segar yang baru dipanen dibersihkan dan dipotong-potong dengan ukuran 2cm, kemudian disimpan pada suhu 5, 10 dan 28°C. Evaluasi dilakukan oleh 25 orang panelis dengan menggunakan skala hedonic dari sangat suka sampai sangat tidak suka terhadap warna, kesegaran, aroma dan tekstur. Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar air dan kadar sari larut dalam air. Parameter tersebut diamati dalam interval 3 hari selama 21 hari atau sampai sampel dinyatakan tidak disukai oleh panelis pada salah satu kriteria hedoniknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pad asuhu 28°C, lengkuas dapat disimpan selama 3 hari, sedangkan pada suhu 10 dan 5°C, lengkuas dapat disimpan selama 12 dan 21 hari. Energi aktivasi (EA dan tingkat perubahan mutu (Q10 karena kadar sari larut dalam air lebih besar dari energi aktivasi (EA dan tingkat perubahan mutu (Q10 karena kadar air lengkuas. Namun demikian, kedua parameter tersebut tidak tepat digunakan untuk menduga umur simpan lengkuas.   Shelf-Life Prediction of Galanga by Using Arrhenius Model Based on Its Moisture and Water Soluble Extract Content Abstract. Galanga (Alpinia galanga is one of important plants for Indonesian people. It can be used as spices and also as herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to predict the shelf-life of fresh galanga by using Arrhenius model. Fresh harvested galanga, which was cleaned and chopped at width about 2 cm, was stored at temperatures 5, 10, and 28°C. The evaluation was done by 25 respondents by using hedonic scale from the range of like very much until dislike very much. This hedonic evaluation was assessed, based on colour, freshness, aroma, and texture. Parameters observed were moisture and water soluble extract

  9. Parent' s experiences and perceives at premature newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Urbančič

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Text treats parent's experiences and perceives and the significant of their newborn premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Aim of health promotion, the significance of health education in health education counselling are presented. The purpose of this study was to introduction parent' s experiences and make an implementation in nursing practice. The advantage is represent by performing health education counselling for parents in intensive care unit permanently. Perceives of parents during living their newborn infant in neonatal intensive care unit are present on five concepts: perceive parents themselves, perceive their infant, perceive the staff and the intensive care setting and perceive their home setting. Results are showing statistic important differences between mothers and fathers at the time of deliver and at the time charging infant home. A questionare was used for collecting data. Process of development instrument is represent. Descriptive statistics and T-test was used for quantitative data analysed. Using method of internal consistent Chronbach alpha tested reliability of scales and mean differences in time are graf protrayed by 95% confident intervals. Results show statistical significant differences on all five concepts of parent's experiences. Methodological findings and reseaarch limitations are also present. Authoress positive evaluates the effect of health education counselling program and find out its positive effect on parent's critical thinking and contributes to quality assurance nursing.

  10. ZD multipurpose neurosurgical image-guided localizing unit: experience in 103 consecutive cases of open stereotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Lucia J.; Dujovny, Manuel

    1991-05-01

    A unit is presented that provides the neurosurgeon with CT, MRI, x-ray, DA, and DSA compatible headholder and multimodality image localization as well as freedom of choice for surgical approach on patient's intraoperative positioning. The unit consists of a carbon fiber ring-shaped headholder which allows free selection for location of three or four fixation pins, avoiding interference with the flap sites or craniotomy. The base ring is mounted intraoperatively on a special adapter that allows any patient positioning including supine, lateral, prone, 3/4 prone, sitting, etc. Surgical draping can be performed given a completely sterile field. An arc/quadrant localizing device can be mounted on any four alternative positions according to the neurosurgeon's preference. A PC compatible software gives the setting for any possible mounting. Intraoperative the localizing unit can be used in a 'fixed' permanent setting or as a 'non-fixed' system to provide intraoperative three-dimensional orientation. Different are adapted instruments which give the unit further capabilities, especially 'bayonet' type brain retractors (cylinders and speculum) that allows the neurosurgeon to keep the surgical corridor unobstructed from the arc. As an alternative, in the 'non-fixed' setting, self-retaining arms are fixed to the base ring and brain retractors and conventional microsurgical technique can be used without any mechanical obstruction. This article presents the unit details, methodology and the clinical experience in 103 consecutive cases of 'open stereotaxis' for resection or internal decompression of deep seated or near eloquent area lesions.

  11. Management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in a dedicated psychogeriatric unit: a pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Pierre; Feugeas, Marie Cécile Henry; Saad, Sawsan; Belqadi, Sana; Daraux, Jacques; Drunat, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The French government gave a consensual definition of reinforced care units for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD) within the project "Plan Alzheimer 2008/2012." These Cognitive and Behavioral Units (CBU) differ in resources from the traditional reference units for BPSD management, the Acute Psychogeriatric Units (APU). However, a better understanding of their operational specificities may enhance the CBU and APU synergies. To describe one of the first CBU experiments, with regard to preexisting BPSD management in an APU in the same geriatric hospital. A total of 129 patients with BPSD, 35 from the CBU and 94 admitted to the APU before opening the colocated CBU. Patients from the CBU often showed comorbidities and a lower nutritional status, but these conditions were more frequent in the APU (P ≤ 10(-4)). Severe dementia, night time and aberrant motor behavior, and agitation were more frequent in the CBU (P ≤ 0.0015). In both the units, about 80% of patients were improved without increased use of psychotropic medications and there was a high discharge rate back home of about 30%. These findings that are still preliminary support a particular role for the CBU for elderly patients showing the most advanced dementia and disruptive BPSD. Colocated APU and CBU may allow for more effective integration of medical and psychiatric care in elderly patients with BPSD with frequent comorbidities.

  12. The experience of registered nurses nursing in the general audit intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pope

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article a phenomenological qualitative research study is discussed. More attention will be given to the methodology of the research. The objectives of the study are two-fold: firstly to explore and describe the experience of registered nurses nursing in the adult intensive care unit (this is the first phase of the research and to describe guidelines based on the information obtained in the first phase to support the nurses in the form of a support programme in the second phase. The units of research are the registered nurses in the intensive care unit. The characteristics of the unit of research led to the emergence of a qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature. In the discussion of research methodology attention will be given to phase one: data gathering (ethical considerations and informed consent; purposive selection, phenomenological interviews and field notes; data analysis (Tesch’s method of data analysis, methods to ensure trustworthiness, organisation of raw data and integration of findings supported by literature. Five themes were identified through the data analysis: impaired communication with management; discrimination: white on black racism; lack of fair, competitive remuneration and disregard for professional worth; non-conducive physical environment, and stressful working environment. Phase two: Guidelines were described to support the registered nurses in the intensive care unit based on the information obtained in phase one of the research.

  13. Experimental evidence for hydrogen tunneling when the isotopic arrhenius prefactor (A(H)/A(D)) is unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhir C; Klinman, Judith P

    2008-12-31

    The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is one of the major tools used for the investigation of hydrogen tunneling in condensed phase. Hydrogen transfer reactions displaying isotopic Arrhenius prefactor ratios (A(H)/A(D)) of unity are generally ascribed to a semiclassical mechanism. Here, we have identified a double mutant of soybean lipoxygenase (SLO-1, an enzyme previously shown to follow quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling), that displays an A(H)/A(D) of unity and highly elevated (nonclassical) KIEs. This observation highlights the shortcoming of assigning a hydrogen transfer reaction to a semiclassical model based solely on an Arrhenius prefactor ratio.

  14. Energy barriers, entropy barriers, and non-Arrhenius behavior in a minimal glassy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Weeks, Eric R

    2016-06-01

    We study glassy dynamics using a simulation of three soft Brownian particles confined to a two-dimensional circular region. If the circular region is large, the disks freely rearrange, but rearrangements are rarer for smaller system sizes. We directly measure a one-dimensional free-energy landscape characterizing the dynamics. This landscape has two local minima corresponding to the two distinct disk configurations, separated by a free-energy barrier that governs the rearrangement rate. We study several different interaction potentials and demonstrate that the free-energy barrier is composed of a potential-energy barrier and an entropic barrier. The heights of both of these barriers depend on temperature and system size, demonstrating how non-Arrhenius behavior can arise close to the glass transition.

  15. Estudo do envelhecimento dos ligantes asfálticos a partir do Modelo de Arrhenius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of "aging" is responsible for modifying characteristics of the asphalt binder and asphalt mixture, resulting in a decrease in the layer lifecycle. Therefore, in order to minimize the harmful effects of this phenomenon and ensure the correct life cycle of the pavement, this work brings in short-term aging simulation, analyzing three distinct characteristics, according to Arrhenius model. From the data obtained, it was possible to produce curves for quality control, considered important tools to control the time and temperature during production cycles, spreading and compacting the asphalt mixture. Thus, from the analysis of the exposure of the CAP 50/70 at various temperatures, it was possible to determine which would be the maximum exposure time to ensure that their physical and rheological properties remain in accordance with the minimum standards established by technical standards current.

  16. Simply conceiving the Arrhenius law and absolute kinetic constants using the geometric distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Although first-order rate constants are basic ingredients of physical chemistry, biochemistry and systems modeling, their innermost nature is derived from complex physical chemistry mechanisms. The present study suggests that equivalent conclusions can be more straightly obtained from simple statistics. The different facets of kinetic constants are first classified and clarified with respect to time and energy and the equivalences between traditional flux rate and modern probabilistic modeling are summarized. Then, a naive but rigorous approach is proposed to concretely perceive how the Arrhenius law naturally emerges from the geometric distribution. It appears that (1) the distribution in time of chemical events as well as (2) their mean frequency, are both dictated by randomness only and as such, are accurately described by time-based and spatial exponential processes respectively.

  17. Regulatory application of seismic experience data for nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Ying [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    On the basis of its review and evaluation (Reference 3) of the SQUG GIP (Reference 2) and on the basis of the differences between current seismic qualification requirements and the criteria and procedures provided in the GIP, the NRC staff does not consider the USI A-46 methodology given in the GIP to be a `seismic qualification` procedure. Rather, the staff considers the GIP methodology to be a seismic adequacy verification procedure, which was developed on the basis of generic equipment earthquake experience data, supplemented by generic equipment test data. The implementation of the GIP approach for USI A-46 plants provides safety enhancement, in certain aspects, beyond the original licensing bases. Therefore, the GIP methodology is an acceptable evaluation method, for USI A-46 plants only, to verify the seismic adequacy of the safe-shutdown equipment installed in the NPPs in the United States. With the new development in the experience-based approach for seismic qualification of equipment currently underway in the U.S. nuclear industry, there is a potential for future regulatory application of an experience-based approach as a seismic qualification method for certain selected equipment installed in NPPs in the United States. However, industry`s use of the experience-based approach will be dependent on the submittal and staff approval of this approach. (J.P.N.)

  18. Arrhenius curves of hydrogen transfers: tunnel effects, isotope effects and effects of pre-equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Miguel Lopez, Juan; Kohen, Amnon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Arrhenius curves of selected hydrogen-transfer reactions for which kinetic data are available in a large temperature range are reviewed. The curves are discussed in terms of the one-dimensional Bell–Limbach tunnelling model. The main parameters of this model are the barrier heights of the isotopic reactions, barrier width of the H-reaction, tunnelling masses, pre-exponential factor and minimum energy for tunnelling to occur. The model allows one to compare different reactions in a simple way and prepare the kinetic data for more-dimensional treatments. The first type of reactions is concerned with reactions where the geometries of the reacting molecules are well established and the kinetic data of the isotopic reactions are available in a large temperature range. Here, it is possible to study the relation between kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and chemical structure. Examples are the tautomerism of porphyrin, the porphyrin anion and related compounds exhibiting intramolecular hydrogen bonds of medium strength. We observe pre-exponential factors of the order of kT/h≅1013 s−1 corresponding to vanishing activation entropies in terms of transition state theory. This result is important for the second type of reactions discussed in this paper, referring mostly to liquid solutions. Here, the reacting molecular configurations may be involved in equilibria with non- or less-reactive forms. Several cases are discussed, where the less-reactive forms dominate at low or at high temperature, leading to unusual Arrhenius curves. These cases include examples from small molecule solution chemistry like the base-catalysed intramolecular H-transfer in diaryltriazene, 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-hydroxy-phenoxyl radicals, as well as in the case of an enzymatic system, thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase. In the latter case, temperature-dependent KIEs are interpreted in terms of a transition between two regimes with different temperature

  19. What can we learn from Einstein and Arrhenius about the optimal flow of our blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Stefan; Stark, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen flow in humans and other higher animals depends on the erythrocyte-to-blood volume ratio, the hematocrit. Since it is physiologically favourable when the flow of oxygen transport is maximum it can be assumed that this situation has been achieved during evolution. If the hematocrit was too low, too few erythrocytes could transport oxygen. If it was too high, the blood would be very viscous, so that oxygen supply would again be reduced. The theoretical optimal hematocrit can be calculated by considering the dependence of blood viscosity on the hematocrit. Different approaches to expressing this dependence have been proposed in the literature. Here, we discuss early approaches in hydrodynamics proposed by Einstein and Arrhenius and show that especially the Arrhenius equation is very appropriate for this purpose. We show that despite considerable simplifications such as neglecting the deformation, orientation and aggregation of erythrocytes, realistic hematocrit values of about 40% can be derived based on optimality considerations. Also the prediction that the ratio between the viscosities of the blood and blood plasma at high shear rates nearly equals Euler's constant (2.718) is in good agreement with observed values. Finally, we discuss possible extensions of the theory. For example, we derive the theoretical optimal hematocrit for persevering divers among marine mammals to be 65%, in excellent agreement with the values observed in several species. These considerations are very important for human and animal physiology since oxygen transport is an important factor for medicine and physical performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Arrhenius cleavage of covalent bonds in bottlebrush macromolecules on substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Nese, Alper; Sun, Frank C; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Sheiko, Sergei S

    2012-06-12

    Spontaneous degradation of bottlebrush macromolecules on aqueous substrates was monitored by atomic force microscopy. Scission of C ─ C covalent bonds in the brush backbone occurred due to steric repulsion between the adsorbed side chains, which generated bond tension on the order of several nano-Newtons. Unlike conventional chemical reactions, the rate of bond scission was shown to decrease with temperature. This apparent anti-Arrhenius behavior was caused by a decrease in the surface energy of the underlying substrate upon heating, which results in a corresponding decrease of bond tension in the adsorbed macromolecules. Even though the tension dropped minimally from 2.16 to 1.89 nN, this was sufficient to overpower the increase in the thermal energy (k(B)T) in the Arrhenius equation. The rate constant of the bond-scission reaction was measured as a function of temperature and surface energy. Fitting the experimental data by a perturbed Morse potential V = V(0)(1 - e(-βx))(2) - fx, we determined the depth and width of the potential to be V(0) = 141 ± 19 kJ/mol and β(-1) = 0.18 ± 0.03 Å, respectively. Whereas the V(0) value is in reasonable agreement with the activation energy E(a) = 80-220 kJ/mol of mechanical and thermal degradation of organic polymers, it is significantly lower than the dissociation energy of a C ─ C bond D(e) = 350 kJ/mol. Moreover, the force constant K(x) = 2β(2)V(0) = 1.45 ± 0.36 kN/m of a strained bottlebrush along its backbone is markedly larger than the force constant of a C ─ C bond K(l) = 0.44 kN/m, which is attributed to additional stiffness due to deformation of the side chains.

  1. Arrhenius-kinetics evidence for quantum tunneling in microbial “social” decision rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Social-like bacteria, fungi and protozoa communicate chemical and behavioral signals to coordinate their specializations into an ordered group of individuals capable of fitter ecological performance. Examples of microbial “social” behaviors include sporulation and dispersion, kin recognition and nonclonal or paired reproduction. Paired reproduction by ciliates is believed to involve intra- and intermate selection through pheromone-stimulated “courting” rituals. Such social maneuvering minimizes survival-reproduction tradeoffs while sorting superior mates from inferior ones, lowering the vertical spread of deleterious genes in geographically constricted populations and possibly promoting advantageous genetic innovations. In a previous article, I reported findings that the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum can out-complete mating rivals in simulated social trials by learning behavioral heuristics which it then employs to store and select sets of altruistic and deceptive signaling strategies. Frequencies of strategy use typically follow Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB), Fermi-Dirac (FD) or Bose-Einstein (BE) statistical distributions. For ciliates most adept at social decision making, a brief classical MB computational phase drives signaling behavior into a later quantum BE computational phase that condenses or favors the selection of a single fittest strategy. Appearance of the network analogue of BE condensation coincides with Hebbian-like trial-and-error learning and is consistent with the idea that cells behave as heat engines, where loss of energy associated with specific cellular machinery critical for mating decisions effectively reduces the temperature of intracellular enzymes cohering into weak Fröhlich superposition. I extend these findings by showing the rates at which ciliates switch serial behavioral strategies agree with principles of chemical reactions exhibiting linear and nonlinear Arrhenius kinetics during respective classical and quantum computations

  2. Arrhenius-kinetics evidence for quantum tunneling in microbial "social" decision rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-11-01

    Social-like bacteria, fungi and protozoa communicate chemical and behavioral signals to coordinate their specializations into an ordered group of individuals capable of fitter ecological performance. Examples of microbial "social" behaviors include sporulation and dispersion, kin recognition and nonclonal or paired reproduction. Paired reproduction by ciliates is believed to involve intra- and intermate selection through pheromone-stimulated "courting" rituals. Such social maneuvering minimizes survival-reproduction tradeoffs while sorting superior mates from inferior ones, lowering the vertical spread of deleterious genes in geographically constricted populations and possibly promoting advantageous genetic innovations. In a previous article, I reported findings that the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum can out-complete mating rivals in simulated social trials by learning behavioral heuristics which it then employs to store and select sets of altruistic and deceptive signaling strategies. Frequencies of strategy use typically follow Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB), Fermi-Dirac (FD) or Bose-Einstein (BE) statistical distributions. For ciliates most adept at social decision making, a brief classical MB computational phase drives signaling behavior into a later quantum BE computational phase that condenses or favors the selection of a single fittest strategy. Appearance of the network analogue of BE condensation coincides with Hebbian-like trial-and-error learning and is consistent with the idea that cells behave as heat engines, where loss of energy associated with specific cellular machinery critical for mating decisions effectively reduces the temperature of intracellular enzymes cohering into weak Fröhlich superposition. I extend these findings by showing the rates at which ciliates switch serial behavioral strategies agree with principles of chemical reactions exhibiting linear and nonlinear Arrhenius kinetics during respective classical and quantum computations

  3. The Parental Experience of Having an Infant in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Hala M.; Bond, Elaine A.; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore and describe the experience of parents with an infant in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). A literature search covering the period 1998–2008 was conducted. Fourteen articles reporting qualitative studies describing parental experiences and meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated and themes were identified. Findings revealed that parents with an infant in the NICU experience depression, anxiety, stress, and loss of control, and they vacillate between feelings of inclusion and exclusion related to the provision of health care to their neonate. Nursing interventions that promote positive psychosocial outcomes are needed to decrease parental feelings of stress, anxiety, and loss of control. Interventions need to focus on family-centered and developmentally supportive care. PMID:20514124

  4. Children's experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond; Glasdam, Stinne

    2012-09-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children's experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU). This study explored the experiences of eight children aged 8-10 years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate the children's own experiences of being hospitalised in a PEAU. Thematic content analyses were used. Three major themes were identified: the children's understanding of disease, treatment and procedures; the children's experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home and enjoyed time together with their parents while in hospital. In their conversations with staff they adapted to professional terms that they did not necessarily understand. They did not differentiate between professionals. Further work should be considered to clarify the consequences of this. This study has provided some limited insight into the child's experiences of acute hospitalisation, which should inform nursing care.

  5. The undergraduate premedical experience in the United States: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y; Parnami, Sonali; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Anspach, Renee R; Crawford, Brett; De Vries, Raymond G

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the consequences of the premedical years for the character of (future) physicians by critically reviewing the empirical research done on the undergraduate premedical experience in the United States. We searched ERIC, JSTOR, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO from the earliest available date for empirical, peer-reviewed studies of premedical students in the United States. We then used qualitative methods to uncover overall themes present in this literature. The initial literature search identified 1,168 articles, 19 of which were included for review. Reviewed articles were published between 1976 and 2010 with the majority published prior to 1990. Articles covered two broad topics: explaining attrition from the premedical track, and investigating the personality traits and stereotypes of premedical students. Self-selection bias and high attrition rates were among the limitations of the reviewed articles. There is very little current research on the premedical experience. Given the importance of the premedical years on the process of becoming a medical professional, it is imperative that we do more and better research on how the premedical experience shapes future physicians.

  6. Cardiotocography interpretation skills and the association with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellesen, Line; Sorensen, Jette Led; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine whether cardiotocography (CTG) knowledge, interpretation skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were associated with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background. MATERIAL AND METHODS.......007; >20 years experience: mean difference -0.9, passociated with working in large maternity units and having......-choice question test. Associations between mean test score and work conditions were analyzed using multivariable robust regression, in which the three variables were mutually adjusted. RESULTS: Participants from units with >3000 deliveries/year scored higher on the test than participants from units with

  7. A Case Study of Personal Experiences of Undocumented Eastern European Immigrants Living in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titanilla KISS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on undocumented migration has focused predominantly on Latin American and Mexican immigrants and largely overlooked the experiences of immigrants originating from other parts of the world. As such, very few studies have considered how the lack of legal residency status can influence life opportunities of undocumented immigrants from Eastern Europe. The overarching aim of the present study was to explore the personal experiences of unauthorized Eastern European immigrants in the United States in order to: (a augment research on undocumented migration, and (b highlight the experiences of undocumented Eastern Europeans who remain an understudied group of the undocumented immigrants. Comprehensive personal interviews were conducted with a small group of unauthorized immigrants to explore: (1 reasons for immigration and prior expectations, and (2 psychosocial experiences (i.e., status related anxiety, experience with prejudice and discrimination, job satisfaction, sense of belonging, family relations, and future plans. Some of the results are presented in terms of similarity and differences between the current study's sample and the undocumented immigrants from other regions of the world, namely, Mexico and Latin America.

  8. Family members' lived experience in the intensive care unit: a phemenological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Margaret

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To describe the lived experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Admission of a critically ill relative to an intensive care unit causes anxiety and stress to family members. Nursing care is initially focused on maintaining the physiological stability of the patient and less on the needs and concerns of family members. Understanding how families make sense of this experience may help nurses focus on the delivery of family centred care. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experiences of family members of patients in an intensive care unit. In-depth interviews were conducted with six family members and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from the data: the need to know, making sense of it all, being there with them and caring and support. Family members needed honest information about the patient\\'s progress and outcome to make the situation more bearable for them. Making sense of the situation was a continuous process which involved tracking and evaluating care given. Being with their relative sustained their family bond and was a way to demonstrate love and support. Caring reassurance provided by the nurses enabled a sense of security. Support was needed by family members to assist them in coping. CONCLUSION: The research provided an insight into how family members viewed the impact of the admission and how they subsequently found ways of dealing with the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using a holistic approach to nursing assessment and care delivery in intensive care necessitates that nurses interact with and care for family members of patients. Development of a philosophy of family centred care is necessary, with formal assessment of families to take place soon after admission and an appropriate plan of care drawn up at this time.

  9. THE USE OF THE EXPERIMENT PLANNING METHOD TO EVALUATE THE ACCURACY OF FLEXIBLE UNITS IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Yehorov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The identification of rolling stock on the railroads is an integral part of many automation systems as trains in general and cars separately. Various information management systems at sorting yards require the operational information about the object while performing the manufacturing operations. The improvement of the determination accuracy of different parameters characterizing the rolling stock, leads to the immediate quality progress in the traffic volumes management. The aim of the paper is to develop a method to estimate the errors of determination the interaxle distance of the flexible units in the control section using the point path-control transducer for future identification of cars and locomotives. Methodology. To achieve this goal the simulation method and experiment planning were used. The simulation model allowing determining the time intervals between the collisions of wheelset of movable units in point path-control transducer on the control section with variable characteristics of identification devices was developed. The values of the time intervals obtained with using the simulation mode were applied in the method of experiment planning to the final target. Findings. The calculated analytical values of the errors of the interaxle distances do not have the significant differences from values obtained using the simulation model. It makes possible to use the received functional dependence to estimate the possible errors in the identification of rolling stock. The results of this work can be used to identify separate flexible units, and trains in general. Originality. The functional dependence of the error of the interaxle distance error from the fixing point of the wheel path-control transducer, the distance between the sensors and the measured distance was derived using a previously conducted research of the factors influencing the error in determining the interaxle distance of the movable units, and developed

  10. Preterm infant: maternal experience during breastfeeding in neonatal intensive care unit and after discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Medeiros Melo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the perceptions and experiences in relation to maternal care during hospitalization feeding of preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and after discharge. Qualitative approach, exploratory-descriptive, using semi-structured interviews, aimed to address the lived experience of eleven mothers who gave birth to their babies. The interviews were conducted in the homes of mothers, between the months of June and October 2009. Through an analysis and interpretative understanding, the results indicated difficulties inter-subjective communication with professionals and the occurrence of significant early weaning with the introduction of porridge and other foods potentially harmful to the health of preterm infants. It was clear that mothers need to be accommodated in formal advisory groups during and after hospitalization, receiving structured information about feeding practices to establish the most appropriate health care for their children.

  11. Nurses’ Experiences of Managing and Management in a Critical Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Robyn Ogle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the major findings of an ethnographic study undertaken to investigate nurses’ experiences of managing nurses and being managed by nurses in an Australian critical care unit. Our purpose was to valorize and make space for nurses to speak of their experiences and investigate the cultural practices and knowledges that comprised nursing management discourses. Subjugated practices, knowledges, and discourses were identified, revealing how nurses were inscribed by, or resisted, the discourses, including their multiple mobile subject positions. Informed by critical, feminist, and postmodern perspectives, nine mobile subject positions were identified. Direct participant observation, participant interviews, and reflective field notes were analyzed for dominant and subjugated discourses. The major finding described is the subject position of “junior novice.” Nurses informed by dominant patriarchal and organizational discourses participated in constructing and reinscribing their own submissive identity reflected in interprofessional relations that lacked individual valuing and undermined their self-esteem.

  12. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  13. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

  14. Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Factual Introduction toExperience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Namovicz, C.; Gielecki, M.; Smith, R.

    2007-05-09

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have--since the late 1990s--proliferated at the state level in the United States. What began as a policy idea minted in California and first described in detail in the pages of the 'Electricity Journal' FPT has emerged as an important driver for renewable energy capacity additions in the United States. Over the years, articles in the 'Electricity Journal' have explored the RPS in more detail, identifying both its strengths and weaknesses. The present article provides an introduction to the history, concept, and design of the RPS, reviews early experience with the policy as applied at the state level, and provides a brief overview of Federal RPS proposals to date and the possible relationship between Federal and state RPS policies. Our purpose is to offer a factual introduction to the RPS, as applied and considered in the U.S. Though elements of state RPS design are summarized here, other publications provide a more thorough review of design lessons that emerge from that experience. In addition, the present article does not describe the results of economic analyses of Federal RPS proposals, though we do cite many of the analyses conducted by the U.S. DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  15. [Nurses' perception, experience and knowledge of palliative care in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrafita-Susín, A B; Yoldi-Arzoz, E; Sánchez-Fernández, M; Zuazua-Ros, E; Vázquez-Calatayud, M

    2015-01-01

    Adequate provision of palliative care by nursing in intensive care units is essential to facilitate a "good death" to critically ill patients. To determine the perceptions, experiences and knowledge of intensive care nurses in caring for terminal patients. A literature review was conducted on the bases of Pubmed, Cinahl and PsicINFO data using as search terms: cuidados paliativos, UCI, percepciones, experiencias, conocimientos y enfermería and their alternatives in English (palliative care, ICU, perceptions, experiences, knowledge and nursing), and combined with AND and OR Boolean. Also, 3 journals in intensive care were reviewed. Twenty seven articles for review were selected, most of them qualitative studies (n=16). After analysis of the literature it has been identified that even though nurses perceive the need to respect the dignity of the patient, to provide care aimed to comfort and to encourage the inclusion of the family in patient care, there is a lack of knowledge of the end of life care in intensive care units' nurses. This review reveals that to achieve quality care at the end of life, is necessary to encourage the training of nurses in palliative care and foster their emotional support, to conduct an effective multidisciplinary work and the inclusion of nurses in decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiences by student nurses during clinical placement in psychiatric units in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.C. Van Rhyn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted with the aim of discovering and describing experiences of psychiatric nursing students during clinical placement in a psychiatric unit. For the purpose of the study an unstructured interview was conducted with each participant during their first placement in a psychiatric unit to identify the factors experienced as stressful. The results indicated that all eight participants experienced average to high stress. Sources of stress identified included, among others, ineffective teaching and learning programmes, poor managerial governance of the service, detachment of professional nurses from their teaching role, poor relationships among staff, overreliance on the medical model of care and patient neglect. Psychiatric nursing students sampled indicated universal support for in-service education and training for professional nurses, attitude change of professional nurses towards students, support for student initiatives, student involvement in patient care and adequate allocation of resources for patient care and nurse training. The exploration and description of experiences of the psychiatric nursing students will help nurse educators plan clinical learning opportunities in such a way that they are less stressful, thus ensuring that psychiatric nursing students are equipped to utilise themselves as therapeutic instruments.

  17. Healing gardens and cognitive behavioral units in the management of Alzheimer's disease patients: the Nancy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Therese; Batt, Martine; Fescharek, Reinhard; Benetos, Athanase; Trognon, Alain; Bah Chuzeville, Stanislas; Pop, Alina; Jacob, Christel; Yzoard, Manon; Demarche, Laetitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel; Bouvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The French Alzheimer Plan 2008-2012 anticipates the implementation of new Units specialized in cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioral therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Conceived for AD and other dementia patients of all ages, their objectives are to propose a cognitive rehabilitation program, to prevent or treat psycho-behavioral crises, and to provide support and educational therapy to the family and professional caregivers, in order to ease the patient's return to his or her previous way of life. Studies on green spaces and healing gardens in health-care settings have revealed objective and measurable improvements in the patient's well-being. The Plan officially stipulates for the first time the need to make healing gardens an integral part of these Units, but it does not provide specific recommendations or criteria for implementing such gardens. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French Care Units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of AD patients. In Nancy, the Art, Memory and Life garden, a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach, was developed and complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. The main objective of this article is to describe the various steps of the process that led to the creation of this garden: the collection of experiences and information by a pilot group, surveys of patients, visitors, and caregivers before and after establishment of the garden, and implementation of a multi-professional group project. The specifications, the organizational criteria, the therapeutic project, and the criteria for the conception of such a garden stemming from our clinical experience with the Art, Memory and Life garden in Nancy, are described herein. We also present the first assessment following the implementation of the project.

  18. Physical restraint: experiences, attitudes and opinions of adult intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Samantha; Hallett, Christine; McHugh, Gretl

    2016-03-01

    Patients within the adult intensive care unit have the potential to develop delirium and agitation. This can result in the patient displaying unwanted behaviours such as attempting to remove the medical devices to which they are attached. Some adult intensive care units within the UK are starting to adopt physical restraint as a method of managing unwanted behaviours. To determine the experiences, attitudes and opinions of adult intensive care nurses in relation to the application of physical restraint. Questionnaire survey. A postal questionnaire was distributed to all nurses (n = 192) within two purposefully selected large adult intensive care units in the UK. Data were collected between November 2012 and February 2013. The questionnaire was completed by 38·9% (n = 75) of the nurses contacted. All believed that physical restraint had a place, with the majority of the view that the reason for its application was to maintain patient safety. Some expressed discomfort about the use of physical restraint. Nurses were happy to discuss the use of restraint with families. There was a perceived need for training and support for nursing staff as well as the need for medical staff to support the decision-making process. Nurses require more support and evidence to base their decision-making upon. They require guidance from professional bodies as well as support from medical colleagues. The findings have limited generalizability as they can only be applied to the units accessed and the response rate was poor. Alternative approaches such as pain management, sleep promotion and the involvement of relatives need to be explored before physical restraint policy can be written. Further research is required into the safety of physical restraint, alternative methods of managing the risk of agitation and identifying predisposing factors to accidental device removal. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  19. Syncope unit in the paediatric population: A single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtheix, Mathieu; Jalal, Zakaria; Bordachar, Pierre; Iriart, Xavier; Pillois, Xavier; Escobedo, Cécile; Rabot, Catherine; Tribout, Laetitia; Thambo, Jean-Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Syncopes are frequent in the paediatric population. Most are benign, but rare cases are caused by cardiac life-threatening diseases. Syncope units developed in the adult population have demonstrated improvement in evaluation and treatment, with a reduction in hospitalization. We report our experience of paediatric syncope management in a dedicated unit, and analyse the value of different elements in the identification of cardiac causes. This prospective study included 97 consecutive patients (mean age: 12.1±3.3 years) referred between January 2011 and June 2013 to a syncope unit with a paediatric cardiologist, a nurse, a physiotherapist and a psychologist. Patients were classified into diagnostic categories after an initial evaluation that included history, physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and Holter monitoring. The most common diagnosis was neurocardiogenic syncope (n=69, 70.4%). Fifty-two cases (81.3%) had no or less recurrence after specific management that included physiotherapy and psychological support (follow-up: 11.5±5.4 months). Psychogenic pseudosyncopes affected 20 children (20.6%). Two patients had epileptic seizures. There were five cases of cardiac syncope (5.1%): two long QT syndromes and a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia received beta-blockers; two atrioventricular complete blocks required pacemakers. One case was of indeterminate cause and received an insertable loop recorder after exhaustive investigations. Exercise-induced syncopes were significantly associated with cardiac origins (P=0.003), such as electrocardiographic abnormalities (P<0.001), whereas echocardiography was not contributive. Syncope units in the paediatric population may be useful in the diagnostic process, to help identify rare cardiac aetiologies, and could decrease recurrence through specific management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  1. Non-Arrhenius relaxation of the Heisenberg model with dipolar and anisotropic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mendez, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio@electrica.cujae.edu.cu [Nanophysics Group, Department of Physics, Electric Engineering Faculty, CUJAE, ave 114 final, La Habana (Cuba); ' Henri Poincare' Group of Complex Systems, Physics Faculty, University of Havana, La Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba); Mulet, Roberto [' Henri Poincare' Group of Complex Systems, Physics Faculty, University of Havana, La Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba); Department of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, University of Havana, La Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba)

    2012-01-15

    The dynamical properties of a 2D Heisenberg model with dipolar interactions and perpendicular anisotropy are studied using Monte Carlo simulations in two different ordered regions of the equilibrium phase diagram. We find a temperature defining a dynamical transition below which the relaxation suddenly slows down and the system apart from the typical Arrhenius relaxation to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann law. This anomalous behavior is observed in the scaling of the magnetic relaxation and may eventually lead to a freezing of the system. Through the analysis of the domain structures we explain this behavior in terms of the domains dynamics. Moreover, we calculate the energy barriers distribution obtained from the data of the magnetic viscosity. Its shape supports our comprehension of both, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann dynamical slowing down and the freezing mechanism. - Highlights: > We make Monte Carlo simulations in a dipolar Heisenberg model with anisotropy. > We find a dynamical transition temperature below which the relaxation is VFT-like. > An interpretation is done by analyzing the domains structure and energy barriers.

