WorldWideScience

Sample records for uniting neighborhoods sun

  1. Flights between a neighborhoods of unstable libration points of Sun-Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Valerya; Shmyrov, Vasily

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we study the problem of constructing impulse flights between neighborhoods of unstable collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth system [1]. Such maneuvering in near-Earth space may prove to be in demand in modern space navigation. For example, such a maneuvering was done by the space vehicle GENESIS. Three test points are chosen for the implementation of the impulse control, in order to move to a neighborhood of the libration point L2. It is shown that the earlier on the exit from the vicinity of the libration point L1 impulse control was realized, the sooner the neighborhood L2 was achieved. Separated from this problem, the problem of optimal control in the neighborhood of L2 was considered and a form of stabilizing control is presented.

  2. Mass extinctions, galactic orbits in the solar neighborhood and the Sun: a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Siqueira, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    The orbits of the stars in the disk of the Galaxy, and their passages through the Galactic spiral arms, are a rarely mentioned factor of biosphere stability which might be important for long-term planetary climate evolution, with a possible bearing on mass extinctions. The Sun lies very near the co-rotation radius, where stars revolve around the Galaxy in the same period as the density wave perturbations of the spiral arms. Conventional wisdom generally considers that this status makes for few passages through the spiral arms. Controversy still surrounds whether time spent inside or around spiral arms is dangerous to biospheres and conducive to mass extinctions. Possible threats include giant molecular clouds disturbing the Oort comet cloud and provoking heavy bombardment; a higher exposure to cosmic rays near star forming regions triggering increased cloudiness in Earth's atmosphere and ice ages; and the destruction of Earth's ozone layer posed by supernova explosions. We present detailed calculations of the history of spiral arm passages for all 212 solar-type stars nearer than 20 parsecs, including the total time spent inside the spiral arms in the last 500 Myr, when the spiral arm position can be traced with good accuracy. We found that there is a large diversity of stellar orbits in the solar neighborhood, and the time fraction spent inside spiral arms can vary from a few percent to nearly half the time. The Sun, despite its proximity to the galactic co-rotation radius, has exceptionally low eccentricity and a low vertical velocity component, and therefore spends 30% of its lifetime crossing the spiral arms, more than most nearby stars. We discuss the possible implications of this fact to the long-term habitability of the Earth, and possible correlations of the Sun's passage through the spiral arms with the five great mass extinctions of the Earth's biosphere from the Late Ordovician to the Cretaceous-Tertiary.

  3. This is my neighborhood: comparing United States and Australian Oxford House Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Jason, Leonard A; Blake, Ron; Davis, Margaret I; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    The number of Oxford Houses, communal-living, mutual help settings for persons in recovery of alcohol and substance abuse, has spread across the United States and recently in and around Melbourne, Australia. In this study 55 US and 6 AU Houses were compared descriptively for their neighborhood characteristics. Across settings, there were greater similarities than significant differences in the locations. Results imply that Australian Oxford Houses are "safe and sober" settings for persons in recovery consistent with the original United States model in physical dwelling settings.

  4. C-12/C-13 isotope ratio of the interstellar medium in the neighborhood of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, I.; Jura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from observations of Xi Per, P Cyg, 20 Tau, and 23 Tau, obtained at 4232 and 3957 A using a coude spectrograph and a 1872-element reticon on the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory during 1984-1985, are combined with data on Zeta Oph (Hawkins et al., 1985) and used to estimate the C isotope ratio of the ISM near the sun. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The (C-12)H(+)/(C-13)H(+) abundance ratios toward the five stars are found to agree to within 12 percent and shown to be representative of the C-12/C-13 ratios in the gas, strongly indicating that the local ISM is homogeneous. The difference between the ISM ratio (43 + or - 4) and the solar-system value (89) is attributed to the chemical evolution of the ISM in the 4.9 Gyr since the formation of the sun. 78 references

  5. Connection between Herbig-Haro objects and flare stars in the neighborhood of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giulbudagian, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The origin of the K-M-dwarf flare stars observed with widely ranging spatial velocities in the solar neighborhood is investigated theoretically. It is proposed that these objects are Herbig-Haro objects (HHOs) which have lost their diffuse envelopes as they emerged from dark clouds. The number of HHOs in the Galaxy and their average lifetime are estimated as 150,000 and 3,000 yr, respectively, corresponding to a total of 5 x 10 to the 11th HHOs created in the Galaxy over 10 Gyr and in rough agreement with the number of low-mass flare stars (5 x 10 to the 10th) if some of them have ages of 1 Gyr or more

  6. Sun Safety Practices Among Schools in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Guy, Gery P

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to the sun's UV radiation is a leading cause of skin cancer. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make sun protective behavior more likely, could be promoted and supported by school policies and practices. To identify school characteristics associated with having adopted practices that promote sun safety. School-level data from the February 3 to July 23, 2014, School Health Policies and Practices Study's Healthy and Safe School Environment questionnaire were analyzed. The School Health Policies and Practices Study uses a 2-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of schools. All public, state-administered, Catholic, and non-Catholic private schools with any of the grades from kindergarten through 12 were eligible for inclusion. All analyses were conducted using weighted data. Prevalence of sun safety practices. In a nationally representative sample of 828 US schools, representatives of 577 schools (69.7%) responded. Overall, sun safety practices were not common among schools. The most frequent practice was having teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school (47.6%; 95% CI, 42.4%-52.9%). Few schools made sunscreen available for students to use (13.3%; 95% CI, 10.2%-17.0%), almost always or always scheduled outdoor activities to avoid times when the sun was at peak intensity (15.0%; 95% CI, 11.4%-19.6%), or asked parents to ensure that students applied sunscreen before school (16.4%; 95% CI, 12.9%-20.6%). High schools were less likely than elementary schools and middle schools to adopt several practices: for instance, 37.5% of high schools (95% CI, 29.7%-46.0%), 51.6% of middle schools (95% CI, 43.3%-59.7%), and 49.5% of elementary schools (95% CI, 42.0%-57.0%) had teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school, and 11.8% of high schools (95% CI, 7.7%-17.5%), 18.2% of middle schools (95% CI, 13.3%-24.4%), and 14.7% of elementary schools (95% CI, 9.6%-21.8%) almost

  7. The joint contribution of neighborhood poverty and social integration to mortality risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Andrea Fleisch; Echeverria, Sandra E; Holland, Bart K; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Passannante, Marian R

    2016-04-01

    A well-established literature has shown that social integration strongly patterns health, including mortality risk. However, the extent to which living in high-poverty neighborhoods and having few social ties jointly pattern survival in the United States has not been examined. We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) linked to mortality follow-up through 2006 and census-based neighborhood poverty. We fit Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between social integration and neighborhood poverty on all-cause mortality as independent predictors and in joint-effects models using the relative excess risk due to interaction to test for interaction on an additive scale. In the joint-effects model adjusting for age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and individual-level socioeconomic status, exposure to low social integration alone was associated with increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.59) while living in an area of high poverty alone did not have a significant effect (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95-1.28) when compared with being jointly unexposed. Individuals simultaneously living in neighborhoods characterized by high poverty and having low levels of social integration had an increased risk of mortality (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35-1.96). However, relative excess risk due to interaction results were not statistically significant. Social integration remains an important determinant of mortality risk in the United States independent of neighborhood poverty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: New Young Stars Near the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Finch, Charlie T. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Lurie, John C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Riedel, Adric [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ianna, Philip A.; Henry, Todd J. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Jao, Wei-Chun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Subasavage, John P., E-mail: jennifer.bartlett@navy.mil, E-mail: charlie.finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: lurie@uw.edu, E-mail: adric.riedel@gmail.com, E-mail: philianna3@gmail.com, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jennifer.winters@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jsubasavage@nofs.usno.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    As a step toward completing and characterizing the census of the solar neighborhood, we present astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of 32 systems observed with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9 m and 1.5 m telescopes. Astrometry from the 0.9 m indicates that among the 17 systems that had no previous published trigonometric parallaxes, 14 are within 25 pc. In the full sample, nine systems have proper motions larger than 0.″5 yr{sup −1}, including 2MASS J02511490-0352459, which exceeds 2.″0 yr{sup −1}. VRI photometry from the 0.9 m and optical spectra from the 1.5 m indicate that the targets have V  = 11–22 mag and spectral types M3.0V–L3.0V. For 2MASS J23062928-0502285 (TRAPPIST-1), we present updated astrometry and photometric variability based on over 12 years of observations. Of the nine binaries in the sample, two promise mass determinations in the next decade: LHS 6167AB, an M4.5V system for which we present an accurate parallax placing the binary at 9.7 pc, and 2MASS J23515048-2537367AB, an M8.5V system at 21.1 pc for which we present the first evidence of an unseen, low-mass companion. Most importantly, Na i and K i gravity indicators, H α measurements, long-term photometric variability, locations on the H-R diagram, and kinematic assessments indicate that as many as 13 of the systems are young, including candidate members of young moving groups, with ages less than ∼120 Myr.

  9. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXX. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: New Young Stars Near the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Riedel, Adric; Ianna, Philip A.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.

    2017-10-01

    As a step toward completing and characterizing the census of the solar neighborhood, we present astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of 32 systems observed with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9 m and 1.5 m telescopes. Astrometry from the 0.9 m indicates that among the 17 systems that had no previous published trigonometric parallaxes, 14 are within 25 pc. In the full sample, nine systems have proper motions larger than 0.″5 yr-1, including 2MASS J02511490-0352459, which exceeds 2.″0 yr-1. VRI photometry from the 0.9 m and optical spectra from the 1.5 m indicate that the targets have V = 11-22 mag and spectral types M3.0V-L3.0V. For 2MASS J23062928-0502285 (TRAPPIST-1), we present updated astrometry and photometric variability based on over 12 years of observations. Of the nine binaries in the sample, two promise mass determinations in the next decade: LHS 6167AB, an M4.5V system for which we present an accurate parallax placing the binary at 9.7 pc, and 2MASS J23515048-2537367AB, an M8.5V system at 21.1 pc for which we present the first evidence of an unseen, low-mass companion. Most importantly, Na I and K I gravity indicators, Hα measurements, long-term photometric variability, locations on the H-R diagram, and kinematic assessments indicate that as many as 13 of the systems are young, including candidate members of young moving groups, with ages less than ˜120 Myr.

  10. Possible conservation units of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Sarawak based on variation of mtDNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Manabu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2006-11-01

    The mitochondrial DNA control region of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) was sequenced using 21 DNA samples collected from confiscated sun bears to identify conservation units, such as evolutionarily significant units and management units, in Sarawak, Borneo Island. A total of 10 haplotypes were observed, indicating the presence of at least two lineages in the sun bear population in Sarawak. Presumably, these two lineages could represent evolutionarily significant units. However, the geographical distributions of the two lineages remained unknown due to the lack of information regarding the exact capture locations of the confiscated sun bears. It is essential to elucidate the geographical distributions of these lineages in order to create a proper conservation plan for the sun bears in Sarawak. Therefore, further studies examining the haplotype distributions using DNA samples from known localities are essential.

  11. Teaching and sharing about the Sun in the United States and with Spanish language resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Craig, N.; Hawkins, I.; Walker, C.

    2007-05-01

    The United States has many different scientific agencies that fund research on solar science, including the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Because there is a large population of Spanish-speaking people in the US, some of the resources developed by the education components of research projects take into account broader cultural perspectives on science and are developed in Spanish. We will describe the education and outreach programs of three solar programs funded by NASA and NSF, the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) program, the "We Are One Under the Sun" Program, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) education program. The STEREO program aims to teach about the Sun through different venues including teacher workshops and courses, teacher materials, turning solar data from STEREO into sound, working with museums, and creating solar posters, CDs, DVDs, and lenticulars. The "We are One Under the Sun" program focuses on Native Americans and Hispanics of Native heritage. It works by merging culture, ancient observatories, and the latest NASA solar science to engage children, youth, and the general public in science and technology through solar traditions in their own indigenous culture. The NOAO Educational Outreach Program was established to make the science and scientists of NOAO more accessible to the K-12 and college-level communities. We will focus on the NOAO solar projects and Spanish-Language Astronomy Materials Educational Center program, which provides multiple types of Spanish- language materials for teachers. These programs have had different levels of outreach in Spanish-speaking countries, namely Mexico (STEREO and "We are One Under the Sun") and Chile (NOAO). We will describe these efforts and give links to the Spanish and English resources available to learn and teach about the Sun.