  2. Analysis of S2QA- charge recombination with the Arrhenius, Eyring and Marcus theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantamäki, Susanne; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2011-01-01

    The Q band of photosynthetic thermoluminescence, measured in the presence of a herbicide that blocks electron transfer from PSII, is associated with recombination of the S(2)Q(A)(-) charge pair. The same charge recombination reaction can be monitored with chlorophyll fluorescence. It has been shown that the recombination occurs via three competing routes of which one produces luminescence. In the present study, we measured the thermoluminescence Q band and the decay of chlorophyll fluorescence yield after a single turnover flash at different temperatures from spinach thylakoids. The data were analyzed using the commonly used Arrhenius theory, the Eyring rate theory and the Marcus theory of electron transfer. The fitting error was minimized for both thermoluminescence and fluorescence by adjusting the global, phenomenological constants obtained when the reaction rate theories were applied to the multi-step recombination reaction. For chlorophyll fluorescence, all three theories give decent fits. The peak position of the thermoluminescence Q band is correct by all theories but the form of the Q band is somewhat different in curves predicted by the three theories. The Eyring and Marcus theories give good fits for the decreasing part of the thermoluminescence curve and Marcus theory gives the closest fit for the rising part. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Kinetics of Extremely Halophilic Archaea (Family Halobacteriaceae) as Revealed by Arrhenius Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessie L.; Pyzyna, Brandy; Atrasz, Rachelle G.; Henderson, Christine A.; Morrill, Kira L.; Burd, Anna Mae; DeSoucy, Erik; Fogleman, Rex E.; Naylor, John B.; Steele, Sarah M.; Elliott, Dawn R.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Shand, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the family Halobacteriaceae in the domain Archaea are obligate extreme halophiles. They occupy a variety of hypersaline environments, and their cellular biochemistry functions in a nearly saturated salty milieu. Despite extensive study, a detailed analysis of their growth kinetics is missing. To remedy this, Arrhenius plots for 14 type species of the family were generated. These organisms had maximum growth temperatures ranging from 49 to 58°C. Nine of the organisms exhibited a single temperature optimum, while five grew optimally at more than one temperature. Generation times at these optimal temperatures ranged from 1.5 h (Haloterrigena turkmenica) to 3.0 h (Haloarcula vallismortis and Halorubrum saccharovorum). All shared an inflection point at 31 ± 4°C, and the temperature characteristics for 12 of the 14 type species were nearly parallel. The other two species (Natronomonas pharaonis and Natronorubrum bangense) had significantly different temperature characteristics, suggesting that the physiology of these strains is different. In addition, these data show that the type species for the family Halobacteriaceae share similar growth kinetics and are capable of much faster growth at higher temperatures than those previously reported. PMID:15659670

  4. Evacuation of Intensive Care Units During Disaster: Learning From the Hurricane Sandy Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mary A; Dorfman, Molly V; Einav, Sharon; Niven, Alex S; Kissoon, Niranjan; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-02-01

    Data on best practices for evacuating an intensive care unit (ICU) during a disaster are limited. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York City area hospitals provided a unique opportunity to learn from the experience of ICU providers about their preparedness, perspective, roles, and activities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians who played direct roles during the Hurricane Sandy ICU evacuations. Sixty-eight health care professionals from 4 evacuating hospitals completed surveys (35% ICU nurses, 21% respiratory therapists, 25% physicians-in-training, and 13% attending physicians). Only 21% had participated in an ICU evacuation drill in the past 2 years and 28% had prior training or real-life experience. Processes were inconsistent for patient prioritization, tracking, transport medications, and transport care. Respondents identified communication (43%) as the key barrier to effective evacuation. The equipment considered most helpful included flashlights (24%), transport sleds (21%), and oxygen tanks and respiratory therapy supplies (19%). An evacuation wish list included walkie-talkies/phones (26%), lighting/electricity (18%), flashlights (10%), and portable ventilators and suction (16%). ICU providers who evacuated critically ill patients during Hurricane Sandy had little prior knowledge of evacuation processes or vertical evacuation experience. The weakest links in the patient evacuation process were communication and the availability of practical tools. Incorporating ICU providers into hospital evacuation planning and training, developing standard evacuation communication processes and tools, and collecting a uniform dataset among all evacuating hospitals could better inform critical care evacuation in the future.

  5. Biological responses to space: results of the experiment ``exobiological unit'' of ERA on EURECA I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.; Eschweiler, U.; Reitz, G.; Wehner, J.; Willimek, R.; Strauch, K.

    Spores of different strains of Bacillus subtilis and the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 were exposed to selected conditions of space (space vacuum and/or defined wavebands and intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation) in the experiment ER 161 ``Exobiological Unit'' of the Exobiology Radiation Assembly (ERA) on board of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). After the approximately 11 months lasting mission, their responses were studied in terms of survival, mutagenesis in the his (B. subtilis) or lac locus (pUC19), induction of DNA strand breaks, efficiency of DNA repair systems, and the role of external protective agents. The data were compared with those of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. The survival of spores treated with the vacuum of space, however shielded against solar radiation, is substantially increased, if they are exposed in multilayers and/or in the presence of glucose as protective, whereas all spores in ``artificial meteorites'', i.e. embedded in clays or simulated Martian soil, are killed. Vacuum treatment leads to an increase of mutation frequency in spores, but not in plasmid DNA. Extraterrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation is mutagenic, induces strand breaks in the DNA and reduces survival substantially; however, even at the highest fluences, i.e. 3 x 10^8 Jm^-2, a small but significant fraction of spores survives the insolation. Action spectroscopy confirms results of previous space experiments of a synergistic action of space vacuum and solar UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  6. The non-Arrhenius migration of interstitial defects in bcc transition metals; Migration de type non-Arrhenius des defauts interstitiels dans les metaux de transition de structure cubique centree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudarev, S.L. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Dept. of Physics, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Thermally activated migration of defects drives microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation. In the case of vacancies, the activation energy for migration is many times the absolute temperature, and the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature is well approximated by the Arrhenius law. On the other hand the activation energy for the migration of self-interstitial defects, and particularly self-interstitial atom clusters, is very low. In this case a trajectory of a defect performing Brownian motion at or above room temperature does not follow the Arrhenius-like pattern of migration involving infrequent hops separated by the relatively long intervals of time during which a defect resides at a certain point in the crystal lattice. This article reviews recent atomistic simulations of migration of individual interstitial defects, as well as clusters of interstitial defects, and rationalizes the results of simulations on the basis of solutions of the multi-string Frenkel-Kontorova model. The treatment developed in the paper shows that the origin of the non-Arrhenius migration of interstitial defects and interstitial defect clusters is associated with the interaction between a defect and the classical field of thermal phonons. (author)

  7. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  8. Strengthening Integrated Care Through Population-Focused Primary Care Services: International Experiences Outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenson, Rene; Simpson, Sarah

    2017-03-20

    Many high- and middle-income countries (HMICs) are experiencing a burden of comorbidity and chronic diseases. Together with increasing patient expectations, this burden is raising demand for population health-oriented innovation in health care. Using desk review and country case studies, we examine strategies applied in HMICs outside the United States to address these challenges, with a focus on and use of a new framework for analyzing primary care (PC). The article outlines how a population health approach has been supported by focusing assessment on and clustering services around social groups and multimorbidity, with support for community roles. It presents ways in which early first contact and continuity of PC, PC coordination of referral, multidisciplinary team approaches, investment in PC competencies, and specific payment and incentive models have all supported comprehensive approaches. These experiences locate PC as a site of innovation, where information technology and peer-to-peer learning networks support learning from practice.

  9. VOICING, PAPER AND BRUSH TO CHILDREN IN BASIC HEALTH UNIT: A REPORT OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélem Soares de Meneses

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the experience of Supervised Internship in Community Social Psychology from the State University of Piauí (UESPI performed in a Basic Health Unit of Teresina, Piauí. The objectives of the internship were: insert themselves in everyday community, collect and interpret data from this reality, rise possible demands of work and develop intervention activities aimed at education and health promotion. There were home visits, counseling, referrals and especially playful activities with children in the waiting room. The creation of educational and preventive spaces in the community through popular education contributed to improving the quality of services and allowed a holistic and differentiated children who attend this service attention. Health promotion that subjects provided an opportunity to express their own perceptions of reality, with the prospect of linking health and living conditions, sharing the cultural, economic, psychological, social and environmental situations that have a serious impact on the health- disease process.

  10. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  11. Experience of operation of the gas turbine units in Russky Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibikov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the heat and power supply system based on the distributed cogeneration and created as part of the APEC Summit and development of the southern Far East is considered. A brief review of the experience of operating the gas turbine units of the Co-generation plant in the Russky Island is given. The output of the heat energy over 2015 reached 142.228 thousands Gcal which is larger than that in 2014 by 18.8 %. The specific reference fuel consumption for electric supply was 272.4 g/(kW*h while for heat supply – 195.8 kg/Gcal. In spite of partial load of the stations with regard to electric and heat energy (volumes of consumptions by the connected consumers is less than designed loads, the indices of reference fuel consumption suggest the efficiency of the generation equipment of co-generation plant.

  12. Do Indonesian Children's Experiences with Large Currency Units Facilitate Magnitude Estimation of Long Temporal Periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2016-09-01

    Ideas about temporal (and spatial) scale impact students' understanding across science disciplines. Learners have difficulty comprehending the long time periods associated with natural processes because they have no referent for the magnitudes involved. When people have a good "feel" for quantity, they estimate cardinal number magnitude linearly. Magnitude estimation errors can be explained by confusion about the structure of the decimal number system, particularly in terms of how powers of ten are related to one another. Indonesian children regularly use large currency units. This study investigated if they estimate long time periods accurately and if they estimate those time periods the same way they estimate analogous currency units. Thirty-nine children from a private International Baccalaureate school estimated temporal magnitudes up to 10,000,000,000 years in a two-part study. Artifacts children created were compared to theoretical model predictions previously used in number magnitude estimation studies as reported by Landy et al. (Cognitive Science 37:775-799, 2013). Over one third estimated the magnitude of time periods up to 10,000,000,000 years linearly, exceeding what would be expected based upon prior research with children this age who lack daily experience with large quantities. About half treated successive powers of ten as a count sequence instead of multiplicatively related when estimating magnitudes of time periods. Children generally estimated the magnitudes of long time periods and familiar, analogous currency units the same way. Implications for ways to improve the teaching and learning of this crosscutting concept/overarching idea are discussed.

  13. Do Indonesian Children's Experiences with Large Currency Units Facilitate Magnitude Estimation of Long Temporal Periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2017-08-01

    Ideas about temporal (and spatial) scale impact students' understanding across science disciplines. Learners have difficulty comprehending the long time periods associated with natural processes because they have no referent for the magnitudes involved. When people have a good "feel" for quantity, they estimate cardinal number magnitude linearly. Magnitude estimation errors can be explained by confusion about the structure of the decimal number system, particularly in terms of how powers of ten are related to one another. Indonesian children regularly use large currency units. This study investigated if they estimate long time periods accurately and if they estimate those time periods the same way they estimate analogous currency units. Thirty-nine children from a private International Baccalaureate school estimated temporal magnitudes up to 10,000,000,000 years in a two-part study. Artifacts children created were compared to theoretical model predictions previously used in number magnitude estimation studies as reported by Landy et al. (Cognitive Science 37:775-799, 2013). Over one third estimated the magnitude of time periods up to 10,000,000,000 years linearly, exceeding what would be expected based upon prior research with children this age who lack daily experience with large quantities. About half treated successive powers of ten as a count sequence instead of multiplicatively related when estimating magnitudes of time periods. Children generally estimated the magnitudes of long time periods and familiar, analogous currency units the same way. Implications for ways to improve the teaching and learning of this crosscutting concept/overarching idea are discussed.

  14. Diarrhoea control: the experience of a health team in a primary care unit, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocine, Z; Mahiout, B; Laraba, A; Grangaud, J P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of a primary health care unit located in Algeria's Zeralda district in the control of diarrhea. Curative and preventive care is provided to the adult and child populations of the district by a medical and paramedical team. The overall goal of the diarrheal control program, initiated in 1980, is to combat mortality from diarrhea in children under 2 years of age. Intermediate goals include improvement of care provided to infants with diarrhea, early hospitalization of cases of diarrhea, improvement of contacts between the primary care unit and the hospital, and prevention of diarrhea. Children in the target group are located through use of a register of children living in the district, and their families are sent cards containing information on diarrhea and its control. Children are followed from the 1st day of consultation for diarrhea until the 30th day after the episode. Record keeping and careful follow-up are stressed. In 1983, 335 children 18 months of age or younger (47% of the target population) consulted health structures in Zeralda for diarrhea. About 1/3 of children fail to return for follow-up visits. This is attributed both to long waits in the clinic and the fact that children are usually cured by the time of this visit. The number of children hospitalized for acute dehydration has declined from 33 in 1980 to 18 in 1983; the number of deaths from dehydration declined from 16 to 8 in this same period.

  15. Supporting solar power in renewables portfolio standards: Experience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Electricity Markets and Policy Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barbose, Galen, E-mail: glbarbose@lbl.gov [Electricity Markets and Policy Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc., Harpswell, ME 04079 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become an increasingly popular option for encouraging the deployment of renewable electricity. It is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern is whether RPS policies offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, they will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This article documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved. - Research Highlights: > Many states have adopted RPS policies with solar or DG set-asides. > Solar and DG set-asides have become a significant driver for solar growth. > Compliance with solar/DG set-aside targets has been mixed. > The estimated retail rate impacts have thus far been relatively modest. > Various emerging issues will affect the future impact of RPS policies on solar growth.

  16. Development of an X-ray delay unit for correlation spectroscopy and pump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseker, Wojciech

    2008-07-15

    Probing condensed matter on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds will be one of the key topics for future X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources. The accessible time windows are, however, compromised by the intrinsic time structure of the sources. One way to overcome this limitation is the usage of a time delay unit. A prototype device capable of splitting an X-ray pulse into two adjustable fractions, delaying one of them with the aim to perform X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and pump-probe type studies was designed and manufactured. The device utilizes eight perfect crystals in vertical 90 scattering geometry. Its performance has been verified with 8.39 keV and 12.4 keV Xrays at various synchrotron sources. The measured throughput of the device with a Si(333) monochromator at 8.39 keV under ambient conditions is 0.6%. The stability was verified at 12.4 keV and operation without realignment and feedback was possible for more than 30 minutes. Time delays up to 2.95 ns have been achieved. The highest resolution achieved in an experiment was 15.4 ps, a value entirely determined by the diagnostics system. The influence of the delay unit optics on the coherence properties of the beam was investigated by means of Fraunhofer diffraction and static speckle analysis. The obtained high fringe visibility and contrast values larger than 23% indicate the feasibility of performing coherence based experiments with the delay line. (orig.)

  17. Acting with dedication and expertise: Relatives' experience of nurses' provision of care in a palliative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøthe, Å; Biong, Stian; Grov, E K

    2015-12-01

    Admission of a cancer patient to a palliative unit when near the final stage of their disease trajectory undoubtedly impacts their relatives. The aim of our study was to illuminate and interpret relatives' lived experiences of health personnel's provision of care in a palliative ward. A phenomenological/hermeneutic approach was employed that was inspired by the philosophical tradition of Heidegger and Ricoeur and further developed by Lindseth and Nordberg. The perspectives of the narrator and the text were interpreted by highlighting relatives' views on a situation in which they have to face existential challenges. The analysis was undertaken in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding, including the authors' professional experiences and theoretical background. Six subthemes appeared: the dying person, the bubble, the sight, the cover, the provision for children's needs, and the availability of immediate help. These components were further constructed into three themes: the meaning of relating, the meaning of action, and the meaning of resources. Our comprehensive understanding of the results suggests that the most important theme is "acting with dedication and expertise." The following aspects are crucial for relatives of cancer patients hospitalized in a palliative ward: time and existence, family dynamics, and care adjusted to the situation. Our study results led to reflections on the impact of how nurses behave when providing care to patients during the palliative phase, and how they interact with relatives in this situation. We found that cancer patients in a palliative unit most appreciate nurses who act with dedication and expertise.

  18. The Parents' Perception of Nursing Support in their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani F. Magliyah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NICU is an environment that has many challenges in information receiving and understanding. The infants that are cared for might have serious and complex medical problems. For Parents the NICU experience is filled with stress, fear, sadness, guilt and shock of having a sick baby in NICU. The aim of this research was to explore and describe parents' experience when their infant is admitted to the NICU. And assess their perception of nursing support of information provision and according to their emotional feelings. This study was undertaken at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia which is part of National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA organization in the kingdom. The study utilized a self-report questionnaire with likert scale measurement and telephone interview with closed questions. One hundred and four parents agree to be the part of study and provided their consent to include their children in the study. The majority of respondents were mothers (76%, the remaining (24% from the total sample were Fathers. All their infants have been admitted to the NICU at 2014. Many parents did not able to receive enough information easily from the unit; most of them found the information by nurses was difficult to understand. The majority of parent's perceived high stress and anxiety level according to this information. Also, Most Parents was not agreed about the nurses' support towards their emotional feeling and care. Additional finding indicate that a decrease in support level being associated with an increase in stress and anxiety level. In order to provide a high level of support and decrease the level of stress, there is a need for developing support strategies. One strategy is through a technology to develop an automatic daily summary for parent.

  19. A qualitative study exploring the experiences of parents of children admitted to seven Dutch pediatric intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, Jos M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schuurman, Beatrix Elink; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' experiences during the admission of their children to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Qualitative method using in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to capture parents' experiences. Thirty-nine mothers and 25 fathers of 41 children admitted to seven of the ei

  20. A qualitative study exploring the experiences of parents of children admitted to seven Dutch pediatric intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Latour (Jos); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); B.E. Schuurman (Beatrix); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel); N.A.M. van Dam (Nicolette); E. Dullaart (Eugenie); M. van Heerde (Marc); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); E.M. van Vught (Elise); J.A. Hazelzet (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To explore parents' experiences during the admission of their children to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Method: Qualitative method using in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to capture parents' experiences. Thirty-nine mothers and 25 fathers of 41 childre

  1. Optimum temperature of a northern population of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) using heart rate Arrhenius breakpoint analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aslak Kappel; Byriel, David Bille; R. Jensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    the optimum temperature (Topt) of nine adult Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, using maximum heart rate (fHmax) for investigating the optimal temperatures for activity. The Arrhenius breakpoint of maximum heart rate measurements occurred between 5.9 and 8.3 °C (average = 7.5 °C...... ± 0.4). The Q10 breakpoint occurred at an average of 7.1 °C ± 0.3. There was no significant difference between the breakpoint temperature found using Q10 and Arrhenius [two-sample t test, df = 16; p > 0.1]. The highest fHmax was found at 12.8 °C ± 1.0 reaching an average of 61.8 BPM ± 3.1. Arrhythmia...

  2. Thermal therapy in urologic systems: a comparison of arrhenius and thermal isoeffective dose models in predicting hyperthermic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Bhowmick, Sankha; Bischof, John C

    2009-07-01

    The Arrhenius and thermal isoeffective dose (TID) models are the two most commonly used models for predicting hyperthermic injury. The TID model is essentially derived from the Arrhenius model, but due to a variety of assumptions and simplifications now leads to different predictions, particularly at temperatures higher than 50 degrees C. In the present study, the two models are compared and their appropriateness tested for predicting hyperthermic injury in both the traditional hyperthermia (usually, 43-50 degrees C) and thermal surgery (or thermal therapy/thermal ablation, usually, >50 degrees C) regime. The kinetic parameters of thermal injury in both models were obtained from the literature (or literature data), tabulated, and analyzed for various prostate and kidney systems. It was found that the kinetic parameters vary widely, and were particularly dependent on the cell or tissue type, injury assay used, and the time when the injury assessment was performed. In order to compare the capability of the two models for thermal injury prediction, thermal thresholds for complete killing (i.e., 99% cell or tissue injury) were predicted using the models in two important urologic systems, viz., the benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue and the normal porcine kidney tissue. The predictions of the two models matched well at temperatures below 50 degrees C. At higher temperatures, however, the thermal thresholds predicted using the TID model with a constant R value of 0.5, the value commonly used in the traditional hyperthermia literature, are much lower than those predicted using the Arrhenius model. This suggests that traditional use of the TID model (i.e., R=0.5) is inappropriate for predicting hyperthermic injury in the thermal surgery regime (>50 degrees C). Finally, the time-temperature relationships for complete killing (i.e., 99% injury) were calculated and analyzed using the Arrhenius model for the various prostate and kidney systems.

  3. Effect of Medication Label Units of Measure on Parent Choice of Dosing Tool: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H Shonna; Parker, Ruth M; Sanders, Lee M; Dreyer, Benard P; Mendelsohn, Alan; Bailey, Stacy; Patel, Deesha A; Jimenez, Jessica J; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Jacobson, Kara; Hedlund, Laurie; Landa, Rosa; Maness, Leslie; Tailor Raythatha, Purvi; McFadden, Terri; Wolf, Michael S

    Some experts recommend eliminating "teaspoon" and "tablespoon" terms from pediatric medication dosing instructions, because these terms could inadvertently encourage use of nonstandard tools (ie, kitchen spoons), which are associated with dosing errors. We examined whether use of "teaspoon" or "tsp" on prescription labels affects parents' choice of dosing tools, and the role of health literacy and language. Analysis of data collected as part of a controlled experiment (SAFE Rx for Kids [Safe Administration For Every Prescription for Kids] study), which randomized English- and Spanish-speaking parents (n = 2110) of children 8 years of age and younger to 1 of 5 groups, which varied in unit of measurement pairings on medication labels and dosing tools. Outcome assessed was parent self-reported choice of dosing tool. Parent health literacy was measured using the Newest Vital Sign. Seventy-seven percent had limited health literacy (36.0% low, 41.0% marginal); 35.0% completed assessments in Spanish. Overall, 27.7% who viewed labels containing either "tsp" or "teaspoon" units (alone or with "mL") chose nonstandard dosing tools (ie, kitchen teaspoon, kitchen tablespoon), compared with 8.3% who viewed "mL"-only labels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3-5.8]). Odds varied based on whether "teaspoon" was spelled out or abbreviated ("teaspoon"-alone: AOR = 5.3 [95% CI, 3.8-7.3]); "teaspoon" with mL: AOR = 4.7 [95% CI, 3.3-6.5]; "tsp" with mL: AOR = 3.3 [95% CI, 2.4-4.7]; P units ("teaspoon" or "tsp") on prescription labels is associated with increased likelihood of parent choice of nonstandard dosing tools. Future studies might be helpful to examine the real-world effect of eliminating teaspoon units from medication labels, and identify additional strategies to promote the safe use of pediatric liquid medications. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A New Equation Relating the Viscosity Arrhenius Temperature and the Activation Energy for Some Newtonian Classical Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Messaâdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In transport phenomena, precise knowledge or estimation of fluids properties is necessary, for mass flow and heat transfer computations. Viscosity is one of the important properties which are affected by pressure and temperature. In the present work, based on statistical techniques for nonlinear regression analysis and correlation tests, we propose a novel equation modeling the relationship between the two parameters of viscosity Arrhenius-type equation, such as the energy (Ea and the preexponential factor (As. Then, we introduce a third parameter, the Arrhenius temperature (TA, to enrich the model and the discussion. Empirical validations using 75 data sets of viscosity of pure solvents studied at different temperature ranges are provided from previous works in the literature and give excellent statistical correlations, thus allowing us to rewrite the Arrhenius equation using a single parameter instead of two. In addition, the suggested model is very beneficial for engineering data since it would permit estimating the missing parameter value, if a well-established estimate of the other parameter is readily available.

  5. Arrhenius time-scaled least squares: a simple, robust approach to accelerated stability data analysis for bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauk, Adam P; Guo, Kevin; Hu, Yanling; Cahya, Suntara; Weiss, William F

    2014-08-01

    Defining a suitable product presentation with an acceptable stability profile over its intended shelf-life is one of the principal challenges in bioproduct development. Accelerated stability studies are routinely used as a tool to better understand long-term stability. Data analysis often employs an overall mass action kinetics description for the degradation and the Arrhenius relationship to capture the temperature dependence of the observed rate constant. To improve predictive accuracy and precision, the current work proposes a least-squares estimation approach with a single nonlinear covariate and uses a polynomial to describe the change in a product attribute with respect to time. The approach, which will be referred to as Arrhenius time-scaled (ATS) least squares, enables accurate, precise predictions to be achieved for degradation profiles commonly encountered during bioproduct development. A Monte Carlo study is conducted to compare the proposed approach with the common method of least-squares estimation on the logarithmic form of the Arrhenius equation and nonlinear estimation of a first-order model. The ATS least squares method accommodates a range of degradation profiles, provides a simple and intuitive approach for data presentation, and can be implemented with ease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Screening out the non-Arrhenius behaviour of nematic-isotropic transition by room temperature ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, K; Datta, A; Yoshida, Y; Saito, G; Yoshikawa, K; Roy, M

    2016-02-28

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and optical polarization microscopy of a mixture of the liquid crystalline material (N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline, MBBA) and a Fe-based room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([Emim](+) [FeCl4](-), EMIF) indicate a decrease in the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature (T(NI)) with an increase in EMIF concentration, explained by a proposed model of Coulomb "screening" of MBBA quadrupoles by the EMIF ions along with ionic "self screening." DSC studies of EMIF-MBBA and pure EMIF and comparison with pure MBBA results show that the major transitions in pure EMIF have Arrhenius behaviour, but more importantly the previously found convex Arrhenius behaviour of the pristine MBBA [K. Dan et al., Europhys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)] becomes Arrhenius in the mixture, indicating a conversion of the entropic N-I activation barrier to an enthalpic one. In presence of EMIF, a drastic decrease in the intensity of out-of-plane distortions of benzene rings in MBBA is found from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, consistent with significant reduction in the conformational states of MBBA. This suppression of large amplitude motion is again consistent with a Coulomb screening and gives a molecular basis for the entropic-to-enthalpic conversion of the N-I activation barrier.

  7. The disclosure of dyslexia in clinical practice: experiences of student nurses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David K; Turnbull, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Heightened awareness and increasingly sophisticated psychological tests have seen a dramatic rise in the numbers of people diagnosed with dyslexia. Accordingly, there is a reported increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia entering Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) [Singleton, C.H., Chair, 1999. Dyslexia in higher education: policy, provision and practice. Report of the national working party on dyslexia in higher education. University of Hull on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England and Scotland, Hull], [Higher Education Statistics Agency. HESA. Available from: (accessed 21.12.05)]. Studies researching the effects of dyslexia on the clinical practice of nurses are almost non-existent. This paper reports part of a UK study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia. In depth interviewing of 18 adult branch student nurses revealed a range of difficulties encountered and a variety of coping mechanisms to manage these. Other than in exceptional circumstances there is no legal requirement to disclose a dyslexia diagnosis. The decision to conceal or disclose their dyslexia was particularly prominent and contentious for these participants. This related to the attitudes of co-workers, concerns for patient safety, expectations of support, confidentiality issues and potential discrimination. Dyslexia continues to attract an unwarranted stigma and can adversely affect the learning experience. The need for disability awareness training in the workplace and improved education/service partnerships to support these students is considered crucial.

  8. Coping with the neonatal intensive care unit experience: parents' strategies and views of staff support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vincent C; Steelfisher, Gillian K; Salhi, Carmel; Shen, Lisa Y

    2012-01-01

    It is stressful for parents to have an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To better understand the parents' experience and the role of staff, we examined parental reports of their NICU experiences, coping strategies, and views of the ways NICU staff supported them. Between June and July 2007, we interviewed 29 current and graduate parents from the study institution's NICU. A trained researcher conducted all interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. This was a qualitative analysis of prospectively collected interview data. Parents used the following coping strategies: (1) participating in care of the child; (2) getting away from the NICU; (3) gathering information; (4) involvement of friends and family; and (5) engagement with other NICU parents. Staff can support the parents' coping strategies in the following ways: (1) facilitating participation of the parents with the infant's care; (2) emphasizing documentation of the infant's progress; (3) demonstrating affection for the infant; (4) addressing concerns that make parents hesitant to leave the NICU; (5) providing accurate, consistent clinical information; (6) limiting unscheduled nonemergency phone calls; and (7) arranging voluntarily activities or programs in which parents whose infants have similar medical conditions may interact.

  9. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  10. Moral distress in intensive care unit professionals is associated with profession, age, and years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodek, Peter M; Wong, Hubert; Norena, Monica; Ayas, Najib; Reynolds, Steven C; Keenan, Sean P; Hamric, Ann; Rodney, Patricia; Stewart, Miriam; Alden, Lynn

    2016-02-01

    To determine which demographic characteristics are associated with moral distress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals. We distributed a self-administered, validated survey to measure moral distress to all clinical personnel in 13 ICUs in British Columbia, Canada. Each respondent to the survey also reported their age, sex, and years of experience in the ICU where they were working. We used multivariate, hierarchical regression to analyze relationships between demographic characteristics and moral distress scores, and to analyze the relationship between moral distress and tendency to leave the workplace. Response rates to the surveys were the following: nurses--428/870 (49%); other health professionals (not nurses or physicians)--211/452 (47%); physicians--30/68 (44%). Nurses and other health professionals had higher moral distress scores than physicians. Highest ranked items associated with moral distress were related to cost constraints and end-of-life controversies. Multivariate analyses showed that age is inversely associated with moral distress, but only in other health professionals (rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: -7.3 [-13.4, -1.2]); years of experience is directly associated with moral distress, but only in nurses (rate ratio (95% confidence interval):10.8 [2.6, 18.9]). The moral distress score is directly related to the tendency to leave the ICU job, in both the past and present, but only for nurses and other non-physician health professionals. Moral distress is higher in ICU nurses and other non-physician professionals than in physicians, is lower with older age for other non-physician professionals but greater with more years of experience in nurses, and is associated with tendency to leave the job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for the Accelerated Testing of the Durability of a Construction Binder using the Arrhenius Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Marcela; Dvořák, Karel; Gazdič, Dominik

    2016-03-01

    The single most reliable indicator of a material's durability is its performance in long-term tests, which cannot always be carried out due to a limited time budget. The second option is to perform some kind of accelerated durability tests. The aim of the work described in this article was to develop a method for the accelerated durability testing of binders. It was decided that the Arrhenius equation approach and the theory of chemical reaction kinetics would be applied in this case. The degradation process has been simplified to a single quantifiable parameter, which became compressive strength. A model hydraulic binder based on fluidised bed combustion ash (FBC ash) was chosen as the test subject for the development of the method. The model binder and its hydration products were tested by high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. The main hydration product of this binder was ettringite. Due to the thermodynamic instability of this mineral, it was possible to verify the proposed method via long term testing. In order to accelerate the chemical reactions in the binder, four combinations of two temperatures (65 and 85°C) and two different relative humidities (14 and 100%) were used. The upper temperature limit was chosen because of the results of the high-temperature x-ray testing of the ettringite's decomposition. The calculation formulae for the accelerated durability tests were derived on the basis of data regarding the decrease in compressive strength under the conditions imposed by the four above-mentioned combinations. The mineralogical composition of the binder after degradation was also described. The final degradation product was gypsum under dry conditions and monosulphate under wet conditions. The validity of the method and formula was subsequently verified by means of long-term testing. A very good correspondence between the calculated and real values was achieved. The deviation of these values did not exceed 5 %. The designed and verified method

  12. Experiment and modeling for the separation of guaifenesin enantiomers using simulated moving bed and Varicol units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rujin; Lin, Xiaojian; Li, Ping; Yu, Jianguo; Rodrigues, Alirio E

    2014-10-10

    The separation of guaifenesin enantiomers by both simulated moving bed (SMB) process and Varicol process was investigated experimentally and theoretically, where the columns were packed with cellulose tris 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate (Chiralcel OD) stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane and ethanol was used as mobile phase. The operation conditions were designed based on the separation region with the consideration of mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion, and the experiments to separate guaifenesin enantiomers were carried out on VARICOL-Micro unit using SMB process with the column configuration of 1/2/2/1 and Varicol process with the column configuration of 1/1.5/1.5/1, respectively. Single enantiomer with more than 99.0% purity was obtained in both processes with the productivity of 0.42 genantiomer/dcm(3) CSP for SMB process and 054 genantiomer/dcm(3) CSP for Varicol process. These experimental results obtained from SMB and Varicol processes were compared with those reported from literatures. In addition, according to the numerical simulation, the effects of solid-film mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion on the internal profiles were discussed, and the effect of column configuration on the separation performance of SMB and Varicol processes was analyzed for a few columns system. The feasibility and efficiency for the separation of guaifenesin enantiomers by SMB and Varicol processes were evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-6038 (United States); Coleman, Mark D. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 241 Gateway Dr., Aiken, SC 29803 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. (author)

  14. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast.

  15. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  16. Determinação do prazo de validade do medicamento carbocisteína xarope através do método de Arrhenius Determination of carbocysteine syrup shelf life by Arrhenius method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josélia Larger Manfio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbocisteína é um agente mucolítico utilizado como adjuvante no tratamento de infecções do trato respiratório. A qualidade, segurança e eficácia do medicamento durante o seu prazo de validade são responsabilidades da indústria farmacêutica. A validade pode ser determinada através de estudos de estabilidade acelerados, nos quais fatores extrínsecos provocam a degradação do produto. De acordo com Arrhenius, existe uma relação entre temperatura e cinética química. Desta forma, amostras do produto foram expostas a condições drásticas: 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC. O método de doseamento do xarope de carbocisteína foi validado podendo ser aplicado nas avaliações de rotina do controle de qualidade e no estudo de estabilidade deste produto. O prazo de validade proposto para o xarope de carbocisteína, calculado através da equação de Arrhenius, para a temperatura de 25 ºC foi de 240,9 dias. No entanto, foi observada diferença entre o prazo proposto e a validade usualmente praticada para este produto. Este estudo, ainda, demonstrou a presença de picos endógenos, que precisam ser melhor estudados a fim de se confirmar a presença de produtos de degradação.Carbocysteine is a mucolytic agent in adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract infections. The pharmaceutical industry is responsible for quality, safety and efficiency of the product during its shelf life. Shelf life can be determinated through an accelerated stability study where the degradation of the drug is managed with the extrinsic factors. According to Arrhenius, there is a relationship between temperature and chemical kinetic, so, the samples were exposed to drastic conditions at 40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC. The syrup assay method has been validated and it may be applied to analysis of carbocysteine syrup in routine quality control and stability studies. Through Arrhenius equation the proposed shelf life of carbocysteine syrup was 240.9 days when the dosage form is stored

  17. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  18. Pharmaceutical solid-state kinetic stability investigation by using moisture-modified Arrhenius equation and JMP statistical software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingkun; Perlman, Michael; Lu, Qing; Varga, Csanad

    2015-03-25

    An accelerated stress approach utilizing the moisture-modified Arrhenius equation and JMP statistical software was utilized to quantitatively assess the solid state stability of an investigational oncology drug MLNA under the influence of temperature (1/T) and humidity (%RH). Physical stability of MLNA under stress conditions was evaluated by using XRPD, DSC, TGA, and DVS, while chemical stability was evaluated by using HPLC. The major chemical degradation product was identified as a hydrolysis product of MLNA drug substance, and was subsequently subjected to an investigation of kinetics based on the isoconversion concept. A mathematical model (ln k=-11,991×(1/T)+0.0298×(%RH)+29.8823) based on the initial linear kinetics observed for the formation of this degradant at all seven stress conditions was built by using the moisture-modified Arrhenius equation and JMP statistical software. Comparison of the predicted versus experimental lnk values gave a mean deviation value of 5.8%, an R(2) value of 0.94, a p-value of 0.0038, and a coefficient of variation of the root mean square error CV(RMSE) of 7.9%. These statistics all indicated a good fit to the model for the stress data of MLNA. Both temperature and humidity were shown to have a statistically significant impact on stability by using effect leverage plots (p-valueArrhenius equation modeling theory. The model was found to be of value to aid setting of specifications and retest period, and storage condition selection. A model was also generated using only four conditions, as an example from a resource saving perspective, which was found to provide a good fit to the entire set of data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growing Student Identities and School Competences in Sojourning: Japanese Children's Lived Experiences across Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nari

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand student identities of five Japanese children (the second through sixth grade) and the processes of identity negotiation within their sojourning experiences between Japan and the United States. An increasing number of Japanese elementary students internationally sojourn in today's globalized societies, and…

  20. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care : Development and validation of a European questionnaire (euroQ2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T.; Koopmans, Matty; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Curtis, Jared Randall; Ording, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature a

  1. International Counseling Trainees' Experiences and Perceptions of Their Multicultural Counseling Training in the United States: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon D.; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined international counseling students' (ICTs) experiences and perceptions of their multicultural counseling training (MCT) in the United States. The focus was on (a) relevance of the training, (b) effectiveness of the training methods, and (c) development of cross-cultural competence as trainees. Major findings indicated that ICTs…

  2. Challenges in the Adoption and Use of OpenCourseWare: Experience of the United Nations University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan F. D.; Grover, Velma I.; Janowski, Tomasz; van Lavieren, Hanneke; Ojo, Adegboyega; Schmidt, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights on the adoption or use of OpenCourseWare (OCW) to support broader research, training and institutional capacity development goals, based on the experience of the United Nations University. Specifically, it explains the strategic context for the use of OCW in the university through its related efforts in the area of…

  3. High School Students' Experiences in a Sport Education Unit: The Importance of Team Autonomy and Problem-Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…

  4. Experience of drilling wells using pump-compressor unit to inject aerated fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleynik, S.P.; Beley, I.V.; Lopatin, Yu.S.; Pytel, S.P.; Vasilak, I.I.; Yushkevich, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Results are described from drilling wells with flushing by highly aerated clay fluid with the help of a UNGA unit which includes pumps and compressors of the drilling unit UBSh-1 which permits injection of an aerated mixture under pressures considerably exceeding the pressure of its formation. Qualitative and technical-economic advantages of drilling with flushing by aerated solutions with the use of a unit for injecting gas-liquid agents are presented.

  5. Concentration dependence of molal conductivity and dielectric constant of 1-alcohol electrolytes using the compensated arrhenius formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Allison M; Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2013-05-02

    The molal conductivity of liquid electrolytes with low static dielectric constants (ε(s) Arrhenius formalism (CAF) to the molal conductivity, Λ, of a family of 1-alcohol electrolytes over a broad concentration range. A scaling procedure is applied that results in an energy of activation (E(a)) and an exponential prefactor (Λ0) that are both concentration dependent. It is shown that the increasing molal conductivity in region II results from the combined effect of (1) a decrease in the energy of activation calculated from the CAF, and (2) an inherent concentration dependence in the exponential prefactor that is partly due to the dielectric constant.

  6. Sequential allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by the CCT/TRiC chaperone is revealed through Arrhenius analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ranit; Levitt, Michael; Horovitz, Amnon

    2017-05-16

    Knowing the mechanism of allosteric switching is important for understanding how molecular machines work. The CCT/TRiC chaperonin nanomachine undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes that are crucial for its folding function. Here, we demonstrate that insight into its allosteric mechanism of ATP hydrolysis can be achieved by Arrhenius analysis. Our results show that ATP hydrolysis triggers sequential ‟conformational waves." They also suggest that these waves start from subunits CCT6 and CCT8 (or CCT3 and CCT6) and proceed clockwise and counterclockwise, respectively.

  7. Correlating the stretched-exponential and super-Arrhenius behaviors in the structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen; Li, Jiangong; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2011-04-20

    Following the report of a single-exponential activation behavior behind the super-Arrhenius structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids in our preceding paper, we find that the non-exponentiality in the structural relaxation of glass-forming liquids is straightforwardly determined by the relaxation time, and could be calculated from the measured relaxation data. Comparisons between the calculated and measured non-exponentialities for typical glass-forming liquids, from fragile to intermediate, convincingly support the present analysis. Hence the origin of the non-exponentiality and its correlation with liquid fragility become clearer.

  8. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  9. Children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit – A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU......, treatment and procedures; the children’s experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home...

  10. Migration of antimony from PET trays into food simulant and food: determination of Arrhenius parameters and comparison of predicted and measured migration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Alt, A; Blanc, A; Brunner, K; Sager, F; Dudler, V

    2013-01-01

    Migration experiments with small sheets cut out from ovenable PET trays were performed in two-sided contact with 3% acetic acid as food simulant at various temperatures. The fraction of diffusible antimony (Sb) was estimated to be 62% in the PET sample under study. Apparent diffusion coefficients of Sb in PET trays were determined experimentally. Measurement of migration between 20 and 150°C yielded a linear Arrhenius plot over a wide temperature range from which the activation energy (E(a)) of 188 ± 36 kJ mol(-1) and the pre-exponential factor (D(0)) of 3.6 × 10(14) cm(2) s(-1) were determined for diffusing Sb species. E (a) was similar to previously reported values for PET bottles obtained with a different experimental approach. E (a) and D (0) were applied as model parameters in migration modelling software for predicting the Sb transfer in real food. Ready meals intended for preparation in a baking oven were heated in the PET trays under study and the actual Sb migration into the food phase was measured by isotope dilution ICP-MS. It was shown that the predictive modelling reproduces correctly experimental data.

  11. Deformed transition-state theory: Deviation from Arrhenius behavior and application to bimolecular hydrogen transfer reaction rates in the tunneling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Valter H; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Mundim, Kleber C

    2017-01-30

    A formulation is presented for the application of tools from quantum chemistry and transition-state theory to phenomenologically cover cases where reaction rates deviate from Arrhenius law at low temperatures. A parameter d is introduced to describe the deviation for the systems from reaching the thermodynamic limit and is identified as the linearizing coefficient in the dependence of the inverse activation energy with inverse temperature. Its physical meaning is given and when deviation can be ascribed to quantum mechanical tunneling its value is calculated explicitly. Here, a new derivation is given of the previously established relationship of the parameter d with features of the barrier in the potential energy surface. The proposed variant of transition state theory permits comparison with experiments and tests against alternative formulations. Prescriptions are provided and implemented to three hydrogen transfer reactions: CH4  + OH → CH3  + H2 O, CH3 Cl + OH → CH2 Cl + H2 O and H2  + CN → H + HCN, widely investigated both experimentally and theoretically. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  13. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  14. Children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a paediatric emergency and assessment unit – A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Jackson, Karen; Kolbæk, Raymond;

    2012-01-01

    Short-stay treatment has become a popular form of care as a strategy to cope with increased demands on health care. There is little research that considers children’s experiences of acute hospitalisation to a short-stay care facility such as a Paediatric Emergency and Assessment Unit (PEAU......). This study explored the experiences of eight children aged 8–10 years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to investigate the children’s own experiences of being hospitalised in a PEAU. Thematic content analyses were used. Three major themes were identified: the children’s understanding of disease......, treatment and procedures; the children’s experiences of health-care personnel and the PEAU and transformation of everyday life into the settings of the hospital. The children identified the hospital stay as an overall positive experience. The children took part in leisure activities as they would at home...

  15. The improved arrhenius model with variable parameters of flow behavior characterizing for the as-cast AZ80 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zheng Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hot working behaviour of as-cast AZ80 magnesium alloy, a series of isothermal upsetting tests with height reduction of 60% were performed at the temperature range of 523-673 K and the strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1 on a servo-hydraulic Gleeble-1500 machine simulator. Based on the regression analysis for Arrhenius type equation of flow stress, the activation energy of deformation was determined to be Q = 168.6606 KJ·mol-1, and material constants , n and α in the equation also were calculated respectively to predict the peak stress during hot deformation. A 7th order polynomial was used to represent the influence of strain on these parameters (i.e Q, ln, n and α. The Arrhenius equation was further developed by taking account of the effect of strain on the flow stress to describe the flow behavior during the whole experimental temperature and strain rate range. Then comparison between the predicted results and test results shows that the correlation coefficient and average absolute relative error is 0.99 and 6.63%, respectively. The flow stress predicted by developed equation can give an accurate and precise description of the flow behaviour for AZ80 magnesium alloy.

  16. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  17. Describing Temperature-Dependent Self-Diffusion Coefficients and Fluidity of 1- and 3-Alcohols with the Compensated Arrhenius Formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Allison M; Forsythe, Grant E; Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2016-09-22

    The location of the hydroxyl group in monohydroxy alcohols greatly affects the temperature dependence of the liquid structure due to hydrogen bonding. Temperature-dependent self-diffusion coefficients, fluidity (the inverse of viscosity), dielectric constant, and density have been measured for several 1-alcohols and 3-alcohols with varying alkyl chain lengths. The data are modeled using the compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF). The CAF follows a modified transition state theory using an Arrhenius-like expression to describe the transport property, which consists of a Boltzmann factor containing an energy of activation, Ea, and an exponential prefactor containing the temperature-dependent solution dielectric constant, εs(T). Both 1- and 3-alcohols show the Ea of diffusion coefficients (approximately 43 kJ mol(-1)) is higher than the Ea of fluidity (approximately 35 kJ mol(-1)). The temperature dependence of the exponential prefactor in these associated liquids is explained using the dielectric constant and the Kirkwood-Frölich correlation factor, gk. It is argued that the dielectric constant must be used to account for the additional temperature dependence due to variations in the liquid structure (e.g., hydrogen bonding) for the CAF to accurately model the transport property.

  18. Variations in protein/flavin hydrogen bonding in a LOV domain produce non-Arrhenius kinetics of adduct decay†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Brian D.; Nash, Abigail I.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Light Oxygen Voltage (LOV) domains utilize a conserved blue light-dependent mechanism to control a diverse array of effector domains in biological and engineered proteins. Variations in the kinetics and efficiency of LOV photochemistry fine tune various aspects of the photic response. Characterization of the kinetics of a key aspect of this photochemical mechanism in EL222, a blue-light responsive DNA binding protein from Erythrobacter litoralis HTCC2594, reveals unique non-Arrhenius behavior in the rate of dark state cleavage of the photochemically-generated adduct. Sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies establish that this effect stems from a Gln to Ala mutation unique to EL222 and homologous proteins from marine bacteria. Kinetic and spectroscopic analyses reveal that hydrogen bonding interactions between the FMN N1, O2 and ribityl hydroxyls with the surrounding protein regulate photocycle kinetics and stabilize the LOV active site from temperature-induced alteration in local structure. Substitution of residues interacting with the N1-O2 locus modulates adduct stability, structural flexibility and sequestration of the active site from bulk solvent without perturbation of light-activated DNA binding. Together, these variants link non-Arrhenius behavior to specific alteration of an H-bonding network, while affording tunability of photocycle kinetics. PMID:21923139

  19. Application of the compensated Arrhenius formalism to self-diffusion: implications for ionic conductivity and dielectric relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Frech, Roger

    2010-07-08

    Self-diffusion coefficients are measured from -5 to 80 degrees C in a series of linear alcohols using pulsed field gradient NMR. The temperature dependence of these data is studied using a compensated Arrhenius formalism that assumes an Arrhenius-like expression for the diffusion coefficient; however, this expression includes a dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. Scaling temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients to isothermal diffusion coefficients so that the exponential prefactors cancel results in calculated energies of activation E(a). The exponential prefactor is determined by dividing the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients by the Boltzmann term exp(-E(a)/RT). Plotting the prefactors versus the dielectric constant places the data on a single master curve. This procedure is identical to that previously used to study the temperature dependence of ionic conductivities and dielectric relaxation rate constants. The energies of activation determined from self-diffusion coefficients in the series of alcohols are strikingly similar to those calculated for the same series of alcohols from both dielectric relaxation rate constants and ionic conductivities of dilute electrolytes. The experimental results are described in terms of an activated transport mechanism that is mediated by relaxation of the solution molecules. This microscopic picture of transport is postulated to be common to diffusion, dielectric relaxation, and ionic transport.

  20. Experience in design and startup of distillation towers in primary crude oil processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Y.N.; D' yakov, V.G.; Mamontov, G.V.; Sheinman, V.A.; Ukhin, V.V.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes a refinery in the city of Mathura, India, with a capacity of 7 million metric tons of crude per year, designed and constructed to include the following units: AVT for primary crude oil processing; catalytic cracking; visbreaking; asphalt; and other units. A diagram of the atmospheric tower with stripping sections is shown, and the stabilizer tower is illustrated. The startup and operation of the AVT and visbreaking units are described, and they demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

  1. Family members' experiences of being cared for by nurses and physicians in Norwegian intensive care units: a phenomenological hermeneutical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frivold, Gro; Dale, Bjørg; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-08-01

    When patients are admitted to intensive care units, families are affected. This study aimed to illuminate the meaning of being taken care of by nurses and physicians for relatives in Norwegian intensive care units. Thirteen relatives of critically ill patients treated in intensive care units in southern Norway were interviewed in autumn 2013. Interview data were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method inspired by the philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Two main themes emerged: being in a receiving role and being in a participating role. The receiving role implies experiences of informational and supportive care from nurses and physicians. The participating role implies relatives' experiences of feeling included and being able to participate in caring activities and decision-making processes. The meaning of being a relative in ICU is experienced as being in a receiving role, and at the same time as being in a participating role. Quality in relations is described as crucial when relatives share their experiences of care by nurses and physicians in the ICU. Those who experienced informational and supportive care, and who had the ability to participate, expressed feelings of gratitude and confidence in the healthcare system. In contrast, those who did not experience such care, especially in terms of informational care expressed feelings of frustration, confusion and loss of confidence. However, patient treatment and care outweighed relatives' own feelings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. OCLC book interlibrary loan in a basic-unit hospital library: one year's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, T K

    1983-04-01

    Methodist Medical Center of Illinois Medical Library, a "basic-unit" medical library (i.e., not a resource library) in the Regional Medical Library Program recently completed one year of borrowing and lending books using OCLC. Of the books successfully borrowed through OCLC, 79% were obtained from nonmedical libraries. Forming cost-sharing OCLC clusters among basic units makes OCLC an affordable alternative to borrowing books from overburdened medical resource libraries.

  3. Cultivating New Professional Farmers: Experience of the United States and Implications for China

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzed legislation of the United States for guaranteeing qualified successors of agriculture, such as Morrill Land Grant College Act. Then, it elaborated policies of the United States for supporting beginning farmers and ranchers. On the basis of analysis, it came up with recommendations for cultivating new professional farmers, including adhering to leading role of government, speeding up legislation of cultivating new professional farmers, combining cultivation and attr...

  4. Intensive care unit admission of obstetric cases: a single centre experience with contemporary update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Vivian K S; Lo, T K; Tsang, H H; Lau, W L; Leung, W C

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To review the characteristics of a series of obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit in a regional hospital in 2006-2010, to compare them with those of a similar series reported from the same hospital in 1989-1995 and a series reported from another regional hospital in 1998-2007. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. A regional hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Obstetric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Kwong Wah Hospital from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010. RESULTS. From 2006 to 2010, there were 67 such patients admitted to the intensive care unit (0.23% of total maternities and 2.34% of total intensive care unit admission), which was a higher incidence than reported in two other local studies. As in the latter studies, the majority were admitted postpartum (n=65, 97%), with postpartum haemorrhage (n=39, 58%) being the commonest cause followed by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (n=17, 25%). In the current study, significantly more patients had had elective caesarean sections for placenta praevia but fewer had had a hysterectomy. The duration of intensive care unit stay was shorter (mean, 1.8 days) with fewer invasive procedures performed than in the two previous studies, but maternal and neonatal mortality was similar (3% and 6%, respectively). CONCLUSION. Postpartum haemorrhage and pregnancy-induced hypertension were still the most common reasons for intensive care unit admission. There was an increasing trend of intensive care unit admissions following elective caesarean section for placenta praevia and for early aggressive intervention of pre-eclampsia. Maternal mortality remained low but had not decreased. The intensive care unit admission rate by itself might not be a helpful indicator of obstetric performance.

  5. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Bari, S; Sen, S L; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Rahman, F

    2010-09-01

    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  6. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  7. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has...... also substantially increased cod abundance in a specific area of the adjacent western Baltic management unit. This is investigated through long time-series of spatially resolved stock assessment data supplemented by genetic analyses of origin of the cod currently found in the transition area between...... the two populations. Due to immigrating cod from the east, there are currently large spatial differences in cod abundance and mean weight in the western Baltic management unit that raise new management concerns. First, the high abundance of cod of eastern origin found in the western Baltic management unit...

  8. Cultivating New Professional Farmers: Experience of the United States and Implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei; WAN; Xiaozhou; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzed legislation of the United States for guaranteeing qualified successors of agriculture,such as Morrill Land Grant College Act. Then,it elaborated policies of the United States for supporting beginning farmers and ranchers. On the basis of analysis,it came up with recommendations for cultivating new professional farmers,including adhering to leading role of government,speeding up legislation of cultivating new professional farmers,combining cultivation and attraction,and strengthening fundamental position of education and training in cultivation of new professional farmers.

  9. Experience feedback on the hydraulic unit swiveling provisions; Retour d`experience sur la pivoterie des groupes hydrauliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, J.M.; Claveirolle, P.; Francois, E.

    1997-01-01

    EDF`s 1300 hydraulic machines are highly diverse, ranging from 100 kW to 300 MW, and have been built over a period of almost one century; this diversity can also be found in the swiveling technologies that have been used, and many ancient designs still exist. The most frequently found swivel and bearing types are described, emphasizing their respective weaknesses; their protection systems (level, temperature, vibration control) and start-up and shutdown adapted procedures, are also presented. A feedback experience and analysis of significant incidents are presented, and the main causes of seizure are discussed. The various control methods concerning hydraulic circuits, bearing surfaces, edge and babbitt adhesion, are reviewed and control criterions for pad lining processes are presented

  10. Stereodirectional Origin of anti-Arrhenius Kinetics for a Tetraatomic Hydrogen Exchange Reaction: Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics for OH + HBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Nayara D; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Silva, Valter H C; Camargo, Ademir J; Mundim, Kleber C; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B

    2016-07-14

    Among four-atom processes, the reaction OH + HBr → H2O + Br is one of the most studied experimentally: its kinetics has manifested an unusual anti-Arrhenius behavior, namely, a marked decrease of the rate constant as the temperature increases, which has intrigued theoreticians for a long time. Recently, salient features of the potential energy surface have been characterized and most kinetic aspects can be considered as satisfactorily reproduced by classical trajectory simulations. Motivation of the work reported in this paper is the investigation of the stereodirectional dynamics of this reaction as the prominent reason for the peculiar kinetics: we started in a previous Letter ( J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015 , 6 , 1553 - 1558 ) a first-principles Born-Oppenheimer "canonical" molecular dynamics approach. Trajectories are step-by-step generated on a potential energy surface quantum mechanically calculated on-the-fly and are thermostatically equilibrated to correspond to a specific temperature. Here, refinements of the method permitted a major increase of the number of trajectories and the consideration of four temperatures -50, +200, +350, and +500 K, for which the sampling of initial conditions allowed us to characterize the stereodynamical effect. The role is documented of the adjustment of the reactants' mutual orientation to encounter the entrance into the "cone of acceptance" for reactivity. The aperture angle of this cone is dictated by a range of directions of approach compatible with the formation of the specific HOH angle of the product water molecule; and consistently the adjustment is progressively less effective the higher the kinetic energy. Qualitatively, this emerging picture corroborates experiments on this reaction, involving collisions of aligned and oriented molecular beams, and covering a range of energies higher than the thermal ones. The extraction of thermal rate constants from this molecular dynamics approach is discussed and the systematic

  11. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  12. Gender Differences in Promotion Experiences at Two Elite Private Liberal Arts Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheide, Catherine White; Christenson, Lisa; Linden, Rena; Bray, Una

    2013-01-01

    In colleges and universities throughout the United States, women are underrepresented at the rank of full professor. This national pattern holds true at two highly selective small private liberal arts colleges in the Northeast, one formerly a men's college and the other formerly a women's college. Analysis of personnel data at the former women's…

  13. United State Collaboration working in the Atlas hall experiment (B180).

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    It's a small world; at least you might think so after a visit to Building 180. Inside, about 30 engineers and physicists weld, measure and hammer away. They hail from Pakistan, Israel, Japan, China, Russia and the United States and they work toward one common goal: the completion of the ATLAS muon chamber endcaps

  14. Safe intravenous administration in pediatrics: A 5-year Pediatric Intensive Care Unit experience with smart pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Rodríguez, S; Sánchez-Galindo, A C; Fernández-Llamazares, C M; Calvo-Calvo, M M; Carrillo-Álvarez, Á; Sanjurjo-Sáez, M

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the impact of smart pump implementation in a pediatric intensive care unit in terms of number and type of administration errors intercepted. Observational, prospective study carried out from January 2010 to March 2015 with syringe and great volumen infusion pumps available in the hospital. A tertiary level hospital pediatric intensive care unit. Infusions delivered with infusion pumps in all pediatric intensive care unit patients. Design of a drug library with safety limits for all intravenous drugs prescribed. Users' compliance with drug library as well as number and type of errors prevented were analyzed. Two hundred and eighty-three errors were intercepted during 62 months of study. A high risk drug was involved in 58% of prevented errors, such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists, sedatives, analgesics, neuromuscular blockers, opioids, potassium and insulin. Users' average compliance with the safety software was 84%. Smart pumps implementation has proven effective in intercepting high risk drugs programming errors. These results might be exportable to other critical care units, involving pediatric or adult patients. Interdisciplinary colaboration is key to succeed in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  16. Introducing Blended Learning: An Experience of Uncertainty for Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Linzi J.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in:…

  17. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: two centuries of practitioner experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith L. Kline; Mark D. Coleman

    2010-01-01

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper...

  18. Latinas: Hispanic Women in the United States. The Hispanic Experience in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Hedda

    The term "Latinas" encompasses many different groups of women. Despite the disparities among the cultures of their countries of origin, Spanish-speaking peoples have been lumped as "Hispanics," and later "Latinos," in the United States. The Latino group is rapidly becoming the largest minority population in the United…

  19. Experience and Satisfaction With a Multidisciplinary Care Unit for Patients With Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urruticoechea-Arana, Ana; Serra Torres, Marta; Hergueta Diaz, Mercedes; González Guerrero, María Eugenia; Fariñas Padron, Leslie; Navarro Martín, Sara; Vargas Osorio, Kelly; Palacios Abufón, Andrés; García de Yébenes, María Jesús; Loza, Estíbaliz

    2017-08-24

    To describe patient's characteristics, the activity and patient's satisfaction with a multidisciplinary care unit in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A retrospective medical records review of patients with psoriasis or PsA attended in a multidisciplinary care unit was performed. Included patients were contacted to fulfill a satisfaction questionnaire. A specific electronic database was set up. Data regarding to patients and their baseline characteristics and the activity of the unit were collected. Descriptive analysis were performed. A total of 112 patients with 154 visits were included in almost 3 years, 54% women, with a mean age of 51 years, 43.7% presented hyperlipidemia and 30.4% arterial hypertension. Half of patients were referred due to diagnostic doubts and the other half for therapeutic problems. After the evaluation of the patients, 66 patients (58.9%) met diagnostic criteria for PsA, and 13 (11.6%) of an inflammatory disease other than PsA, and 95% came back to their usual physician. The most ordered test were laboratory tests (75.6% of patients), followed by X-rays in 57 patients (51.3%). In general the number of patients with different treatments increased, and 55.4% and 42% of patients changed their topic and systemic treatments respectively. The level of satisfaction was very high and all of patients considered that their disease was better controlled in this multidisciplinary care unit. This multidisciplinary care unit has improved the care and satisfaction of patients with psoriasis or PsA, and increased collaboration between rheumatology and dermatology departments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Physical Properties of Carbon Materials by Results of Ablative Experiments Con-ducted in the Jets of Gas Dynamic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gorsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of hypersonic vehicles’ movement in the dense layers of the atmosphere is accompanied by the considerable combustion of heat shield, which effects on the aerodynamic, mass-inertial and centering characteristics of the product.For correct calculation of model's movement parameters it is necessary:* Using the theoretical and computation methods for determining ablative characteristics of heat-protective materials;* Taking into account all the basic physical and chemical processes, involved in their ablation, using the above mentioned methods;* Testing these techniques in the wide range of experimental data. This physic-mathematical model of carbon materials (CM aerothermochemical destruction is based on using the following:* Arrhenius equations to calculate carbon kinetic oxidation;* Langmuir-Knudsen formula to calculate the velocity of non-equilibrium carbon’s sublimation;* Carbon erosion law represented as a unique dependence of this process velocity on the gas pressure on the wall.Mathematical description of all major processes included in this formulation of the problem, contains a number of "free" parameters that can be determined only on the basis of comparison of theoretical and experimental data according to total ablation characteristics of these materials.This comparison was performed in the article applicable to the tests conditions of modern CM in the stream of electric arc plant and in combustion products of liquid-propellant rocket engines.As the result, the data of kinetic of carbon oxidation by atomic oxygen at sublimation mode of material ablation were obtained for the first time. Carbon erosion law under high pressure was established for the first time.The new approach to processing of ablation experiments is enunciated. Using this approach allows to turn this experiments for CM from comparative tests into the tests to determine ablation properties of thermal protection. Moreover, it enables us also to use the

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Temperature Induced Unfolding of Crambin Follow the Arrhenius Equation. [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations have been used extensively to model the folding and unfolding of proteins. The rates of folding and unfolding should follow the Arrhenius equation over a limited range of temperatures. This study shows that molecular dynamic simulations of the unfolding of crambin between 500K and 560K do follow the Arrhenius equation. They also show that while there is a large amount of variation between the simulations the average values for the rate show a very high degree of correlation.

  2. Fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetically equivalent networks with Arrhenius-type transitions and their roles in systems and structural biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, De-Ming; Lu, Yi-Ta; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2017-06-01

    The legality of using simple kinetic schemes to determine the stochastic properties of a complex system depends on whether the fluctuations generated from hierarchical equivalent schemes are consistent with one another. To analyze this consistency, we perform lumping processes on the stochastic differential equations and the generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem and apply them to networks with the frequently encountered Arrhenius-type transition rates. The explicit Langevin force derived from those networks enables us to calculate the state fluctuations caused by the intrinsic and extrinsic noises on the free energy surface and deduce their relations between kinetically equivalent networks. In addition to its applicability to wide classes of network related systems, such as those in structural and systems biology, the result sheds light on the fluctuation relations for general physical variables in Keizer's canonical theory.

  3. Professional experiences of international medical graduates practicing primary care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy Guey-Chi; Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Bernheim, Susannah May; Berg, David; Gozu, Aysegul; Curry, Leslie Ann

    2010-09-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) comprise approximately 25% of the US physician workforce, with significant representation in primary care and care of vulnerable populations. Despite the central role of IMGs in the US healthcare system, understanding of their professional experiences is limited. To characterize the professional experiences of non-US born IMGs from limited-resource nations practicing primary care in the US. Qualitative study based on in-depth in-person interviews. Purposeful sample of IMGs (n = 25) diverse in country of origin, length of practice in the US, specialty (internal medicine, family medicine and pediatrics), age and gender. Participants were currently practicing primary care physicians in New York, New Jersey or Connecticut. A standardized interview guide was used to explore professional experiences of IMGs. Four recurrent and unifying themes characterize these experiences: 1) IMGs experience both overt and subtle forms of workplace bias and discrimination; 2) IMGs recognize professional limitations as part of "the deal"; 3) IMGs describe challenges in the transition to the culture and practice of medicine in the US; 4) IMGs bring unique skills and advantages to the workplace. Our data reveal that IMGs face workplace challenges throughout their careers. Despite diversity in professional background and demographic characteristics, IMGs in our study reported common experiences in the transition to and practice of medicine in the US. Findings suggest that both workforce and workplace interventions are needed to enable IMG physicians to sustain their essential and growing role in the US healthcare system. Finally, commonalities with experiences of other minority groups within the US healthcare system suggest that optimizing IMGs' experiences may also improve the experiences of an increasingly diverse healthcare workforce.

  4. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming

    1987-01-01

    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  5. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  6. Natality Decline and Miscarriages Associated With the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: The Scandinavian and United States Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for severe influenza infection, the effect of influenza on miscarriages and births remains unclear. We examined the relationship between influenza and birth rates during the 1918 pandemic in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway...... of peak pandemic exposure and depressions in birth rates, and identified pregnancy stages at risk of influenza-related miscarriage. Results. Birth rates declined in all study populations in spring 1919 by a mean of 2.2 births per 1000 persons, representing a 5%–15% drop below baseline levels (P .... Methods. We compiled monthly birth rates from 1911 through 1930 in 3 Scandinavian countries and the United States, identified periods of unusually low or high birth rates, and quantified births as “missing” or “in excess” of the normal expectation. Using monthly influenza data, we correlated the timing...

  7. [Resistance of hospital flora to imipenem. Experience in two intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon-Poupinel, V; Le Coutour, X; Vergnaud, M; Malbruny, B

    1991-10-19

    Imipenem is a beta-lactam antibiotic active against most Gram-negative bacilli. Between July 1, 1987 and September 30, 1989 (9 semesters), the activity of imipenem against 6 micro-organisms was tested in two intensive care units attached to the university hospital of Caen (Normandy). During the same period, the consumption of imipenem was evaluated from the number of vials drawn by each of these two units from the central pharmacy. Imipenem was found to be 100 percent effective against 5 of the 6 micro-organisms tested, but transient falls in sensitivity and an increase in imipenem consumption were observed when Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the pathogen. The most probable cause of these transient decreases of imipenem activity against Ps. aeruginosa was the existence of a resistant strain which showed a protein abnormality in its outer membrane by temporary selection pressure.

  8. Nurses' experiences of patient suicide and suicide attempts in an acute unit

    OpenAIRE

    DOYLE, LOUISE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Suicide and suicide attempts in Ireland have increased dramatically in the last twenty years. Many of the presentations of suicide attempts to Emergency Departments are recommended an admission to an acute mental health unit. A psychiatric staff nurse working in an acute mental health setting has a high chance of experiencing a patient suicide or suicide attempt during their career. The occurrence of an inpatient suicide or suicide attempt is unquestionably an overwhelmingly stre...

  9. In Our Intensive Care Unit the Experience of the Checklist Use to Prevent Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiha Solak Grassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intensive care units are high risk units for serious infections like ventilator associated pneumonia. Preventing ventilator associated pneumonia is one of the most important infection control practice in intensive care units. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of the ventilator associated pneumonia prevention checklist use in decreasing ventilator associated pneumonia rates. Material and Method: This study was performed in the intensive care units at Yenimahalle Training and Research Hospital between January 2013 and September 2013. In the first 3 months, the routine infection control measurements were used. At the end of this term a lecture about using the checklist was given to the nurses. At the second 3 months period, the checklist was filled by each patient’s nurse. At the last 3 months period there was no checklist use. The ventilator associated pneumonia rates were registered in all these terms. After and before the intervention term tests about ventilator associated pneumonia prevention with 20 questions were given to the nurses. Results: Between January to March 2013, at the first 3 months, ventilator associated pneumonia rate was 38.2%; at the second term, it was 7.4%; at the third term, it was 3.8%. At the front test, the nurses got 84.5 point success rate and at the last test, the rate was 92.6. The success rate differences between these two tests were statistically significant with the Wilcoxon test (z-3.4, p=0.001. Conclusion: At the end of this study, despite any changes in the other routine and patient population, it was seen that there were obvious decrease in the ventilator associated pneumonia rates during the intervention term and the term after the intervention. Also the checklist use increased the nurses’ knowledge level about the ventilator associated pneumonia prevention and hand hygiene adherence rate.

  10. Motivations and experiences of museum visitors: The case of the Imperial War Museum, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Kokkranikal, Jithendran

    2015-01-01

    This study explores motivations of visitors to the Imperial War Museum (North and South), United Kingdom, with a view to understanding why people visit museums associated with conflicts. Though museums are part of the education and leisure industry, the distinction between education and leisure is often blurred. There are a number of reasons why people visit museums. Motives of museum visitors can be grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study analysed the extent to which museum ...

  11. Integrating E-Learning and Classroom Learning for Engineering Quality Control unit - Curtin University Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Darabi Golshani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering employers expect engineering graduates to possess a wide range of skills that goes beyond their technical knowledge. It is vital that graduates have skills which demonstrate that they are responsible for their own development and careers. Some of these skills include; communication abilities, organizational skills, self-promotion, the ability to work as part of a team, be an effective problem solver, be a critical thinker, have good negotiation skills, have the ability to be a leader and being able to network effectively. Department of Civil Engineering at Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Australia offers a Master of Engineering Management degree for Engineers from various disciplines. One of the units taught in this Master degree program is Engineering Quality Control. It was decided to incorporate these non-technical skills in this unit by using an e-learning platform (Blackboard together with an adaptation of the Seven Principles of Good Practice and Dr Meredith Belbin’s team role theory to divide participants into groups. At the end of the unit, most of the participants were showing improvements in their non-technical skills.

  12. A ten-year experience of physical Intimate partner violence (IPV) in a French forensic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Lechevalier, Agathe; Hérin, Fabrice; Vergnault, Marion; Telmon, Norbert; Bartoli, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forensic units have a central role to play in healthy public policy, by the collection and management of violence. This study aims to describe the characteristics of physical Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against men reported over 10 years in the forensic unit of Toulouse (France) and to compare them with the characteristics of physical IPV against women over the same period. All the medico-legal reports of male victims over 18 years of age between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Female victims over 18 years of age in the same period were randomized by year in order to study a similar number of individuals. We analyzed 712 forensic reports of male victims and 865 forensic reports of female victims. Repeated consultation concerned 20.5% of women and 7.5% of men (p origin of the process of violence are difficult to apprehend in such a dyadic context. The findings should be interpreted with caution, but they provide original and substantial material, which can be useful in recognizing victims and in developing preventive strategies. With this aim, forensic units have a central role to play in the collection of violence and in individualized management. In France, this subject has not been extensively studied and future research is needed to emphasize the characteristics of IPV in order to better understand the phenomenon and to create and assess public policies in order to prevent it.

  13. Experience of radiation management in the removal work of RTD bypass lines at Kori NPP unit no. 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, D. C. [Hanil Nuclear Co., Ltd (HANIL), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    RTD bypass lines in reactor coolant system are critical system for providing the necessary temperature signal to the reactor control and protection system. In case of a leakage of RTD bypass lines, the plant shutdown and the over-exposure of maintenance workers could occur. So the removal of RTD bypass lines were performed for the reliable and safe operation of the plant and the installation work of direct temperature measurement instruments for the fast response temperature detection was also performed in the reactor coolant system. Through the ALARA experience at Kori NPP unit 3 and 4 (950 MWe, 3 loops), Youngkwang N/P and Ulchin N/P could also adopt this experience to reduce the radiation exposure. Then the collective radiation exposure, man-rem could be minimized and the radiation production could be also reduced satisfactorily. Actual collective radiation exposure was 38.7 man-rem for Kori unit no. 3 and 25.4 man-rem for the Kori unit no.4.. (author)

  14. CTS /Hermes/ - United States experiments and operations summary. [Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. experiments conducted with the Communications Technology Satellite, a joint Canadian-U.S. venture launched in 1976, are discussed. The 14/12 GHz frequencies employed by the 200-W transmitter on board the satellite provide two-way television and voice communications. Applications of the satellite in the categories of health care, community services and education are considered; experiments have also made use of the special properties of the super-high frequency band (e.g. link characterization and digital communications). Time-sharing of the 14/12 GHz communication between the U.S. and Canada has functioned well.

  15. [Vaccination against hepatitis B: 3 years' experience at the Latium Operative Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, L; Mattioli, R; Ensoli, G; Albertoni, F; Duchini, B; Ungaro, P; Corsi, T

    1989-01-01

    A campaign against hepatitis B was launched in 1985 in Latium Region, Italy, aimed at hospital workers, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, hemodialysis patients, thalassemics and hemophiliacs. Subsequently, since the beginning of 1987 other at risk categories were included, namely households of HBsAg positive carriers, subjects with accidental exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (i.e exposure to street syringes), health care personnel working outside the hospital setting such as dentists, private clinics and laboratory workers, etc. A protocol was defined by the Regional Epidemiologic Unit (Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale) in order to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety af the two plasma-derived (pd) vaccines registered in Italy, MSD and Pasteur, in field conditions. Subjects belonging to these at risk categories were distributed among 21 hospital based vaccination units, to which the two vaccines were randomly allocated. Subjects were considered eligible for vaccination if they were HBsAg negative and Anti-HBs negative or Anti-HBs positive at low titer i.e. less than 20 milli-International units per milliliter. Subjects with insulin dependent diabetes, chronic liver disease or known hypersensitivity to vaccine components were also excluded. Antibody response was checked at six months since the beginning of the vaccination, i.e. after two doses of the MSD and three doses of Pasteur vaccine and expressed in miU/ml by use of Hollinger formula. Pre-vaccination screening, vaccination and post-vaccination anti-HBs testing were offered free of charge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Stroke care: Experiences and clinical research in stroke units in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobindram Arjundas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: S troke is the second commonest cause of death in India with crude overall prevalence rate of 220 per 100,000. With an increasing aging population at risk, the stroke burden in India can be expected to reach epidemic proportions. Materials and Methods: The first protocol-based prospective studies, funded by private agencies was conducted in Madras Institute of Neurology in 1984-86. The results led to establishment of the first stroke unit in Tamil Nadu state, in the institute. The first all-India hospital-based studies in acute stroke was completed as INDIAN COOPERATIVE ACUTE STROKE STUDIES (ICASS I and ICASS II with WHO STEP ONE by members of the Indian Stroke Association between 2000-2005. This has generated very useful data for our country. Results: Mortality in 1984-86 was 40%. Stroke unit in the institute dropped it to 12%. About 10 years later, ICASS studies showed a further fall of mortality to 8%, which is the current international figure in the west. Morbidity pattern showed about half return to their original activities. But about one third are left totally disabled needing prolonged care, for which fiscal, social and rehab provisions have to be done on a national basis. Conclusions: The progress and success of care of Stroke in the last three decades, from treatment in medical and neurology wards to specialized stroke units is presented. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease across the country. Hypertension alone or with the other two diseases was present in 72% of cases. Prevention and treatment of these factors will reduce the stroke burden, mortality and morbidity of strokes. The Stroke-team concept can be extended to the smallest hospitals in our country.