  12. Neighborhood environments and obesity among Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults in the United States: results from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Samaah M; Brashear, Meghan M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Rung, Ariane L

    2014-04-01

    To examine possible associations between perceived neighborhood environments and obesity among a U.S. nationally representative sample of Afro-Caribbean, African American, and Non-Hispanic white adults. Data was used from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). All measures including neighborhood characteristics, height, and weight were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) based on perceived neighborhood physical and social characteristics. The odds of obesity were significantly lower for adults who reported involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups (odds ratio (OR): 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.85) and perceived that they had a park, playground, or open space in their neighborhood (odds ratio (OR): 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47, 0.98). These associations remained significant after adjusting for leisure-time physical activity. Race/ethnicity appeared to modify the association between involvement in clubs, associations, or help groups and obesity. Providing parks, playgrounds, or open space or increasing the perception of those amenities may assist in the prevention of obesity, especially in ethnically diverse neighborhoods in the United States. More research is needed to investigate how perceptions of the neighborhood environment influence obesity and whether perceptions of the neighborhood environment differ between individuals within the same neighborhoods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  14. The influence of sampling unit size and spatial arrangement patterns on neighborhood-based spatial structure analyses of forest stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, G.; Hui, G.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Neighborhood-based stand spatial structure parameters can quantify and characterize forest spatial structure effectively. How these neighborhood-based structure parameters are influenced by the selection of different numbers of nearest-neighbor trees is unclear, and there is some disagreement in the literature regarding the appropriate number of nearest-neighbor trees to sample around reference trees. Understanding how to efficiently characterize forest structure is critical for forest management. Area of study: Multi-species uneven-aged forests of Northern China. Material and methods: We simulated stands with different spatial structural characteristics and systematically compared their structure parameters when two to eight neighboring trees were selected. Main results: Results showed that values of uniform angle index calculated in the same stand were different with different sizes of structure unit. When tree species and sizes were completely randomly interspersed, different numbers of neighbors had little influence on mingling and dominance indices. Changes of mingling or dominance indices caused by different numbers of neighbors occurred when the tree species or size classes were not randomly interspersed and their changing characteristics can be detected according to the spatial arrangement patterns of tree species and sizes. Research highlights: The number of neighboring trees selected for analyzing stand spatial structure parameters should be fixed. We proposed that the four-tree structure unit is the best compromise between sampling accuracy and costs for practical forest management. (Author)

  15. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  16. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18-29 years--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Skin cancer is an important public health concern. Nonmelanoma skin cancers, comprised mainly of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common malignancies in the United States. Melanoma, although less common, is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers can be disfiguring, negatively affect quality of life, and create economic burden. Furthermore, age-adjusted incidence rates of both have increased in recent years. Different patterns of sun exposure are associated with different types of skin cancer. Continuous, chronic sun exposure, such as that observed among outdoor workers is associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Intermittent exposure, such as recreational exposure, is associated with melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Sunburn typically occurs after intermittent exposure, and the risk for melanoma increases with an increasing number of sunburns during all periods of life. Sunburn is more common among persons aged 18-29 years compared with older adults. To evaluate trends in sunburn and sun protective behaviors among persons aged 18-29 years, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The results indicated that although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use, and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high, with 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of whites aged 18-29 years reporting at least one sunburn in the past 12 months. These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer.

  17. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  18. Neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2018-02-01

    Perceptions of neighborhood disorder (trash, vandalism) and cohesion (neighbors trust one another) are related to residents' health. Affective and behavioral factors have been identified, but often in studies using geographically select samples. We use a nationally representative sample (n = 9032) of United States older adults from the Health and Retirement Study to examine cardiometabolic risk in relation to perceptions of neighborhood cohesion and disorder. Lower cohesion is significantly related to greater cardiometabolic risk in 2006/2008 and predicts greater risk four years later (2010/2012). The longitudinal relation is partially accounted for by anxiety and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The ecological impacts of primary education facilities based on a child-friendly neighborhood unit criteria in Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, E. F.; Putri, R. A.; Mulyanto; Handayani, N.

    2018-03-01

    A city should accommodate the citizen needs, especially for children. The absence of elementary school in a neighborhood unit (NU) will increase the use of transportation by children in the NU, every day at the same time. This activity will produce large quantities of - carbon dioxide (CO2) that can trigger climate change. This article aims at discovering the ecological impacts of CO2 emitted from the transportation used by children when commuting to their school, based on the conformity of each NU to the criteria of the a child-friendly city. Quantitative and spatial analysis techniques were employed in these four stages: (1) dividing the NU; (2) constructing the NU’s typology based on a child-friendly criteria; (3) identifying the characteristic of children movements in each NU when accessing their elementary school; and (4) analyzing the ecological impacts (in CO2 form). The result shows that 88.14% of CO2 emissions in Surakarta can be reduced by interventions through the fulfillment of all NU’s child-friendly criterias.

  20. NEIGHBORHOOD CHOICE AND NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Mare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the residential choices of individuals and aggregate patterns of neighborhood change. We investigate the conditions under which individuals’ preferences for the race-ethnic composition of their neighborhoods produce high levels of segregation. Using computational models, we find that high levels of segregation occur only when individuals’ preferences follow a threshold function. If individuals make finer-grained distinctions among neighborhoods th...

  1. Using deep learning and Google Street View to estimate the demographic makeup of neighborhoods across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Timnit; Krause, Jonathan; Wang, Yilun; Chen, Duyun; Deng, Jia; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Fei-Fei, Li

    2017-12-12

    The United States spends more than $250 million each year on the American Community Survey (ACS), a labor-intensive door-to-door study that measures statistics relating to race, gender, education, occupation, unemployment, and other demographic factors. Although a comprehensive source of data, the lag between demographic changes and their appearance in the ACS can exceed several years. As digital imagery becomes ubiquitous and machine vision techniques improve, automated data analysis may become an increasingly practical supplement to the ACS. Here, we present a method that estimates socioeconomic characteristics of regions spanning 200 US cities by using 50 million images of street scenes gathered with Google Street View cars. Using deep learning-based computer vision techniques, we determined the make, model, and year of all motor vehicles encountered in particular neighborhoods. Data from this census of motor vehicles, which enumerated 22 million automobiles in total (8% of all automobiles in the United States), were used to accurately estimate income, race, education, and voting patterns at the zip code and precinct level. (The average US precinct contains ∼1,000 people.) The resulting associations are surprisingly simple and powerful. For instance, if the number of sedans encountered during a drive through a city is higher than the number of pickup trucks, the city is likely to vote for a Democrat during the next presidential election (88% chance); otherwise, it is likely to vote Republican (82%). Our results suggest that automated systems for monitoring demographics may effectively complement labor-intensive approaches, with the potential to measure demographics with fine spatial resolution, in close to real time. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  3. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  4. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  5. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  6. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  7. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  8. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  9. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  10. baonan sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BAONAN SUN. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 90 Issue 2 February 2018 pp 23 Research Article. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq system · BAONAN SUN ZHAN LIAN.

  11. Fengrui Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Fengrui Sun. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 851-864. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle · Kang Ma Lingen Chen Fengrui Sun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Finite-time exergoeconomic ...

  12. Contextual Effects of Neighborhoods and Schools on Adolescent and Young Adult Marijuana Use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly E Milliren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the unique contribution of schools vs neighborhoods in driving adolescent marijuana use. This study examined the relative contribution of each setting and the influence of school and neighborhood socioeconomic status on use. We performed a series of cross-classified multilevel logistic models predicting past 30-day adolescent (N = 18 329 and young adult (N = 13 908 marijuana use using data from Add Health. Marijuana use differed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and public assistance in adjusted models. Variance parameters indicated a high degree of clustering by school (σ 2  = 0.30 and less pronounced clustering by neighborhood (σ 2  = 0.06 in adolescence when accounting for both levels simultaneously in a cross-classified multilevel model. Clustering by school persisted into young adulthood (σ 2  = 0.08. Parental receipt of public assistance increased the likelihood of use during adolescence (odds ratio = 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.59, and higher parental education was associated with increased likelihood of use in young adulthood. These findings indicate that both contexts may be promising locations for intervention.

  13. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  14. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  15. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  16. Halo star streams in the solar neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Morrison, Heather L.; Helmi, Amina; Kinman, T. D.; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Martin, John C.; Harding, Paul; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood to look for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Our sample ( 231 stars) includes red giants, RR Lyrae variable stars, and red horizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than -1.0. It was

  17. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  18. yimin sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YIMIN SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 687-693 RESEARCH NOTE. The association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified risk variants of the GLI3 gene in a Chinese population · YIRUI WANG YIMIN SUN ...

  19. jianhua sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JIANHUA SUN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 575-584 Article. MicroRNA-486-5p suppresses TGF-b2-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells by targeting Smad2.

  20. Do minority and poor neighborhoods have higher access to fast-food restaurants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Arcaya, Mariana C; Parker, Devin M; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Subramanian, S V

    2014-09-01

    Disproportionate access to unhealthy foods in poor or minority neighborhoods may be a primary determinant of obesity disparities. We investigated whether fast-food access varies by Census block group (CBG) percent black and poverty. We measured the average driving distance from each CBG population-weighted centroid to the five closest top ten fast-food chains and CBG percent black and percent below poverty. Among 209,091 CBGs analyzed (95.1% of all US CBGs), CBG percent black was positively associated with fast-food access controlling for population density and percent poverty (average distance to fast-food was 3.56 miles closer (95% CI: -3.64, -3.48) in CBGs with the highest versus lowest quartile of percentage of black residents). Poverty was not independently associated with fast-food access. The relationship between fast-food access and race was stronger in CBGs with higher levels of poverty (p for interaction fast-food while poverty was not an independent predictor of fast-food access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  2. The Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejna, L.; Sobotka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 50 papers classified in six parts. The introductory paper is devoted to magnetic fields of the Sun and of low-mass main-sequence stars. 7 papers discuss the morphology and fine structure of solar active regions, 9 papers deal with evolutionary aspects of the regions, 6 papers with observations and theories of the solar magnetic field, 9 deal with velocity fields, oscillations and waves in the active regions and 18 papers discuss the physical structure of active regions and its diagnostics. (M.D.). 218 figs., 19 tabs., 1,317 refs

  3. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  4. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  5. Macrocognition in the Healthcare Built Environment (mHCBE): A Focused Ethnographic Study of "Neighborhoods" in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Susan; Klar, Robin Toft; Patterson, Emily S; Morris, Nancy S; Ascenzi, Judy; Fackler, James C; Perry, Donna J

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to describe the interactions (formal and informal), in which macrocognitive functions occur and their location on a pediatric intensive care unit, to describe challenges and facilitators of macrocognition using space syntax constructs (openness, connectivity, and visibility), and to analyze the healthcare built environment (HCBE) using those constructs to explicate influences on macrocognition. In high reliability, complex industries, macrocognition is an approach to develop new knowledge among interprofessional team members. Although macrocognitive functions have been analyzed in multiple healthcare settings, the effect of the HCBE on those functions has not been directly studied. The theoretical framework, "macrocognition in the healthcare built environment" (mHCBE) addresses this relationship. A focused ethnographic study was conducted including observation and focus groups. Architectural drawing files used to create distance matrices and isovist field view analyses were compared to panoramic photographs and ethnographic data. Neighborhoods comprised of corner configurations with maximized visibility enhanced team interactions as well as observation of patients, offering the greatest opportunity for informal situated macrocognitive interactions (SMIs). Results from this study support the intricate link between macrocognitive interactions and space syntax constructs within the HCBE. These findings help increase understanding of how use of the framework of Macrocognition in the HCBE can improve design and support adaptation of interprofessional team practices, maximizing macrocognitive interaction opportunities for patient, family, and team safety and quality.

  6. "Black folk don't get no severe depression": Meanings and expressions of depression in a predominantly black urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M

    2016-05-01

    Discrepancies exist between how some Black populations perceive depression and how depression is conceptualized within research and clinical settings. Based on a 12-month ethnography of mental health in a predominantly Black disadvantaged urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States, the current study identifies meanings and common ways of expressing depression among African Americans. Depression was often considered a sign of weakness rather than a health problem that might need medical attention. Associated emotions like sadness and hopelessness were inconsistent with notions of strength. Common indicators of depression included classic symptoms such as hopelessness, loss of sleep, and feeling worthless. However, expressions of depression such as anger, agitation, violent behavior, and a frantic search for social interaction that are inconsistent with DSM-V criteria were also common. These findings have implications for the clinical assessment of depression and for the measurement of depression in community surveys. In addition, the context and meaning of symptoms play an important role in determining whether experiences are indicative of depression. This paper underscores that the provision of patient-centered mental health care requires a better understanding of the conceptualization of disorders within specific contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood choices, neighborhood effects and housing vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Morris A.; Gregory, Jesse; Hartley, Daniel A.; Tan, Kegon T. K.

    2017-01-01

    We study how households choose neighborhoods, how neighborhoods affect child ability, and how housing vouchers influence neighborhood choices and child outcomes. We use two new panel data sets with tract-level detail for Los Angeles county to estimate a dynamic model of optimal tract-level location choice for renting households and, separately, the impact of living in a given tract on child test scores (which we call "child ability" throughout). We simulate optimal location choices and change...

  8. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78

  9. Using cross-classified multilevel models to disentangle school and neighborhood effects: an example focusing on smoking behaviors among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Richmond, Tracy K; Milliren, Carly E; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Despite much interest in understanding the influence of contexts on health, most research has focused on one context at a time, ignoring the reality that individuals have simultaneous memberships in multiple settings. Using the example of smoking behavior among adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we applied cross-classified multilevel modeling (CCMM) to examine fixed and random effects for schools and neighborhoods. We compared the CCMM results with those obtained from a traditional multilevel model (MLM) focused on either the school and neighborhood separately. In the MLMs, 5.2% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between neighborhoods (when schools were ignored) and 6.3% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between schools (when neighborhoods were ignored). However in the CCMM examining neighborhood and school variation simultaneously, the neighborhood-level variation was reduced to 0.4%. Results suggest that using MLM, instead of CCMM, could lead to overestimating the importance of certain contexts and could ultimately lead to targeting interventions or policies to the wrong settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Alisa L; Ellis, Kelsey N; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M; Howe, David A

    2016-01-11

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  11. Perception of neighborhood safety and reported childhood lifetime asthma in the United States (U.S.: a study based on a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have emphasized the role of psychosocial stressors as a determinant of asthma, and neighborhoods can be a potential source of such stressors. We investigated the association between parental perception of neighborhood safety and reported lifetime asthma among children.Data for the study came from the 2003-04 National Survey of Children Health (NSCH; a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of children aged 0-17 years. Demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral covariates were included in the study. Models were estimated after taking account of weighting and complex survey design. Parental report of whether the child has ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician was used to define the outcome. Parental report of perception of neighborhood safety was the main exposure. In unadjusted models, the odds ratio (OR for reporting asthma associated with living in neighborhoods that were perceived to be sometimes or never safe was 1.36 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.21, 1.53 compared to living in neighborhoods that were perceived to be always safe. Adjusting for covariates including exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, mother's self-rated health, child's physical activity and television viewing attenuated this association (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.43. In adjusted models, the increased odds ratio for reporting asthma was also higher among those who perceived neighborhoods as being usually safe (OR 1.15 95% CI 1.06, 1.26, as compared to always safe, suggestive of a dose-response relationship, with the differentials for usually safe and never safe being statistically significant (p = 0.009.Psychosocial stressors may be important risk factors that may impact the pathogenesis of asthma and/or contribute to asthma morbidity by triggering exacerbations through neuroimmunologic mechanisms, as well as social mechanisms.

  12. Neighborhood and Friendship Composition in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The social surroundings in which an individual grows up and spends his or her everyday life have an effect on his or her life chances. Much of the research into this phenomenon focuses on so-called neighborhood effects and has put particular emphasis on the negative effects of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Originating from the sociological study of inner-city problems in the United States, the research has recentl...

  13. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  14. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Hass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  15. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  16. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Paschoal Gaspary, L.; De Turk, Filip

    Internet Bad Neighborhoods have proven to be an innovative approach for fighting spam. They have also helped to understand how spammers are distributed on the Internet. In our previous works, the size of each bad neighborhood was fixed to a /24 subnetwork. In this paper, however, we investigate if

  17. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  18. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  19. The star ''Sun''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives a resume of our knowledge of the Sun. In particular, he discusses the mass, luminosity and chemical composition of the Sun, and then asks what an observer from Sirius would think about the Sun. (G.T.H.)

  20. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  1. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  2. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  3. Our turbulent sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The quest for a new understanding of the sun and its surprising irregularities, variations, and effects is described. Attention is given to the sun's impact on life on earth, the weather and geomagnetic storms, sunspots, solar oscillations, the missing neutrinos in the sun, the 'shrinking sun', the 'dance' of the orbits, and the search for the 'climate connection'. It is noted that the 1980s promise to be the decade of the sun: not only because solar power may be a crucial ingredient in efforts to solve the energy crisis, but also because there will be brilliant auroras over North America, because sunspot activity will be the second highest since the 17th century, and because an unmanned spacecraft (i.e., the solar polar mission) will leave the plane of the solar system and observe the sun from above and below

  4. Sun's dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavanescu, Adela; Rusu, Mircea V.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis processes in the sun are one of the main results related to the evolution of the Sun. Dynamics and energetics of the Sun could be studied indirectly by their elements products in produced by nucleosynthesis. Also solar atmosphere and its characteristics reveled in its full development is observed during the solar eclipses. We try to correlate these facts in order to obtained data to be used in solar models. (authors)

  5. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  6. Kug Sun Hong

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Kug Sun Hong. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 43-47 Composites. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites · Asit Kumar Khanra Hwa Chul Jung Seung Hoon Yu Kug Sun Hong Kwang Seon Shin.

  7. F F Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. F F Sun. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 71-76. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film · H N Zhang J Wang F F Sun D Liu H Y Wang F Wang.

  8. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  9. Neighborhoods, US, 2017, Zillow, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service depicts nearly 17,000 neighborhood boundaries in over 650 U.S. cities. Zillow created the neighborhood boundaries and is sharing them with the...

  10. NeighborHood

    OpenAIRE

    Corominola Ocaña, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    NeighborHood és una aplicació basada en el núvol, adaptable a qualsevol dispositiu (mòbil, tablet, desktop). L'objectiu d'aquesta aplicació és poder permetre als usuaris introduir a les persones del seu entorn més immediat i que aquestes persones siguin visibles per a la resta d'usuaris. NeighborHood es una aplicación basada en la nube, adaptable a cualquier dispositivo (móvil, tablet, desktop). El objetivo de esta aplicación es poder permitir a los usuarios introducir a las personas de su...

  11. NEIGHBORHOOD TEST DESIGN BASED ON HISTORIC PRECEDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim S. Hakim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been various attempts to emulate traditional architecture and to experiment with the form and aesthetics of building design. However, learning from precedents of urban morphology is rare. This design study is a test at the neighborhood level using the pattern of traditional courtyard housing that is prevalent in the majority of historic towns and cities of North Africa and the Middle East. The study is undertaken at five levels of design enquiry: dwelling types, dwelling groups, neighborhood segment and community center. All of which are synthesized into a full prototype neighborhood comprising of 428 dwelling units covering an area that includes circulation and the community center, of 17.6 hectares. The test demonstrates that the traditional pattern of neighborhoods that are based on the typology of the courtyard dwelling as the initial generator of urban form may be used to develop a contemporary settlement pattern that is compatible with current necessities of lifestyle, vehicular circulation,  including parking and infrastructure achieving an attractive livable environment with an overall gross density, that includes a community center, of about 24 dwelling units per hectare.

  12. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  13. A Neighborhood Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Blue collar doesn't have to mean drab and dull. At least, not to Troy, New York, historian Mike Esposito, who is a member of a neighborhood revitalization movement seeking to celebrate the people and events that brought diversity, prosperity, and vitality to this upstate New York community more than 100 years ago. Esposito and others invited…

  14. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  15. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  16. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  17. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2017-06-01

    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  19. Youth United through Health Education: Building Capacity through a Community Collaborative Intervention to Prevent HIV/STD in Adolescents Residing in a High STD Prevalent Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason

    2005-01-01

    The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…

  20. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  1. Planning According to New Urbanism: the Ostadsara Neighborhood Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern urbanism activities have led to rupture of previous spatial structure of neighborhoods and destruction of their identity. The New Urbanism Movement, as one of the successful models in urbanization field attempts to revive this lost national-social identity through the project of returning to traditional structure of neighborhoods by applying modern urbanization models and methods. The current paper aims at evaluation and analysis of “the Ostadsara neighborhood's organization based on new urbanism principles” and representation of solutions for planning a successful neighborhood center considering these principles. In this regard, various methods including library method, observation, photography, questionnaire and interview with users of the environment were utilized. The results from identification and assessment of weaknesses and strengths and specification and analysis of potential threats and opportunities shows the possibility of applying walkability, connectivity and integration, improvement of public transportation, improvement of architecture quality and urban design, maintenance and improvement of public and green open spaces, maintenance and strengthening the structure of traditional neighborhood units and using cooperation of Ostadsara neighborhood's inhabitants. Finally, the current study will represent appropriate strategies for changing the mentioned neighborhood into a desirable and prosperous one.

  2. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  3. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  4. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  5. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  6. Neutrinos and our Sun - Part 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sun during its lifetime of four and a half billion years is given by ... The balance between ... per unit time (the luminosity): ... are operative in all stars during the bulk of their life: (a) ..... Thus the data collected over several years of hard work.

  7. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  8. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  9. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  10. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  11. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  12. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  13. YUAN-BO SUN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YUAN-BO SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 173-178 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis based on pathway interaction network · XIAN-DONG SONG XIAN-XU SONG GUI-BO LIU ...

  14. Exploring Neighborhood Unit’s Planning Elements and Configuration Methods in Seoul and Singapore from a Walkability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeun Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to explore how the neighborhood-unit concept, which had been initially promoted by North America and the United Kingdom, was adopted and utilized in the Asian cities of high-density developments, such as Seoul and Singapore from a walkability perspective. Among various environmental elements of walkability in a given neighborhood unit, 10 planning elements, as well as their configuration methods, were drawn from the review of the existing studies, which became an analytical framework for this paper. The findings of the analysis are as follows. First, there were similarities, yet also marked distinctions between the cases of Seoul and Singapore, on the one hand, and those in North America and the UK on the other, with respect to the configuration methods, categorized into four groups of typologies: ‘Neighborhood Size’, ‘Neighborhood Structure’, ‘Neighborhood Network’, and ‘Neighborhood Facilities’. The differences largely resulted from the high-density developments in Seoul and Singapore. In the years since the 1990s, however, when the concept of sustainable development was strengthened, the configuration methods, related to ‘Neighborhood Structure’ and to ‘Neighborhood Facilities’ in most cases, were enhanced to suit more neighborhood walking. The initial concept of the neighborhood unit was actively modified to accommodate the high-density urban situations in Seoul and Singapore, having both positive and negative impacts on neighborhood walkability.

  15. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Dora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. Objective This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software. Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough and natural geographic barriers. Results The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood. The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods

  16. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Simone M; Chor, Dora; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2010-06-29

    Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software). Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket) considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough) and natural geographic barriers. The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood.The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods, particularly in relation to squatter settlements. Although the literature on

  17. Positive Neighborhood Norms Buffer Ethnic Diversity Effects on Neighborhood Dissatisfaction, Perceived Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Moving Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; Asbrock, Frank; Roets, Arne; Kauff, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage. Study 2 ( N = 993 Dutch adults) replicated and extended this moderated mediation model using other characteristics of diversity (i.e., objective and estimated minority proportions). Multilevel analyses again revealed consistent buffering effects of positive neighborhood norms. Our findings are discussed in light of the ongoing public and political debate concerning diversity and social and communal life.

  18. The Sun on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  19. Tracking the Sun V: An Historical Summary of the Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the deployment of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has increased, so too has the desire to track the installed price of these systems over time and by location, customer type, and system characteristics. This report helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected PV systems in the United States from 1998 through 2011, with preliminary data for 2012. The analysis is based on project-level data for more than 150,000 individual residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV systems, totaling more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) and representing 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2011. The report describes installed price trends for residential and commercial PV systems, and another set of trends for utility-scale PV. In all cases, installed prices are identified in terms of real 2011 dollars per installed watt (DC-STC), prior to receipt of any direct financial incentives or tax credits.