  17. Early Sequential Excision of Chemical Burns - our Experience in Riyadh Burns Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach after 24 h, at which stage autografts/homografts were effected, depending upon the extent of the burn and having ascertained that the wound was bleeding and that there was no necrotic tissue. Resul...

  18. Single-unit activity in piriform cortex during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A

    2010-02-03

    Memory and its underlying neural plasticity play important roles in sensory discrimination and cortical pattern recognition in olfaction. Given the reported function of slow-wave sleep states in neocortical and hippocampal memory consolidation, we hypothesized that activity during slow-wave states within the piriform cortex may be shaped by recent olfactory experience. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and allowed to spontaneously shift between slow-wave and fast-wave states as recorded in local field potentials within the anterior piriform cortex. Single-unit activity of piriform cortical layer II/III neurons was recorded simultaneously. The results suggest that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave states is shaped by recent (several minutes) odor experience. The temporal structure of single-unit activity during slow waves was modified if the animal had been stimulated with an odor within the receptive field of that cell. If no odor had been delivered, the activity of the cell during slow-wave activity was stable across the two periods. The results demonstrate that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience, which could contribute to odor memory consolidation.

  19. Turnover of professional nurses at Mokopane Hospital in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Experiences of nursing unit managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogale L. Mmamma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staff turnover of professional nurses remains a concern for public and private hospitals management because it has an impact on the morale of nurses and it may also lead to poor patient care.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore and describe the experiences of nursing unit managers with regard to the turnover of professional nurses who were under their supervision.Method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was used to determine the experiences of nursing unit managers related to the turnover of professional nurses. Data collection was done by using semi-structured one-to-one interviews with professional nurses .Two groups of participants were interviewed: Those working day duty (n = 9 and those working night duty (n = 3 who were at work on the anticipated days for data collection.Results: The findings revealed that every unit was experiencing a shortage of professional nurses, which caused other nurses to work overtime with an inevitable increase in workload. That led to tiredness, conflict amongst professional nurses, job dissatisfaction, and absenteeism which compromised nursing care. This resulted in patient dissatisfaction and sometimes led to deaths that could have been prevented.Conclusion: It is recommended that staff turnover should be addressed by the hospital top management implementing several strategies. For example, top management could ensure that staff members work in a healthy environment with resources that they need during the provision of care, address the effects of the staff turnover, support the staff members and refrain from putting pressure on nursing unit managers whilst they are attending to problems.

  20. Understanding the Motivation of Vietnamese International Students and Their Higher Education Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randy Scott

    2012-01-01

    This research describes what motivates Vietnamese students to come to the U.S. to study for a degree, what outcomes they expect, and what they experience academically and culturally while studying in the U.S. Currently the surge of international students from Vietnam has reached an all time high of 13,112 students to the U.S. This moves the…

  1. Is compliance with hand disinfection in the intensive care unit related to work experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Chierego, Marialuisa; Byl, Bauduin; Menestrina, Nicola; Carollo, Tiziana; Struelens, Marc; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    The performance of hand disinfection by staff in a 31-bed department of intensive care was monitored. During 32 hours of observation, 727 opportunities for hand disinfection were observed, and the compliance rate was 27.9%. The level of work experience was not correlated with hand disinfection compliance rates.

  2. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: frajndli@net.ipen.br; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: perrotta@net.ipen.br; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: ajsoares@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  3. Methods of the aerodynamical experiments with simulation of massflow-traction ratio of the power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokotko, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Modeling massflow-traction characteristics of the power unit (PU) may be of interest in the study of aerodynamic characteristics (ADC) aircraft models with full dynamic likeness, and in the study of the effect of interference PU. These studies require the use of a number of processing methods. These include: 1) The method of delivery of the high-pressure body of jets model engines on the sensitive part of the aerodynamic balance. 2) The method of estimate accuracy and reliability of measurement thrust generated by the jet device. 3) The method of implementation of the simulator SU in modeling the external contours of the nacelle, and the conditions at the inlet and outlet. 4) The method of determining the traction simulator PU. 5) The method of determining the interference effect from the work of power unit on the ADC of model. 6) The method of producing hot jets of jet engines. The paper examines implemented in ITAM methodology applied to testing in a supersonic wind tunnel T-313.

  4. Experience from multidisciplinary follow-up on critically ill patients treated in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsmark, Lise; Rosendahl-Nielsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    International literature describes that former intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffer considerable physical and neuropsychological complications. Systematic data on Danish ICU survivors are scarce as standardised follow-up after intensive care has yet to be described. This article describes and evaluates the knowledge gained from outpatient follow-up at a tertiary intensive care unit at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, during a three-year period. A total of 101 adult former ICU patients attended the outpatient clinic over a three-year period. Patients included were medical and surgical patients with a length of stay exceeding four days. Patients attended the clinic after discharge from hospital and for a minimum of two months from their discharge from the ICU. The patients were assessed for physical, neuropsychological and psychological problems and, if necessary, further treatment or rehabilitation was initiated. Reduced physical ability was seen in 82%. A total of 89% suffered a substantial weight loss. 83.2% had signs indicating acute brain dysfunction during the ICU stay, and approximately half of the patients still had cognitive problems. A total of 66 interventions were initiated. Our data confirmed that a large proportion of ICU survivors suffer considerable long-term physical and neuropsychological sequelae. Intensive care follow-up may contribute to address these specific problems and to initiate the needed interventions. Research is needed to determine whether specialised rehabilitation is required. not relevant. not relevant.

  5. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R.H. [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  6. Experiences with self designed pyrolyses unit by utilization of various type of fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchelkova, Dagmar; Roubicek, Vaclav; Mikulova, Zuzana [VSB - Technische Univ. Ostrava (Czech Republic). Energieinst.; Smelik, Roman; Balco, Mario [Arrowline, a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    According to the situation in the Czech Republic - existing only 3 municipal waste combustion units and about 50 small industrial waste incineration units it seems to be necessary to design some alternative for combustion process. Pyrolysis is an established process that can potentially be used to convert polymer-based materials of different types since a high yield in the separation is not necessary. Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation (without oxygen) led to produce a char, oil and gas. All of which have potential as useful end products. The Czech ministry of the environment seems to have bigger acceptance for the material recycling than for combustion processes. The concept pyrolyse is now to day understood as material recycling. Our work will be concern on the selected materials. Nowdays, polymer-based materials provide a fundamental contribution to all main daily activities (agriculture, automobile industry, packing and so on). Due to their excellent properties are now irreplaceable and absolutely necessary for people life. Their production and use are increasing sharply. On the other hand, they are not quickly decomposed and disposal of used plastics has become a serious problem. (orig.)

  7. PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN JAGUNG MANIS BERDASARKAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL PADATAN TERLARUT DENGAN MODEL ARRHENIUS (Shelf Life Estimation of Sweet Corn Based on Its Total Soluble Solid by Using Arrhenius Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Khatir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn has short shelf life at room temperature storage in the tropical countries (28-33°C. The quality deterioration of sweet corn can be determined by the decrease of its sugar content. The study aimed to estimate the shelf life of sweet corn based on the reduction of its total soluble solid (TSS by using Arrhenius model. The samples were prepared from fresh harvested corn stored for 10 days at 3 different temperatures of 5, 15 and 28 °C. Total soluble solid (TSS were analyzed every day by using abbe refractrometer. Organoleptic analysis was used by using hedonic scales from 1 to 7. The analysis was conducted until respondents had graded the samples at score 5 (dislike slightly, 6 (dislike and approaches can be used to calculate the shelf life of sweet corn. The acceleration factor for the TSS degradation at null approach, it was estimated that if the sweet corn were stored at temperature of 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5°C, the shelf temperatures, the shelf life of sweet corn would be 3.7, 4.5, 5.6, 6.8, 8.4, and 10.3 days. In conclusion, the shelf life predictions of sweet corn were valid well with the experimental results. Keywords: Sweet corn, shelf life, total soluble solid   ABSTRAK Umur simpan jagung manis relatif singkat apalagi kalau disimpan pada suhu ruang di negara-negara tropis (28-32°C. Kerusakan jagung manis dapat diindikasikan dengan penurunan kandungan gulanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menduga umur simpan jagung manis berdasarkan reaksi penurunan kandungan total padatan terlarutnya (TPT dengan pendekatan model Arrhenius. Jagung manis segar yang baru siap panen segera disimpan selama 10 hari pada 3 kombinasi suhu yaitu 5, 15 dan 28°C. Setiap hari dilakukan analisis kandungan TPT dengan . Uji organoleptik dilakukan dengan skala hedonik 1-7. Proses pengamatan dihentikan apabila responden telah memberikan nilai 5 (agak tidak suka, 6 (tidak suka dan 7 (sangat tidak suka. Pendekatan model Arrhenius dilakukan dengan dua

  8. A comparative study on improved Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models to predict high-temperature flow behaviors in 20MnNiMo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173 ∼ 1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01 ∼ 10 s(-1). Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of -39.99% ∼ 35.05% and -3.77% ∼ 16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ± 1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model.

  9. United States-Mexico border crossing: experiences and risk perceptions of undocumented male immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; McEwen, Marylyn M; Keim, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants crossing the US-Mexico border face many hazards as they attempt to enter the United States, including heat and cold injury, dehydration, and wild animal encounters. In the Tucson sector of the US-Mexico border, there are over 100 deaths a year from heat-related injuries alone. Public awareness campaigns have been undertaken to disseminate information on the dangers inherent in crossing. Little is known, however, about the ways in which undocumented immigrants actually receive information regarding the risks of crossing the border, how such information impacts their preparation for crossing or how the journey itself effects their motivation to cross again in the future. A qualitative descriptive method was used to describe and analyze information from adult males who had attempted to illegally cross the US-Mexico Border and had recently been returned to Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and responses were classified into several broad themes. Interviews were conducted and analyzed iteratively until thematic saturation was achieved. The responses validated the established risks as being commonplace. A total of eight (8) male undocumented immigrants participated in the interviews. Individuals sought information prior to crossing from the media, their families and friends, and acquaintances in border towns. They did not appear to value any particular information source over any other. New areas of risk were identified, such as traveling with others who might have new or existing medical problems. There was also substantial concern for the family unit as both a source of inspiration and motivation. The family emerged as an additional at-risk unit due to the destabilization and financial strain of having one of its members leave to attempt to immigrate to the US for work. While many planned to cross again, the majority of the men in our sample had no intention of seeking permanent residence in the US, instead planning to work and

  10. Social justice as a framework for undergraduate community health clinical experiences in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2008-01-01

    Educating future registered nurses for social justice is an urgent, yet complex undertaking in undergraduate education. Although the need for social justice education is often highlighted, few articles describe practical teaching strategies for ensuring that undertaking. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a curricular focus on social justice framed and supported the development of a clinical evaluation tool for undergraduate community health clinical experiences. First, social justice is defined and its relationship to baccalaureate nursing education explained. Then a description is provided of how social justice was highlighted in the vision, curriculum, and community health clinical evaluation tool of a College of Nursing. The article subsequently showcases the content and evaluation of students' journal entries about social justice. The development of the social justice component presented in this article may be useful to nurse educators striving to match theory and practice in the evaluation of social justice in students' community health experience.

  11. Registered nurses' experiences of patient violence on acute care psychiatric inpatient units: an interpretive descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kelly N; Jack, Susan M; O'Mara, Linda; LeGris, Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    Nurses working in acute care psychiatry settings experience high rates of patient violence which influences outcomes for nurses and the organization. This qualitative study explored psychiatric nurses' experiences of patient violence in acute care inpatient psychiatric settings. An interpretive descriptive design guided this study that included 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of 12 Canadian registered nurses who self-reported experiencing patient violence within acute care inpatient psychiatry. Thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques were used for analysis. A problem, needs and practice analysis was also used to structure overall data interpretation. Thirty three unique exposures to patient violence among the sample of nurses were analysed. Nurses reported experiencing physical, emotional and verbal violence. For many, patient violence was considered "part of the job." Nurses often struggled with role conflict between one's duty to care and one's duty to self when providing care following a critical incident involving violence. Issues of power, control and stigma also influenced nurse participant perceptions and their responses to patient violence. Nurses used a variety of strategies to maintain their personal safety and to prevent, and manage patient violence. Nurses endorsed the need for improved education, debriefing following an incident, and a supportive work environment to further prevent patient violence. Present findings have implications for reducing the barriers to reporting violent experiences and the creation of best practice guidelines to reduce patient violence in the workplace. Understanding the perspectives and experiences of nurses in acute inpatient psychiatry leads to greater understanding of the phenomenon of patient violence and may inform the development of interventions to prevent and to respond to patient violence, as well as support nurses working within the acute care setting.

  12. Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Wang, X.

    2014-03-01

    This report examines U.S. curtailment practices, with a particular emphasis on utilities in the Western states. The information presented here is based on a series of interviews conducted with utilities, system operators, wind energy developers, and non-governmental organizations. The report provides case studies of curtailment experience and examines the reasons for curtailment, curtailment procedures, compensation, and practices that can minimize curtailment.

  13. Radiation Tolerance Qualification Tests of the Final Source Interface Unit for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dénes, E; Futó, E; Kerék, A; Kiss, T; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Soós, C; Tölyhi, T; Van de Vyvre, P

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Data Link (DDL) is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE sub-detectors to the DAQ computers. The Source Interface Unit (SIU) of the DDL will operate in radiation environment. Previous tests showed that a configuration loss of SRAM-based FPGA devices may happen and the frequency of undetected data errors in the FPGA user memory area is also not acceptable. Therefore, we redesigned the SIU card using another FPGA based on flash technology. In order to detect bit errors in the user memory we added parity check logic to the design. The new SIU has been extensively tested using neutron and proton irradiation to verify its radiation tolerance. In this paper we summarize the design changes, introduce the final design, and the results of the radiation tolerance measurements on the final card.

  14. Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women's Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.

  15. [From empowerment to customer satisfaction: experience of a medical oncology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifaldi, L; Gareri, R; Cristina, G; Felicetti, V; Gremigni, U

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the objective assessment of the outpatients satisfaction of the Medical Oncology Unit in Colleferro (USL Roma G), Italy. A retrospective survey conducted on 584 patients using a closed questionnaire focusing on nine items assess the degree of satisfaction expressed by patients relating to the different aspects of the service. The main aspects object of analysis were the accommodation, the relationship with the staff, the comfort of the structure and the health assistance received. The survey showed a high percentage of overall satisfaction for each of the nine parameters evaluated. There were no significant differences appreciated on a personal variables. The evaluation of customer satisfaction is a useful tool to measure patients approval and to meet their needs.

  16. What has been the United Kingdom's experience with retention of third molars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Pau, Allan; Shepherd, Jonathan; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    In 2000, the first National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines related to third molar (M3) surgery, a commonly performed operation in the United Kingdom, were published. This followed research publications and professional guidelines in the 1990 s that advised against prophylactic surgery and provided specific therapeutic indications for M3 surgery. The aim of the present report was to summarize the available evidence on the effects of guidelines on M3 surgery within the United Kingdom. Data from primary care dental services and hospital admissions in England and Wales during a 20-year period (Hospital Episode Statistics 1989/1990 to 2009/2010), and from private medical insurance companies were analyzed. The volume and, where possible, the nature of the M3 surgery activity over time were assessed together, as were the collateral effects of the guidelines, including patient age at surgery and the indications for surgery. The volume of M3 removal decreased in all sectors during the 1990 s before the introduction of the NICE guidelines. During the 20-year period, the proportion of impacted M3 surgery decreased from 80% to 50% of admitted hospital cases. Furthermore, an increase occurred in the mean age for surgical admissions from 25.5 to 31.8 years. The change in age correlated with a change in the indications for M3 surgery during that period, with a reduction in "impaction," but an increase in "caries" and "pericoronitis" as etiologic factors, in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The significant decrease in M3 surgery activity occurred before the NICE guidelines. Thus, M3 surgery has been performed at a later age, with indications for surgery increasingly in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The importance of clinical monitoring of the retained M3s is discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Service data acquisition and onboard control for “GRIS-BD” unit in “GRIS” space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyanenko, A. S.; Lupar, E. E.; Trofimov, Yu A.; Faradzhaev, R. M.; Yurov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    Problems of onboard space scientific devices control, collecting auxiliary service information about working capacity, conditions of experiment carrying out and preliminary data processing for real time calibration and stabilizing of operational parameters are actual for any space devices. In this paper we describe and discuss service data acquisition and onboard control for “GRIS-BD” unit in “GRIS” space experiment onboard ISS. This system provides temperature measurements in different equipment parts (in power supplies, on scintillation crystals for energy ranges correction, etc.), precision thresholds measurements in discrimination circuits, status different switching on/off (in real time), precision control detector parameters by high-voltage regulation, fine thresholds changing (analog regulation), different switching on/off (in real time), statistical analysis of data flows and change of operation modes of the device.

  18. Adverse family experiences and obesity in children and adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brian A; Agunwamba, Amenah; Wilson, Patrick M; Kumar, Seema; Jacobson, Robert M; Phelan, Sean; Cristiani, Valeria; Fan, Chun; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-09-01

    While exposure to adverse family experiences (AFEs), subset of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), has been associated with childhood obesity, less is known about the impact of exposures to each type of AFE. Using 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data, we evaluated associations between exposure to individual AFEs and overweight/obesity status in children 10years or older, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Caregivers reported their child's height, weight, and exposure to nine AFEs; body mass index (BMI) was classified by Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines. At Mayo Clinic, we calculated frequencies and weighted estimates of socio-demographic factors and AFEs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted multinomial logistic regression models were employed to assess the independent associations of each AFE and the different AFE composite scores with BMI category. Exposure to two or more AFEs was independently associated with increased odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13, 1.56) and obese (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.73) status after adjustment for age, household income, parents' education-level, race and sex. Death of parent (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.15) and hardship due to family income (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were independently associated with obesity status with adjustment for other AFEs and socio-demographic factors. Our results suggest that, in addition to cumulative exposure to AFEs, exposure to certain childhood experiences are more strongly associated with childhood obesity than others. Death of parent and hardship due to family income are individual AFEs, which are strongly predictive of obesity.

  19. Experience of integrated measurements using heterogeneous systems at different startup stages of a WWER-1200 power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pavelko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A major feature specific to commissioning of NPPs in Russia and of Russian-designed NPPs in foreign countries is a great deal of measurement involved at different pre-commissioning stages, which differs from foreign experience where emphases is placed on computational justification and the scope of in-situ commissioning testing is smaller. The use of various measuring systems in pre-commissioning operations requires the involvement of a large number of personnel from different organizations, infrequently with no data acquisition coordination among them. This leads to both measuring channels and the information gathered being multiply duplicated (assembly, installation, adjustment, which is one of the sources for its misrepresentation, and to a greatly increased cost of operations. At the same time, most modern power units are equipped with test systems (TS [1–4] consisting of heterogeneous measuring channels. The current TS commissioning practice required systems to be adjusted and started up only after the 100% unit power level was reached which did not make it possible to use test systems at pre-commissioning and power ascension stages. This study is an attempt to create an integrated information system composed of heterogeneous local systems to enable the largest possible number of standard channels to be used simultaneously with temporarily installed channels for pre-commissioning measurements to provide sound and high-quality information on the state of the unit.

  20. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles MH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell H Giles,1 Brendon J Coventry2 1Adelaide Melanoma Unit, 2Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to "isolate" the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia, and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results: Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a "clinically significant" response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20, the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion: ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8

  1. Arrhenius plots of membrane-bound enzymes of mitochondria and microsomes in the brain cortex of developing and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani, M N; Pour-Rahimi, F; Meisami, E

    1986-06-01

    To study changes in lipid-protein-interaction and fluidity in mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of brain during development and aging, the Arrhenius plots of marker enzymes for mitochondrial inner and outer membranes as well as those of microsomal membranes were compared at different ages. The enzymes were, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) for the inner mitochondrial membrane and rotenone-insensitive-NADH-cytochrome c reductase (Mit-NADH-CytR) for the outer membrane; also antimycin-insensitive-NADH-cytochrome c reductase (Micr-NADH-CytR) and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase for the microsomal membranes. The ages studied were, 1, 5, 30, 60 days postnatal and 2 years. In the microsomes, the plots of NADH-cytochrome c reductase were found to be biphasic at all ages except in the newborn where no break temperature was observed. The activation energy of this enzyme in the physiological range of temperature was found to be high in the newborn, declining with brain maturation. The plot of this enzyme in the old rat showed no difference when compared with the mature. The specific activity of the enzyme, however, was markedly reduced in the old brain microsomal fraction. In contrast, comparison of the plots of microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase at the various ages revealed no break temperature and very similar energies of activation. For the inner mitochondrial membrane beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, the Arrhenius plots were generally biphasic at all ages studied with a break temperature of about 20 degrees C. However, the newborn plot was only barely biphasic showing a high energy of activation in the physiological range of temperature. In contrast, for the outer membrane NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the newborn plots were definitely biphasic, exhibiting low activation energy above the breaks. There was also a significant decline in the break temperature with brain development. No significant differences in the plots of this enzyme were found between the

  2. Parental experiences of children's disabilities and special education in the United States and Japan: implications for school social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Misa

    2010-04-01

    Cultural beliefs about disability and related systems of special education affect the experience of children with disabilities and their parents. This article reviews research on the perceptions and experiences of parents who have preschool or elementary school-age children with disabilities in the United States and Japan. Parents' experiences affect their children's development--for example, through caregiving and advocacy for appropriate services. Existing research suggests that U.S. and Japanese parents report similar difficulties, including difficulties establishing relationships with professionals providing services for their children, but that they have different expectations regarding these relationships. Japanese parents are more likely to emphasize the importance of emotional connections, such as empathy, with professionals and to express feelings of stigma, whereas U.S. parents are more likely to assert that their children are entitled to receive appropriate educational resources. These experiences reflect structural differences in U.S. and Japanese special education services. Parents' perceptions also have the potential to recreate cultural beliefs and eventually modify service delivery systems to reflect those beliefs. Discussion of U.S. and Japanese concepts of disability suggests ways in which services in both countries may be strengthened. The Japanese case suggests ways of strengthening empathy and trust, and the U.S. case provides a positive model of inclusion.

  3. Chemical reaction mechanisms in solution from brute force computational Arrhenius plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Masoud; Åqvist, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of activation free energies of chemical reactions, into enthalpic and entropic components, can provide invaluable signatures of mechanistic pathways both in solution and in enzymes. Owing to the large number of degrees of freedom involved in such condensed-phase reactions, the extensive configurational sampling needed for reliable entropy estimates is still beyond the scope of quantum chemical calculations. Here we show, for the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine and dihydrocytidine in water, how direct computer simulations of the temperature dependence of free energy profiles can be used to extract very accurate thermodynamic activation parameters. The simulations are based on empirical valence bond models, and we demonstrate that the energetics obtained is insensitive to whether these are calibrated by quantum mechanical calculations or experimental data. The thermodynamic activation parameters are in remarkable agreement with experiment results and allow discrimination among alternative mechanisms, as well as rationalization of their different activation enthalpies and entropies.

  4. The articular surface replacement implant recall: a United Kingdom district hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, George S; Shine, Ashokan; Young, Steve K

    2012-01-01

    We present our experience of the articular surface replacement (ASR) hip and the implant recall process. One hundred and twenty-one ASR components were implanted (21 resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA) and 100 ASR/XL modular total hip replacements). At the time of the implant recall in August 2010 there were 111 surviving hips (92%) with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Nine hips had been revised and one had been listed for revision surgery. Ninety-two percent of surviving implants were reviewed in the recall clinics, and blood metal ion levels or ultrasound scans were indicated in 38 hips (34%). Immediately after the recall process seven hips (6 ASR/XL and 1 RHA) were listed for revision and a further 9 were kept under close surveillance. One year after completion of the recall process 23 hips (19 ASR/XL and 4 RHA's) had been revised. A diagnosis of adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) was made at surgery in all but two hips. Our current revision rate for ASR RHA is 19% (mean follow-up 62 months, range 29-80) and for the ASR/XL is 19% (mean follow-up 53 months, range 10-80). The 5-year cumulative survival rates with revision for any reason for the ASR/XL, was 80.8% (95% confidence interval 72.0 - 89.5). Given experience elsewhere we expect this rate may increase significantly with time.

  5. Advocacy training for pediatricians: the experience of running a course in leeds, United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Mary

    2003-09-01

    Given the critical role of pediatricians in child advocacy, it is important to understand how to train pediatricians to speak out to improve the health and well-being of children. This article describes the experience of developing and implementing a 5-day child advocacy course at the University of Leeds, which formed part of a master's program. Eight community pediatricians and pediatric registrars participated in the initial course. The material from the course has been published in Archives of Disease in Childhood.(1) This exercise was about the only time as a teacher that I also started at the same level as the students in the course. We started off by defining what we meant by advocacy. The definition that we chose was "the active support of a cause or course of action," and we applied this to any child problem for which the system was at fault and use of action was required. What is needed to be an effective advocate? One must have an awareness of issues confronting children, in particular on the local level and not only on the national and international levels. One then needs to gain an understanding of the political framework of the issue, how change can occur, and how one can contribute to bringing about the necessary change. Then follows the identification and acquisition of the practical skills and competencies related to effecting these changes. Finally, one needs to have a successful experience tackling a particular issue to realize that one can be effective.

  6. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  7. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

  8. Experience of influenza A H1N1 in a paediatric emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Suat; Ercan Sariçoban, Hülya; Özen, Ahmet Oğuzhan; Saf, Coşkun; Ergenekon Ulutaş, Pinar; Gürol, Yeşim; Yilmaz, Gülden; Vitrinel, Ayça; Özelgün, Berna

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate symptoms, clinical findings, treatment options and complications of H1N1 influenza infection in patients who applied to our emergency unit during the influenza season in 2009. The clinical and laboratory findings of children with influenza A (H1N1) during the influenza season in 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Influenza A was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction and/or rapid antigen test. Clinical and laboratory findings of the patients with H1N1 (group I) and without H1N1 (group II) were compared. Fever and myalgia were noted to be higher in group I (p H1N1 (average of 39°C) and myalgia was present only in patients with H1N1. The lymphocyte count was significantly lower in patients with H1N1 than those without H1N1. While none of the patients required intensive care, three patients requiring hospitalization were discharged after referral and completion of their treatment.

  9. Positive experiences in physical education through teacher intervention in the teaching unit futsal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Abós Catalán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The interpersonal style used by the teacher of Physical Education (PE in their classes can trigger consequences for students inside and outside the classroom. Grounded in self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between motivational climate and support of the basic psychological needs (BPN generated by the PE teacher in the teaching unit (TU of futsal, with consequences of enjoyment and boredom, as well as the predisposition toward EF experienced by students. The sample was composed of 70 students (32 men and 38 women year 4th of compulsory Secondary Education, aged 15 to 17 years (M age = 15.31, SD = 0.49. The variables measured at the end of the TU were: motivational climate (EPCM, support of the BPN (CANPB and affective consequences (SSI the content of futsal and the predisposition towards PE (PEPS. The results of correlation analysis showed that the task climate and support of the BPN in the TU futsal, correlated positively and significantly with enjoyment and some predisposing factors toward PE, while doing it in reverse with boredom. Therefore, given the relationship between what happens in the classroom and outside it, seems necessary that teachers of PE generates a task climate and support of the BPN in each of curricular content, to students adopt life-styles more active and healthy. 

  10. International genetic counseling students' perspective on their training experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Marta; Naldi, Mariana; Packman, Wendy; Youngblom, Janey; Weil, Jon

    2013-12-01

    International students face social, psychological and academic challenges upon moving to a foreign country to pursue higher education. Clinical disciplines such as genetic counseling present additional challenges adapting to an unfamiliar health care system and different interactions and expectations with patients and colleagues. This study used semi-structured interviews to identify challenges that international genetic counseling students face during training in the United States. Eight international genetic counseling alumni who graduated from U.S.-accredited programs were interviewed. Participants stated that the U.S. academic system was unfamiliar-class participation and paper-writing required the greatest adjustment. There was a need for help in understanding social norms in academic settings. Clinically, they were unfamiliar with the dynamics and communication style of U.S. families. Non-native English speakers experienced greater difficulty in all areas. Most participants reported that they were uncomfortable asking for help in transitioning to life, study and work. Participants identified mentorship programs for international students as potentially useful in clarifying expectations in academic and clinical settings. These results may assist international students preparing to study genetic counseling in the U.S. and may help genetic counseling training programs identify the academic and clinical challenges faced by international students.

  11. [Hotline for Zika virus: experience of a tropical and travel medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga, Marta; Trigo, Elena; Guevara, Concepción Ladrón de; Barreiro, Pablo; Crespillo, Clara; Lago, Mar

    2017-06-20

    The current outbreak of Zika virus has caused great social alarm, generated in part by the lack of information in the general population. In order to provide accurate and verified information, the Tropical and Travel Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III-La Paz (Madrid, Spain) established a hotline for Zika virus infection. We present the data concerning the first 6 months of operation of the telephone hotline. The predominant call profile consisted of women seeking information about the risk of acquiring the disease before travelling. Brazil, Mexico and Colombia were the destinations for which the most information was requested. Most of the consultations were resolved by providing information only. The implementation of call devices that provide confirmed and reliable information on diseases associated with great alarm are of significant public health interest, as they reduce the number of unnecessary medical consultations and save on medical costs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Introducing blended learning: An experience of uncertainty for students in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzi J. Kemp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in: student skills with technology; student acknowledgement of course organisation; and student appreciation of online feedback. Uncertainty with the introduction of blended learning was found: when membership was assigned for group work, higher quality research methods were introduced; where course structure lacked detail, increased time was required for new and different online activities. These international students, from countries with a high score on Uncertainty Avoidance, exhibited that dimension when introduced to blended learning. The implications of these findings are discussed, and strategies suggested for introducing blended learning to international students. The limitations of the study are considered, and a direction for future research is suggested. This is the first study on undergraduates in the Middle East for the effects of a cultural dimension when introducing blended learning. The findings increase the body of knowledge that relates to learning technology in the international business classroom.

  13. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.

  14. Hardwoods for Woody Energy Crops in the Southeast United States:Two Centuries of Practitioner Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes opinions from forest industry experts on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the Southeast United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Experts observe that high productivity rates in southeastern plantations are confined to limited site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands where they compete with higher-value crops. These species are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require few inputs and offer high potential productivity, but are limited by frost to the lower coastal plain and Florida. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods and lower costs of production. Because of existing stands and know-how, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources.

  15. Discharge against medical advice from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: 10 years experience at a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim K Al-Turkistani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discharging patients against medical advice is a problem of every age-group. However, because of their physiological vulnerability, the risk for the neonatal population is greater when discharged against medical advice (DAMA. This article is a study of the prevalence of the problem, the possible causes and/or risk factors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 10 years of medical records of neonates discharged against medical advice from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU at a university hospital. Results: The overall prevalence of DAMA was 1.6%. Most of the 51 infants who were taken out of hospital against medical advice (AMA were term (72.5% with a mean gestational age of 37.78 ± 2.5 weeks, of normal birth weight, with a mean of 2736 ± 661 g, Saudis (96%, those delivered vaginally (69%, and those that were provisionally diagnosed with transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN and/or query sepsis (49%. There was no difference between males and females (M/F = 1.2. There was an association between DAMA and the timing of DAMA (27.5% of DAMA at weekends and 67% of DAMA from May to October. Conclusion: DAMA of neonates is particularly critical. The causes and risk factors are many and difficult to predict. In addition to several other factors, its prevalence is influenced negatively by some socio-cultural beliefs.

  16. Approaches and strategies for multicultural teacher education: Experiences from the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Bojana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses different approaches and strategies for educating teachers in the United States of America for work in multicultural schools, bearing in mind teacher efficiency. The first part of the paper contains theoretical considerations on the basic competences of teachers for multicultural education, provides an overview of the key questions that need to be answered in the process of developing multicultural teacher education and presents the effects of multicultural education programmes aimed at eliminating prejudice and establishing the pedagogy of equality. The second part of the paper lists strategies for the multicultural education of teachers who are members of the majority population and discusses the educational effects of these strategies. The third part of the paper discusses the approaches based on the model of crosscultural teacher development that facilitate the understanding of teacher behaviour and their resistance to change, as well as the adapting and sequencing of courses for future teachers. The concluding part of the paper offers recommendations for enhancing multicultural teacher education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  17. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. Objectives This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. Methods From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Results Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. Conclusions FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:27241361

  18. Fusarium spp infections in a pediatric burn unit: nine years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Brizuela, Martín; Villasboas, Mabel; Guarracino, Fabian; Alvarez, Veronica; Santos, Patricia; Finquelievich, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium spp are ubiquitous fungi recognized as opportunistic agents of human infections, and can produce severe infections in burn patients. The literature on Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients is scarce. To describe the clinical and epidemiological features as well as outcome of Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients. Retrospective, descriptive study of Fusarium spp infections in a specialized intensive care burn unit. In 15 patients Fusarium spp infections were diagnosed. Median age was 48 months. Direct fire injury was observed in ten patients. The median affected burn surface area was 45%. Twelve patients had a full thickness burn. Fourteen patients had a Garces Index ≥3. Fungal infection developed at a median of 11 days after burn injury. Fungi were isolated from burn wound in 14 patients and from the bone in one patient. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment followed by voriconazole. Median time of treatment completion was 23 days. One patient (7%) died of fungal infection-related causes. In our series Fusarium spp was an uncommon pathogen in severely burnt patients. The burn wound was the most common site of infection and mortality was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  20. Finding a path through the health unit: practical experience of Ugandan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Hanne O

    2005-01-01

    Finding one's way through a health facility is not necessarily an easy task for Ugandan patients. Our understanding of how people succeed in doing so, and of the obstacles they encounter on their way, is incomplete if we focus only on the cognitive level of the clinical encounter. Much research in public health and medical anthropology implicitly works with the notion that agency is located in the mind and that cognitive understanding is a precondition for practice. Based on material from eastern Uganda, this article explores the practical experience of Ugandan patients and their relatives and reflects upon the ways in which this notion of agency has often caused us to confuse the spectator's point of view with the actor's point of view. Thus, as Pierre Bourdieu has argued, we are made to look for answers to "questions that practice never asks because it has no need to ask them."

  1. Trends in operative experience of pediatric surgical residents in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Abbey L; Stolar, Charles J H; Cowles, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the number of training programs in pediatric surgery occurred from 2003 through 2010. We sought to determine the effect of program expansion on case volume and distribution of operative experience. Public domain data on pediatric surgery resident summary statistics available from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) from July 2003 through June 2010 were analyzed. Total case volume as primary surgeon or teaching assistant, mean case volume per resident, standard deviation, mode, minimum, and maximum number of cases per resident were evaluated. Mean total cases per resident, minimally invasive laparoscopic and thoracoscopic cases, and requisite cases as defined by the ACGME categories of: tumor, important pediatric surgical, and neonatal cases were analyzed by a Cuzick Wilcoxon-type nonparametric trend statistic using a significance level of 0.05. Skew was assessed by Pearson coefficient with levels of -0.5 to 0.5 defining a parametric distribution. The number of pediatric surgical training residents increased by 42% during the years reported, from 24 to 34. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean number of total cases or requisite cases per resident. The mean volume of minimally invasive procedures increased significantly. Case volume per resident was non-parametrically distributed with increasing positive skew over time. The increase in number of pediatric surgical resident training positions has not adversely affected overall operative experience or exposure to highly specialized requisite cases, on average. The increasing positive skew of total and index cases, however, suggests that variability between programs in case exposure is increasing over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulmonary-renal syndromes: Experience from an Indian Intensive Care Unit

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    Srinivas Rajagopala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of patients presenting with pulmonary-renal syndrome (PRS to Intensive Care Units (ICUs in India is not previously reported. Aims: The aim was to describe the prevalence, etiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of PRS in an Indian ICU and identify variables that differentiate immunologic causes of PRS from tropical syndromes presenting with PRS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of all patients presenting with PRS over 1-year. Clinical characteristics of patients with "definite PRS" were compared with those with "PRS mimics." Results: We saw 27 patients with "provisional PRS" over the said duration; this included 13 patients with "definite PRS" and 14 with "PRS mimics." The clinical symptoms were similar, but patients with PRS were younger and presented with longer symptom duration. Ninety-two percent of the PRS cohort required mechanical ventilation, 77% required vasopressors and 61.5% required dialysis within 48 h of ICU admission. The etiologic diagnosis of PRS was made after ICU admission in 61.5%. Systemic lupus erythrematosus (54% was the most common diagnosis. A combination of biopsy and serology was needed in the majority (69%, 9/13. Pulse methylprednisolone (92% and cyclophosphamide (61.5% was the most common protocol employed. Patients with PRS had more alveolar hemorrhage, hypoxemia and higher mortality (69% when compared to "PRS mimics." Conclusion: The spectrum of PRS is different in the tropics and tropical syndromes presenting with PRS are not uncommon. Multicentric studies are needed to further characterize the burden, etiology, treatment protocols, and outcomes of PRS in India.