  20. Tribute to Sun Kwok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kam Ching

    2016-01-01

    Sun Kwok was bom in Hong Kong in 1949. He did all his early schooling in Hong Kong and went to the same high school, Pui Ching Middle School, as I did but he was more than a decade later. There are two Education Systems in Hong Kong; the Chinese Language Schools and English Language School. Pui Ching was started by Christian missionaries in China and has a long history of providing quality education. Pui Ching is a Chinese Language School, and during colonial times, school entrance was difficult for students as we were not eligible to apply for admission to the University of Hong Kong, nor were we able to join the civil service. In spite of these handicaps, the school still managed to produce many excellent academics, including one Nobel Prize winner in physics and one Field's medalist in mathematics. Most of its graduates who sought further education went to the U.S. Or Canada as Sun Kwok did. Sun graduated from McMaster University and then went to the University of Minnesota for graduate studies. In the early 1970s, the University of Minnesota had just built one of the world's first infrared bolometers and the astronomers there (Nick Woolf and Ed Ney) were able to make some of the first infrared observations in the mid-infrared region. Through these observations, circumstellar dust was discovered, leading to the realization the evolved stars are losing mass. Sun wrote his PhD thesis on the mass loss mechanism of red giant stars, proposing that the stellar winds are driven by the mechanism of radiation pressure on grains. His 1975 paper is still widely cited to this date. In the same thesis, he showed that OH maser emission is a manifestation of the mass loss process and OH/IR stars are the most heavily mass-losing stars known. He went back to Canada for postdoctoral studies, first at UBC and then at York University. While at York, he applied his knowledge of mass loss to the problem of formation of planetary nebulae, leading to now well-established interacting

  1. China’s Neighborhood Environment and Options for Neighborhood Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU FANGYIN

    2016-01-01

    Since the 18th CPC National Congress,especially since the Central Conference on Work Relating to Neighborhood Diplomacy held in October 2013,China’s neighborhood diplomacy has been energetic,proactive and promising,achieving important results in several aspects.At the same time,it is also in face of challenges

  2. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  3. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  4. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  5. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  6. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  7. The sun in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonett, C.P.; Giampapa, M.S.; Matthews, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on solar science are presented. The topics considered include: variability of solar irradiance, sunspot number, solar diameter, and solar wind properties; theory of luminosity and radius variations; standard solar models; the sun and the IMF; variations of cosmic-ray flux with time; accelerated particles in solar flares; solar cosmic ray fluxes during the last 10 million yrs; solar neutrinos and solar history; time variations of Be-10 and solar activity; solar and terrestrial components of the atmospheric C-14 variation spectrum; solar flare heavy-ion tracks in extraterrestrial objects. Also addressed are: the faint young sun problem; atmospheric responses to solar irradiation; quaternary glaciations; solar-terrestrial relationships in recent sea sediments; magnetic history of the sun; pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity; magnetic activity in pre-main-sequence stars; classical T Tauri stars; relict magnetism of meteorites; luminosity variability of solar-type stars; evolution of angular momentum in solar-mass stars; time evolution of magnetic fields on solarlike stars

  8. The flight over the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrocq, A.

    1985-01-01

    With the ''Ulysse'' mission, a satellite is going for the first time to leave the ecliptic plane to observe the sun poles. The ISPM (International Solar Polar Mission) probe will go and visit the sun in passing Jupiter way. Sun pole regions are surmised to play a major role in solar wind production [fr

  9. Improving Mental Health Through the Regeneration of Deprived Neighborhoods: A Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2017-08-15

    Neighborhood-level interventions provide an opportunity to better understand the impact of neighborhoods on health. In 2001, the Welsh Government, United Kingdom, funded Communities First, a program of neighborhood regeneration delivered to the 100 most deprived of the 881 electoral wards in Wales. In this study, we examined the association between neighborhood regeneration and mental health. Information on regeneration activities in 35 intervention areas (n = 4,197 subjects) and 75 control areas (n = 6,695 subjects) was linked to data on mental health from a cohort study with assessments made in 2001 (before regeneration) and 2008 (after regeneration). Propensity score matching was used to estimate the change in mental health in intervention neighborhoods versus control neighborhoods. Baseline differences between intervention and control areas were of similar magnitude as produced by paired randomization of neighborhoods. Regeneration was associated with an improvement in the mental health of residents in intervention areas compared with control neighborhoods (β = 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 2.59), suggesting a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in mental health. There was a dose-response relationship between length of residence in regeneration neighborhoods and improvements in mental health (P-trend = 0.05). These results show that targeted regeneration of deprived neighborhoods can improve mental health. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  10. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  11. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  12. Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors

  13. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  14. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  15. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  16. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  17. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  18. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  19. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following...... this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  20. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  1. Conduct Disorder and Neighborhood Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Perez, Nicholas M; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M

    2018-05-07

    There has been a considerable amount of scholarly attention to the relationship between neighborhood effects and conduct disorder, particularly in recent years. Having said this, it has been nearly two decades since a comprehensive synthesis of this literature has been conducted. Relying on a detailed and comprehensive search strategy and inclusion criteria, this article offers a systematic and interdisciplinary review of 47 empirical studies that have examined neighborhood effects and conduct disorder. Described results suggest that there are generally robust linkages between adverse neighborhood factors and conduct disorder and externalizing behavior problems, as 67 of the 93 (72.04%) effect sizes derived from these studies yielded statistically significant neighborhood effects. The review also identifies salient mediating and moderating influences. It discusses study limitations and directions for future research as well.

  2. Nearest neighbors by neighborhood counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui

    2006-06-01

    Finding nearest neighbors is a general idea that underlies many artificial intelligence tasks, including machine learning, data mining, natural language understanding, and information retrieval. This idea is explicitly used in the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (kNN), a popular classification method. In this paper, this idea is adopted in the development of a general methodology, neighborhood counting, for devising similarity functions. We turn our focus from neighbors to neighborhoods, a region in the data space covering the data point in question. To measure the similarity between two data points, we consider all neighborhoods that cover both data points. We propose to use the number of such neighborhoods as a measure of similarity. Neighborhood can be defined for different types of data in different ways. Here, we consider one definition of neighborhood for multivariate data and derive a formula for such similarity, called neighborhood counting measure or NCM. NCM was tested experimentally in the framework of kNN. Experiments show that NCM is generally comparable to VDM and its variants, the state-of-the-art distance functions for multivariate data, and, at the same time, is consistently better for relatively large k values. Additionally, NCM consistently outperforms HEOM (a mixture of Euclidean and Hamming distances), the "standard" and most widely used distance function for multivariate data. NCM has a computational complexity in the same order as the standard Euclidean distance function and NCM is task independent and works for numerical and categorical data in a conceptually uniform way. The neighborhood counting methodology is proven sound for multivariate data experimentally. We hope it will work for other types of data.

  3. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  4. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  5. Participation of the Neighborhood Representatives (Mukhtars into Managerial Activities in Local Level: Burdur Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa LAMBA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood representatives (mukhtars are the nearest administrative units to citizens in local level. It is required to take advantage of that the neighborhood representatives know their districts and residents better than central and local government authorities. In addition, it will be appropriate to the principles of subsidiarity and the European Charter of Local Self Government to determine problems and demands of neighborhoods by their representatives. It is necessary to maintain communication channels and keep close relations with neighborhood representatives by local governments to use that advantage efficiently. It is aimed in this study to determine the participation level of neighborhood representatives into managerial activities in local level. For that purpose, the neighborhood representatives in the center of Burdur province are included in the research. According to the findings, it has been determined that the neighborhood representatives have participated into various activities without experiencing any difficulty, and they have been informed about the services regarding to their neighborhoods, and they have kept close relationship with central and local administrations, and most of them could communicate with local authorities directly. Therefore, it has been concluded that the neighborhood representatives have been influential enough in decision-making mechanisms in local level in Burdur.

  6. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  7. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O’Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L.; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. Methods We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. Results We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. Conclusion This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes. PMID:29389312

  8. Neighborhood Environmental Health and Premature Death From Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Xu, Junjun; Rollins, Latrice; Baltrus, Peter; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn; Cooper, Dexter L; Hopkins, Jammie; Botchwey, Nisha D; Akintobi, Tabia Henry

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups. Healthy neighborhood conditions are associated with increased uptake of health behaviors that reduce CVD risk, but minority neighborhoods often have poor food access and poor walkability. This study tested the community-driven hypothesis that poor access to food at the neighborhood level and poor neighborhood walkability are associated with racial disparities in premature deaths from CVD. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level food access and walkability on premature CVD mortality rates at the census tract level for the city of Atlanta using multivariable logistic regression models. We produced maps to illustrate premature CVD mortality, food access, and walkability by census tract for the city. We found significant racial differences in premature CVD mortality rates and geographic disparities in food access and walkability among census tracts in Atlanta. Improved food access and walkability were associated with reduced overall premature CVD mortality in unadjusted models, but this association did not persist in models adjusted for census tract population composition and poverty. Census tracts with high concentrations of minority populations had higher levels of poor food access, poor walkability, and premature CVD mortality. This study highlights disparities in premature CVD mortality and neighborhood food access and walkability at the census tract level in the city of Atlanta. Improving food access may have differential effects for subpopulations living in the same area. These results can be used to calibrate neighborhood-level interventions, and they highlight the need to examine race-specific health outcomes.

  9. Triana Safehold: A New Gyroless, Sun-Pointing Attitude Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Morgenstern, Wendy; Garrick, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Triana is a single-string spacecraft to be placed in a halo orbit about the sun-earth Ll Lagrangian point. The Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) hardware includes four reaction wheels, ten thrusters, six coarse sun sensors, a star tracker, and a three-axis Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU). The ACS Safehold design features a gyroless sun-pointing control scheme using only sun sensors and wheels. With this minimum hardware approach, Safehold increases mission reliability in the event of a gyroscope anomaly. In place of the gyroscope rate measurements, Triana Safehold uses wheel tachometers to help provide a scaled estimation of the spacecraft body rate about the sun vector. Since Triana nominally performs momentum management every three months, its accumulated system momentum can reach a significant fraction of the wheel capacity. It is therefore a requirement for Safehold to maintain a sun-pointing attitude even when the spacecraft system momentum is reasonably large. The tachometer sun-line rate estimation enables the controller to bring the spacecraft close to its desired sun-pointing attitude even with reasonably high system momentum and wheel drags. This paper presents the design rationale behind this gyroless controller, stability analysis, and some time-domain simulation results showing performances with various initial conditions. Finally, suggestions for future improvements are briefly discussed.

  10. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  11. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persisten...

  12. Sun following system adjustment at the UTFSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Roth, P.; Olivares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Evaluacion Solar' Laboratory of the Technical University Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso exists since 1957. Some types of sun following systems using instruments for different types of solar measurements were created during the mentioned period in this Laboratory. A solar tracking unit INTRA was recently installed in the UTFSM. It is considered a modern measuring and registering system for actual measuring of radiation in digital form, easier to store and to process. The action of the sun tracker is autonomous, which makes it a flexible tool to support direct radiation measurements. A special device was designed and constructed to support the measuring instruments. Three Eppley pyrheliometers were mounted on the unit and connected with an automatic registering system. An additional UV measuring sensor will be mounted soon. The realized measurements were compared with the results obtained manually from a K and Z pyrheliometer. The difference between both types of pyrheliometers is very small, which is a good precondition for using the INTRA sun tracker for precise measurements in the future

  13. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  14. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  15. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  16. Local Geographic Variation of Public Services Inequality: Does the Neighborhood Scale Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunzhu; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of the neighborhood scale when estimating public services inequality based on the aggregation of social, environmental, and health-related indicators. Inequality analyses were carried out at three neighborhood scales: the original census blocks and two aggregated neighborhood units generated by the spatial “k”luster analysis by the tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm and the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. Then, we combined a set of health-related public services indicators with the geographically weighted principal components analyses (GWPCA) and the principal components analyses (PCA) to measure the public services inequality across all multi-scale neighborhood units. Finally, a statistical test was applied to evaluate the scale effects in inequality measurements by combining all available field survey data. We chose Quito as the case study area. All of the aggregated neighborhood units performed better than the original census blocks in terms of the social indicators extracted from a field survey. The SKATER and SOM algorithms can help to define the neighborhoods in inequality analyses. Moreover, GWPCA performs better than PCA in multivariate spatial inequality estimation. Understanding the scale effects is essential to sustain a social neighborhood organization, which, in turn, positively affects social determinants of public health and public quality of life. PMID:27706072

  17. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thune, P.

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab

  18. The global financial crisis and neighborhood decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, Merle; Bolt, Gideon; Van Ham, Maarten; Van Kempen, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it

  19. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  20. Neighborhood and family intersections: prospective implications for Mexican American adolescents' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2012-10-01

    We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sun exposure, sun protection and sunburn among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Fioletov, Vitali

    2017-05-17

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and a history of sunburn are important risk factors for skin cancer. Sunburn is more common among men, younger age groups, and people in higher income households. Sun protection measures also vary by sex, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations between ambient UVR and sunburn and sun safety measures have not been quantified. A total of 53,130 respondents aged 18 or older answered a Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) module on sun safety, which was administered in six provinces from 2005 to 2014. The module contained questions about sunburn, time in the sun, and sun protection. These respondents were linked to an ambient erythemal UVR dataset representing the June-to-August mean. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine associations between population characteristics, sunburn, sun safety, time in the sun, and ambient UVR. Sunburn was reported by 33% of respondents and was more common among men, younger age groups, people who were not members of visible minorities, residents of higher income households, and individuals who were employed. On a typical summer day, a larger percentage of women than men sought shade and wore sunscreen, whereas a larger percentage of men wore a hat or long pants. As ambient summer UVR increased, women were more likely to apply sunscreen to their face, seek shade, or wear a hat (OR~1.02 to 1.09 per increase of 187 J/m² of erythemally-weighted UVR, or 5.4% of the mean); these associations were not observed among men. Findings related to sunburn and sun protection were similar to those of previous studies. The association between ambient UVR and women's precautionary measures suggests that information about UVR may influence their decision to protect their skin.

  2. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  3. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  4. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  5. "We Put on the Glasses and Moon Comes Closer!" Urban Second Graders Exploring the Earth, the Sun and Moon through 3D Technologies in a Science and Literacy Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Zeynep Inan, Hatice; Nowak, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Beomjin

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes (a) the ways 3D visualization, coupled with other science and literacy experiences, supported young children's first exploration of the Earth-Sun-Moon system and (b) the perspectives of classroom teachers and children on using 3D visualization. We created three interactive 3D software modules that simulate day…

  6. Neighborhood walkability and hospital treatment costs: A first assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom; Learnihan, Vincent; Hanigan, Ivan C; Bagheri, Nasser

    2017-06-01

    Health system expenditure is a global concern, with hospital cost a major component. Built environment has been found to affect physical activity and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was a first assessment of the relationship between neighborhood walkability and hospital treatment costs. For 88 neighborhoods in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 2011-2013, a total of 30,690 public hospital admissions for the treatment of four diagnostic groups (cancers, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases) were extracted from the ACT admitted patient care database and analyzed in relation to the Walk Score® index as a measure of walkability. Hospital cost was calculated according to the cost weight of the diagnosis related group assigned to each admission. Linear regressions were used to analyze the associations of walkability with hospital cost per person, admissions per person and cost per admission at the neighborhood level. An inverse association with neighborhood walkability was found for cost per person and admissions per person, but not cost per admission. After adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status, a 20-unit increase in walkability was associated with 12.1% (95% CI: 7.1-17.0%) lower cost and 12.5% (8.1-17.0%) fewer admissions. These associations did not vary by neighborhood socioeconomic status. This exploratory analysis suggests the potential for improved population health and reduced hospital cost with greater neighborhood walkability. Further research should replicate the analysis with data from other urban settings, and focus on the behavioral mechanisms underlying the inverse walkability-hospital cost association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Internet Bad Neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  8. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Temporal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  9. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  10. Incorporating Neighborhood Choice in a Model of Neighborhood Effects on Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Boschman, Sanne; Vogel, Matt

    2018-05-09

    Studies of neighborhood effects often attempt to identify causal effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual outcomes, such as income, education, employment, and health. However, selection looms large in this line of research, and it has been argued that estimates of neighborhood effects are biased because people nonrandomly select into neighborhoods based on their preferences, income, and the availability of alternative housing. We propose a two-step framework to disentangle selection processes in the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and earnings. We model neighborhood selection using a conditional logit model, from which we derive correction terms. Driven by the recognition that most households prefer certain types of neighborhoods rather than specific areas, we employ a principle components analysis to reduce these terms into eight correction components. We use these to adjust parameter estimates from a model of subsequent neighborhood effects on individual income for the unequal probability that a household chooses to live in a particular type of neighborhood. We apply this technique to administrative data from the Netherlands. After we adjust for the differential sorting of households into certain types of neighborhoods, the effect of neighborhood income on individual income diminishes but remains significant. These results further emphasize that researchers need to be attuned to the role of selection bias when assessing the role of neighborhood effects on individual outcomes. Perhaps more importantly, the persistent effect of neighborhood deprivation on subsequent earnings suggests that neighborhood effects reflect more than the shared characteristics of neighborhood residents: place of residence partially determines economic well-being.

  11. Subjective neighborhood assessment and physical inactivity: An examination of neighborhood-level variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen

    2018-06-01

    Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  13. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure Anyone working outdoors is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, even on cloudy ... nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, ...

  14. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  15. The sun and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacsne Dajka, E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the solar neutrino puzzle is given. The main processes in the sun, the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are described. The solar neutrino puzzle, i.e. the fact that the detected amount of neutrinos coming from the sun is less than the amount predicted by the solar model is discussed. The first generation solar neutrino experiments are presented. (K.A.)

  16. Perceived neighborhood quality, sleep quality, and health status: evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Hill, Terrence D; Friedman, Elliot; Nieto, F Javier; Galvao, Loren W; Engelman, Corinne D; Malecki, Kristen M C; Peppard, Paul E

    2013-02-01

    Why does living in a disadvantaged neighborhood predict poorer mental and physical health? Recent research focusing on the Southwestern United States suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods favor poor health, in part, because they undermine sleep quality. Building on previous research, we test whether this process extends to the Midwestern United States. Specifically, we use cross-sectional data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a statewide probability sample of Wisconsin adults, to examine whether associations among perceived neighborhood quality (e.g., perceptions of crime, litter, and pleasantness in the neighborhood) and health status (overall self-rated health and depression) are mediated by overall sleep quality (measured as self-rated sleep quality and physician diagnosis of sleep apnea). We find that perceptions of low neighborhood quality are associated with poorer self-rated sleep quality, poorer self-rated health, and more depressive symptoms. We also observe that poorer self-rated sleep quality is associated with poorer self-rated health and more depressive symptoms. Our mediation analyses indicate that self-rated sleep quality partially mediates the link between perceived neighborhood quality and health status. Specifically, self-rated sleep quality explains approximately 20% of the association between neighborhood quality and self-rated health and nearly 19% of the association between neighborhood quality and depression. Taken together, these results confirm previous research and extend the generalizability of the indirect effect of perceived neighborhood context on health status through sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  18. Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.

  19. Aging in Place in Gentrifying Neighborhoods: Implications for Physical and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2018-01-18

    In the United States, the older adult population and the proportion of neighborhoods experiencing gentrification are both growing. However, there is limited scholarship on the effects of gentrification on older adults, with most work focusing on those who leave rather than stay. This study examines the effects of remaining in a gentrifying neighborhood on older adults' self-rated health and mental health, with particular attention to outcomes for those who are economically vulnerable. Data are from 6,810 community-dwelling respondents in metropolitan areas from the first wave of the National Health & Aging Trends Study combined with the 1970-2010 National Neighborhood Change Database. We estimate the effects of gentrification on self-rated health and mental health separately using a quasi-experimental approach and comparing two methods: matching design and linear regression. Economically vulnerable older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods reported higher self-rated health than economically vulnerable older adults in low-income neighborhoods. Both economically vulnerable and higher-income older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods had more depression and anxiety symptoms than those living in more affluent areas. Higher-income older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods had poorer mental health than their counterparts in low-income neighborhoods. Findings call attention to the complexity of gentrification, and the need for more research examining how the intersection of neighborhood and individual characteristics influences older adults' health. Results reinforce the need for neighborhood-level interventions as well as relocation support to promote health in later life and caution against an overemphasis on aging in place. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  1. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  2. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  3. Electricity from the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, H.

    1986-01-01

    Solar scientist are well aware of the low energy density of solar radiation. A fully tracking collector at the sunniest spot on this planet will receive a little excess of 3000 kWh per year per m 2 of solar radiation (beam plus diffused). In most places the figure is far lower. Conversion efficiencies, from solar radiation to electricity, vary from a fraction of 1% for a photo-synthesis-hybrid-thermal converter, to to a maximum well below 40% for the highest temperature thermal systems. It is this low output per unit area that presents the major problem in achieving economic viability, discontinuity in the energy supply being, by comparison, a minor inconvenience. The economics of various solar conversion systems is presented, using an unsophisticated approach in order to see more vividly the issues involved. Economic viability depends not only on cost and output but on the cost of alternatively energy supplies at site in question

  4. SU(N) Irreducible Schwinger Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of $(N-1)$ types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  5. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  6. Nuclear astrophysics of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS

  7. Torsional oscillations of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, H.B.; Howard, R.; National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1985-01-01

    The sun's differential rotation has a cyclic pattern of change that is tightly correlated with the sunspot, or magnetic activity, cycle. This pattern can be described as a torsional oscillation, in which the solar rotation is periodically sped up or slowed down in certain zones of latitude while elsewhere the rotation remains essentially steady. The zones of anomalous rotation move on the sun in wavelike fashion, keeping pace with and flanking the zones of magnetic activity. It is uncertain whether this torsional oscillation is a globally coherent ringing of the sun or whether it is a local pattern caused by and causing local changes in the magnetic fields. In either case, it may be an important link in the connection between the rotation and the cycle that is widely believed to exist but is not yet understood. 46 references

  8. Functional Interpretation of Neighborhood Public Spaces in Terms of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Majedi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of neighborhood public space transformation due to rapid urbanization in Tehran since 1960s, on the formation of neighborhood identity. In order to find the role of public spaces in enhancing neighborhood identities, two middle class neighborhoods with different spatial organizations are compared with each other: Nazi Abad a planned neighborhood and Mehran a typical unplanned neighborhood which developed through rapid urbanization.   Next, the effect of neighborhood public spaces on neighborhood inhabitants is evaluated from two perspectives: Perceptual dimension and social dimension. The findings indicate that planned spatial organization and various neighborhood public spaces result in stronger neighborhood identity. It enhances both perceptual dimension of neighborhood identity(place attachment and its social dimension (sense of community. In contrast unplanned spatial organization which is the typical feature of Tehran neighborhoods leads to weak neighborhood identity.

  9. Relationship between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infections in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Mallika L; Zager, Sam; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2012-05-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness, but its contribution to bloodstream infections is not well-defined. We performed a multicenter observational study of 14,657 patients, aged 18 yrs or older, who received critical care and had blood cultures drawn between 1997 and 2007 in two hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 U.S. Census and hospital administrative data. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate categorized as 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents with income below the federal poverty line. The primary end point was bloodstream infection occurring 48 hrs before critical care initiation to 48 hrs after. Associations between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infection were estimated by logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Two thousand four-hundred thirty-five patients had bloodstream infections. Neighborhood poverty rate was a strong predictor of risk of bloodstream infection, with a significant risk gradient across neighborhood poverty rate quintiles. After multivariable analysis, neighborhood poverty rate in the highest quintiles (20%-40% and >40%) were associated with a 26% and 49% increase in bloodstream infection risk, respectively, relative to patients with neighborhood poverty rate of poverty rate, a proxy for decreased socioeconomic status, appears to be associated with risk of bloodstream infection among patients who receive critical care.

  10. The Sun was Not Born in M67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, Bárbara; Moreno, Edmundo; Allen, Christine; Bedin, Luigi R.; Bellini, Andrea; Pasquini, Luca

    2012-03-01

    Using the most recent proper-motion determination of the old, solar-metallicity, Galactic open cluster M67 in orbital computations in a non-axisymmetric model of the Milky Way, including a bar and three-dimensional spiral arms, we explore the possibility that the Sun once belonged to this cluster. We have performed Monte Carlo numerical simulations to generate the present-day orbital conditions of the Sun and M67, and all the parameters in the Galactic model. We compute 3.5 × 105 pairs of orbits Sun-M67 looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius of M67. In these encounters we find that the relative velocity between the Sun and M67 is larger than 20 km s-1. If the Sun had been ejected from M67 with this high velocity by means of a three-body encounter, this interaction would have either destroyed an initial circumstellar disk around the Sun or dispersed its already formed planets. We also find a very low probability, much lower than 10-7, that the Sun was ejected from M67 by an encounter of this cluster with a giant molecular cloud. This study also excludes the possibility that the Sun and M67 were born in the same molecular cloud. Our dynamical results convincingly demonstrate that M67 could not have been the birth cluster of our solar system. This work relies partly on observations of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The Ohio State University; The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  11. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  12. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toll on your skin and its underlying connective tissue. As a result, your skin may develop more wrinkles and lines. Too much sun exposure can also raise your risk for skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the ...