  3. The 1951-98 experience of the Paris Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J.M.; Perdereau, B.; Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Brixy, F.; Gongora, R.; Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    1999-12-01

    From 1 January 1951 to 30 June 1998, 696 patients presented spontaneously or were referred to the French Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit following a more or less severe accidental irradiation. Of these, 568 patients came from France, while 128 were sent by various foreign countries. The very great majority of irradiation accidents occurred in the workplace, particularly in industry. Interestingly, 'non-nuclear' industry was responsible for three times more events than the nuclear industry. While incidental irradiation of the public by lost radioactive sources was exceedingly rare in France, it seemed to be more frequent in our cohort of foreign patients. Radiation phobia accounted for about 10% of cases in the French cohort, but the number of cases did not seem to increase with time. Overall, the accrual of patients over time appears to be stable, with 10 to 25 new cases consulting each year. Fortunately, a majority of cases corresponded to low-level irradiation (and even no irradiation at all). In the French cohort, only 21.6% of patients, showing deterministic effects, required some form of treatment, with 4.9% considered as 'severe' cases. Not unexpectedly, more patients required treatment in the foreign cohort (35.2%), with 24.2% of severe cases, including four deaths. The main features of this database are consistent with the data previously reported by the IAEA, UNSCEAR and REAC/TS. Although the number of severe cases is small, it should still be considered to be too high, especially as most of these accidents could have been easily avoided if a few basic radioprotection rules had been fully respected. (abstract)

  4. Shelf-life prediction of canned "nasi uduk" using accelerated shelf-life test (ASLT) - Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Salam, Nur; Kusumaningrum, Annisa; Nursiwi, Asri; Angwar, Mukhamad; Susanto, Agus; Nurhikmat, Asep; Triwiyono, Frediansyah, Andri

    2017-01-01

    "Nasi Uduk" is one of the Indonesian traditional food made from rice, steamed with coconut milk and seasoning. For optimizing shelf-life, canned "nasi uduk" for military and disaster-response ration, was packed using cylindrical cans of 72,63 × 53,04 mm (Ø × h) in size. One of the important aspects on quality assessment of preserved product was its rancidity. The aim of this research was to determine shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" using ASLT method of Arrhenius model. Storage temperatures set up at 35, 45 and 55°C for 35 days. Optimization of sterilization process was conducted to achieve the optimum conditions of sterilization. Target lethality value (Fo), microorganism total plate count (TPC) and rancidity levels (TBA) were used as parameters in this research. The results showed that the optimum sterilization conditions were 121 °C for 20 minutes, TPC value of 9.5 × 101 CFU/ml and Fo value 4.14 minutes. Predicted shelf-life of canned "nasi uduk" was 9.6 months which was average TBA value still bellow of the critical point.

  5. Homeostasis of the temperature sensitivity of respiration over a range of growth temperatures indicated by a modified Arrhenius model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ko; Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of plant respiratory rate (R) changes in response to growth temperature. Here, we used a modified Arrhenius model incorporating the temperature dependence of activation energy (Eo ), and compared the temperature dependence of R between cold-sensitive and cold-tolerant species. We analyzed the temperature dependences of leaf CO2 efflux rate of plants cultivated at low (LT) or high temperature (HT). In plants grown at HT (HT plants), Eo at low measurement temperature varied among species, but Eo at growth temperature in HT plants did not vary and was comparable to that in plants grown at LT (LT plants), suggesting that the limiting process was similar at the respective growth temperatures. In LT plants, the integrated value of loge R, a measure of respiratory capacity, in cold-sensitive species was lower than that in cold-tolerant species. When plants were transferred from HT to LT, the respiratory capacity changed promptly after the transfer compared with the other parameters. These results suggest that a similar process limits R at different growth temperatures, and that the lower capacity of the respiratory system in cold-sensitive species may explain their low growth rate at LT.

  6. van't Hoff-Arrhenius Analysis of Mesoscopic and Macroscopic Dynamics of Simple Biochemical Systems: Stochastic vs. Nonlinear Bistabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin; Qian, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Multistability of mesoscopic, driven biochemical reaction systems has implications to a wide range of cellular processes. Using several simple models, we show that one class of bistable chemical systems has a deterministic counterpart in the nonlinear dynamics based on the Law of Mass Action, while another class, widely known as noise-induced stochastic bistability, does not. Observing the system's volume ($V$) playing a similar role as the inverse temperature ($\\beta$) in classical rate theory, an van't Hoff-Arrhenius like analysis is introduced. In one-dimensional systems, a transition rate between two states, represented in terms of a barrier in the landscape for the dynamics $\\Phi(x,V)$, $k\\propto\\exp\\{-V\\Delta\\Phi^{\\ddag}(V)\\}$, can be understood from a decomposition $\\Delta\\Phi^{\\ddag}(V) \\approx\\Delta\\phi_0^{\\ddag} \\Delta\\phi_1^{\\ddag}/V$. Nonlinear bistability means $\\Delta\\phi_0^{\\ddag}>0$ while stochastic bistability has $\\Delta\\phi_0^{\\ddag}0$. Stochastic bistabilities can be viewed as remants (or ...

  7. New method evaluating currents keeping the voltage constant for fast and highly resolved measurement of Arrhenius relation and capacity fade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Käbitz, Stefan; Knips, Marcus; Münnix, Jens; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation of floating currents is a powerful method to characterize capacity fade induced by calendaric aging and enables a highly resolved representation of the Arrhenius relation. The test arrangement is simple and could constitute a cheap alternative to state-of-the-art calendaric aging tests including check-up tests. Therefore the currents to maintain a constant voltage are evaluated. This method is validated by analyzing nine cylindrical 8 Ah LiFePO4|Graphite battery cells during calendaric aging at 25 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C at 3.6 V (100% SOC). The 3.6 V are kept by applying constant voltage while the floating currents are logged. The floating currents correlate with the rate of capacity loss measured during capacity tests. The floating currents reveal to be rather constant at 25 °C, linearly increasing at 40 °C and decreasing from a higher level at 60 °C. Additional tests with three test cells, with the temperature rising from 40 to 60 °C in steps of 5 K, exhibit non-constant currents starting from 50 °C on with high variations amongst the tested cells. Once stored above 50 °C, the cells exhibit increased floating currents compared to the measurement at the same temperature before exceeding 50 °C.

  8. Modeling temperature entrainment of circadian clocks using the Arrhenius equation and a reconstructed model from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Ines; Bodenstein, Christian; Hinze, Thomas; Weisheit, Olga; Ebenhoeh, Oliver; Mittag, Maria; Schuster, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Endogenous circadian rhythms allow living organisms to anticipate daily variations in their natural environment. Temperature regulation and entrainment mechanisms of circadian clocks are still poorly understood. To better understand the molecular basis of these processes, we built a mathematical model based on experimental data examining temperature regulation of the circadian RNA-binding protein CHLAMY1 from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, simulating the effect of temperature on the rates by applying the Arrhenius equation. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our model is temperature-compensated and can be entrained to temperature cycles of various length and amplitude. The range of periods that allow entrainment of the model depends on the shape of the temperature cycles and is larger for sinusoidal compared to rectangular temperature curves. We show that the response to temperature of protein (de)phosphorylation rates play a key role in facilitating temperature entrainment of the oscillator in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We systematically investigated the response of our model to single temperature pulses to explain experimentally observed phase response curves.

  9. Pneumothorax in neonates: a level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Santos Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in the neonatal period than in any other period of life and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Several risk factors for pneumothorax, including respiratory pathology, invasive and non-invasive respiratory support, and predictors of mortality have been described.Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of pneumothorax, to assess risk factors and to describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcome of newborn infants with pneumothorax, as well as to identify predictors of mortality in these newborns.Methods: This retrospective case-control study included all newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of “Centro Hospitalar São João”, Porto, Portugal, between 2003 and 2014, with the diagnosis of pneumothorax. A control group was selected among the newborns without pneumothoraces, admitted to the same NICU during the same period. The collected data included: demographics and perinatal data, pneumothorax characteristics, classification, treatment and clinical outcomes.Results: Our study included 240 neonates (80 with pneumothoraces and 160 controls, of whom 145 were male (60.4%. Median gestational age was 37 (24-40 weeks and median birthweight 2,613 (360-4,324 grams. The prevalence in our NICU was 1.5%. Pneumothorax was significantly associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS (p = 0.010 and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN (p < 0.001. Invasive mechanical ventilation (MV (p = 0.016 and FiO2 ≥ 0.4 (p = 0.003, were independent risk factors for the development of pneumothoraces. The mortality rate was 13.8%. Hypotension, MV and thoracentesis followed by a chest tube insertion were found to be predictors of mortality in newborns with pneumothoraces, but pneumothorax per se was not a predictor of mortality.Conclusion: Pneumothorax is relatively frequent in the NICU. Its risk factors and predictors of mortality should be known in order to

  10. [Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization in neonatal intensive care unit: prevention and eradication experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Derya; Yavuzcan Öztürk, Dilek; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ocalmaz, Mutlu Seyda; Karatekin, Güner; Ovalı, Hüsnü Fahri

    2012-10-01

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infections and colonization for hospitalized patients. Isolation rate of VRE is higher especially in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), due to the immune insufficiency of neonates, frequent use of antibiotics and prolonged duration of hospitalization. The aims of this report were to present the rapid dissemination of VRE colonization in our NICU, to determine the factors related to colonization and to share the precautions taken to prevent the dissemination. Upon the isolation of VRE from the urine culture of a premature infant followed up in the NICU, rectal swab specimens were obtained from this index patient, other patients staying at the NICU, the related health-care personnel and also environmental sampling was performed. Although strict contact precautions were implemented for the VRE positive patient, VRE were isolated from the rectal swabs of other patients and the number of VRE positive cases increased to 11 on the 18th day. No VRE were detected in the environmental samples. By strict adherence and compliance to isolation precautions, physical separation of VRE positive newborns and healthcare workers and education of the personnel, VRE colonization was eradicated on the 55th day. During the period between the first detection of VRE colonization and the management of eradication (August 10th-October 4th 2009), 133 patients were followed up in the NICU and 52 (40%) of those patients were colonized by VRE. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of VRE colonization. These patients' anthropometric and clinical findings were evaluated retrospectively. Gestational age and birth weights of VRE positive and negative patients were 30.9 ± 3.8 weeks and 1441 ± 543 g; 34.5 ± 4 weeks and 2396 ± 917 g, respectively (pdetected on the postnatal 16th day (days between 2-144). VRE became negative in 10 (19.2%) of the 52 colonized patients during

  11. Experience with using second life for medical education in a family and community medicine education unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melús-Palazón Elena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9. Image problems: 0% (0/9. Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9; 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76. Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76 considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76 believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76 considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76 experienced technical problems, while; 9

  12. [High flow nasal cannula in infants: Experience in a critical patient unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner A, Adriana; Cespedes F, Pamela; Godoy M, María Loreto; Erices B, Pedro; Urrutia C, Luis; Venthur U, Carina; Labbé C, Marcela; Riquelme M, Hugo; Sanchez J, Cecilia; Vera V, Waldo; Wood V, David; Contreras C, Juan Carlos; Urrutia S, Efren

    2015-01-01

    The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a method of respiratory support that is increasingly being used in paediatrics due to its results and safety. To determine the efficacy of HFNC, as well as to evaluate the factors related to its failure and complications associated with its use in infants. An analysis was performed on the demographic, clinical, blood gas, and radiological data, as well as the complications of patients connected to a HFNC in a critical care unit between June 2012 and September 2014. A comparison was made between the patients who failed and those who responded to HFNC. A failure was considered as the need for further respiratory support during the first 48hours of connection. The Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, chi squared and the Exact Fisher test were used, as well as correlations and a binary logistic regression model for P≤.05. The study included 109 patients, with a median age and weight: 1 month (0.2-20 months) and 3.7kg (2-10kg); 95 percentile: 3.7 months and 5.7kg, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis and radiological pattern was bronchiolitis (53.2%) and interstitial infiltration (56%). Around 70.6% responded. There was a significant difference between failure and response in the diagnosis (P=.013), radiography (P=018), connection context (P<.0001), pCO2 (median 40.7mmHg [15.4-67 mmHg] versus 47.3mmHg [28.6-71.3mmHg], P=.004) and hours on HFNC (median 60.75hrs [5-621.5 hrs] versus 10.5hrs [1-29 hrs], P<.0001). The OR of the PCO2 ≥ 55mmHg for failure was 2.97 (95% CI; 1.08-8.17; P=.035). No patient died and no complications were recorded. The percentage success observed was similar to that published. In this sample, the failure of HFNC was only associated with an initial pCO2 ≥ 55mmHg. On there being no complications reported as regards it use, it is considered safe, although a randomised, controlled, multicentre study is required to compare and contrast these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatr

  13. The establishment of endovascular aneurysm coiling at a neurovascular unit: report of experience during early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, O; Gál, G; Johansson, M; Solander, S; Tovi, M; Persson, L; Ronne-Engström, E; Enblad, P

    2005-02-01

    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms is changing from surgical clipping to endovascular coiling (EVC) in many neurovascular centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical results and clinical outcome at 6 months in a consecutive series of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients treated with EVC, in a situation when the EVC had been established very rapidly as the first line of treatment at a neurovascular centre. The patient material comprised 239 SAH patients (155 women and 84 men, mean age 55 years, age range 16-81) allocated to EVC as the first line of treatment in the acute stage (within 3 weeks of rupture) between September 1996 and December 2000. Clinical grade on admission was Hunt & Hess (H&H) I and II in 42%, H&H III in 25% and H&H grade IV and V in 33% of the patients. The aneurysm was located in the anterior circulation in 82% of the cases. EVC was performed on days 0-3 in 77% of the cases. EVC of the target aneurysm was able to be completed in 222 patients (93%). Complete occlusion was achieved in 126 patients (53%). Procedural complications occurred in 39 patients (16%). Favourable clinical outcome was observed in 57%, severe disability in 28% and poor outcome in 14% of the patients. Favourable outcome was achieved in 77% of H&H I and II patients and in 43% of H&H III-V patients. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age, good neurological grade on admission, absence of intracerebral hematoma and intraventricular hematoma respectively, ICA-PcomA aneurysm location, later treatment and absence of complications were significant predictors of favourable outcome. After interventional training and installation of the X-ray system, the introduction and establishment of EVC at a neurovascular unit can be done in a short period of time and with favourable results. Future studies must concentrate on identifying factors of importance for the choice of interventional or surgical therapy. The results of this study indicate

  14. Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Steyn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU, and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Method: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Results: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Recommendations: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Conclusion: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents’ relationships.

  15. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  16. Final acceptance of the 200 GHz telescope unit for the QUIJOTE CMB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquirce-García, R.; Sainz-Pardo, I.; Etxeita-Arriaga, B.; Murga-Llano, Gaizka; Fernandez-Santos, E.; Sánchez-de-la-Rosa, V.; Viera-Curbelo, T. A.; Gómez-Reñasco, F.; Aguiar-González, M.; Pérez de Taoro, M. R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) experiment is a scientific collaboration, led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), with the aim of measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the frequency range 10-40 GHz and at large angular scales (around 1°). The project is composed of 2 telescopes and 3 instruments, located in Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Idoḿs contribution for this project is divided in two phases. Phase I consisted on the design, assembly and factory testing of the first telescope (2008), the integration and functional tests for the 5 polarimeters of the first instrument (2009), and the design and construction supervision of the building which protects both telescopes (2009), including the installation and commissioning of the mechanism for domes apertures. Phase II comprised the design, factory assembly and testing, transport and final commissioning on site of the second telescope, which finished in January 2015. The optical design of both telescopes should allow them to reach up to 200 GHz. The required opto-mechanical performance was checked under nominal conditions, reaching a pointing and tracking accuracy lower than 5 arcsec in both axes, 8 times better than specified. Particular inspections and tests were carried out for critical systems, as the rotary joint that transmits fluid, power and signal to the rotary elements, or for the safety system to ensure personnel and hardware protection under emergency conditions. This paper contains a comprehensive description of the power electronics and acquisition/control design required for safely operation under nominal and emergency conditions, as well as a detailed description of the factory and observatory tests required for the final acceptance of the telescope

  17. Experience of the MALA bag in the open abdomen management in an obstetrical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón Reyes, Ricardo Mauricio; Reyes Mendoza, Luis Emilio; Angeles Vásquez, María de Jesús; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: As indicações atuais para a gestão de abdómen aberto são a cirurgia de controlo de danos, a abordagem de sepsis intraabdominal grave, a síndrome de compartimento abdominal, o encerramento da parede abdominal sob tensão e a perda de massa da parede abdominal.Objetivo: Descrever a experiência em gestão e cirurgias de abdómen aberto usando a bolsa MALA (Maior Absorção de Líquido Abdominal).Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo, incluindo todos os doentes com o diagnóstico de abdómen aberto gerido com a bolsa MALA internados na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Obstétricos de Fevereiro de 2009 a Junho de 2012.Resultados: Dos 25 casos identificados no período do estudo, sete foram eliminados por arquivos incompletos, permanecendo 18 casos para a análise. A média de idade foi de 31,5 anos. Setenta e oito por cento dos doentes eram multíparas, 50% com uma história de dois ou mais partos, 83% com uma cesariana anterior e 78% histerectomizadas, por atonia uterina, na maioria dos casos. A principal indicação para tratamento cirúrgico foi o controlo de danos. Uma doente morreu e uma segunda foi transferida para outra instituição, tendo as demais tido melhoria clínica. Doze doentes (67%) permaneceram menos de 14 dias na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Obstétricos e apenas uma precisou de mais de 30 dias na unidade.Conclusão: A bolsa MALA pode oferecer uma opção económica e eficaz para a gestão cirúrgica abdominal aberta, bem como umatécnica de drenagem.

  18. Use of an electronic clinical experience portal for the education of nurses in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maureen; Baldwin, Ian; Fealy, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines a clinical experience portal (CEP) that was developed for critical care nurses to access on a personal digital assistant (PDA) while undertaking a 12-month postgraduate program. The increasing complexity of care provided to patients in intensive care units (ICU) in Australia and overseas requires that health care practitioners working in this area are competent and highly skilled, to prevent errors and adverse events. The CEP - unlike the traditional approach which is often lacking, antiquated or encompassed in paper records - provides opportunity for collaborative activities to occur between the learner and the teacher in an auditable environment to enhance the quality of the education provided. The CEP provided a method for the nurses to record their competencies and access educational material within the framework of a postgraduate program. The benefits of using the CEP for the education of all healthcare professionals' are also discussed.

  19. Nurses' experiences of caring for critically ill, non-sedated, mechanically ventilated patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerkner, Eva; Egerod, Ingrid; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore nurses' experiences of caring for non-sedated, critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study had a qualitative explorative design and was based on 13 months of fieldwork in two intensive care units in Denmark where...... a protocol of no sedation is implemented. Data were generated during participant observation in practice and by interviews with 16 nurses. Data were analysed using thematic interpretive description. FINDINGS: An overall theme emerged: "Demanding, yet rewarding". The demanding aspects of caring for more awake...... closeness. CONCLUSION: Despite the complexity of care, nurses preferred to care for more awake rather than sedated patients and appreciated caring for just one patient at a time. The importance of close collaboration between nurses and doctors to ensure patient comfort during mechanical ventilation...

  20. Taiwanese parents' experience of making a "do not resuscitate" decision for their child in pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lu, Frank L; Lee, Tzu-Ying

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the parental experience of making a "do not resuscitate" (DNR) decision for their child who is or was cared for in a pediatric intensive care unit in Taiwan. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted following parental signing of a standard hospital DNR form on behalf of their critically ill child. Sixteen Taiwanese parents of 11 children aged 1 month to 18 years were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed and sorted into themes by the sole interviewer plus other researchers. Three major themes were identified: (a) "convincing points to sign", (b) "feelings immediately after signing", and (c) "post-signing relief or regret". Feelings following signing the DNR form were mixed and included "frustration", "guilt", and "conflicting hope". Parents adjusted their attitudes to thoughts such as "I have done my best," and "the child's life is beyond my control." Some parents whose child had died before the time of the interview expressed among other things "regret not having enough time to be with and talk to my child". Open family visiting hours plus staff sensitivity and communication skills training are needed. To help parents with this difficult signing process, nurses and other professionals in the pediatric intensive care unit need education on initiating the conversation, guiding the parents in expressing their fears, and providing continuing support to parents and children throughout the child's end of life process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Studies on the Effects of Interphase Heat Exchange during Thermal Explosion in a Combustible Dusty Gas with General Arrhenius Reaction-Rate Laws

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Adegbie; F. I. Alao

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model for thermal explosion in a combustible dusty gas containing fuel droplets with general Arrhenius reaction-rate laws, convective and radiative heat losses, and interphase heat exchange between gas and inert solid particles is investigated. The objective of the study is to examine the effects of interphase heat exchange between the gas and solid particles on (i) ignition of reacting gas, (ii) accumulation of heat by the solid particles during combustion process (iii) evapor...

  2. O2-triggered changes of membrane fatty acid composition have no effect on Arrhenius discontinuities of respiration in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Rebeillé, F; Douce, R

    1985-08-01

    Sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in suspension culture were grown at 25 degrees C in culture medium containing two oxygen concentrations: 250 microM O2 (standard conditions) and 10 microM O2 (O2-limiting conditions). The decrease of O2 concentration in the culture medium did not modify significantly the relative proportion of each phospholipid. In contrast, the molar proportion of fatty acids was dramatically changed in all lipid classes of the cell membranes; the average percentage of oleate increased from 3 to 45% whereas that of linoleate decreased from 49 to 22%. When normal culture conditions were restored (250 microM O2), oleate underwent a rapid desaturation process; the loss of oleic acid was associated with a stoichiometric appearance of linoleic acid at a rate of about 4 nmol of oleate desaturated/h/10(6) cells. Under these conditions, no change in the Arrhenius-type plots of the rate of sycamore cell respiration was observed; the values of the transition temperature and of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) associated with the cell respiration as well as with the respiration-associated enzymes remained unchanged. Thus it was concluded that the fact that a strong decrease in the fraction of unsaturated fatty acid residues present in the mitochondria had no effect on electron transport rates and Arrhenius plot discontinuities casts doubt on the significance of such changes in terms of chilling injury. Finally it is suggested that some of the Arrhenius discontinuities observed at the level of membrane enzyme could be the consequence of intrinsic thermotropic changes in protein arrangement independent of lipid fluidity.

  3. Effect of temperature on microbial growth rate-mathematical analysis: the Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihan; Hwang, Andy; Phillips, John

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of microbial growth. The new mathematical model is derived by combination and modification of the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring-Polanyi transition theory. The new model, suitable for both suboptimal and the entire growth temperature ranges, was validated using a collection of 23 selected temperature-growth rate curves belonging to 5 groups of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli, from the published literature. The curve fitting is accomplished by nonlinear regression using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The resulting estimated growth rate (μ) values are highly correlated to the data collected from the literature (R(2) = 0.985, slope = 1.0, intercept = 0.0). The bias factor (B(f) ) of the new model is very close to 1.0, while the accuracy factor (A(f) ) ranges from 1.0 to 1.22 for most data sets. The new model is compared favorably with the Ratkowsky square root model and the Eyring equation. Even with more parameters, the Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and mean square errors of the new model are not statistically different from the square root model and the Eyring equation, suggesting that the model can be used to describe the inherent relationship between temperature and microbial growth rates. The results of this work show that the new growth rate model is suitable for describing the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate. Practical Application:  Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in foods. This study attempts to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe the temperature dependence of microbial growth rate. The findings show that the new model is accurate and can be used to describe the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate in foods.

  4. Non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the island density of one-dimensional Al chains on Si(100): A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albia, Jason R.; Albao, Marvin A., E-mail: maalbao@uplb.edu.ph [Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños 4031 (Philippines)

    2015-03-15

    Classical nucleation theory predicts that the evolution of mean island density with temperature during growth in one-dimensional systems obeys the Arrhenius relation. In this study, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a suitable atomistic lattice-gas model were performed to investigate the experimentally observed non-Arrhenius scaling behavior of island density in the case of one-dimensional Al islands grown on Si(100). Previously, it was proposed that adatom desorption resulted in a transition temperature signaling the departure from classical predictions. Here, the authors demonstrate that desorption above the transition temperature is not possible. Instead, the authors posit that the existence of a transition temperature is due to a combination of factors such as reversibility of island growth, presence of C-defects, adatom diffusion rates, as well as detachment rates at island ends. In addition, the authors show that the anomalous non-Arrhenius behavior vanishes when adatom binds irreversibly with C-defects as observed in In on Si(100) studies.

  5. Short-term stability studies of ampicillin and cephalexin in aqueous solution and human plasma: Application of least squares method in Arrhenius equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Basílio Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira

    2013-01-25

    A limited number of studies with application of the Arrhenius equation have been reported to drugs and biopharmaceuticals in biological fluids at frozen temperatures. This paper describes stability studies of ampicillin and cephalexin in aqueous solution and human plasma applying the Arrhenius law for determination of adequate temperature and time of storage of these drugs using appropriate statistical analysis. Stability studies of the beta-lactams in human plasma were conducted at temperatures of 20°C, 2°C, -20°C and also during four cycles of freeze-thawing. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Shimpak C(18) column, acetonitrile as organic modifier and detection at 215nm. LC-UV-MS/MS was used to demonstrate the conversion of ampicillin into two diastereomeric forms of ampicilloic acid. Stability studies demonstrated degradation greater than 10% for ampicillin in human plasma at 20°C, 2°C and -20°C after 15h, 2.7days, 11days and for cephalexin at the same temperatures after 14h, 3.4days and 19days, respectively, and after the fourth cycle of freezing-thawing. The Arrhenius plot showed good prediction for the ideal temperature and time of storage for ampicillin (52days) and cephalexin (151days) at a temperature of -40°C, but statistical analysis (least squares method) must be applied to avoid incorrect extrapolations and estimated values out uncertainty limits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Faculty and Students’ Perceptions of Student Experiences in a Medical School Undergoing Curricular Transition in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I Shehnaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In 2008, the Gulf Medical College in the United Arab Emirates underwent a curricular change from a discipline-based to an organ-system-based integrated curriculum. In this context, this study aimed to compare the faculty and students’ perceptions of the student experiences with the new curriculum. Methods: Data were collected from faculty and second-year students in the integrated curriculum using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Data collected were transferred to Predictive Analytics Software, Version 18. Global and domain scores were assessed with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Percentage agreement, disagreement and uncertainty were assessed by the z-test for proportion. Results: There were no significant differences between the total DREEM scores of faculty (139/200 and students (135/200. The faculty perceived that the students were experiencing significantly more positive learning as indicated by the domain score of “Students' Perceptions of Learning”. Proportions of agreement between faculty and students showed that more faculty members than students perceived the need for increased feedback to students and a greater emphasis on long term learning. Conclusion: The study showed that the faculty and students had similar perceptions about the student experiences in the integrated curriculum. Areas necessitating remedial measures were the need for faculty to learn constructive feedback techniques and an emphasis on long term learning in the new curriculum.

  7. Ground-Based Measurement Experiment and First Results with Geosynchronous-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer Engineering Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Bingham, Gail E.; Huppi, Ronald J.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Zollinger, Lori J.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tansock, Joseph J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Hooker, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 x 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57 cm(exp -1) with a scan duration of approximately 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  8. Cardiotocography interpretation skills and the association with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Sorensen, Jette L; Hedegaard, Morten; Rosthoej, Susanne; Colov, Nina P; Andersen, Kristine S; Bergholt, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine whether cardiotocography (CTG) knowledge, interpretation skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were associated with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background. A national cross-sectional study in the setting of a CTG teaching intervention involving all 24 maternity units in Denmark. Participants were midwives (n = 1260) and specialists (n = 269) and residents (n = 142) in obstetrics and gynecology who attended a 1-day CTG course and answered a 30-item multiple-choice question test. Associations between mean test score and work conditions were analyzed using multivariable robust regression, in which the three variables were mutually adjusted. Participants from units with > 3000 deliveries/year scored higher on the test than participants from units with 4000 deliveries/year: mean difference 0.5, p = 0.006). Participants with 15 years of experience (15-20 years of experience: mean difference - 0.6, p = 0.007; > 20 years experience: mean difference - 0.9, p skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were positively associated with working in large maternity units and having skills in small units and among experienced staff but could also reflect different levels of motivation, test familiarity and learning culture. Whether the findings are transferable to the clinical setting was not examined. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Hands-on approach during breastfeeding support in a neonatal intensive care unit: a qualitative study of Swedish mothers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Louise

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisting mothers to breastfeed is not easy when babies experience difficulties. In a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, nurses often help mothers by using hands-on-breast without their permission. Little is known about how mothers feel about this unusual body touching. To gain more knowledge from mothers who lived through this experience, this hands-on practice was studied in a NICU in Sweden. Methods Between January and June 2001, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten mothers of preterm or sick term infants and all of them experienced the hands-on approach. In this research, Radnitzky's seven principles of hermeneutic interpretation were applied in order to interpret the meaning of mothers' responses. This article presents results related to the period of initiation of breastfeeding. This qualitative study was based on a combination of the models of Gustafsson, Orem, and Aarts' Marte Meo. Results Five main themes were identified: Insult to integrity, Manipulating the baby, Understanding and adjustment, Breasts as objects, Alternatives to this practice. Hands-on help in the breastfeeding situation was experienced as unpleasant and the women experienced their breasts as objectified. The mothers accepted the hands-on help given by nursing staff, even though they considered it unpleasant. Most mothers expressed a need for assistance when starting breastfeeding, but could not suggest any alternative to hands-on help such as demonstrating with an artificial breast and a doll. Conclusion The study provides information about how mothers experience unexpected hands-on help with breastfeeding in a NICU, which has not been described previously. Since most mothers in this study regarded this behavior as unpleasant and not helpful mostly because it was unexpected and unexplained, it would be important to either explain beforehand to mothers what type of physical approach could be attempted on their body or better, to avoid this

  10. Mechanism of Prototropy. V. Arrhenius parameters of the tautomerization of Benzylidene Benzylamine and its {alpha}-{alpha}-alkyl derivatives; Mecanismo de la prototropia V. Parametros de Arrhenius de la toutomerizacion de benciliden-bencilamina y sus {alpha}- y {alpha}-alquilderivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Ossorio, R.; Gomez Herrera, F.; Utrilla, R. M.; Hidalgo, A.; Gamboa, J. M.

    1961-07-01

    The reactions were conducted in ethyl alcohol-dioxan, in the presence of EtONa, as catalyst. Rates were followed by a radioactive tracer method when R=H and by spectroscopic method when R= alkyl as described in previous papers. The results suggest that polar effects alone cannot account for the relative Arrhenius parameters obtained. (Author) 3 refs.

  11. How do relatives of persons with dementia experience their role in the patient participation process in special care units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Ann K; Larsson, Maria; Athlin, Elsy

    2013-06-01

    To explore the role of relatives in the patient participation process for persons with dementia living in special care units in Norwegian nursing homes, with focus on everyday life. Studies exploring the experience of relatives of persons with dementia as to their role in the patient participation process are limited. The study had an explorative grounded theory design. Data collection was carried out by interviews with twelve close relatives. Simultaneously, data analysis was performed with open, axial and selective coding. The relatives' role in the patient participation process was experienced as transitions between different roles to secure the resident's well-being, which was understood as the resident's comfort and dignity. This was the ultimate goal for their participation. The categories 'being a visitor', 'being a spokesperson', 'being a guardian' and 'being a link to the outside world' described the different roles. Different situations and conditions triggered different roles, and the relatives' trust in the personnel was a crucial factor. The study has highlighted the great importance of relatives' role in the patient participation process, to secure the well-being of residents living in special care units. Our findings stress the uttermost need for a high degree of competence, interest and commitment among the personnel together with a well functioning, collaborative and cooperative relationship between the personnel and the relatives of persons with dementia. The study raises several important questions that emphasise that more research is needed. Relatives need to be seen and treated as a resource in the patient participation process in dementia care. More attention should be paid to initiating better cooperation between the personnel and the relatives, as this may have a positive impact both on the residents' and the relatives' well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. [Teaching experience of the anesthesiology training unit at Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón Gómez, M A; Moure García, E J; Bravo García, P L; Tejera Concepción, R D; Besada Estévez, C

    2011-04-01

    Health care in Spain has improved progressively and professionals are now required to meet competency levels that safeguard the citizen's right to health protection. To achieve this, instructors in residency training programs and resident physicians themselves are calling for a common framework for training to ensure quality and consistency. Given the scarcity of articles related to training in our journal and following the First Meeting of Residency Program Instructors of the Sociedad Española de Anestesiologia y Reanimación (SEDAR), there has arisen a need to explain how SEDAR's training unit is organized. In order to facilitate the sharing of experiences of those involved in training anesthesiology medical residents, we undertook a descriptive analysis of our hospital's curriculum. The structure and operation of the department are described in this report. The results of anonymous surveys completed annually show the satisfaction of residents (9.4 out of 10) and physicians (8.7 out of 10). An audit by the Ministry of Health showed that the curriculum met 100% of the required criteria.

  13. [How do family members of haemodialysis patients with dementia experience nursing care on a haemodialysis unit: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütti, Gisela; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Spichiger, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Up to 70 % of dialysis patients over 55 years suffer from some degree of dementia. For a patient with dementia eventually agitated, staying at rest during the whole haemodialysis session could be difficult, which represents a real challenge for the haemodialysis team. Although relatives of patients with dementia or haemodialysis patients were described as care experts because of their support in everyday life, the perspective of relatives of haemodialysis patients with dementia has not yet been researched. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of nursing care of relatives of haemodialysis patients with dementia in a haemodialysis unit. Data were collected through eight interviews with relatives. Content analysis was used to analyse data. Relatives knew that the patients were in good hands with their nurses. Their own attendance of the dialysis sessions was of variable duration, frequency and regularity, and they were hardly involved in the care. Relatives and nurses rarely communicated regarding the patients' situation. Although relatives described symptoms of dementia, it was important for them to attest that the patients were still "mentally all right". Relatives of patients with dementia have diverse needs concerning their attendance during the therapy and the exchange of information with clinicians. Nurses should approach relatives and assess their individual needs to achieve a better collaboration.

  14. Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 1: Background and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Skhosana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of  this  study was  to  explore  and describe  the  experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit of a community hospital in the Nkangala district in the  Mpumalanga Province. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied. Purposeful sampling was used to select participants from health care providers who were working in the emergency unit and had managed more than four sexual assault victims. Data were collected by means of individual interviews and analysed according to the Tesch method of data analysis by the researcher and the independent co-coder.

    Main categories, subcategories and themes were identified. Participants expressed their emotions, challenges and police attitudes and behaviours as well as  inconsistencies in guidelines and needs identification. It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate  in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop  clear guidelines  that are applicable  to  rural and urban South Africa. Health  care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents.

     

    Opsomming:

    Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ervaringe van gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat slagoffers van seksuele aanranding in die

  15. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-01

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  16. Planning, Designing, Building, and Moving a Large Volume Maternity Service to a New Labor and Birth Unit: Commentary and Experiences of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonBehren, Diane; Killion, Molly M; Burke, Carol; Finkelmeier, Betsy; Zamora, Brigit

    Three teams of perinatal expert nurses participated in planning and designing a new maternity unit, operationalizing the move to the new space, and evaluating care processes and workflows after the move. The hospitals involved were University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital, Prentice Women's Hospital of Northwestern Memorial Healthcare in Chicago, IL, and Florida Hospital Orlando, Florida Hospital for Women. Although each team discussed specific details and lessons learned, there is remarkable consistency among the experiences of these teams and with the discussion of the process by the team at Mercy Hospital St. Louis published in this issue of MCN The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing. Extensive planning, flexibility, involving key stakeholders, evaluating and simulating workflows, and adequate staffing and patient safety on move-day were reported to be essential to success. Reevaluation after settling in to the new unit and making changes as needed were discussed. Being part of the leadership team involved in planning and moving to a new maternity unit in what was likely a once-in-a-lifetime experience was viewed as a career highlight. Their commentary adds to what is known about planning and designing new maternity units, moving into the new space, and adjusting unit operations and care after making the new unit home.