  13. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  14. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  15. Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage among Urban Renters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Desmond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.

  16. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  17. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Turnbull, Margaret C. [Global Science Institute, P.O. Box 252, Antigo, WI 54409 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  18. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Femke; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Sallis, James F; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-04

    In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. In Ghent (Belgium), 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male) participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  19. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  20. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  1. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  2. Teaching "Empire of the Sun."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet, Fred H. van

    1990-01-01

    A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…

  3. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  4. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  5. Connecting Schools to Neighborhood Revitalization: The Case of the Maple Heights Neighborhood Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    This case study focuses on the way a neighborhood association connects schools to broad change in an urban neighborhood of a large Midwestern city. The first section provides a review of the literature on community involvement in school and neighborhood reform. It reviews the historical origins of the current school-community relationship, the…

  6. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  7. Ultraviolet radiation, sun and tanning salons; Ultrafiolett straaling, sol og solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The pamphlet gives some information about ultraviolet radiation (UV), UV-sources and health effects, tanning in artificial and natural sun. It also includes some sun protection advice. It is intended mainly for persons inspecting artificial tanning units and for the owners of tanning salons. (Author)

  8. Spatial dimensions of the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; South, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    esearch examining the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent offending typically examines only the influence of residential neighborhoods. This strategy may be problematic as 1) neighborhoods are rarely spatially independent of each other and 2) adolescents spend

  9. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  10. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...

  11. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  12. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    of men living in the neighborhood, but positively affected by the employment rate of non-Western immigrant men and co-national men living in the neighborhood. This is strong evidence that immigrants find jobs in part through their employed immigrant and co-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood of residence...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  13. Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francic, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood have been obtained. The mass functions have been determined from proper motion membership probabilities and unlike similar investigations, corrected for outlying cluster stars. The membership probabilities have been determined from the joint proper motion and surface density distributions for the field and clusters stars. They have also been corrected for any magnitude dependences. Comparison of the mass functions with the Salpeter IMF shows that the older clusters tend to be deficient in the number of low mass stars, while the younger clusters tend to have more. Analysis of the relaxation times shows that the deficiency of faint stars in the older clusters is likely due to their evaporation from the cluster. The combined mass function for six of the cluster results in a power law with a power law index of -1.97 ± 0.17 for 1.1 < M/Mass of sun < 2.5. This agrees with a recent determination of the field star IMF where the power law index is -2.00 ± 0.18 for 0.8 < M/Mass of sun < 18. If the older clusters are not considered, then comparison of the combined mass function with the individual cluster mass functions shows that the universality hypothesis cannot be denied

  14. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  15. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  16. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  17. Influence of Neighborhood-level Factors on Social Support in Early-stage Breast Cancer Patients and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Struthers, Jim; Sefko, Julianne A.; Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Low social support has been linked to negative health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Objective We examined associations between perceived social support, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, and neighborhood-level social support in early-stage breast cancer patients and controls. Methods This two-year longitudinal study in the United States included information collected from telephone interviews and clinical records of 541 early-stage patients and 542 controls recruited from 2003 to 2007. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Residential addresses were geocoded and used to develop measures including neighborhood social support (based on MOS-SS scores from nearby controls) and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (a composite index of census tract characteristics). Latent trajectory models were used to determine effects of neighborhood conditions on the stable (intercept) and changing (slope) aspects of social support. Results In a model with only neighborhood variables, greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with patients’ lower stable social support (standardized estimate = −0.12, p = .027); neighborhood-level social support was associated with social support change (standardized estimate = 0.17, p = .046). After adding individual-level covariates, there were no direct neighborhood effects on social support. In patients, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage, insurance status, negative affect, and general health. In controls, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage (p social support differed in patients and controls. Psychosocial and neighborhood interventions may help patients with low social support, particularly patients without partnered relationships in deprived areas. PMID:27017091

  18. Rural Neighborhood Walkability: Implications for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Alcantara, Iris; Haardörfer, Regine; Gemma, Alexandra; Ballard, Denise; Gazmararian, Julie

    2015-06-16

    Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes. The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors' homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods. Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

  19. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  20. Community Gardening, Neighborhood Meetings, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Reischl, Thomas M.; Allen, Julie Ober

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between participation in community gardening/beautification projects and neighborhood meetings with perceptions of social capital at both the individual and neighborhood levels. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional stratified random telephone survey conducted in Flint, Michigan (N=1916). Hierarchical linear…

  1. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  2. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Progress Stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-19

    n neighborhoods across the country, stories are emerging constantly of individuals, businesses, and organizations that are benefiting from energy efficiency. Included are the stories of real people making their homes, businesses, and communities better with the help of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Adolescent School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhoods' safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of schooling…

  4. Neighborhood social capital and individual health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  5. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  6. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  7. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  8. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  9. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  10. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  11. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990’s. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990’s are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households. PMID:20161532

  12. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T Kirk

    2010-03-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990's. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990's are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households.

  13. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  14. Can the Sun replace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-07-01

    Two asymptotic worlds, one based on solar energy, the other based on nuclear energy, are compared. The total energy demand in each case is 2,000 quads. Although the Sun can in principal supply this energy, it probably will be very expensive. If the energy were supplied entirely by breeders, the nuclear energy system would pose formidable systems problems--particularly safety and proliferation. It is suggested that in view of these possible difficulties, all options must be kept open

  15. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  16. PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY IN KEPLER TARGET STARS: THE SUN AMONG STARS-A FIRST LOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basri, Gibor; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Batalha, Natalie; Jenkins, Jon; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Caldwell, Doug; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Latham, David W.; Meibom, Soeren; Howell, Steve; Brown, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission provides an exciting opportunity to study the light curves of stars with unprecedented precision and continuity of coverage. This is the first look at a large sample of stars with photometric data of a quality that has heretofore been only available for our Sun. It provides the first opportunity to compare the irradiance variations of our Sun to a large cohort of stars ranging from very similar to rather different stellar properties, at a wide variety of ages. Although Kepler data are in an early phase of maturity, and we only analyze the first month of coverage, it is sufficient to garner the first meaningful measurements of our Sun's variability in the context of a large cohort of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. We find that nearly half of the full sample is more active than the active Sun, although most of them are not more than twice as active. The active fraction is closer to a third for the stars most similar to the Sun, and rises to well more than half for stars cooler than mid-K spectral types.

  17. Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs

  18. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  19. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  20. Solar radiation pressure application for orbital motion stabilization near the Sun-Earth collinear libration point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Shmyrov, Alexander; Shmyrov, Vasily

    2018-05-01

    Orbital maneuvering in a neighborhood of the collinear libration point L1 of Sun-Earth system has specific properties, primarily associated with the instability L1. For a long stay in this area of space the stabilization problem of orbital motion requires a solution. Numerical experiments have shown that for stabilization of motion it is requires very small control influence in comparison with the gravitational forces. On the other hand, the stabilization time is quite long - months, and possibly years. This makes it highly desirable to use solar pressure forces. In this paper we illustrate the solar sail possibilities for solving of stabilization problem in a neighborhood L1 with use of the model example.

  1. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. Neighborhood walkability and particulate air pollution in a nationwide cohort of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2015-10-01

    Features of neighborhoods associated with walkability (i.e., connectivity, accessibility, and density) may also be correlated with levels of ambient air pollution, which would attenuate the health benefits of walkability. We examined the relationship between neighborhood walkability and ambient air pollution in a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study spanning the entire United States using residence-level exposure assessment for ambient air pollution and the built environment. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, we used linear regression to estimate the association between a neighborhood walkability index, combining neighborhood intersection count, business count, and population density (defined from Census data, infoUSA business data, and StreetMap USA data), and air pollution, defined from a GIS-based spatiotemporal PM2.5 model. After adjustment for Census tract median income, median home value, and percent with no high school education, the highest tertile of walkability index, intersection count, business count, and population density was associated with a with 1.58 (95% CI 1.54, 1.62), 1.20 (95% CI 1.16, 1.24), 1.31 (95% CI 1.27, 1.35), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.80, 1.88) µg/m(3) higher level of PM2.5 respectively, compared to the lowest tertile. Results varied somewhat by neighborhood socioeconomic status and greatly by region. This nationwide analysis showed a positive relationship between neighborhood walkability and modeled air pollution levels, which were consistent after adjustment for neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. Regional differences in the air pollution-walkability relationship demonstrate that there are factors that vary from region to region that allow for walkable neighborhoods with low levels of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping child maltreatment risk: a 12-year spatio-temporal analysis of neighborhood influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lila, Marisol

    2017-10-18

    'Place' matters in understanding prevalence variations and inequalities in child maltreatment risk. However, most studies examining ecological variations in child maltreatment risk fail to take into account the implications of the spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhoods. In this study, we conduct a high-resolution small-area study to analyze the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the spatio-temporal epidemiology of child maltreatment risk. We conducted a 12-year (2004-2015) small-area Bayesian spatio-temporal epidemiological study with all families with child maltreatment protection measures in the city of Valencia, Spain. As neighborhood units, we used 552 census block groups. Cases were geocoded using the family address. Neighborhood-level characteristics analyzed included three indicators of neighborhood disadvantage-neighborhood economic status, neighborhood education level, and levels of policing activity-, immigrant concentration, and residential instability. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling and disease mapping methods were used to provide area-specific risk estimations. Results from a spatio-temporal autoregressive model showed that neighborhoods with low levels of economic and educational status, with high levels of policing activity, and high immigrant concentration had higher levels of substantiated child maltreatment risk. Disease mapping methods were used to analyze areas of excess risk. Results showed chronic spatial patterns of high child maltreatment risk during the years analyzed, as well as stability over time in areas of low risk. Areas with increased or decreased child maltreatment risk over the years were also observed. A spatio-temporal epidemiological approach to study the geographical patterns, trends over time, and the contextual determinants of child maltreatment risk can provide a useful method to inform policy and action. This method can offer a more accurate description of the problem, and help to inform more

  4. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  5. Neighborhood Disparities in the Restaurant Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Espino, Jennifer Valdivia; Meinen, Amy; Escaron, Anne L; Roubal, Anne; Nieto, Javier; Malecki, Kristen

    2016-11-01

    Restaurant meals account for a significant portion of the American diet. Investigating disparities in the restaurant food environment can inform targeted interventions to increase opportunities for healthy eating among those who need them most. To examine neighborhood disparities in restaurant density and the nutrition environment within restaurants among a statewide sample of Wisconsin households. Households (N = 259) were selected from the 2009-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), a population-based survey of Wisconsin adults. Restaurants in the household neighborhood were enumerated and audited using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Neighborhoods were defined as a 2- and 5-mile street-distance buffer around households in urban and non-urban areas, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models identified independent associations between sociodemographic household characteristics and neighborhood restaurant density and nutrition environment scores. On average, each neighborhood contained approximately 26 restaurants. On average, restaurants obtained 36.1% of the total nutrition environment points. After adjusting for household characteristics, higher restaurant density was associated with both younger and older household average age (P restaurant food environment in Wisconsin neighborhoods varies by age, race, and urbanicity, but offers ample room for improvement across socioeconomic groups and urbanicity levels. Future research must identify policy and environmental interventions to promote healthy eating in all restaurants, especially in young and/or rural neighborhoods in Wisconsin.