  17. Language Anxiety: A Case Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lababidi, Rola Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores and investigates the perceptions and experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. The first phase explored the scope and severity of language anxiety among all Foundation level male students at a college in the…

  18. Understanding the Experiences and Needs of South Asian Families Caring for a Child with Learning Disabilities in the United Kingdom: An Experiential-Contextual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Kuljit; Rose, John; Larkin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of learning disabilities amongst South Asian communities in the United Kingdom is thought to be almost three times higher than in any other community. Despite this, service utilisation amongst this group remains low and working cross-culturally can pose unique challenges for service providers. The experiences of South Asian families…

  19. The Complex Life Experience of First-Generation College Students Who Are Working Adults in the Appalachian Region of the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Deborah Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe and understand the complexity of life experiences for first-generation college students or recent graduates who are working adults in the Central and South-Central Appalachian region of the United States in light of the construct resilience and how purposefully selected…

  20. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Darcy, Eric; Veje, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model ac...... the calculation time and the computational complexity, while providing relevant results about the temperature dynamics. It was found that for an 18650 NCA/graphite cell with a 2.4 Ah capacity, 28% of the electrical energy leaves with the effluent....

  1. Modelling Li-ion cell thermal runaway triggered by an internal short circuit device using an efficiency factor and Arrhenius formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for analyzing the thermal runaway in Li-ion battery cells with an internal short circuit device implanted in the cell. The model is constructed using Arrhenius formulations for representing the self-heating chemical reactions and the State of Charge. The model...... accounts for a local short-circuit, which is triggered by the device embedded in the cell windings (jelly roll). The short circuit is modeled by calculating the total available electrical energy and adding an efficiency factor for the conversion of electric energy into thermal energy. The efficiency factor...

  2. Accuracy of Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Insertion Technique with Conventional Dual Fluoroscopy Units and a Retrospective Comparative Study Based on Surgeon Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Masayuki; Yasuhara, Takao; Inoue, Takafumi; Takahashi, Yuichi; Kumamoto, Shinji; Hijikata, Yasukazu; Kusumegi, Akira; Sakamoto, Yushi; Ogawa, Koichi; Nishida, Kenki

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective comparative study. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement and intraoperative imaging time using dual fluoroscopy units and their differences between surgeons with more versus less experience. Methods One hundred sixty-one patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery were divided into two groups, A (n = 74) and B (n = 87), based on the performing surgeon's experience. The accuracy of PPS placement and radiation time for PPS insertion were compared. PPSs were inserted with classic technique under the assistance of dual fluoroscopy units placed in two planes. The breach definition of PPS misplacement was based on postoperative computed tomography (grade I: no breach; grade II: experience.

  3. [Syncope unit: experience of a center using diagnostic flowcharts for syncope of uncertain etiology after initial assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro; Marques, Nuno; Faria, Ricardo; Trigo, Joana; Chin, Joana; Amado, José; Pereira, Salomé; Candeias, Rui; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2013-01-01

    Syncope is a common symptom that leads to 1% of admissions to hospital emergency departments, and is associated with high costs to the health system. The cardiology department of Faro Hospital has had a syncope unit since July 2007. The aim of this study is to analyze its results in terms of etiological diagnosis and treatment of syncope, using diagnostic flowcharts based on European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients referred to the syncope unit of Faro Hospital between July 2007 and August 2011. We analyzed demographic data, characteristics of syncopal episodes, diagnostic methods, etiology of syncope and treatment. The percentages of syncope of cardiac and uncertain etiology were compared with data from other international syncope units. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0. Of the 304 patients referred to the syncope unit for loss of consciousness, 245 (80.7%) had syncope. Most had reflex syncope (52.2%), 20% had cardiac syncope, 15.6% had orthostatic hypotension, and in 12% of cases etiology remained undetermined. The percentages of cardiac and uncertain etiology were similar to data published by other syncope units. The Faro Hospital syncope unit obtained similar results to those published by other international syncope units through application of diagnostic flowcharts for etiological diagnosis of syncope. The flowcharts presented can be of value for the proper application of ESC guidelines on syncope. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  5. Pronounced non-Arrhenius behaviour of hydrogen-abstractions from toluene and derivatives by phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Ive; Jacobs, Pierre; Peeters, Jozef

    2008-02-28

    Abstraction of hydrogen atoms by pthalimide-N-oxyl radicals is an important step in the N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyzed autoxidation of hydrocarbons. In this contribution, the temperature dependency of this reaction is evaluated by a detailed transition state theory based kinetic analysis for the case of toluene. Tunneling was found to play a very important role, enhancing the rate constant by a factor of 20 at room temperature. As a result, tunneling, in combination with the existence of two distinct rotamers of the transition state, causes a pronounced temperature dependency of the pre-exponential frequency factor, and, as a consequence, marked curvature of the Arrhenius plot. This explains why earlier experimental studies over a limited temperature range around 300 K found formal Arrhenius activation energies and pre-factors that are 4 kcal mol(-1) and three orders of magnitude smaller than the actual energy barrier and the corresponding frequency factor, respectively. Also as a consequence of tunneling, substitution of a deuterium atom for a hydrogen atom causes a large decrease in the rate constant, in agreement with the measured kinetic isotope effects. The present theoretical analysis, complementary to the experimental rate coefficient data, allows for a reliable prediction of the rate coefficient at higher temperatures, relevant for actual autoxidation processes.

  6. Evaluation of the relevance of the glassy state as stability criterion for freeze-dried bacteria by application of the Arrhenius and WLF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Mathias; Kulozik, Ulrich; Foerst, Petra

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the temperature dependence of microbial inactivation for several storage conditions and protective systems (lactose, trehalose and dextran) in relation to the physical state of the sample, i.e. the glassy or non-glassy state. The resulting inactivation rates k were described by applying two models, Arrhenius and Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF), in order to evaluate the relevance of diffusional limitation as a protective mechanism. The application of the Arrhenius model revealed a significant decrease in activation energy E(a) for storage conditions close to T(g). This finding is an indication that the protective effect of a surrounding glassy matrix can, at least, partly be ascribed to its inherent restricted diffusion and mobility. The application of the WLF model revealed that the temperature dependence of microbial inactivation above T(g) is significantly weaker than predicted by the universal coefficients. Thus, it can be concluded that microbial inactivation is not directly linked with the mechanical relaxation behavior of the surrounding matrix as it was reported for viscosity and crystallization phenomena in case of disaccharide systems. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Arrhenius analysis of the relationship between hyperthermia and Hsp70 promoter activation: a comparison between ex vivo and in vivo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Roel; Debeissat, Christelle; Fortin, Pierre-Yves; Moonen, Chrit T W; Couillaud, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of gene expression in the region where therapy is necessary and for the duration required to achieve a therapeutic effect and to minimise systemic toxicity is very important for clinical applications of gene therapy. Hyperthermia in combination with a temperature sensitive heat shock protein (Hsp70) promoter presents a unique approach allowing non-invasive spatio-temporal control of transgene expression. In this study we investigated the in vivo and ex vivo relationship between temperature and duration of thermal stress with respect to the resulting gene expression using an Arrhenius analysis. A transgenic mouse expressing the luciferase reporter gene under the transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter was used to assure identical genotype for in vivo (mouse leg) and ex vivo (bone marrow mononuclear and embryonic fibroblast cells) studies. The mouse leg and cells were heated at different temperatures and different exposure times. Bioluminescence imaging and in vitro enzymatic assay were used to measure the resulting transgene expression. We showed that temperature-induced Hsp70 promoter activation was modulated by both temperature as well as duration of hyperthermia. The relationship between temperature and duration of hyperthermia and the resulting reporter gene expression can be modelled by an Arrhenius analysis for both in vivo as well as ex vivo. However, the increase in reporter gene expression after elevating the temperature of the thermal stress with 1°C is not comparable for in vivo and ex vivo situations. This information may be valuable for optimising clinical gene therapy protocols.

  8. A quantum mechanical alternative to the Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Osior, Agnieszka; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir

    2015-11-21

    The theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups have recently been given a consistent quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate (i.e., coherence-damping) processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in the condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broader temperature range than is commonly thought.

  9. Variations in protein-flavin hydrogen bonding in a light, oxygen, voltage domain produce non-Arrhenius kinetics of adduct decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Brian D; Nash, Abigail I; Gardner, Kevin H

    2011-10-18

    Light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domains utilize a conserved blue light-dependent mechanism to control a diverse array of effector domains in biological and engineered proteins. Variations in the kinetics and efficiency of LOV photochemistry fine-tune various aspects of the photic response. Characterization of the kinetics of a key aspect of this photochemical mechanism in EL222, a blue light responsive DNA binding protein from Erythrobacter litoralis HTCC2594, reveals unique non-Arrhenius behavior in the rate of dark-state cleavage of the photochemically generated adduct. Sequence analysis and mutagenesis studies establish that this effect stems from a Gln to Ala mutation unique to EL222 and homologous proteins from marine bacteria. Kinetic and spectroscopic analyses reveal that hydrogen bonding interactions between the FMN N1, O2, and ribityl hydroxyls and the surrounding protein regulate photocycle kinetics and stabilize the LOV active site from temperature-induced alteration in local structure. Substitution of residues interacting with the N1-O2 locus modulates adduct stability, structural flexibility, and sequestration of the active site from bulk solvent without perturbation of light-activated DNA binding. Together, these variants link non-Arrhenius behavior to specific alteration of an H-bonding network, while affording tunability of photocycle kinetics. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  11. The Experience of African Students Studying Nursing in the United States in Relation to Their Use of Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Donald Lee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the critical thinking experiences of African nursing students enrolled in several universities in the U.S. Using a semi-structured interview approach, twelve African students discussed their experiences using and learning a western critical thinking approach, as well as described their educational experiences in…

  12. Towards improved estimation of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range by a fully automated, pressure controlled unit gradient experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Müller, Marius

    2017-04-01

    Determination of soil hydraulic properties has always been an important part of soil physical research and model applications. While several experiments are available to measure the water retention of soil samples, the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is often more complicated, bound to strong assumption and time consuming. Although, the application of unit gradient experiments is recommended since the middle of the last century, as one method towards a (assumption free) direct measurement of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, data from unit gradient experiments is seldom to never reported in literature. We developed and build a fully automated, pressure controlled, unit gradient experiment, which allows a precise determination of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) and water retention VWC(h), especially in the highly dynamic near saturated range. The measurement apparatus applies the concept of hanging water columns and imposes the required soil water pressure by dual porous plates. This concepts allows the simultaneous and direct measurement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, this approach results in a technically less demanding experiment than related flux controlled experiments, and virtually any flux can be measured. Thus, both soil properties can be measured in mm resolution, for wetting and drying processes, between saturation and field capacity for all soil types. Our results show, that it is important to establish separate measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range, as the shape of the retention function and hydraulic conductivity curve do not necessarily match. Consequently, the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve from measurements of the water retention behavior in combination with a value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be misleading. Thus, separate parameterizations of the individual functions might be necessary and are

  13. The experience in the Cernavoda Unit 1 operation - a stimulating argument for future nuclear power development in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, I. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania); Bucur, I. [CNE - PROD, Cernavoda Unit 1 (Romania); Galeriu, A.C. [FCN, Pitesti, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania); Budan, O. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The Romanian nuclear program has been developed based on the option for CANDU type reactors. At the beginning, this program was unrealistically conceived and its management was inappropriate. The program was reconsidered in 1990 and the management policy and organization structure were also adapted accordingly. The paper presents, in the first part, the actual organization structure, adapted for the execution of the current and future activities, related to the nuclear power program. The performance achieved by Cernavoda Unit 1 constitutes the main part of the paper. The performances described demonstrate that the Cernavoda Unit 1 is a success and the Romania's electricity needs are satisfied in a proportion of about 12% by the nuclear power. The paper also presents a general view on Cernavoda Unit 2 perspectives. The essential conclusion of the paper is that the continuation of the nuclear program appears to be a logical option, generally accepted in Romania, limited only by financial restraints. (author)

  14. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlin, G; Claudet, S; Pezzetti, M

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  15. Cross-cultural comparison of long-term care in the United States and Finland: Research done through a short-term study-abroad experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Gilland, Sarah; Frank, Jacquelyn B; Murphy, Bridget C; English, Courtney; Meade, Jana; Morrow, Kaylee; Rush, Evan

    2017-01-01

    In May 2014, a short-term study-abroad experience was conducted in Finland through a course offered at Indiana State University (ISU). Students and faculty from ISU and Eastern Illinois University participated in the experience, which was created to facilitate a cross-cultural comparison of long-term-care settings in the United States and Finland. With its outstanding system of caring for the health and social needs of its aging populace, Finland is a logical model to examine when considering ways to improve the quality of life for older adults who require care in the United States . Those participating in the course visited a series of long-term-care facilities in the region surrounding Terre Haute, Indiana, then travelled to Lappeenranta, Finland to visit parallel sites. Through limited-participation observation and semistructured interviews, similarities and differences in experiences, educations, and policies affecting long-term care workers in the United States and Finland were identified and are described here.

  16. De La Salle Christian Brothers' Experiences of Catholic Identity in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Catholic identity is considered to be the single most important issue facing Catholic higher education in the United States. Scholars (Burtchaell, 1998; Gallin, 1999; Gleason, 1995; Heft, 2003; Marsden, 1994; O'Brien, 1994) have suggested that sustaining Catholic identity and preventing secularization depends on the integration of the…

  17. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  18. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  19. Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats, and GIN infection is the greatest threat to economic small rum...

  20. Altering Public University Admission Standards to Preserve White Group Position in the United States: Results from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism that could potentially affect public university admissions standards in a context of demographic change. I explore how demographic changes at a prestigious public university in the United States affect individuals' evaluations of college applications. Responding to a line graph that randomly displays a…

  1. Correspondence Courses: A Guide for Authors of Course Units. A Report of Some Experiences and Practices at the Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    A guide for authors of correspondence course units is presented to aid staff and consultants who will develop a correspondence cum residential course in curriculum development at the Kenya Institute of Education. The guide is based on observations at the Open University at Milton Keynes. The following areas are considered: the contribution of…

  2. Taiwanese Parents' Experience of Making a “Do Not Resuscitate” Decision for Their Child in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Liu, RN, MN

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Open family visiting hours plus staff sensitivity and communication skills training are needed. To help parents with this difficult signing process, nurses and other professionals in the pediatric intensive care unit need education on initiating the conversation, guiding the parents in expressing their fears, and providing continuing support to parents and children throughout the child's end of life process.

  3. Effects of Exothermic/Endothermic Chemical Reactions with Arrhenius Activation Energy on MHD Free Convection and Mass Transfer Flow in Presence of Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Abdul Maleque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A local similarity solution of unsteady MHD natural convection heat and mass transfer boundary layer flow past a flat porous plate within the presence of thermal radiation is investigated. The effects of exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions with Arrhenius activation energy on the velocity, temperature, and concentration are also studied in this paper. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by introducing locally similarity transformation (Maleque (2010. Numerical solutions to the reduced nonlinear similarity equations are then obtained by adopting Runge-Kutta and shooting methods using the Nachtsheim-Swigert iteration technique. The results of the numerical solution are obtained for both steady and unsteady cases then presented graphically in the form of velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles. Comparison has been made for steady flow ( and shows excellent agreement with Bestman (1990, hence encouragement for the use of the present computations.

  4. Studies on the Effects of Interphase Heat Exchange during Thermal Explosion in a Combustible Dusty Gas with General Arrhenius Reaction-Rate Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Adegbie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for thermal explosion in a combustible dusty gas containing fuel droplets with general Arrhenius reaction-rate laws, convective and radiative heat losses, and interphase heat exchange between gas and inert solid particles is investigated. The objective of the study is to examine the effects of interphase heat exchange between the gas and solid particles on (i ignition of reacting gas, (ii accumulation of heat by the solid particles during combustion process (iii evaporation of the liquid fuel droplets, and (iv consumption of reacting gas concentration. The equations governing the physical model with realistic assumptions are stated and nondimensionalised leading to an intractable system of first-order coupled nonlinear differential equations, which is not amenable to exact methods of solution. Therefore, we present numerical solutions as well as different qualitative effects of varying interphase heat exchange parameter. Graphs and Table feature prominently to explain the results obtained.

  5. Dr Julia King CBE FREng, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (United Kingdom), visiting the NA48 experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (right) with A. Ceccucci and K. Peach. Photo 05: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (centre) with A. Ceccucci and C. Lazzeroni. Photo 08: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (second from left) with (left to right) R. Barlow, J. Wood, N. McCubbin, K. Peach, A. Ceccucci, C. Lazzeroni, M. Patel and D. Munday.

  6. The Effect of Mechanical Noise and Natural Sound on Visitor Experiences in Units of the National Park System

    OpenAIRE

    Gramann, Dr. James; National Park Service; U.S. Department of the Interior

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the effects of mechanical noise and natural sound on visitor experiences in national parks. Three approaches to studying noise impacts are described. Most noise research to date has addressed the impact of air-tour overflights on visitor experiences. these impacts are localized with significant percentages of visitors in some parks reporting interference with natural sounds from aircraft noise. Research also shows that unthreatening natural environments can ...

  7. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use

    OpenAIRE

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and fem...

  8. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  9. Cardiometry: pioneering experience in assessment of the heart performance and evaluation of fatal arrhythmia risks in intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Chepenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented is an application study of the heart performance phase mechanism with the use of the Cardiocode analyzer based on principles of cardiometry for evaluating iatrogenic complications caused by antiarrhythmic therapy and monitoring the quality of treatment of hemodynamic disorders in inhospital intensive care units. The aim of the study is a thorough estimation of the diagnostic and functional quality of the performance of the Cardiocode device and developing a new methodology of its application under the conditions of the intensive care units, when predicting fatal arrhythmia progression. 50 patients with true cardiogenic shock of different degrees of severity have been examined with Cardiocode. As a result, it is established that the application of the heart cycle phase analysis in diagnostics, hemodynamics evaluation and management with the medication and infusion therapy supported by the Cardiocode device allows reducing the mortality rate by 32 ± 3.4%.

  10. Lifelong Learning Experience and Level of Social Exclusion or Inclusion of Asian Communities Living in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio......-economic positions of this target group and entrepreneurship activities taking place. Global trends influence disadvantaged learners level of participation in learning within Europe. The Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom, despite the differences in migration period, have made the decision to live......, including Asian communities, have been negatively affected in the recent years due to the increased political restrictions and media coverage. In comparison, despite the recent immigration policies in the UK, many members of the Asian communities have embraced the opportunities LifeLong Learning has...

  11. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  12. Isolation and quarantine during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW: the operational experience of public health units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Philippa L; Sheppeard, Vicky; Staff, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    During the DELAY and CONTAIN phases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW, public health units needed to rapidly surge operations to manage the 3070 potential cases and 1894 contacts notified to them. The Incident Control System, NetEpi (the web-based multi-user access database), training to up-skill surge staff, and electronic communication were all integral to the outbreak response. Ongoing identification and training of surge staff would assist a timely and effective response to future large scale outbreaks. Investing and incorporating information technology tools into routine public health unit business to assist with communication, outbreak management and reporting will improve familiarity and capability within the network to respond to public health emergencies.

  13. A comparison of the education and work experiences of immigrant and the United States of America-trained nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenko, O; Gupte, G; Shan, G

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the education and work experience of immigrant and American-trained registered nurses from 1988 to 2008. The USA increasingly relies on immigrant nurses to fill a significant nursing shortage. These nurses receive their training overseas, but can obtain licenses to practice in different countries. Although immigrant nurses have been in the USA workforce for several decades, little is known about how their education and work experience compares with USA-trained nurses. Yet much is presumed by policy makers and administrators who perpetuate the stereotype that immigrant nurses are not as qualified. We analysed the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses datasets from 1988 to 2008 using the Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Our findings showed similar work experience and upward trends in education among both groups of nurses. However, American-trained nurses were more likely to further advance their education, whereas immigrant nurses were more likely to have more work experience and practice in a wider range of healthcare settings. Although we discovered differences between nurses trained in the USA and abroad, we theorize that these differences even out, as education and work experience each have their own distinct caregiving advantages. Immigrant nurses are not less qualified than their American-trained counterparts. However, healthcare providers should encourage them to further pursue their education and certifications. Even though immigrant nurses' education and work experience are comparable with their American counterparts, workforce development policies may be particularly beneficial for this group. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditures accounts: the United States experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Arthur L

    2007-01-01

    Providing for the delivery of public health services and understanding the funding mechanisms for these services are topics of great currency in the United States. In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was created and the responsibility for providing public health services was realigned among federal agencies. State and local public health agencies are under increased financial pressures even as they shoulder more responsibilities as the vital first link in the provision of public health services. Recent events, such as hurricanes Katrina and Rita, served to highlight the need to accurately access the public health delivery system at all levels of government. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), prepared by the National Health Statistics Group, measure expenditures on healthcare goods and services in the United States. Government public health activity constitutes an important service category in the NHEA. In the most recent set of estimates, Government Public Health Activity expenditures totaled $56.1 billion in 2004, or 3.0 percent of total US health spending. Accurately measuring expenditures for public health services in the United States presents many challenges. Among these challenges is the difficult task of defining what types of government activity constitute public health services. There is no clear-cut, universally accepted definition of government public health care services, and the definitions in the proposed International Classification for Health Accounts are difficult to apply to an individual country's unique delivery systems. Other challenges include the definitional issues associated with the boundaries of healthcare as well as the requirement that census and survey data collected from government(s) be compliant with the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG), an internationally recognized classification system developed by the United Nations.

  15. Investigation of the degree of organisational influence on patient experience scores in acute medical admission units in all acute hospitals in England using multilevel hierarchical regression modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies found that hospital and specialty have limited influence on patient experience scores, and patient level factors are more important. This could be due to heterogeneity of experience delivery across subunits within organisations. We aimed to determine whether organisation level factors have greater impact if scores for the same subspecialty microsystem are analysed in each hospital. Setting Acute medical admission units in all NHS Acute Trusts in England. Participants We analysed patient experience data from the English Adult Inpatient Survey which is administered to 850 patients annually in each acute NHS Trusts in England. We selected all 8753 patients who returned the survey and who were emergency medical admissions and stayed in their admission unit for 1–2 nights, so as to isolate the experience delivered during the acute admission process. Primary and secondary outcome measures We used multilevel logistic regression to determine the apportioned influence of host organisation and of organisation level factors (size and teaching status), and patient level factors (demographics, presence of long-term conditions and disabilities). We selected ‘being treated with respect and dignity’ and ‘pain control’ as primary outcome parameters. Other Picker Domain question scores were analysed as secondary parameters. Results The proportion of overall variance attributable at organisational level was small; 0.5% (NS) for respect and dignity, 0.4% (NS) for pain control. Long-standing conditions and consequent disabilities were associated with low scores. Other item scores also showed that most influence was from patient level factors. Conclusions When a single microsystem, the acute medical admission process, is isolated, variance in experience scores is mainly explainable by patient level factors with limited organisational level influence. This has implications for the use of generic patient experience surveys for comparison between

  16. Tobacco counseling experience prior to starting medical school, tobacco treatment self-efficacy and knowledge among first-year medical students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui S; Hayes, Rashelle B; Waring, Molly E; Geller, Alan C; Churchill, Linda C; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Adams, Michael; Huggett, Kathryn N; Ockene, Judith K

    2015-04-01

    To explore students' tobacco dependence counseling experiences prior to medical school and their associations with tobacco counseling self-efficacy, and familiarity with and perceived effectiveness of tobacco dependence treatment among first-year medical students in the United States. In 2010, 1266 first-year medical students from 10 US medical schools completed a survey reporting their clinical experiences with specific tobacco counseling skills (e.g., 5As) prior to medical school. The survey also included questions on tobacco counseling self-efficacy, perceived physician impact on smokers, and familiarity and effectiveness of tobacco-related treatments. Half (50.4%) reported some tobacco counseling experiences prior to medical school (i.e. at least one 5A). Students with prior counseling experiences were more likely to have higher tobacco counseling self-efficacy, and greater familiarity with medication treatment, nicotine replacement treatment, and behavioral counseling for smoking cessation, compared to those with no prior experiences. Perceived physician impact on patient smoking outcomes did not differ by prior tobacco counseling experiences. Many first-year medical students may already be primed to learn tobacco dependence counseling skills. Enhancing early exposure to learning these skills in medical school is likely to be beneficial to the skillset of our future physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diffractive stacks of metamaterial lattices with a complex unit cell: Self-consistent long-range bianisotropic interactions in experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwadrin, Andrej; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces and metamaterials promise arbitrary rerouting of light using two-dimensional (2D) planar arrangements of electric and magnetic scatterers, respectively, 3D stacks built out of such 2D planes. An important problem is how to self-consistently model the response of these systems in a manner that retains dipole intuition yet does full justice to the self-consistent multiple scattering via near-field and far-field retarded interactions. We set up such a general model for metamaterial lattices of complex 2D unit cells of poly-atomic basis as well as allowing for stacking in a third dimension. In particular, each scatterer is quantified by a magnetoelectric polarizability tensor and Ewald lattice summation deals with all near-field and long-range retarded electric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric couplings self-consistently. We show in theory and experiment that grating diffraction orders of dilute split ring lattices with complex unit cells show a background-free signature of magnetic dipole response. For denser lattices experiment and theory show that complex unit cells can reduce the apparent effect of bianisotropy, i.e., the strong oblique-incidence handed response that was reported for simple split ring lattices. Finally, the method is applied to calculate transmission of finite stacks of lattices. Thereby our simple methodology allows us to trace the emergence of effective material constants when building a 3D metamaterial layer by layer, as well as facilitating the design of metasurfaces.

  18. The United States twenty-year experience with bombing incidents: implications for terrorism preparedness and medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, G Bobby; Hutson, H Range; Davis, Mark A; Rice, Phillip L

    2005-12-01

    Terrorist bombings remain a significant threat in the United States. However, minimal longitudinal data exists regarding the medical and public health impact because of bombings. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the number of incidents, injuries, and deaths because of explosive, incendiary, premature, and attempted bombings from January 1983 to December 2002. Morbidity and mortality by motives, target locations, and materials used were evaluated. In the United States, 36,110 bombing incidents, 5,931 injuries, and 699 deaths were reported. There were 21,237 (58.8%) explosive bombings, 6,185 (17.1%) incendiary bombings, 1,107 (3.1%) premature bombings, and 7,581 (21.0%) attempted bombings. For explosive bombings with known motives, 72.9% of injuries and 73.8% of deaths were because of homicide. For incendiary bombings with known motives, 68.2% of injuries were because of extortion and revenge, and 53.5% of deaths were due to homicide. Private residences accounted for 29.0% of incidents, 31.5% of injuries, and 55.5% of deaths. Government installations accounted for 4.4% of incidents but were the site of 12.7% of injuries and 25.5% of deaths. In bombings with known materials, nitrate-based fertilizers accounted for 36.2% of injuries and 30.4% of deaths, and smokeless powder and black powder accounted for 33.2% of injuries and 27.1% of deaths. Illegal bombings and related injuries commonly occur in the United States. Because of the easy availability of bombing materials, government agencies and healthcare providers should prepare for potential mass-casualty bombings.

  19. Experience alters the spatial tuning of auditory units in the optic tectum during a sensitive period in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E I

    1985-11-01

    The auditory spatial tuning of bimodal (auditory-visual) units in the optic tectum of the barn owl was altered by raising animals with one ear occluded. Changes in spatial tuning were assessed by comparing the location of a unit's auditory best area with that of its visual receptive field. As shown previously, auditory best areas are aligned with visual receptive fields in the tecta of normal birds (Knudsen, E. I. (1982) J. Neurosci. 2: 1177-1194). It was demonstrated in this study that, when birds were raised with one ear occluded, best areas and visual receptive fields were aligned only as long as the earplug was in place. When the earplug was removed, best areas and visual receptive fields became misaligned, indicating that a change in auditory spatial tuning had taken place during the period of occlusion. However, in a bird that received an earplug as an adult, no such alterations in auditory spatial tuning were observed; even after 1 year of monaural occlusion, auditory best areas and visual receptive fields were misaligned so long as the earplug was in place, and were aligned when the earplug was removed. These results suggest that exposure to abnormal localization cues modifies the auditory spatial tuning of tectal units only during a restricted, sensitive period early in development. After the earplug was removed from a juvenile bird that had been raised with an occluded ear, the initial misalignment between auditory best areas and visual receptive fields decreased gradually over a period of weeks. In contrast, when earplugs were removed from two adult birds that had been raised with monaural occlusions, auditory-visual misalignments persisted for as long as measurements were made, which was up to 1 year after earplug removal. These data indicate that auditory cues become permanently associated with locations in visual space during a critical period which draws to a close at about the age when the animal reaches adulthood. Horseradish peroxidase was

  20. Cadmium levels in soils and plants from some long-term soil fertility experiments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    Phosphate fertilizers contain varying amounts of Cd and other heavy metals as contaminants from phosphate rock (PR). To determine whether periodic applications of P fertilizers resulted in measurable accumulations of Cd in soils and in harvested crops, soil and plant tissue samples from nine long-term (>50 yr) soil fertility experiments in the USA were analyzed for Cd, as well as P and other elements. Annual Cd rates were estimated to range from 0.3 to 1.2 g ha/sup -1/ in these experiments. Plant tissues analyzed were corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves or grain, and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) forage. Results from these long-term experiments have shown that plant uptake of Cd contaminants in P fertilizers containing < 10 mg Cd kg/sup -1/ is negligible. While the Cd accumulations in soil in these experiments could not be calculated, they would approximate that accumulated in most agricultural soils in the USA at this time. About 70% of the P fertilizers is produced from Florida PR, which contains <10 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd, as compared with about 10% from the western USA, which contains higher Cd levels. Therefore, adding Cd to soils as a contaminant in P fertilizers at rates ranging from 0.3 to 1.2 g Cd ha/sup -1/ does not appear to result in increased Cd levels in plants as a result of long-term P fertilization.

  1. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  2. Influences on Vietnamese Men: Examining Traditional Gender Roles, the Refugee Experience, Acculturation, and Racism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghe, Linh T.; Mahalik, James R.; Lowe, Susana M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors have attempted to increase counselors' understanding of Vietnamese men in the U.S. by discussing masculine gender role socialization influences from Vietnamese culture, including the ritual of "nhau" (a ritual of male bonding through binge drinking). The authors also provide a gendered context to the refugee experience,…

  3. EARLY STAGE RESPONSES OF INTENSIVE CARE UNITS DURING MAJOR DISASTERS: FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro; Tsukada, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Iida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of intensive care units (ICU) during disasters, including the responses of our ICU following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Our ICU comprises 8 beds for postoperative inpatients and those with rapidly deteriorating conditions; 20 beds in an emergency unit for critically ill patients; and 17 beds for neonates. It is important to secure empty beds when a major disaster occurs, as was the case after the Great Hanshin Earthquake, due to the resulting large numbers of trauma patients. Therefore, each ICU section cooperated to ensure sufficient space for admissions following the Great East Japan Earthquake. However, unlike the Great Hanshin Earthquake, securing beds was ultimately unnecessary due to the nature of the recent disaster, which also consisted of a subsequent tsunami and nuclear accident. Therefore, air quality monitoring was required on this occasion due to the risk of environmental radioactive pollution from the nuclear disaster causing problems with artificial respiration management involving atmospheric air. The variability in damage arising during different disasters thus requires a flexible response from ICUs that handle seriously ill patients.

  4. Public engagement in health technology assessment and coverage decisions: a study of experiences in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Julia; Schmidt, Harald

    2013-02-01

    In the United States and internationally, the trend for public engagement in health policy and practice is increasing, particularly regarding health technology assessment (HTA), which informs often controversial coverage decisions. However, there is no consensus about which members of the public should be involved in which processes or what the respective rationales and benefits of public engagement are. This article explores operational processes and underlying rationales of public engagement at HTA agencies in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The analysis is based on website information, legal framework documents, published and gray literature, and semistructured, in-depth interviews with top officials at these agencies. Engagement processes differ across agencies, particularly regarding the areas in which the public is involved, which groups of the public are involved, what weight they have in influencing decisions, how they are recruited and supported, and how potential conflicts of interests are addressed. Different emphases on rationales and drivers behind public engagement partly reflect the respective political environments. Interviewees indicated a range of benefits of engagement and factors influencing success or failure. The results highlight the need to be clear about the purpose and conduct of engagement in order to maximize the benefits of this increasingly widespread policy tool.

  5. Obstetric indications for admission to the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral center; an Iranian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Rasooli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU in the setting of a tertiary referral hospital in an attempt to identify the risk factors influencing maternal outcome. Method: In a prospective, cross-sectional study, all parturient patients during pregnancy and up to 6 weeks postpartum admitted to the ICU of a tertiary referral hospital between 2013 and 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, medical histories, pregnancy, and intrapartum and postpartum data were collected. Moreover, interventions and fetomaternal outcomes were noted. Results: Ninety nine obstetric patients were admitted to the ICU. Fifty seven percent of the admissions were postpartum. The main indications for admission were hypertensive disorders (37.3%, and obstetric hemorrhage (13.1%. Non-obstetric indications of ICU admission were the cardiac diseases. Conclusion: The major obstetric indications for admission in our study were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstetric hemorrhage.     Keywords: Pregnancy; Intensive care unit; maternal mortality; morbidity

  6. Using 20-million-year-old amber to test the super-Arrhenius behaviour of glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Simon, Sindee L; McKenna, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Fossil amber offers the opportunity to investigate the dynamics of glass-forming materials far below the nominal glass transition temperature. This is important in the context of classical theory, as well as some new theories that challenge the idea of an 'ideal' glass transition. Here we report results from calorimetric and stress relaxation experiments using a 20-million-year-old Dominican amber. By performing the stress relaxation experiments in a step-wise fashion, we measured the relaxation time at each temperature and, above the fictive temperature of this 20-million-year-old glass, this is an upper bound to the equilibrium relaxation time. The results deviate dramatically from the expectation of classical theory and are consistent with some modern ideas, in which the diverging timescale signature of complex fluids disappears below the glass transition temperature.

  7. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  8. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnarrs, Phillip W; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men's sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men's sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts.

  9. Lessons Learned: Insights into One Teacher’s Experience Working with Karen Refugee Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Gilhooly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is informed by funds of knowledge and culturally responsive teaching studies that aim to explore and legitimize the cultural knowledge immigrant children bring to their communities and schools. Consequently, this paper specifically addresses issues related to the educational experiences of Karen children and their parents from one American teacher/researcher who has worked with the Karen for the past four years. In aggregate, this paper addresses issues germane to Karen education including; (1 background information on Karen educational experiences prior to resettlement, including a review of their journey from Thailand to the U.S.; (2 important characteristics of Karen culture; (3 Karen names; (4 Sgaw Karen language characteristics; (5 the language divide between parents and children; (6 parental involvement in their children’s schooling; (7 American teacher perceptions of Karen students; (8 issues over grading and, finally; (9 gender issues.

  10. Incidence and Clinical Features of Peptic Ulcer Disease In Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: -Experience of Moroccan University Hospital Unit-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cherradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD has been recognized as the leading cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB. This study aims to report general features of bleeding peptic ulcers in patients who benefit of urgent endoscopy in our department after an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Results: A total of 1809 patients were explored for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our unit since 2003 to 2008. Gastroduodenal peptic ulcers were the most frequent diagnosed etiology. They present 38% of all reported causes of bleeding (n=527 (table I. 25% were located at duodenal mucosa (n= 347 and 13% were gastric ulcers (n=180. No esophageal ulcers were reported. Incidence of both duodenal and gastric ulcers decreases during the last years. Conclusion: In our department, incidence of bleeding peptic ulcer disease is decreasing but they continue to be the first cause of AUGIB.