  6. Constituting a neighborhood of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbers, Margaretha Peetoom

    This study is an examination of the discourse of six elementary teachers as they explored the possibilities of a metaphor for science instruction articulated by F. J. Rutherford. This metaphor suggests that the goal of elementary science education ought to be one of developing familiarity; similar to the familiarity one feels in one's neighborhood. Underpinning this research are sociocultural perspectives on the nature of science and the nature of learning. This study took place over 15 months and involved 3 phases. In Phase 1 the teachers met regularly as a discourse group to discuss the implications of the metaphor with respect to their teaching experience. Phase 2 emerged as an astronomy project with practicing scientists once the teachers recognized a need to increase personal comfort in a neighborhood of science. Phase 3 was a return by the discourse group to the metaphor to see if new understandings of science enriched earlier interpretations. Data were derived from all conversations and discussions which were audio taped and transcribed; as well as from the field notes, interviews, letters, journals and sketchbooks used during Phase 2. Themes emerged which indicated that as they progressed through the phases, the teachers began to increase their knowledge of the boundaries, their acquaintance with natural phenomena, their savvy (confidence and competence), their encounters with science processes and their membership in a science community. Over the 15 months the discourse of the teachers changed to include the building of communal scientific understanding, the discussion of events related to science and the sharing of science teaching ideas. The role of metaphor figured heavily in this process. It operated at three levels by providing an entry into the discourse for the participants, as an impetus for teacher change and by situating the research within the community of researchers. Implications for the role of metaphor in preservice teacher education and the

  7. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Geography should not be destiny: focusing HIV/AIDS implementation research and programs on microepidemics in US neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Yolken, Annajane; Cutler, Blayne; Trooskin, Stacey; Wilson, Phill; Little, Susan; Mayer, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Within the most heavily affected cities, a few neighborhoods account for a large share of new HIV infections. Addressing racial and economic disparities in HIV infection requires an implementation program and research agenda that assess the impact of HIV prevention interventions focused on increasing HIV testing, treatment, and retention in care in the most heavily affected neighborhoods in urban areas of the United States. Neighborhood-based implementation research should evaluate programs that focus on community mobilization, media campaigns, routine testing, linkage to and retention in care, and block-by-block outreach strategies.

  9. SU(N,1) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  10. Neighborhood solutions for neighborhood problems: an empirically based violence prevention collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J; Swenson, C C; Henggeler, S W

    1999-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior is influenced, in part, by neighborhood context. Yet, rather than attempting to ameliorate factors contributing to youth antisocial behavior, service dollars are primarily devoted to expensive and often ineffective out-of-home placements. This article describes the development and implementation of a collaborative partnership designed to empower an economically disadvantaged neighborhood to address violent criminal behavior, substance abuse, and other serious antisocial problems of its youth while maintaining youth in the neighborhood. Through a collaboration between a university research center and neighborhood stakeholders, services are being provided to address the key priorities identified by neighborhood residents, and extensive efforts are being made to develop family and neighborhood contexts that are conducive to prosocial youth behavior.

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  13. Creating Great Neighborhoods: Density in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report highlights nine community-led efforts to create vibrant neighborhoods through density, discusses the connections between smart growth and density, and introduces design principles to ensure that density becomes a community asset.

  14. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  15. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP1 (Statewide)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  16. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  17. Perceptions as the crucial link? The mediating role of neighborhood perceptions in the relationship between the neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laméris, Joran; Hipp, John R; Tolsma, Jochem

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent individual-level data set, the American Social Fabric Study (2012/2013), enriched with contextual-level data from the U.S. Census Bureau (2010) and employ multi-level structural equation models. We show that the racial in-group size is positively related to neighborhood cohesion and that neighborhood cohesion is lower in communities with a high crime rate. Individuals' perceptions of the racial in-group size partly mediate the relationship between the objective racial in-group size and neighborhood cohesion. Residents' perceptions of unsafety from crime also appear to be a mediating factor, not only for the objective crime rate but also for the objective racial in-group size. This is in line with our idea that racial stereotypes link racial minorities to crime whereby neighborhoods with a large non-white population are perceived to be more unsafe. Residents of the same neighborhood differ in how they perceive the degree of economic decay of the neighborhood and this causes them to evaluate neighborhood cohesion differently, however perceptions of neighborhood economic decay do not explain the link between the objective neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  19. Intergenerational Education Transmission: Neighborhood Quality and

    OpenAIRE

    Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Using cultural transmission, we develop a model that gives some microfoundation to the impact of residential neighborhood on children's educational attainment and then test it using the UK National Child Development Study. We find that, for high-educated parents, the better the quality of the neighborhood in terms of human capital, the higher the parent's involvement in children's education, indicating cultural complementarity. For high-educated parents, we also find that both parents' involv...

  20. Cheap two axis sun following device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Georgiev, A.; Boudinov, H.

    2005-01-01

    A sun following system was constructed and tested. The tracker gives the possibility for automatic measuring of direct solar radiation with a phetylureum. The mechanism is operated by a digital program in the control system, situated separately from the mechanical part. The position of the sun is calculated, and the pointing errors appearing during its daily work are stored for later analysis. Additionally, in the active operation mode, the tracker uses the signal of a sun detecting linear sensor to control the pointing. Two stepper motors move the instrument platform, keeping the sun's beam at the center of the sensor. The mechanism was created at the Laboratory 'Evaluation Solar' of the Technical University Faradaic Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso, Chile. The experiments show good results. The described sun tracker gives similar results as the Swiss sun tracker INTRA at a very much lower price

  1. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  2. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  3. SUN1 splice variants, SUN1_888, SUN1_785, and predominant SUN1_916, variably function in directional cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka, Yu; Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Imada, Junko; Katahira, Jun; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relat...

  4. The shivering sun opens its heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.

    1976-01-01

    Recent discoveries, by various workers, of global oscillations of the Sun are summarised. The two major ways in which the Sun can vibrate, as a standing acoustic wave and as a standing gravity wave, are discussed. The recently discovered oscillations provide a new rich class of data with which to test theoretical models of the internal structure of the Sun. The implications of these new data with reference to solar models are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Application of new control strategy for sun tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, F.R.; Ortega, M.G.; Gordillo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The application of high concentration solar cells technology allows a significant increase in the amount of energy collected by solar arrays per unit area. However, to make it possible, more severe specifications on the sun pointing error are required. In fact, the performance of solar cells with concentrators decreases drastically if this error is greater than a small value. These specifications are not fulfilled by simple tracking systems due to different sources of errors (e.g., small misalignments of the structure with respect to geographical north) that appear in practice in low cost, domestic applications. This paper presents a control application of a sun tracker that is able to follow the sun with high accuracy without the necessity of either a precise procedure of installation or recalibration. A hybrid tracking system that consists of a combination of open loop tracking strategies based on solar movement models and closed loop strategies using a dynamic feedback controller is presented. Energy saving factors are taken into account, which implies that, among other factors, the sun is not constantly tracked with the same accuracy, to prevent energy overconsumption by the motors. Simulation and experimental results with a low cost two axes solar tracker are exposed, including a comparison between a classical open loop tracking strategy and the proposed hybrid one

  6. Does food vendor density mediate the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI?: a G-computation mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Tamayo, Aracely; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Kelly, N Maggi; Moffet, Howard H; Schillinger, Dean; Adler, Nancy; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    In previous research, neighborhood deprivation was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) among adults with diabetes. We assessed whether the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI is attributable, in part, to geographic variation in the availability of healthful and unhealthful food vendors. Subjects were 16,634 participants of the Diabetes Study of Northern California, a multiethnic cohort of adults living with diabetes. Neighborhood deprivation and healthful (supermarket and produce) and unhealthful (fast food outlets and convenience stores) food vendor kernel density were calculated at each participant's residential block centroid. We estimated the total effect, controlled direct effect, natural direct effect, and natural indirect effect of neighborhood deprivation on BMI. Mediation effects were estimated using G-computation, a maximum likelihood substitution estimator of the G-formula that allows for complex data relations such as multiple mediators and sequential causal pathways. We estimated that if neighborhood deprivation was reduced from the most deprived to the least deprived quartile, average BMI would change by -0.73 units (95% confidence interval: -1.05, -0.32); however, we did not detect evidence of mediation by food vendor density. In contrast to previous findings, a simulated reduction in neighborhood deprivation from the most deprived to the least deprived quartile was associated with dramatic declines in both healthful and unhealthful food vendor density. Availability of food vendors, both healthful and unhealthful, did not appear to explain the association between neighborhood deprivation and BMI in this population of adults with diabetes.

  7. Ethnicity at the individual and neighborhood level as an explanation for moving out of the neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaake, K.; Burgers, J.; Mulder, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    We address the influence of both the ethnic composition of the neighborhood and the ethnicity of individual residents on moving out of neighborhoods in the Netherlands. Using the Housing Research Netherlands survey and multinomial logistic regression analyses of moving out versus not moving or

  8. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Neil G.

    This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

  9. Perceptions as the crucial link? The mediating role of neighborhood perceptions in the relationship between the neighborhood context and neighborhood cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé ris, J.G.; Hipp, J.R.; Tolsma, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of neighborhood racial in-group size, economic deprivation and the prevalence of crime on neighborhood cohesion among U.S. whites. We explore to what extent residents' perceptions of their neighborhood mediate these macro-micro relationships. We use a recent

  10. The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, T; Brooks-Gunn, J

    2000-03-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being. The first section reviews key methodological issues. The following section considers links between neighborhood characteristics and child outcomes and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status (SES) for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes. The third section identifies 3 pathways (institutional resources, relationships, and norms/collective efficacy) through which neighborhoods might influence development, and which represent an extension of models identified by C. Jencks and S. Mayer (1990) and R. J. Sampson (1992). The models provide a theoretical base for studying neighborhood mechanisms and specify different levels (individual, family, school, peer, community) at which processes may operate. Implications for an emerging developmental framework for research on neighborhoods are discussed.

  11. Real-time image dehazing using local adaptive neighborhoods and dark-channel-prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jesus A.; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    A real-time algorithm for single image dehazing is presented. The algorithm is based on calculation of local neighborhoods of a hazed image inside a moving window. The local neighborhoods are constructed by computing rank-order statistics. Next the dark-channel-prior approach is applied to the local neighborhoods to estimate the transmission function of the scene. By using the suggested approach there is no need for applying a refining algorithm to the estimated transmission such as the soft matting algorithm. To achieve high-rate signal processing the proposed algorithm is implemented exploiting massive parallelism on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Computer simulation results are carried out to test the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of dehazing efficiency and speed of processing. These tests are performed using several synthetic and real images. The obtained results are analyzed and compared with those obtained with existing dehazing algorithms.

  12. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann T. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = 0.66; 51% girls and their mothers (n = 1282 and fathers (n = 1075 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children’s reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

  13. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sanchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors.

  14. Drinking and Driving among Recent Latino Immigrants: The Impact of Neighborhoods and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mariana; Romano, Eduardo; Dawson, Christyl; Huang, Hui; Sneij, Alicia; Cyrus, Elena; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Brook, Judith; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Latinos are disproportionately impacted by drinking and driving arrests and alcohol-related fatal crashes. Why, and how, these disparities occur remains unclear. The neighborhood environments that recent Latino immigrants encounter in their host communities can potentially influence health behaviors over time, including the propensity to engage in drinking and driving. This cross-sectional study utilizes a sample of 467 documented and undocumented adult recent Latino immigrants in the United States to answer the following research questions: (a) How do neighborhood-level factors, combined with social support, impact drinking and driving risk behaviors?; and (b) Does acculturative stress moderate the effects of those associations? Results indicate neighborhood-level factors (informal social control and social capital) have protective effects against drinking and driving risk behaviors via the mediating mechanism of social support. Acculturative stress moderated associations between neighborhood informal social control and social support, whereby the protective effects of informal social control on social support were not present for those immigrants with higher levels of acculturative stress. Our findings contribute to the limited knowledge of drinking and driving among Latino immigrants early in the immigration process and suggest that, in the process of developing prevention programs tailored to Latino immigrants, greater attention must be paid to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:27801856

  15. Exploring longitudinal associations between neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol levels in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegood, Eric D; Rarick, Jason R D; Blair, Clancy

    2017-12-01

    Children who grow up in poverty are more likely to experience chronic stressors that generate "wear" on stress regulatory systems including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This can have long-term consequences for health and well-being. Prior research has examined the role of proximal family and home contributions to HPA axis functioning. However, there is evidence to suggest that more distal levels of context, including neighborhoods, also matter. Prior evidence has primarily focused on adolescents and adults, with little evidence linking the neighborhood context with HPA activity in infancy and toddlerhood. We tested whether neighborhood disadvantage (indexed by US Census data) was associated with basal salivary cortisol levels at 7, 15, and 24 months of child age in a large sample of families (N = 1,292) residing in predominately low-income and rural communities in the United States. Multilevel models indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was positively associated with salivary cortisol levels and that this effect emerged across time. This effect was moderated by the race/ethnicity of children such that the association was only observed in White children in our sample. Findings provide preliminary evidence that the neighborhood context is associated with stress regulation during toddlerhood, elucidating a need for future work to address possible mechanisms.