  11. Training, their influence on the quality of services. An experience in the unit "Coffee Express" of Fomento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving quality of service is a necessity in this highly competitive and turbulent world, one of the elements that influence it is training. This research was designed and implemented a training procedure to improve the quality of services in a cafeteria of Development, were detected with the training needs of their staff to plan and implement actions that will raise the skills of workers. Surveys were conducted to determine the state of opinion of internal and external clients implemented before and after the procedure and to evaluate the quality of service received from the selected attributes to the application of Delphi method experts. The unit has made progress recognized and improved economic indicators becoming a reference center in the municipality, which shows that is possible to provide quality services from training workers.

  12. Public Reporting of Nursing Home Quality of Care: Lessons from the United States Experience for Canadian Policy Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Alison M.; Draper, Kellie; Sales, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    While the demand for continuing care services in Canada grows, the quality of such services has come under increasing scrutiny. Consideration has been given to the use of public reporting of quality data as a mechanism to stimulate quality improvement and promote public accountability for and transparency in service quality. The recent adoption of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) throughout a number of Canadian jurisdictions means that standardized quality data are available for comparisons among facilities across regions, provinces and nationally. In this paper, we explore current knowledge on public reporting in nursing homes in the United States to identify what lessons may inform policy discussion regarding potential use of public reporting in Canada. Based on these findings, we make recommendations regarding how public reporting should be progressed and managed if Canadian jurisdictions were to implement this strategy. PMID:21037828

  13. Summary of property damage experience and loss control programs of the United States Department of Energy CY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dix, George P.

    1979-10-01

    Calendar year 1978 was the first full year of operation of the Department of Energy. This report summarizes the fire and property damage experience of the Department and includes comparative and cumulative data for prior years for those former agencies that contributed the bulk of DOE facilities and property values. Property damage, from all causes, exceeded $17 million, of which fire losses accounted for nearly $13 million, or 74% of the total. Fire was also the leading cause of death in DOE operations. The fire loss ratio amounted to 2.76 cents/$100 of property values, a figure about equal to the best class of insured industrial properties. The loss ratio from all causes was 3.72 cents/$100, or well under the approximately 5 cents/$100 that is paid by the best class of industry for insurance. While the overall experience was good, the record suffers by comparison with the prior experience of the bulk of the facilities comprising DOE, and further analyses reveal a number of facilities and programs where considerable need for improvement is indicated. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: how do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth; Greenberger, Ellen; Charles, Susan; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhao, Libo; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n=220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n=241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions to either "just feel" any emotions that arose (Just Feel), or to "do something" so that they would not experience any emotion while viewing the photos (Regulate). All participants then rated the intensity of their experienced emotions and described any emotion-regulation strategies that they used while viewing the photos. Consistent with predictions, culture and gender interacted with experimental condition to predict intensity: Chinese men reported relatively low levels of emotion, whereas American women reported relatively high levels of emotion. Disengagement strategies (especially distancing) were related to lower emotional intensity and were reported most often by Chinese men. Taken together, findings suggest that emotion-regulation strategies may contribute to differences in emotional experience across Western and East Asian cultures.

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  16. Project Experience of MMIS for Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2 (Component Design, Manufacturing and Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Seo-ryong; Kim, Kook-hun [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd., Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Doosan is uniquely positioned in the field of nuclear power plant in the world-wide. Doosan has secured the first step to nuclear technology field through the development of the nuclear power plant (NPP) man machine interface system (MMIS), which is one of the three major core technologies of non-independence. In the nuclear power plant, MMIS takes a function as the brain and nerve system in the human body. Korean MMIS was selected for the Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2 for the first time and Doosan is charge of a component design and equipment supply. At the end of successful completion of MMIS for Shin-Hanul units 1 and 2, Doosan will be a total provider of the MMIS from development, validation, and manufacturing to delivery in Korea. Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) is equivalent to the brain and nerve system of a nuclear power plant. It monitors and controls the operating conditions to prevent accidents proactively. Doosan achieved a complete development of MMIS which is core part of nuclear technology that was relied on oversea's companies in the past by an accomplishment of RnD in cooperation with domestic utility, KHNP and research institutions. Doosan's MMIS is very user-friendly, easy to understand, transparent to audits, and guarantees maximum reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety. Doosan proved safety and reliability through test and inspection of integrated function of nuclear safety and non-safety control system. Doosan MMIS was evaluated a one of the best system through IAEA IERIC's review via safety guide from IAEA specialist's group in 2010. Doosan also achieved the improvements of quality through the KINS audits in 2014.

  17. Mudanças na unidade pediátrica: relato de experiência de integração docente-assistencial Changes in the Pediatric unit: report of an experience of nursing pratice integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelia del Pilar Neira Huerta

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da percepção inicial da unidade pediátrica em que acompanhou e supervisionou as atividades práticas desenvolvidas por alunos de graduação em enfermagem, a autora identifica mudanças significativas implementadas nessa unidade, como resultado de uma experiência de genuína integração docente-assistencial.The author identifies significant changes in a pediatric unit in which she supervised the practical activities developed by undergraduate students, as a result of true nursing teaching and nursing practice integration.

  18. Experimenting with distributed approaches - Case study: A 'national-level' distributed dialogue on bioenergy in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta

    2016-05-01

    An emerging thread in the public participation debate is the need for innovative and more experimental forms of dialogue to address weaknesses of previous structured deliberative methods. This research note discusses an experiment with a distributed approach to dialogue, which used bioenergy as a case study. We discuss the potential of the model to attract a variety of publics and views and to inform policy. This is done with a view to refining future dialogues and increasing the involvement of scientists and other practitioners at the science-policy interface.

  19. Design and experience with the WS/HS assembly movement using labview VIS, national instrument motion controllers, and compumotor electronic drive units and motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. A. (Lisa A.); Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas); Gruchalla, M. (Michael); Martinez, D. G. (Derwin G.); O' Hara, J. F. (James F.); Shurter, R. B. (Robert B.); Stettler, M. W. (Matthew W.); Valdiviez, R. (Robert); Barr, D. S. (Dean S.)

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included.

  20. Utility of Flexible Bronchoscopy in Intensive Care Unit: Experience of Türkiye Yüksek İhtisas Education and Research Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Turan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB is the most frequently used tool for invasive pulmonary evaluation with high diagnostic yield and low incidence of major complications. These advantages led to increasing use of FOB in intensive care units. In this article, we discussed our experiences of FOB applications in mechanical ventilated critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: We investigated FOB procedures of 118 patients on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in intensive care unit retrospectively. All patients’ demographic data, indications, complications and arterial blood gas analyses belong to before and after bronchoscopy were evaluated. Results: FOB indications of the patients were 55.1% for mucoid plug clearance, 9.3% for treatment of atelectasia, 7.6% for identifying hemorrhagic foci, 17.8% for tracheostomy management, 6.8% for bronchoalveolar lavage and 3.4% for exploratory purposes. Overall complication rate of FOB was 11.9%. Arterial blood gas analyses statistically improved after FOB. Conclusion: In this study, we observed that FOB is being performed with many different indications and acceptable complication rates in our intensive care unit and also contributes to diagnose and treatment of intensive care patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2010; 8: 48-53

  1. Design and experience with the WS/HS assembly movement using labview VIS, national instrument motion controllers, and compumotor electronic drive units and motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. A. (Lisa A.); Gilpatrick, J. D. (John Douglas); Gruchalla, M. (Michael); Martinez, D. G. (Derwin G.); O' Hara, J. F. (James F.); Shurter, R. B. (Robert B.); Stettler, M. W. (Matthew W.); Valdiviez, R. (Robert); Barr, D. S. (Dean S.)

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included.

  2. DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH THE WS/HS ASSEMBLY MOVEMENT USING LABVIEW VIS, NATIONAL INSTRUMENT MOTION CONTROLLERS, AND COMPUMOTOR ELECTRONIC DRIVE UNITS AND MOTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. BARR; L.A. DAY; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included.

  3. Judges in the Formation of the Nation- State: Professional Experiences, Academic Background and Geographic Circulation of Members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Da Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the career profiles of judges from the highest bodies of the Judiciary in Brazil and the United States of America, examining the biographies of all the ministros of the Supreme Court of Justice (Empire and of the Supreme Federal Tribunal (Republic in Brazil, and of all the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed until 2008 in both cases. Based on the sociology of political elites perspective, the article examines data concerning academic background, geographic circulation and the different professional experiences — legal, political and linked to the administration of the State’s coercive activity (police or military — lived through by future members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States so as to identify the types of individuals recommended to join the top bodies of the Judiciary in the two countries. In this sense, different State-building processes are identified on the basis of the examination of Brazilian and US judicial elites, suggesting a more fragmented and diverse trajectory in the case of US justices, and greater homogeneity and centralization in the case of their Brazilian counterparts.

  4. Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Islah; Kaspar, Ben; Sharma, Uma

    2012-02-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biologic products that are highly similar to reference products, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, with no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of safety profile, purity, and potency. Due to the high cost of innovator biologics, as well as an increase in the number of these products reaching patent expiry, the development of a process for approving biosimilar products has become a crucial regulatory issue in the United States. This commentary explores the relationship between structural/biophysical variation and the risk/benefit profile of biosimilars and reference biologics that have undergone process changes in the context of the most recent biophysical, nonclinical, and clinical data available. The search strategy used PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for the retrieval of documents pertaining to biologic manufacturing, comparative analysis of biosimilars and originator biologics, and relevant review articles on biosimilars. For regulatory documents pertaining to the processes of the approval of biosimilars, biologics, and generics, a search for legislative decisions, briefing summaries, concept papers, guidance, and evaluations of approved and rejected applications for biosimilars published by the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national regulatory authorities was conducted. Selected articles from key opinion leaders and manufacturers were also reviewed. These searches were conducted to provide a review of historical and contemporary issues in the consideration of the current status of worldwide biosimilar use and regulation. A total of 18 marketing applications covering 9 development programs were surveyed. Of these, 14 applications were approved and 4 were rejected by the EMA. None of the biosimilars were reported to have evidence of significant clinical variation relative

  5. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  6. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  7. Creating beauty: the experience of a fashion collection prepared by adolescent patients at a pediatric oncology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroni, Laura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Proserpio, Tullio; Magni, Chiara; Sironi, Giovanna; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Roncari, Luisa; Casanova, Michela; Gandola, Lorenza; Massimino, Maura; Ferrari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent patients with cancer need psychological support in order to face the traumatic event of cancer diagnosis and to preserve continuity with their normal lives. Creative projects or laboratories may help young patients express their thoughts and feelings. The Youth Project developed activities dedicated to adolescents to give them a chance to vent their creative spirit and express themselves freely. In the first project, the teenagers designed their own fashion collection in all its various stages under the artistic direction of a well-known fashion designer, creating their own brand name (B.Live), and organized a fashion show. In all, 24 patients from 15 to 20 years old took part in the project. The fashion project proved a fundamental resource in helping the young patients involved to regain a positive self-image and the feeling that they could take action, both on themselves and in their relations with others. Facilitating the experience of beauty may enable hope to withstand the anguish caused by disease. This experience integrated the usual forms of psychological support to offer patients a form of expression and support during the course of their treatment.

  8. Stereodynamical Origin of Anti-Arrhenius Kinetics: Negative Activation Energy and Roaming for a Four-Atom Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Nayara D; Silva, Valter H C; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Camargo, Ademir J; Mundim, Kleber C; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-05-07

    The OH + HBr → H2O + Br reaction, prototypical of halogen-atom liberating processes relevant to mechanisms for atmospheric ozone destruction, attracted frequent attention of experimental chemical kinetics: the nature of the unusual reactivity drop from low to high temperatures eluded a variety of theoretical efforts, ranking this one among the most studied four-atom reactions. Here, inspired by oriented molecular-beams experiments, we develop a first-principles stereodynamical approach. Thermalized sets of trajectories, evolving on a multidimensional potential energy surface quantum mechanically generated on-the-fly, provide a map of most visited regions at each temperature. Visualizations of rearrangements of bonds along trajectories and of the role of specific angles of reactants' mutual approach elucidate the mechanistic change from the low kinetic energy regime (where incident reactants reorient to find the propitious alignment leading to reaction) to high temperature (where speed hinders adjustment of directionality and roaming delays reactivity).

  9. Physiotherapists' perceptions of and experiences with the discharge planning process in acute-care general internal medicine units in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmari, Lakshmi; Uyeno, Jennifer; Heck, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    To examine discharge planning of patients in general internal medicine units in Ontario acute-care hospitals from the perspective of physiotherapists. A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was sent to participants in November 2011. Respondents' demographic characteristics and ranking of factors were analyzed using descriptive statistics; t-tests were performed to determine between-group differences (based on demographic characteristics). Responses to open-ended questions were coded to identify themes. Mobility status was identified as the key factor in determining discharge readiness; other factors included the availability of social support and community resources. While inter-professional communication was identified as important, processes were often informal. Discharge policies, timely availability of other discharge options, and pressure for early discharge were identified as affecting discharge planning. Respondents also noted a lack of training in discharge planning; accounts of ethical dilemmas experienced by respondents supported these themes. Physiotherapists consider many factors beyond the patient's physical function during the discharge planning process. The improvement of team communication and resource allocation should be considered to deal with the realities of discharge planning.

  10. Outcome of Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants Who Require Intensive Care Unit Support: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Becerra, Samantha; Labastida-Mercado, Nancy; Rosales-Padrón, Jaime; García-Chavez, Jessica; Soto-Vega, Elena; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; León-Peña, Andres A; Fernández-Lara, Danitza; Dominguez-Cid, Monica; Anthon-Méndez, Javier; Arizpe-Bravo, Daniel; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2015-01-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a patient who has been grafted with hematopoietic stem cells is a serious event, but the role of the ICU in this setting remains controversial. Data were analyzed from patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla, México, between May 1993 and October 2014. In total, 339 patients were grafted: 150 autografts and 189 allografts; 68 of the grafted patients (20%) were admitted to the ICU after transplantation: 27% of the allografted and 11% of the autografted patients (p = 0.2). Two of 17 autografted patients (12%) and 5 of 51 allografted patients (10%) survived. All patients who required insertion of an endotracheal tube died, whereas 7 of 11 patients without invasive mechanical ventilation survived (p = 0.001). Only 10% of the grafted patients survived their stay in the ICU; this figure is lower than those reported from other centers and may reflect several facts, varying from the quality of the ICU support to ICU admission criteria to the initial management of all the grafts in an outpatient setting, which could somehow delay the arrival of patients to the hospital. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Predictive Factors for Delayed Extubation in the Intensive Care Unit after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; A Southern Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Shahbazi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early extubation is implemented in cardiothoracic units worldwide for its advantages such as decreased mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization costs. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate potential factors which may affect extubation time. Methods: The records of 334 eligible patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG in 2008 in Kowsar Hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran were evaluated to find the factors that can affect the extubation time. The patients were divided to early (equal or less than 6 hours and late extubation groups. The patients’ demographic data and operative variables were extracted from the records. We excluded patients with difficult intubation, severe acid base disturbance, neurological problems, and cardiovascular instability; and those who used intra-aortic balloon pump, had underwent emergency operation, or had another concomitant surgery. Results: Multiple logistic regressions comparing age, sex, number of grafts, ejection fraction, pump time, hematocrit, number of risk factors, and number of inotropic drugs, identified only age as a predictor of delayed extubation (odds ratio=1.07, CI 95%=1.04-1.10, P<0.001. Also, in both studied groups the men to women ratio was higher (P<0.05.Conclusion: Although in our study age was the only predictive factor for delayed extubation, a comprehensive study including preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative factors is recommended in our area.

  12. Exchange Transfusion in the Treatment of Neonatal Septic Shock: A Ten-Year Experience in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Pugni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septic shock, occurring in about 1% of neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, is a major cause of death in the neonatal period. In the 1980s and 90s, exchange transfusion (ET was reported by some authors to be effective in the treatment of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The main aim of this retrospective study was to compare the mortality rate of neonates with septic shock treated only with standard care therapy (ScT group with the mortality rate of those treated with ScT and ET (ET group. All neonates with septic shock admitted to our NICU from 2005 to 2015 were included in the study. Overall, 101/9030 (1.1% neonates had septic shock. Fifty neonates out of 101 (49.5% received one or more ETs. The mortality rate was 36% in the ET group and 51% in the ScT group (p = 0.16. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for potentially confounding factors significantly associated with death (gestational age, serum lactate, inotropic drugs, oligoanuria, ET showed a marked protective effect (Odds Ratio 0.21, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.06–0.71; p = 0.01. The lack of observed adverse events should encourage the use of this procedure in the treatment of neonates with septic shock.

  13. The clinical pathway for hypertensive patient of local health unit, hospitals and general practitioners, the Milan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Alberto; Sghedoni, Donatella; Carelli, Francesco A; Chirchiglia, Saverio; Manunta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Pathway (in its complete definition Diagnostic, Clinical and Therapeutic Pathway - Percorso Diagnostico Terapeutico Assistenziale - PDTA), originally started to deal with the newly diagnosed hypertensive patient, developed also recommendations for the first-line drugs in case of specific indications/contraindications and organ damages. It has been developed by a working group of specialists in cardiology, nephrology, internal medicine (faculty included) designated by their hospitals (both public and private accredited), including all the main city hospitals, by general practitioners designated by the Medical Unions SNAMI, FIMMG, SMI and SiMI and by public health doctors belonging to the Local Health Unit of Milan, who have coordinated the proceedings and have guaranteed that possible conflicts of interest of single participants could not interfere with the PDTA, anyway approved by all in July 2009. The PDTA deals with the measuring and self- home-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) and the diagnosis of hypertension; it revises, sometimes "dries up" and rationalizes the recommendations for diagnostic tests and specialist evaluations; it develops prevention and non-pharmacological treatments, proposing also tools for patients and for prescribing correct nutrition and physical activity and a structured program for BP monitoring; but the main feature is the innovations brought in the proposed drug treatment in comparison with the current clinical practice.

  14. Advantages and pitfalls of pocket ultrasound vs daily chest radiography in the coronary care unit: A single-user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Colin T; Manning, Warren J

    2017-05-01

    Pocket ultrasonography may enhance patient diagnosis and care. We sought to assess pocket ultrasound in detecting common conditions in the coronary care unit (CCU) compared to portable daily chest radiography (CXR) and conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). An experienced pocket ultrasound user performed a pocket ultrasound examination for interstitial edema, pneumonia, central line seen in the right ventricle, pleural and pericardial effusions, left atrial enlargement, and cardiomegaly. Data were blindly compared to the radiologist CXR interpretation and cardiologist TTE interpretation. A total of 102 CXR and pocket ultrasound examinations were performed in 66 patients. The most common CXR indication was "interval change" (37%) and finding central line (65%). Pocket ultrasound demonstrated overall good concordance with CXR ranging from 77% for pleural effusion to 92% for pneumonia. Additionally, the pocket ultrasound examination appeared to anticipate resolution of pulmonary edema prior to the CXR. Compared to TTE, pocket ultrasound had excellent sensitivity for cardiac findings with values ranging from 85% for left atrial enlargement to 100% for cardiomegaly, but limited specificity of cardiomegaly at just 51%. In the CCU, bedside pocket ultrasound reliably diagnoses common conditions identified by CXR with the advantage of lack of ionizing radiation and the suggestion of detecting the resolution of pulmonary edema prior to CXR. Pitfalls include only modest concordance for pleural effusions and limited specificity for cardiomegaly. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine whether pocket ultrasound can reduce routine daily CXR in the CCU and other intensive care settings. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Difficulty in the food environment and the experience of food insecurity among refugees resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Patil, Crystal L; Nahayo, Djona

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in 281 refugees resettled in the United States. Participants were recruited through a resettlement center and word of mouth. In addition to measures of socioeconomic status, education, time in the U.S., and food insecurity, we also measured individual difficulty in navigating the food environment using a food difficulty scale. Only 23% of the sample did not endorse any of the food insecurity items. Nearly half of the sample also noted difficulty in navigating the food environment. Food insecurity scores above the median were predicted by both income and non-income variables. In a multivariable logistic model, income and having more than one year of education were associated with lower food insecurity (p food environment" was associated with high food insecurity (p < .01). Results suggest that income is an important constraint but that non-income variables may also be important determinants of food insecurity.

  16. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  17. Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

  18. His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

  19. H.E. Mr Ichiro Fujisaki Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Japan to the Office of the United Nations and the other international organisations in Geneva visit the LHCb Experiment at point 8.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    H.E. Mr Ichiro Fujisaki Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Japan to the Office of the United Nations and the other international organisations in Geneva visit the LHCb Experiment at point 8.

  20. Experience of the transplant unit from Virgen de las Nieves Hospital in using liver grafts from asystolic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambudio, N; Fundora, Y; Muffak, K; Villegas, T; Becerra, A; Garrote, D; Ferrón, J A

    2013-01-01

    Given the shortage of donors, it has become increasingly necessary to use alternative sources to meet the growing demand for organs, and evolution in the use of asystolic donors is proving to be an important resource in helping to meet those needs. The goal of this study is to describe the initial results of our experience with Type II asystolic donation. An observational retrospective study was conducted to analyze the variables of four cases in this type of donation. After the analysis we conclude that, despite the limited number of cases in our series, the results are compatible with larger series and permit us to continue to value this method as a resource for broadening the donor pool.

  1. Implementing health promotion in schools: protocol for a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Mark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based interventions and campaigns are used to promote health and address a wide variety of public health problems. Schools are considered to be key sites for the implementation of health promotion programmes for their potential to reach the whole population in particular age-groups and instil healthy patterns of behavior early in life. However, evidence for the effectiveness of school-based health promotion interventions is highly variable. Systematic reviews of the evidence of school-based interventions tend to be highly problem- or intervention- specific, thereby missing potential generic insights into implementation and effectiveness of such programmes across problems. Methods/design A realist systematic review will be undertaken to explain how, why and in what circumstances schools can provide feasible settings for effective health promotion programmes in the United Kingdom (UK. The review will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 will identify programme theories about implementation (ideas about what enables or inhibits effective health promotion to be delivered in a school setting. Phase 2 will test the programme theories so that they can be challenged, endorsed and/or refined. A Review Advisory Group of education and health professionals will be convened to help identify and choose potential programme theories, provide a ‘reality check’ on the clarity and explanatory strength of the mechanisms to be tested, and help shape the presentation of findings to be usable by practitioners and decision-makers. Review findings will be disseminated through liaison with decision-makers, and voluntary and professional groups in the fields of education and health.

  2. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  3. Ising-like chain magnetism, Arrhenius magnetic relaxation, and case against 3D magnetic ordering in β-manganese phthalocyanine (C32H16MnN8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S.

    2016-04-01

    Previous magnetic studies in the organic semiconductor β-manganese phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) have reported it to be a canted ferromagnet below T C  ≈  8.6 K. However, the recent result of the lack of a λ-type anomaly in the specific heat versus temperature data near the quoted T C has questioned the presence of long-range 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic ordering in this system. In this paper, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature (2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (up to 90 kOe) dependence of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities in a powder sample of β-MnPc leads us to conclude that 3D long-range magnetic ordering is absent in this material. This is supported by the Arrott plots and the lack of a peak in the ac susceptibilities, χ‧ and χ″, near the quoted T C. Instead, the system can be best described as an Ising-like chain magnet with Arrhenius relaxation of the magnetization governed by an intra-layer ferromagnetic exchange constant J/k B  =  2.6 K and the single ion anisotropy energy parameter |D|/k B  =  8.3 K. The absence of 3D long range order is consistent with the measured \\mid D\\mid   >  J.

  4. 基于Matlab编程实现Arrhenius模型寿命预测%Life Prediction Based on Arrhenius Model with Matlab Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建新; 李继红; 周堃; 刘静

    2013-01-01

      Arrhenius Model was widely used in accelerated life prediction. The model was programmed using Matlab language and the experimental data was processed with the program. The prediction life and the statistics parameters were provided after Matlab numerical analysis. The data processing was verified using the example data in HG/T 3087-2001. It was concluded that the program is easy in use and valuable in quick data processing.%  Arrhenius模型广泛应用于加速试验寿命预测,利用Matlab语言编程,对Arrhenius模型寿命预测过程数据进行处理。给出了Matlab数值分析程序,计算寿命预测值及相关统计检验参数,并利用HG/T 3087—2001标准中示例的试验数据演示了该程序的计算过程。利用Matlab语言编程进行数据处理可方便快捷地计算出相关预测结果,具有一定的应用价值。

  5. Ising-like chain magnetism, Arrhenius magnetic relaxation, and case against 3D magnetic ordering in β-manganese phthalocyanine (C₃₂H₁₆MnN₈).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S

    2016-04-06

    Previous magnetic studies in the organic semiconductor β-manganese phthalocyanine (β-MnPc) have reported it to be a canted ferromagnet below T(C)  ≈  8.6 K. However, the recent result of the lack of a λ-type anomaly in the specific heat versus temperature data near the quoted T(C) has questioned the presence of long-range 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic ordering in this system. In this paper, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature (2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (up to 90 kOe) dependence of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities in a powder sample of β-MnPc leads us to conclude that 3D long-range magnetic ordering is absent in this material. This is supported by the Arrott plots and the lack of a peak in the ac susceptibilities, χ' and χ″, near the quoted T(C). Instead, the system can be best described as an Ising-like chain magnet with Arrhenius relaxation of the magnetization governed by an intra-layer ferromagnetic exchange constant J/k(B)  =  2.6 K and the single ion anisotropy energy parameter |D|/k(B)  =  8.3 K. The absence of 3D long range order is consistent with the measured |D|/  >  J.

  6. Ion transport with charge-protected and non-charge-protected cations using the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Part 2. Relationship between ionic conductivity and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison; Bopege, Dharshani N; Frech, Roger

    2012-08-09

    Temperature-dependent ionic conductivities and cation/anion self-diffusion coefficients are measured for four electrolyte families: TbaTf-linear primary alcohols, LiTf-linear primary alcohols, TbaTf-n-alkyl acetates, and LiTf-n-alkyl acetates. The Nernst-Einstein equation does not adequately describe the data. Instead, the compensated Arrhenius formalism is applied to both conductivity and diffusion data. General trends based on temperature and alkyl chain length are observed when conductivity is plotted against cation or anion diffusion coefficient, but there is no clear pattern to the data. However, plotting conductivity exponential prefactors against those for diffusion results in four distinct curves, one each for the alcohol and acetate families described above. Furthermore, the TbaTf-alcohol and TbaTf-acetate data are "in line" with each other. The conductivity prefactors for the LiTf-alcohol data are smaller than those for the TbaTf data. The LiTf-acetate data have the lowest conductivity prefactors. This trend in prefactors mirrors the observed trend in degree of ionic association for these electrolytes.

  7. Ce(x)O(y)⁻ (x = 2-3) + D₂O reactions: stoichiometric cluster formation from deuteroxide decomposition and anti-Arrhenius behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Jeremy A; Ray, Manisha; Waller, Sarah E; Kafader, Jared O; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2014-10-30

    Reactions between small cerium oxide cluster anions and deuterated water were monitored as a function of both water concentration and temperature in order to determine the temperature dependence of the rate constants. Sequential oxidation reactions of the Ce(x)O(y)⁻ (x = 2, 3) suboxide cluster anions were found to exhibit anti-Arrhenius behavior, with activation energies ranging from 0 to -18 kJ mol⁻¹. Direct oxidation of species up to y = x was observed, after which, -OD abstraction and D₂O addition reactions were observed. However, the stoichiometric Ce₂O₄⁻ and Ce₃O₆⁻ cluster anions also emerge in reactions between D₂O and the respective precursors, Ce₂O₃D⁻ and Ce₃O₅D₂⁻. Ce₂O₄⁻ and Ce₃O₆⁻ product intensities diminish relative to deuteroxide complex intensities with increasing temperature. The kinetics of these reactions are compared to the kinetics of the previously studied Mo(x)O(y)⁻ and W(x)O(y)⁻ reactions with water, and the possible implications for the reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Transferable skills of incoming medical students and their development over the first academic year: The United Arab Emirates experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Shaban, Sami; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, it is being recognised in higher and medical education that learners should be adequately prepared for the unpredictable nature of professional practice. Several generic or transferable skills or capabilities (e.g., communication, information handling) that will enable graduates to function in an ever-changing professional world have been identified. Using a validated inventory comprising six categories of transferable skills, three cohorts of incoming male and female medical students at a Gulf university documented their level of practice and confidence for 31 skills. The exercise was repeated a year later. New medical students identified computer and organisational skills and the ability to manage their learning as strengths, but scores for technical and numeracy, information handling and presentation and communication skills suggested that learners generally required guidance. A year later, despite considerable self-reported information handling and communication skills development, learners generally did not consider themselves self-sufficient. A significant gender difference emerged, with incoming males reporting less experience and confidence in many skills. This gap was reduced but did not disappear over the first academic year. An audit such as this may be useful for identifying individual skills levels as well as providing insight into shortcomings in the academic programme in terms of opportunities for transferable skills development.

  9. What am I going to say here? The experiences of doctors and nurses communicating with patients in a cancer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret eMcLean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study investigating the provider-patient communication perceptions, experiences, needs and strategies of doctors and nurses working together in a UK cancer setting. This was a qualitative study using individual interviews and focus group discussions. Interpretative Phenomenological analysis (IPA was used to underpin data collection and analysis. Twenty-six staff participated in the project (18 nurses and 8 doctors. Both professional groups identified an inherent emotional strain in their daily interactions with patients. The strategies they adopted to reduce this strain fell into two main categories: 1 Handling or managing the patient to keep negative emotion at bay; and 2 Managing self to keep negative emotion at bay. These strategies allowed staff to maintain a sense of control in an emotionally-stressful environment. Most believed that their communication skills were sufficient. In conclusion, communicating with and caring for cancer patients causes considerable psycho-social burden for doctors and nurses. Managing this burden influences their communication with patients. Without recognition of the need for staff to protect their own emotional well-being, communication skills training programmes, emphasised in current UK cancer care guidelines, may have little impact on practice.

  10. Fidelity of implementation to instructional strategies as a moderator of curriculum unit effectiveness in a large-scale middle school science quasi-experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Carol Lynn

    This study examined whether fidelity of implementation to reform-based instructional strategies embedded in a middle school physical science curriculum unit developed by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics moderated the causal relationship between curriculum condition and classroom mean achievement in a quasi-experiment testing the effectiveness of the unit. The study sample included 48 6th grade science classrooms selected randomly from 8 Montgomery County Public Schools middle schools, assigned randomly to either the treatment or comparison condition in the Scaling up Curriculum for Achievement, Learning, and Equity Project (SCALE-0) quasi-experiment of The George Washington University. This dissertation was a secondary analysis of SCALE-uP's 2005-2006 fidelity of implementation data collected with the Instructional Strategies Classroom Observation Protocol (ISCOP), which captured whether the Project 2061 instructional strategies rated Satisfactory or Excellent in the ARIES: Exploring Motion and Forces (M&F) treatment unit were present during implementation in treatment and comparison classrooms. ISCOP Likert-like scores for each classroom were subjected to Rasch analysis; rating scale diagnostics, category collapsing, and fit statistics were used to develop a reliable continuous fidelity of implementation measure for each classroom. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis performed on the fidelity of implementation measures indicated that when controlling for prior knowledge, fidelity of implementation to the Project 2061 instructional strategies rated Satisfactory or Excellent in M&F moderated the causal relationship between science curriculum condition and classroom mean achievement. Follow-up post hoc analyses at two select fidelity measures indicated that treatment classrooms with High Fidelity were predicted to have higher classroom mean achievement than comparison classrooms with High Fidelity to the same set of instructional

  11. Interpreters' subjective experiences of interpreting for refugees in person and via telephone in health and behavioural health settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Interpreters, whether in person or via telephonic means, are used in healthcare settings to aid communication between clinicians and clients when the same language is not shared. Refugees seeking health and behavioural healthcare often have multiple needs and experiences of trauma that can complicate the provision of services. Little is known about the interpreters' experiences in providing in-person and telephonic interpreting for refugees. This qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of interpreters in providing in-person and telephone interpretations to refugees in healthcare settings in the United States. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse the transcribed, audio-taped individual, semi-structured interviews of 36 interpreters. These interviews were conducted between July 2013 and July 2014. Two themes were identified: (i) the importance for the interpreter to develop trust with the client; and (ii) working with refugees requires more attention from the interpreter. The interpreters of this study describe experiencing additional challenges in working with refugees versus other clients. Recommendations based on the findings are made.

  12. Implementing the CASPiE course-based research experience at the United States Military Academy: Affective responses and effects on critical thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony Michael

    The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.

  13. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: clinical course and prognostic factors in 60 patients. Experience from a single hematology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrtsonis, M C; Vassilakopoulos, T P; Angelopoulou, M K; Siakantaris, P; Kontopidou, F N; Dimopoulou, M N; Boussiotis, V; Gribabis, A; Konstantopoulos, K; Vaiopoulos, G A; Fessas, P; Kittas, C; Pangalis, G A

    2001-12-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma characterized by the presence in patients' serum of an IgM monoclonal component. We report on our experience with 60 WM patients, focusing on their clinical findings, response to treatment, and the possible identification of prognostic factors. Of these patients, 70% presented with fatigue, and lymphadenopathy was observed in 22%, splenomegaly in 18%, hepatomegaly in 13%, and extranodal site of involvement in 6%. Bleeding tendency was seen in 17%, infections in 17%, hyperviscosity syndrome in 12%, and cardiac failure in 25% of the patients. The median of IgM levels was 30 g/l with hypoalbuminemia in 20% of cases, hypogammaglobulinemia in 27%, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 15%, kappa light-chain restriction in 78%, and Bence-Jones proteinuria in 54%. Anemia was frequent (85%), followed by leukocytosis (18%), lymphocytosis (12%), leukopenia (10%), and thrombocytopenia (10%). Cryoglobulinemia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were encountered in 5%. In all cases but two, bone marrow was involved. Of 50 patients initially treated with intermittent oral chlorambucil, 46 (92%) responded. Median overall survival was 108 months. Factors associated with adverse prognosis were age > or =65 years (p=0.06), presence of lymphadenopathy (p=0.06), bone marrow infiltration > or =50% (p=0.007), international prognostic index (IPI) > or =3 (p=0.0001), and Morel's scoring system (p=0.04). Concluding, we found in this series of WM patients that chlorambucil is an effective treatment and that the parameters of age, lymphadenopathy, percentage of bone marrow infiltration, IPI, and Morel's scoring system carry prognostic significance.

  14. QtUCP-A program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongsheng [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: zhaohscas@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Deqi [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao Jincheng; Chang Aimin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  15. QtUCP-a program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Wu, Deqi; Yao, Jincheng; Chang, Aimin

    2008-11-01

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  16. Retrospective analysis of burn injuries caused by hot milk in 159 pediatric patients: 14 years of experience in a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontar, Yalcin; Esmaoglu, Aliye; Coruh, Atilla

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hot milk burns among the pediatric patients and to compare our experiences with similar studies in the literature. A 14-year retrospective study was conducted on 159 pediatric patients with hot milk burn who hospitalized at the Burn Unit of Erciyes University Medical Faculty. There were 81 male and 78 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.03:1. The mean age of the patients was 2.7±1.6 years. The initial injury was immersion in 59.7% of the patients and spillage in 40.3%. The mean burned body surface area of the patients was 18.6±10.8%. Twenty-two percent of the patients had moderate, and 78% had major burn trauma. Forty-nine percent of the patients received burn wound debridement and reconstruction with auto-skin grafts. Our burn unit's mortality rate was 1.5% among 542 pediatric patients with hot water, and 5.6% among 159 pediatric patients with hot milk burn during the same period, respectively. Hot milk burns should be considered as separately from other hot liquid burns which do not contain fat such as water, tea, and coffee. Physical and chemical properties of milk because of its high content of fat give rise to more tissue destruction, increased morbidity and mortality.

  17. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  18. Developing as a scholarly writer: the experience of students enrolled in a PhD in nursing program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Elizabeth A; Shellenbarger, Teresa; Hunker, Diane F

    2013-03-01

    Graduates of doctoral nursing programs are expected to disseminate knowledge through scholarly writing, yet faculty teaching doctoral nursing students in two specific programs in western Pennsylvania in the United States noted students enter their doctoral programs with varying writing skills. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to uncover the lived experience of developing as a scholarly writer. Data were collected through the use of a demographic questionnaire and personal interviews with 10 students enrolled in their first semester of coursework in a traditional, rather than online, 60-credit PhD in nursing program at a large state university in western Pennsylvania. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and served as rich data sources. Data were analyzed using a systematic approach consistent with hermeneutic phenomenology. Themes uncovered included (a) coming to know about scholarly writing, (b) shifting thinking in order to write scholarly, (c) giving birth: the pain and the pleasure of scholarly writing, and (d) putting all the pieces together into the final product. Findings from this study can help faculty to understand the experiences of nursing student scholarly writing development. Recommendations based on the findings include a collection of teaching strategies that can be used to facilitate scholarly writer development across all levels of nursing education.

  19. Patients' experiences of receiving chemotherapy in outpatient clinic and/or onboard a unique nurse-led mobile chemotherapy unit: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T

    2013-07-01

    There is a drive in the UK to revise chemotherapy provision for people living in rural communities. Using a different model of treatment delivery might impact positively upon the experience of receiving chemotherapy. In 2007 the first nurse-led mobile chemotherapy unit (MCU) in the UK was launched in the South West of England with the intention of providing treatment closer to home. The aim of the research was to explore experiences of people with cancer who received chemotherapy treatment in outpatient clinic and/or onboard the MCU using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with 20 people and data were interpreted using thematic analysis. The cancer and chemotherapy journey was described as being undertaken by the participant and their significant other. Available car parking and travelling impacted upon quality of life, as did the environment and accessibility of nurses to discuss issues with participants. The most important, distinguishing feature between receiving chemotherapy in outpatient clinic and the MCU was the amount of time spent waiting. Having treatment on the MCU was perceived to be less formal and therefore less stressful. Participants reported significant savings in time spent travelling, waiting and having treatment, expenditure on fuel and companion costs.

  20. Validity of the Néel-Arrhenius model for highly anisotropic Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, T. E.; Ibarra, M. R. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lima, E. [División Resonancias Magnéticas, Centro Atómico Bariloche/CONICET, S. C. Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Mayoral, A.; Ibarra, A. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Marquina, C. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Goya, G. F., E-mail: goya@unizar.es [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-11-14

    We report a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 25 nm, prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} and Co(acac){sub 2}. The large magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the synthesized particles resulted in high blocking temperatures (42 K < T{sub B} < 345 K for 5 < d < 13 nm) and large coercive fields (H{sub C} ≈ 1600 kA/m for T = 5 K). The smallest particles (〈d〉=5 nm) revealed the existence of a magnetically hard, spin-disordered surface. The thermal dependence of static and dynamic magnetic properties of the whole series of samples could be explained within the Neel–Arrhenius relaxation framework by including the thermal dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K{sub 1}(T), without the need of ad-hoc corrections. This approach, using the empirical Brükhatov-Kirensky relation, provided K{sub 1}(0) values very similar to the bulk material from either static or dynamic magnetic measurements, as well as realistic values for the response times (τ{sub 0} ≈ 10{sup −10}s). Deviations from the bulk anisotropy values found for the smallest particles could be qualitatively explained based on Zener's relation between K{sub 1}(T) and M(T)

  1. Optical Kerr-effect study of trans- and cis-1,2-dichloroethene: liquid-liquid transition or super-Arrhenius relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, David A; Martin, David F; Wynne, Klaas

    2010-04-28

    The evidence that a molecular liquid in its thermodynamically-stable state can undergo a liquid-liquid transition (LLT) is still uncertain. Therefore, trans-1,2-dichloroethene is of interest due to reports of a LLT above the melting point [S. Kawanishi, T. Sasuga and M. Takehisa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 1982, 51, 1579-1583; S. Rzoska, J. Ziolo, A. Drozd-Rzoska, J. L. Tamarit and N. Veglio, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 2008, 20, 244124; K. Merkel, A. Kocot, R. Wrzalik and J. Ziolo, J. Chem. Phys., 2008, 129, 074503-074508]. Ultrafast optical Kerr-effect (OKE) spectroscopy enables accurate measurement of the low-frequency modes arising from interactions in liquids and therefore should be sensitive to the change in liquid structure inherent in such a transition. In the OKE data presented here, no sharp transitions are discernible, nor are there any in calorimetry data. However, the same data do reveal that neither trans- nor cis-1,2-dichloroethene is a simple liquid: in each case, a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence (with a Debye lineshape) is observed for the alpha relaxation. This dependence can be fitted by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) law over the measurable temperature range suggesting that at low temperature, cooperative relaxation, due to the formation of clusters or structure, is present. Accurate analysis of the OKE spectrum in the terahertz region is generally limited by approximations inherent in the models. Here the diffusional modes are convoluted with librational modes to give a more physically meaningful approximation to the inertial response.

  2. Gas phase chemistry in gallium nitride CVD: Theoretical determination of the Arrhenius parameters for the first Ga-C bond homolysis of trimethylgallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Rochus; Basting, Daniel

    2005-03-24

    Experimental evidence suggests that the energy of activation for the first homolytic Ga-C bond fission of GaMe3 of Ea = 249 kJ/mol, measured by Jacko and Price in a hot-wall tube reactor, is affected by surface catalytic effects. In this contribution, the rate constant for this crucial step in the gas-phase pyrolysis of GaMe3 has been calculated by variational transition state theory. By a basis set extrapolation on the MP2/cc-pVXZ level and a correlation correction from CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ level, a theoretical "best estimate" for the bond energy of Delta H(289K) = 327.2 kJ/mol was derived. For the VTST calculation on the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level, the energies were corrected to reproduce this bond energy. Partition functions of the transitional modes were approximated by a hindered rotor approximation to be valid along the whole reaction coordinate defined by the Ga-C bond length. On the basis of the canonical transition state theory, reaction rates were determined using the maxima of the free energy Delta G++. An Arrhenius-type rate law was fitted to these rate constants, yielding an apparent energy of activation of Ea = 316.7 kJ/mol. The preexponential factor A = 3.13 x 10(16) 1/s is an order of magnitude larger than the experimental results because of a larger release of entropy at the transition state as compared to that of the unknown surface catalyzed mechanism.

  3. Closer versus Long Range Interaction Effects on the Non-Arrhenius Behavior of Quasi-Resonant O2 + N2 Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, A; Cacciatore, M; Pirani, F; Laganà, A; Martí, C; Garcia, E

    2017-07-13

    We report in this paper an investigation on energy transfer processes from vibration to vibration and/or translation in thermal and subthermal regimes for the O2 + N2 system performed using quantum-classical calculations on different empirical, semiempirical, and ab initio potential energy surfaces. In particular, the paper focuses on the rationalization of the non-Arrhenius behavior (inversion of the temperature dependence) of the quasi-resonant vibration-to-vibration energy transfer transition rate coefficients at threshold. To better understand the microscopic nature of the involved processes, we pushed the calculations to the detail of the related cross sections and analyzed the impact of the medium and long-range components of the interaction on them. Furthermore, the variation with temperature of the dependence of the quasi-resonant rate coefficient on the vibrational energy gap between initial and final vibrational states and the effectiveness of quantum-classical calculations to overcome the limitations of the purely classical treatments were also investigated. These treatments, handled in an open molecular science fashion by chaining data and competencies of the various laboratories using a grid empowered molecular simulator, have allowed a rationalization of the dependence of the computed rate coefficients in terms of the distortion of the O2-N2 configuration during the diatom-diatom collisions. A way of relating such distortions to a smooth and continuous progress variable, allowing a proper evolution from both long to closer range formulation of the interaction and from its entrance to exit channel (through the strong interaction region) relaxed graphical representations, is also discussed in the paper.

  4. Buscando uma chance para o filho vir a ser: a experiência do pai na UTI Searching a chance for the child to become: the experience of the father in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspásia Basile Gesteira Souza

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva desvelar a experiência do pai cujo filho encontra-se em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, utilizando a pesquisa qualitativa, sob a perspectiva fenomenológica de Martin Heidegger, para analisar os discursos obtidos por entrevistas. Esta análise permitiu identificar três temas que configuraram aquela vivência em: Transformando seu medo em esperança, Percebendo-se como tomador de decisões e Agindo em benefício do filho. Estes temas desocultaram o fenômeno BUSCANDO UMA CHANCE PARA O FILHO VIR A SER, revelando que, para isso, o pai expõe o filho aos riscos e tratamentos que forem necessários, indicando que suas ações e a constante superação de seus sentimentos objetivam oferecer ao filhouma oportunidade para viver com plenitude.This study was intended to analyse the experience of the father who have a child in an Intensive Care Unit, by applyng the qualitative research under the phenomenologycal perspective of Martin Heidegger, it was to identify three themes which figured that experience:Transforming the fear into hope,Perceiving himself as the person who decides and Acting for his child benefit. These themes unveiled the phenomenon SEARCHING A CHANCE FOR THE CHILD TO BECOME, who reveals that submits his child to risks and to essential treatments while continuously unchanging overcomes his own feelings in order to offer to his child an opportunity of full living.

  5. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: ten-year’s clinical experience of a Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit (VERSIONE IN ITALIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Naldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough several prospective controlled randomizedtrials demonstrated the success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV in selected cases of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (IRA in setting with different care levels, clinical practice data about the use of NIV in the “real world” are limited.AimTo report the results of our clinical experience in NIV applied for IRA in the Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit (UTSIR allocated within the Respiratory Division of Arezzo in the years 1996-2006 in terms of: tolerance, effects upon arterial blood gases, success rate and predictors of failure.MethodsThree hundred filthy of the 1484 patients (23.6% consecutively admitted for IRA to our RespiratoryDivision during the study period received NIV in addition to standard therapy, according to the pre-defined routinely used criteria.ResultsEight patients (2.3% did not tolerated NIV becauseof mask discomfort, while the remaining 342 (M: 240, F: 102; median (interquartiles age: 74.0 (68.0-79.3 yrs; COPD: 69.3% were ventilatedfor >1 hour. Arterial blood gases significantlyimproved after two hours of NIV (mean (standard deviation pH: 7.33 (0.07 versus 7.28 (7.25-7.31, p 48 hrs of ventilation after an initial positive response.ConclusionsAs results of our ten-year’s clinical experience performed in a UTSIR, NIV is confirmed to be well tolerated, effective in improving arterial blood gases and useful in avoiding intubation in most IRA episodes non-responder to standard therapy.

  6. CO2, the greenhouse effect and global warming: from the pioneering work of Arrhenius and Callendar to today's Earth System Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R; Hawkins, Ed; Jones, Philip D

    2016-09-01

    Climate warming during the course of the twenty-first century is projected to be between 1.0 and 3.7°C depending on future greenhouse gas emissions, based on the ensemble-mean results of state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs). Just how reliable are these projections, given the complexity of the climate system? The early history of climate research provides insight into the understanding and science needed to answer this question. We examine the mathematical quantifications of planetary energy budget developed by Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) and Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964) and construct an empirical approximation of the latter, which we show to be successful at retrospectively predicting global warming over the course of the twentieth century. This approximation is then used to calculate warming in response to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases during the twenty-first century, projecting a temperature increase at the lower bound of results generated by an ensemble of ESMs (as presented in the latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). This result can be interpreted as follows. The climate system is conceptually complex but has at its heart the physical laws of radiative transfer. This basic, or "core" physics is relatively straightforward to compute mathematically, as exemplified by Callendar's calculations, leading to quantitatively robust projections of baseline warming. The ESMs include not only the physical core but also climate feedbacks that introduce uncertainty into the projections in terms of magnitude, but not sign: positive (amplification of warming). As such, the projections of end-of-century global warming by ESMs are fundamentally trustworthy: quantitatively robust baseline warming based on the well-understood physics of radiative transfer, with extra warming due to climate feedbacks. These projections thus provide a compelling case that global climate will continue to undergo significant warming in response

  7. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Lieberman, Evan S; Snell, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1) frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2) frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized) behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment); and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment). Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects) and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  8. A study of the lived experiences of registered nurses who have provided end-of-life care within an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holms, Natalie; Milligan, Stuart; Kydd, Angela

    2014-11-01

    End-of-life care (EOLC) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little attention in the literature in comparison to the considerable amount of existing literature available on EOLC in other areas of nursing. The ethos of the ICU is to preserve life, but as many patients die in this environment, EOLC should be an integral part of the ICU nurse's role. This qualitative study explored the experiences of ICU nurses who had provided EOLC to patients and their families. Participants were purposively recruited within one local ICU (n=5). A semi-structured interview format was used to guide in-depth interviews. The themes identified from the interview analysis were; use of integrated care systems, communication, the environment, education and training, staff distress. The findings suggest that ICU nurses do not feel adequately prepared to give proficient EOLC. Those who felt more confident in EOLC had learned what to do over time. Appropriate training, support and improved communication between staff, patients and families is necessary for good EOLC in ICUs.

  9. Experience of Carrying out High Quality Nursing in Intensive Care Unit%重症监护病房开展优质护理的体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许怡

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of pediatric intensive care unit to carry out the main points of the quality of nursing care, it is concluded that experience: improves the quality of nursing service first update nursing concept,establishes the con-cept of “the patient as the center”and “people-oriented”,give humanistic care,comprehensively carries the nursing mea-sures,reflects the value of the nurse, strengthens health education, gives love to the children, in order to improve customer satisfaction, enhance the image of the hospital, enhance social benefits.%通过探讨儿科重症监护病房开展优质护理的要点,得出体会:搞好优质护理服务首先更新护理理念,树立“以病人为中心”、“以人为本”的观念,真正做到人文关怀。全面落实护理措施,体现护士价值,加强健康教育,把爱献给患儿,以提高满意度,提升医院形象,增强社会效益。

  10. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1 frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2 frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment; and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment. Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  11. Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 2: Discussion of results and literature control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Skhosana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit of a community hospital in the Nkangala district in the Mpumalanga Province. A qualitative, phenomenological design was applied. Purposeful sampling was used to select participants from health care providers who were working in the emergency unit and had managed more than four sexual assault victims. Data were collected by means of individual interviews and analysed according to the Tesch method of data analysis by the researcher and the independent co-coder. Main categories, subcategories and themes were identified. Participants expressed their emotions, challenges and police attitudes and behaviours, as well as inconsistencies in guidelines and needs identification. It was recommended that members of the multidisciplinary team engage in community activities and that the community participate in matters pertaining to sexual assault. Government should develop clear guidelines that are applicable to rural and urban South Africa. Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant departments should work together to alleviate the complications caused by sexual assault incidents.

    Opsomming

    Die doel van hierdie studie was om die ervaringe van gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat slagoffers van seksuele aanranding in die ongevalle-eenheid van 'n gemeenskapshospitaal in die Nkangala-distrik in die provinsie van Mpumalanga hanteer, te ontgin en te beskryf. ’n Kwalitatiewe fenomenologiese ontwerp is toegepas. Doelbewuste steekproefneming is gebruik om deelnemers te selekteer uit die groep gesondheidsorgverskaffers wat in die ongevalle-eenheid werksaam was en meer as vier slagoffers van seksuele aanranding hanteer het. Data is by wyse van individuele onderhoude ingesamel en volgens die Tesch-metode van data-analise deur die navorser en die onafhanklike

  12. 小湾水电站顶盖取水试验研究%Research on the Experiment of Getting Unit Cooling Water from Turbine Head Cover in Xiaowan Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽辉; 武赛波

    2013-01-01

      介绍澜沧江小湾水电站顶盖取水试验,并对试验情况进行一定研究分析,供相关人员参考。%A brief introduction to the experiment of getting unit cooling water from turbine head cover in Xiaowan hydropower plant was presented. Several important findings are achieved based on the analysis of the results of the experiment.

  13. An overview of the Ice Nuclei Research Unit Jungfraujoch/Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2013 (INUIT-JFJ/CLACE-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ice formation in mixed phase tropospheric clouds is an essential prerequisite for the formation of precipitation at mid-latitudes. Ice formation at temperatures warmer than -35°C is only possible via heterogeneous ice nucleation, but up to now the exact pathways of heterogeneous ice formation are not sufficiently well understood. The research unit INUIT (Ice NUcleation research unIT), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG FOR 1525) has been established in 2012 with the objective to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation by combination of laboratory studies, model calculation and field experiments. The main field campaign of the INUIT project (INUIT-JFJ) was conducted at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 3580 m asl) during January and February 2013, in collaboration with several international partners in the framework of CLACE2013. The instrumentation included a large set of aerosol chemical and physical analysis instruments (particle counters, particle sizers, particle mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters, ice nucleus counters etc.), that were operated inside the Sphinx laboratory and sampled in mixed phase clouds through two ice selective inlets (Ice-CVI, ISI) as well as through a total aerosol inlet that was used for out-of-cloud aerosol measurements. Besides the on-line measurements, also samples for off-line analysis (ESEM, STXM) have been taken in and out of clouds. Furthermore, several cloud microphysics instruments were operated outside the Sphinx laboratory. First results indicate that a large fraction of ice residues sampled from mixed phase clouds contain organic material, but also mineral dust. Soot and lead were not found to be enriched in ice residues. The concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei was found to be variable (ranging between 100 per liter) and to be strongly dependent on the operating conditions of the respective IN counter. The number size distribution of ice residues appears to

  14. Traqueostomia percutânea no doente crítico: a experiência de uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica Percutaneous Tracheostomy in Critically-ill Patients: the Experience of a Medical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Park

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A traqueostomia é um procedimento realizado freqüentemente na terapia intensiva. Nas duas últimas décadas o procedimento percutâneo vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado. OBJETIVO: Descrever nossa experiência, em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica. MÉTODO: Levantamento retrospectivo de nosso banco de dados prospectivo de 78 traqueostomias percutâneas realizadas desde janeiro de 2000 até julho de 2003. Foram utilizadas as técnicas de dilatação progressiva com velas múltiplas (36 pacientes e com pinça fórceps (42 pacientes. Os dados são mostrados como número de ocorrência ou mediana com intervalos interquartis. RESULTADOS: Nossospacientes tinham em média idade de 66 (43 a 75 anos e APACHE II com mediana de 16 (12 a 21, tiveram um período de ventilação mecânica com mediana de 14 (10 a 17 dias antes da traqueostomia, e 23% faleceram na unidade de terapia intensiva. As causas mais freqüentes de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva foram as encefalopatias agudas (45%, e o motivo que mais freqüentemente levou à indicação do procedimento foi o desmame difícil (50%, seguido do Glasgow Coma Score persistentemente abaixo de 8 (49%. Em 6 pacientes a broncoscopia não foi utilizada como guia. Ocorreram complicações em 33% dos procedimentos. As complicações mais comuns foram pequenas hemorragias, sem necessidade de transfusão de sangue. Nenhum paciente morreu devido à complicação do procedimento. CONCLUSÃO: Em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica, o procedimento da traqueostomia percutânea a beira leito é factível e seguro.BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is a procedure commonly requiredin the intensive care unit. In the last two decades, the use of the percutaneous method has increased in parallel with improvements in the technique. OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience in employing the percutaneous method over the last 3.5 years. METHODS: We created, retrospectively, a database of prospective

  15. Nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected? Experience of the French national surveillance of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit, Rea-Raisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G; Lavigne, T; Jarno, P; L'heriteau, F; Coignard, B; Savey, A; Rogues, A-M

    2012-01-01

    Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients.

  16. Chest pain unit (CPU) in the management of low to intermediate risk acute coronary syndrome: a tertiary hospital experience from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, J; Killion, B; Liang, M; Lee, M; Devlin, G

    2013-02-01

    A chest pain unit (CPU) for management of patients with chest pain at low to intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) appears safe and cost-effective. We report our experience with a CPU from March 2005 to July 2009. Prospective audit of patients presenting with chest pain suggestive of ACS but no high risk features and managed using a CPU, which included; serial cardiac troponins and electrocardiography and exercise tolerance test (ETT) if indicated. Outcomes assessed included three-month readmission rate and one year mortality. 2358 patients were managed according to the CPU. Mean age 56 years (17-96 years), 59% men and median stay of 22h (IQR 17-26h). 1933 (82%) were diagnosed as non-cardiac chest pain. 1741 (74%) patients had an ETT. Median time from triage to ETT was 21h (IQR 16-24h). 64 (2.7%) were readmitted within three months. The majority of readmissions, 39 (61%) were for a non-cardiac cause. Twenty patients (1%) were readmitted with ACS. There was no cardiac death after one year of being discharged as non-cardiac chest pain. This study confirms that a CPU with high usage of predischarge ETT is a safe and effective way of excluding ACS in patients without high risk features in a New Zealand setting. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparative Study on Johnson Cook, Modified Zerilli-Armstrong and Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in α + β Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Han, Yingying

    2016-03-01

    True stress and true strain values obtained from isothermal compression tests over a wide temperature range from 1,073 to 1,323 K and a strain rate range from 0.001 to 1 s-1 were employed to establish the constitutive equations based on Johnson Cook, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) and strain-compensated Arrhenius-type models, respectively, to predict the high-temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase. Furthermore, a comparative study has been made on the capability of the three models to represent the elevated temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Suitability of the three models was evaluated by comparing both the correlation coefficient R and the average absolute relative error (AARE). The results showed that the Johnson Cook model is inadequate to provide good description of flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase domain, while the predicted values of modified ZA model and the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could agree well with the experimental values except under some deformation conditions. Meanwhile, the modified ZA model could track the deformation behavior more accurately than other model throughout the entire temperature and strain rate range.

  18. A Comparative Investigation on the Capability of Modified Zerilli-Armstrong and Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Models to Describe Flow Behavior of BFe10-1-2 Cupronickel Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Lei, Ying; Wang, Kuaishe; Zhang, Xiaolu; Miao, Chengpeng; Li, Wenbing

    2016-05-01

    True stress and true strain data obtained from isothermal compression tests on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator, in a wide range of temperatures (1073-1323 K) and strain rates (0.001-10 s-1), has been used to evaluate the material constants of two constitutive models: the modified Zerilli-Armstrong and the strain compensation Arrhenius-type models. Furthermore, a comparative study was conducted on the capabilities of the two models in order to represent the elevated temperature flow behavior of BFe10-1-2 cupronickel alloy. The suitability levels of these two models were evaluated by comparing the accuracy of their predictions of deformation behavior, correlation coefficient ( R), average absolute relative error ( AARE), relative errors of prediction, and the number of material constants. The results show that the predicted values of these two models agree well with the experimental values of BFe10-1-2 cupronickel alloy except at the temperature of 1123 K and the strain rate of 1 s-1. Meanwhile, the strain compensated Arrhenius-type model can track the deformation behavior of BFe10-1-2 cupronickel alloy more accurately throughout the entire temperature and strain rate range, while fewer material constants are involved in the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model.

  19. Physician experiences and preferences in the treatment of HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer in the United States: a physician survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peggy L; Hao, Yanni; Xie, Jipan; Li, Nanxin; Zhong, Yichen; Zhou, Zhou; Signorovitch, James E; Wu, Eric Q

    2016-02-01

    Sequential endocrine therapy (ET) is recommended for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) and without visceral symptoms. Chemotherapy (CT) can be considered after sequential ETs, but is associated with adverse side effects. We assessed physicians' preferences and self-reported prescribing patterns for ET and CT in the treatment of HR+/HER2- mBC at community practices in the United States. Community-based oncologists/hematologists from a nationwide online panel who treated postmenopausal women with HR+/HER2- mBC were invited to complete a survey, blinded to the identity of study sponsor. Treatment preferences were collected by treatment class of ET-based regimens versus CT and by agent for postmenopausal HR+/HER2- mBC patients after prior nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor use in the adjuvant or mBC setting. Among 213 physicians who completed the survey, 78% were male, 71% were based in small/intermediate practices (2-9 oncologists/subspecialists), 55% had >10 years of experience, and 58% referred to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines when treating mBC. Among first-line ETs, anastrozole was the most frequently used treatment (35%), followed by everolimus-based (EVE, 34%) and fulvestrant-based (FUL, 15%) therapy. After first-line ET, the most preferred second- and third-line treatments were ET monotherapy (48% and 39%), ET combination therapy (31% and 19%), and CT monotherapy (13% and 30%). Comparing EVE versus FUL, physicians preferred EVE in all lines but first line. Efficacy was the most important consideration for treatment choice. Physicians prescribed CT in early lines mainly because of visceral symptoms. This survey of treatment patterns for HR+/HER2- mBC in community practice suggested that after first-line ET, ET mono- or combination therapy was commonly used for the second- and third-line treatments and CT monotherapy for third- or

  20. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2011-12-27

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21(st) century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21(st) century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  1. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  2. 美国国家公园体系的发展历程及其经验教训%Evolution And Experience of the National Park System of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锐

    2001-01-01

    firstly, this paper summarizes the six phases of the national park system of the United States, Then, the paper, from the experience of the national park system of the United States, discusses what inspirations China could gain for its protection of natural and cultural heritages.%概括美国国家公园体系发展的六个阶段,然后从立法、规划、管理等方面阐述了美国国家公园体系的经验教训及其对我国自然与文化遗产保护的启示。

  3. 中国共产党领导统一战线的基本经验%The Basic Experience of the United Front Leaded by Communist Party of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪琴

    2011-01-01

    The united front run through the whole process of Chinese revolution and construction.It is extremely important for Chinese revolution and construction.United front leaded by CPC continuously has been growing.Valuable experience has been accumulated.%统一战线贯穿于中国革命和建设的全过程,对于中国革命和建设具有极其重要的意义。中国共产党领导的统一战线不断发展壮大,积累了宝贵的经验。

  4. A Compilation of Boiling Water Reactor Operational Experience for the United Kingdom's Office for Nuclear Regulation's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Generic Design Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liao, Huafei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    United States nuclear power plant Licensee Event Reports (LERs), submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under law as required by 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 were evaluated for reliance to the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive – Office for Nuclear Regulation’s (ONR) general design assessment of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design. An NRC compendium of LERs, compiled by Idaho National Laboratory over the time period January 1, 2000 through March 31, 2014, were sorted by BWR safety system and sorted into two categories: those events leading to a SCRAM, and those events which constituted a safety system failure. The LERs were then evaluated as to the relevance of the operational experience to the ABWR design.

  5. The Subjective Experiences of People with an Intellectual Disability and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Who Are Detained in a Medium Secure Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Alex; Dickson, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper examines the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities, in secure care, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The paper specifically looks at the perceptions of the participants in relation to their diagnosis and experience of psychosis. Method: Eleven adults with intellectual disabilities in a medium secure unit…

  6. Experience gained from carrying out ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies and control and protection system assemblies in the Novovoronezh NPP unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Shvarov, V. A.; Vitkovskii, S. L.

    2014-02-01

    A growth of deposits on fuel assembly elements was revealed during operation of the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 3 starting from 1997. This growth caused progressive reduction of coolant flow rate through the reactor core and increase of pressure difference across the assemblies, which eventually led to the need to reduce the power unit output and then to shut down the power unit. In view of these circumstances, it was decided to develop an installation for ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies. The following conclusions were drawn with regard of this installation after completion of all stages of its development, commissioning, and improvement: no detrimental effect of ultrasound on the integrity of fuel assemblies was revealed, whereas the cleaning effect on the fuel assemblies subjected to ultrasonic treatment and improvement of their thermal-hydraulic characteristics are obvious. With these measures implemented, it became possible to clean all fuel assemblies in the core in 2011, to achieve better thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and to avoid reduction of power output and off-scheduled outages of Unit 3.

  7. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  8. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  9. Forecast of criticality experiments and experimental programs needed to support nuclear operations in the United States of America: 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Forecast is generated by the Chair of the Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup (ENIWG), with input from Department of Energy and the nuclear community. One of the current concerns addressed by ENIWG was the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board`s Recommendation 93-2. This Recommendation delineated the need for a critical experimental capability, which includes (1) a program of general-purpose experiments, (2) improving the information base, and (3) ongoing departmental programs. The nuclear community also recognizes the importance of criticality theory, which, as a stepping stone to computational analysis and safety code development, needs to be benchmarked against well-characterized critical experiments. A summary project of the Department`s needs with respect to criticality information includes (1) hands-on training, (2) criticality and nuclear data, (3) detector systems, (4) uranium- and plutonium-based reactors, and (5) accident analysis. The Workgroup has evaluated, prioritized, and categorized each proposed experiment and program. Transportation/Applications is a new category intended to cover the areas of storage, training, emergency response, and standards. This category has the highest number of priority-1 experiments (nine). Facilities capable of performing experiments include the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF) along with Area V at Sandia National Laboratory. The LACEF continues to house the most significant collection of critical assemblies in the Western Hemisphere. The staff of this facility and Area V are trained and certified, and documentation is current. ENIWG will continue to work with the nuclear community to identify and prioritize experiments because there is an overwhelming need for critical experiments to be performed for basic research and code validation.

  10. Ion transport with charge-protected and non-charge-protected cations in alcohol-based electrolytes using the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Part I: ionic conductivity and the static dielectric constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison; Frech, Roger

    2012-05-17

    The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity and the static dielectric constant is examined for 0.30 m TbaTf- or LiTf-1-alcohol solutions. Above ambient temperature, the conductivity increases with temperature to a greater extent in electrolytes whose salt has a charge-protected cation. Below ambient temperature, the dielectric constant changes only slightly with temperature in electrolytes whose salt has a cation that is not charge-protected. The compensated Arrhenius formalism is used to describe the temperature-dependent conductivity in terms of the contributions from both the exponential prefactor σo and Boltzmann factor exp(-Ea/RT). This analysis explains why the conductivity decreases with increasing temperature above 65 °C for the LiTf-dodecanol electrolyte. At higher temperatures, the decrease in the exponential prefactor is greater than the increase in the Boltzmann factor.

  11. 清梳联设备状态维修管理体会%Experience of Blowing-carding Unit State Maintenance and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘荣昌; 李海霞; 徐林岚

    2011-01-01

    探讨清梳联设备进行状态维修的管理要点.针对当前清梳联设备的性能特点,在设备管理方面采取状态维修与周期保养揩检相结合,以状态维修为主的包机制管理模式,通过加强员工队伍建设、建立健全设备维护保养制度、细化清梳联设备的维修保养周期和范围、充分发挥试验仪器和测试仪表的作用等手段,充分调动了人员积极性,降低了机物料消耗,提高了设备的运行质量,使清梳联设备的性能得到了充分发挥.%Key points of blowing-carding unit state maintenance and management were discussed. According to blowing-carding unit characteristics, periodic maintenance and state maintenance were combined. Contract management mode was adopted. Staff structure was enhanced, equipment maintenance system was established, maintenance periodic and range of blowing-carding unit were subdivided, function of test instruments were used fully, staff positive attitude were mobilized fully, machine material consumption were reduced, machine operational quality were improved, finally performance of blowing-carding unit were used fully.

  12. One year work experience in a municipal Intensive Therapy Unit. Experiencia de un año de trabajo en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Municipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Iturralde González

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Municipal Intensive Care Units were created in the year 2004, to better the urgency attention in the primary health level. Objective: To characterize the functioning of a Municipal Intensive Care Unit. Method: A descriptive, prospective study that included 348 patients that were received in the unit during the year 2004. The following variables were analized: patients evolution, distribution by diseases, and evolution of the diseases. Results and Conclusions: The number of remissions to the hospital dropped; 183 patients weresent to their homes, 165 were remitted to the Provincial Hospital of Cienfuegos and three of them died in the unit. The angina pectoris was the first cause of admission, followed by cardiac arritmias and cerebrovascular disease.
    Fundamento: Las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Municipales (UTIM fueron creadas en el año 2004, para mejorar la atención a la urgencia y la emergencia en el nivel primario de salud. Objetivo: Caracterizar el funcionamiento de una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Municipal. Método: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, que incluyó 348 pacientes que ingresaron en la unidad durante el año 2004. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, distribución por enfermedades, evolución de los pacientes, estadía en la unidad, entre otras. Resultados y Conclusiones: Disminuyó el número de remisiones al Hospital Provincial; 183 pacientes fueron egresados a su hogar (más del 50, 0 % del total, 165 remitidos al Hospital Provincial de Cienfuegos y 3 fallecieron en la unidad. La angina de pecho fue la primera causa de ingreso, seguida de las arritmias cardiacas y la enfermedad cerebrovascular.

  13. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  14. Sexuality-Related Communication within the Family Context: Experiences of Bisexual Parents with Their Children in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bartelt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although many self-identified bisexual individuals report having at least one child, bisexual parents' unique experiences, including sexuality-related communication with their children, have been largely absent from the parenting literature. We conducted in-depth interviews via telephone (or digital telephony such as voice over Internet protocol)…

  15. Sexuality-Related Communication within the Family Context: Experiences of Bisexual Parents with Their Children in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bartelt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although many self-identified bisexual individuals report having at least one child, bisexual parents' unique experiences, including sexuality-related communication with their children, have been largely absent from the parenting literature. We conducted in-depth interviews via telephone (or digital telephony such as voice over Internet protocol)…

  16. Asian International Students' College Experiences at Universities in the United States: Relationship between Perceived Quality of Personal Contact and Self-Reported Gains in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between Asian international students' perceived quality of contact with faculty, administrative personnel and other students, and self-reported gains in areas identified in "College Students Experience Questionnaire." The sample included 705 Asian students from 25 research universities across the United…

  17. Practice and experience of the United States biodefense capability building%美国生物防御能力建设的特点与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德桥; 朱联辉; 王玉民; 郑涛

    2011-01-01

    Biological weapons, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases are serious international security problems. The United States attaches great importance to capacity building for biodefense and incorporates it into national security strategies, continuously improving biodefense capabilities. This paper analyzes the practice of U. S. Biodefense capacity building, including its clear biodefense strategy, adequate prevention and warning preparedness, effective consequence response ability, and strong technological support. It is hoped that China can learn something from the united states concerning biodefense capacity building.%生物武器、生物恐怖和新发传染病是当今国际社会面临的重大安全问题.美国高度重视生物防御能力建设,将生物防御能力建设纳入国家安全战略,不断提升其国家生物防御能力水平.本文简要分析了美国生物防御能力建设的主要特点,包括明确的生物防御战略、充分的预防预警准备、有效的后果处置能力、强大的科技支撑体系等,希望能对我国及其他发展中国家的生物防御能力建设有所启示.

  18. Acute appendicitis: should the laparoscopic approach be proposed as the gold standard? Six-year experience in an Emergency Surgery Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERCIO, G.; AUGELLO, G.; LICARI, L.; DAFNOMILI, A.; RASPANTI, C.; BAGARELLA, N.; FALCO, N.; ROTOLO, G.; FONTANA, T.; PORRELLO, C.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is common in an Emergency Surgery Unit. Although the laparoscopic approach is a method accepted for its treatment, no strong data are available for determining how many procedures must an experienced surgeon carry out for obtaining all the advantages of this technique and if this approach can become the gold standard in the activity of a general emergency unit with senior surgeons variously skilled on the basic laparoscopy. 142 patients that underwent appendectomy (90 laparoscopic, 52 conventional) for acute appendicitis were enrolled in this institutional retrospective cohort study. The surgeons were classified with a descriptor-based grading and divided in two groups regarding the skill. The only relevant result of our study was the significant reduction of conversion rate in case of laparoscopic approach. No strong differences were found concerning the duration of the procedure and the hospital stay between the two groups. The rate of complications were very low in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced surgeons can easily perform a laparoscopic approach independently from the specific skill in this approach. PMID:27938536

  19. Action against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases and tuberculosis in Nomad Camps: the experience of a Local Health Unit in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadea, A; Semyonov, L; Unim, B; Giraldi, G; Corda, B; D'Amici, A M; Ercole, A; Boccia, A; La Torre, G

    2014-01-01

    In Italy the highest incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) cases is in young adult migrants. In 2011, the sanitarystaff of the Local Health Unit (ASL) Roma A promoted a vaccination campaign conducting several public health interventions in Nomad Camps. After notification of a case of TB in the Camp of Via Salaria, out of 357 Mantoux skin tests performed, 93 were positive (26%); subsequently, 5 subjects with radiographic positivity were hospitalized. The vaccination campaign was carried out to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in immigrant communities at high risk of contagion and to avoid the consequent transmission in the host country. As a result, vaccinations coverage among the residents of the Camps increased: 367 vaccinated subjects (30% more than previous year) and 612 administered vaccinations.

  20. Fostering Intimacy through Musical Beginnings: Exploring the Application of Communicative Musicality through the Musical Experience of Parents in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McLean

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the powerful role of musical moments in fostering intimacy for parents and their hospitalised infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Grounded in Malloch & Trevarthen’s theory of communicative musicality (2010a, a critical and contemporary perspective on this theory underpinning early musical interactions is presented, advocating for greater exploration of the parents’ perspective to support a deepened understanding of the potential of music for supporting intimacy in the beginnings of life. Two case vignettes from my doctoral research illustrate how shared musical moments can foster intimacy for the hospitalised infant and parent in a NICU, calling for consideration of context and culture when exploring how musical beginnings can foster intimacy.