  16. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Segregation, and Beyond-Lessons for Studying Structural Racism and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alicia R

    2018-04-01

    A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health. It then draws on recent literature to propose four lessons for moving beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches in the study of structural racism and health. These lessons are (1) to shift the focus of research from census tracts to theoretically meaningful units of analysis, (2) to leverage historic and geographic variation in race relations, (3) to combine data from multiple sources, and (4) to challenge normative framing that aims to explain away racial health disparities without discussing racism or racial hierarchy. The author concludes that research on the health effects of structural racism should go beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches if it is to guide intervention to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

  17. Health selection into neighborhoods among patients enrolled in a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Arcaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Health selection into neighborhoods may contribute to geographic health disparities. We demonstrate the potential for clinical trial data to help clarify the causal role of health on locational attainment. We used data from the 20-year United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS to explore whether random assignment to intensive blood-glucose control therapy, which improved long-term health outcomes after median 10 years follow-up, subsequently affected what neighborhoods patients lived in. We extracted postcode-level deprivation indices for the 2710 surviving participants of UKPDS living in England at study end in 1996/1997. We observed small neighborhood advantages in the intensive versus conventional therapy group, although these differences were not statistically significant. This analysis failed to show conclusive evidence of health selection into neighborhoods, but data suggest the hypothesis may be worthy of exploration in other clinical trials or in a meta-analysis. Keywords: Neighborhoods, Self-selection, Health, Equity, Socioeconomic status

  18. Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: A comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (Mage = 12.48; 41.0% male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents’ susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23673971

  19. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Denise M; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Simonsen, Neal R; Leonardi, Claudia; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Scribner, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol. The incidence of CRC was modeled using multilevel binomial regression with individuals nested within neighborhoods. Our study included 10,198 cases of CRC. Adjusting for age and sex, CRC risk was 28% higher for blacks than whites (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33). One SD increase in CDI was associated with 14% increase in risk for whites (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 5% increase for blacks (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.09). After controlling for differential effects of CDI by race, racial disparities were not observed in disadvantaged areas. CRC incidence increased with neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities diminished with mounting disadvantage. Our results suggest additional dimensions to racial disparities in CRC outside of neighborhood disadvantage that warrants further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ann T; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2014-01-20

    Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers', fathers', and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers ( n = 1,282) and fathers ( n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers' and fathers' reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

  1. Coherent states related with SU(N) and SU(N,1) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Shelepin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of coherent state (CS) for symmetric presentations of groups SU(N) and SU(N,1) is plotted, its properties being investigated. Evolution of CS is considered. Relation between CS of groups SU(N) and Glauber is ascertained

  2. Sun behaviour in Canadian children: results of the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora, Erin C; Marrett, Loraine D

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is a particularly important determinant of skin cancer, yet little data are available for children. This paper describes sun behaviour among Canadian children for the summer of 2006. As part of the Second National Sun Survey (NSS2), 1,437 parents reported on the time spent in the sun, and the frequency of sun protection behaviours and sunburning for one of their children aged 1 to 12 years. Analysis was carried out using complex survey procedures in SAS and STATA. The majority of children (94%) spend at least 30 minutes in the sun on a typical summer day; however, regular sun protection is only commonly reported for young children (1 to 5 years) and involves covering their heads and wearing sunscreen (85%). The frequency of other protective behaviours is much lower, and sun protection decreases with age. Older children are also twice as likely to spend extended time in the sun and to get a sunburn. Among older children, boys are more likely to cover their heads and girls are more likely to wear sunscreen. Regular sun protection among Canadian children is low, given their sun exposure. Heavy reliance on sunscreen is consistent with previous reports and indicates that other measures, such as seeking shade and wearing protective clothing, need to be promoted. Riskier sun behaviour among older children may reflect decreased parental control, as well as changing attitudes and peer pressure, and highlights the importance of adult role models and targeted interventions for this age group.

  3. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  5. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  6. Sun Protection for Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shafie Pour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging, dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.

  7. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  8. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  9. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    OpenAIRE

    Chor Dora; Santos Simone M; Werneck Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. Objective This...

  10. Work and Home Neighborhood Design and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Frank, Lawrence D; Ulmer, Jared; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    To investigate relations of perceived worksite neighborhood environments to total physical activity and active transportation, over and above home neighborhood built environments. Observational epidemiologic study. Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, and Seattle-King County, Washington metropolitan areas. One thousand eighty-five adults (mean age = 45.0 [10.2]; 46% women) recruited from 32 neighborhoods stratified by high/low neighborhood income and walkability. The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey assessed perceptions of worksite and home neighborhood environments. Accelerometers assessed total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed total active transportation and active transportation to and around work. Mixed-effects regression tested relations of home and worksite neighborhood environments to each physical activity outcome, adjusted for demographics. Home and worksite mixed land use and street connectivity had the most consistent positive associations with physical activity outcomes. Worksite traffic and pedestrian safety were also associated with multiple physical activity outcomes. The worksite neighborhood explained additional variance in physical activity outcomes than explained by the home neighborhood. Worksite and home neighborhood environments interacted in explaining active transportation to work, with the greatest impacts occurring when both neighborhoods were activity supportive. Both worksite and home neighborhood environments were independently related to total MVPA and active transportation. Community design policies should target improving the physical activity supportiveness of worksite neighborhood environments and integrating commercial and residential development.

  11. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  12. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  13. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  14. Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-11-01

    The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

  15. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load : Evidence from Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, I.A.; Hulvej Rod, Naja; Christensen, Ulla; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Rikke; Dich, Nadya

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following

  16. Neighborhood Decline and the Economic Crisis (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; Bolt, G.; Van Ham, M.; Van Kempen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variation in economic and political structures (including variety in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development and population composition, makes it

  17. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-07-12

    There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking. We analyzed longitudinal data collected over 8 yr (four surveys) from the RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Study (Perth, Australia, 2003-2012). At each time point, participants reported the frequency and total minutes of recreational walking/week within their neighborhood and neighborhood environment perceptions. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were generated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Local recreational walking was influenced by objectively measured access to a medium-/large-size park, beach access, and higher street connectivity, which was reduced when adjusted for neighborhood perceptions. In adjusted models, positive perceptions of access to a park and beach, higher street connectivity, neighborhood esthetics, and safety from crime were independent determinants of increased neighborhood recreational walking. Local recreational walking increased by 9 min/wk (12% increase in frequency) for each additional perceived neighborhood attribute present. Our findings provide urban planners and policy makers with stronger causal evidence of the positive impact of well-connected neighborhoods and access to local parks of varying sizes on local residents' recreational walking and health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP823.

  18. Vendo o sol nascer bordado: poderes, saberes e fazeres de reeducandas na Unidade Prisional de Goiás * Seeing the sun be born embroidery: powers and knowledges of Reeducandas in the Goiás’s Unit Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÓVIS CARVALHO BRITTO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo analisa as interlocuções entre memória, patrimônio, artes do saber-fazer e as relações de gênero na Unidade Prisional de Goiás com enfoque no projeto Cabocla: bordando cidadania, o modo como ele tem contribuído para uma outra formatação da experiência feminina no cárcere, a economia simbólica e a patrimonialização de objetos através da eleição da cultura vilaboense, reproduzida em bordados feitos por mulheres encarceradas. Por meio de entrevistas com a idealizadora do projeto e com uma esposa de reeducando, uma ex-reeducanda e uma mulher que cumpre pena privativa de liberdade, alinhavamos um painel sobre os impactos da atividade manual no encarceramento e na trajetória de vida dessas mulheres.Palavras-chave: bordado; memória; cárcere; patrimônio.Abstract: This article examines the dialogues between memory, heritage, arts know-how and gender relations in Prison Unit Goiás focusing on Cabocla project: embroidering citizenship, the way he has contributed to a other formatting of the female experience in prison the symbolic economy and patrimony of objects through the election of vilaboense culture, reproduced in embroidery made by women prisoners. Through interviews with the creator of the project and re-educating with a wife, an ex-convict and a woman who still meets custodial sentence, sew a panel on the impact of incarceration on manual activity and the life course of these women.Keyword: embroidery; memory; jail; patrimony.

  19. Neighborhoods of isolated horizons and their stationarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerzy; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    A distinguished (invariant) Bondi-like coordinate system is defined in the spacetime neighborhood of a non-expanding horizon of arbitrary dimension via geometry invariants of the horizon. With its use, the radial expansion of a spacetime metric about the horizon is provided and the free data needed to specify it up to a given order are determined in spacetime dimension 4. For the case of an electro-vacuum horizon in four-dimensional spacetime, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a Killing field at its neighborhood are identified as differential conditions for the horizon data and data for the null surface transversal to the horizon. (paper)

  20. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  1. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community, The SunPy; Mumford, Stuart J; Freij, Nabil; Bennett, Samuel M; Christe, Steven; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Pérez-Suárez, David; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Meszaros, Tomas; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy. (paper)

  2. mechanical sun mechanical sun-tracking techn tracking techn power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the maximum possible power. In order maximum power output from PV cells, the sunlig angle of ... means of a DC motor controlled by an intelligent drive unit that receive sors. .... be extracted using MPPT (MMPPT or electronic. MPPT) and ...

  3. Chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood. II. The age-metallicity relation and the history of star formation in the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twarog, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The age-metallicty relation for the disk in the neighborhood of the Sun is derived from four-color and Hβ photometry of a large sample of southern F dwarfs, analyzed in combination with theoretical isochrones. It is found that the mean metallicity of the disk increased by about a factor of 5 between 12 and 5 billion years ago and has increased only slightly since then; this conclusion is independent of the helium abundance assumed for the models

  4. The impact of neighborhood disorganization on neighborhood exposure to violence, trauma symptoms, and social relationships among at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Fredrick; Galanek, Joseph D; Kretschmar, Jeff M; Flannery, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to violence (ETV) is a serious concern across the north-south socioeconomic divide. While studies have found that social support is a protective factor for youth exposed to violence and trauma, little is known about the impact of trauma symptoms on forming and maintaining social relationships which are key to accessing a vital social resource that fosters resilience in youth experiencing trauma symptomatology. Building on previous models that examine the impact of neighborhoods on exposure to violence and trauma, the current study examines the impact of neighborhood disorganization on ETV among youth and ETV's effects on trauma symptoms and social relationships. Data were collected on 2242 juvenile justice-involved youth with behavioral health issues in 11 urban and rural counties in the Midwestern United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), our data demonstrated that living in highly disorganized neighborhoods was associated with higher levels of ETV and that ETV was positively associated with trauma symptoms. Mediational analysis showed that trauma symptoms strongly mediated the effect of ETV on social relationships. Freely estimating structural paths by gender revealed that hypothesized associations between these variables were stronger for females than males. Findings here highlight the need to provide trauma-informed care to help youth to build and maintain social relationships. Identification and treatment of trauma symptoms that is culturally informed is a critical first step in ensuring that identified protective factors in local contexts, such as social relations and social support, have opportunities to minimize the impact of ETV among youth across northern and southern nations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric neighborhood functions accelerate ordering process of self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kaiichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Kurata, Koji; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    A self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm can generate a topographic map from a high-dimensional stimulus space to a low-dimensional array of units. Because a topographic map preserves neighborhood relationships between the stimuli, the SOM can be applied to certain types of information processing such as data visualization. During the learning process, however, topological defects frequently emerge in the map. The presence of defects tends to drastically slow down the formation of a globally ordered topographic map. To remove such topological defects, it has been reported that an asymmetric neighborhood function is effective, but only in the simple case of mapping one-dimensional stimuli to a chain of units. In this paper, we demonstrate that even when high-dimensional stimuli are used, the asymmetric neighborhood function is effective for both artificial and real-world data. Our results suggest that applying the asymmetric neighborhood function to the SOM algorithm improves the reliability of the algorithm. In addition, it enables processing of complicated, high-dimensional data by using this algorithm.

  6. Neighborhood decline and the economic crisis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Ronald; Bolt, Gideon; van Ham, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Urban neighborhoods are still important in the lives of its residents. Therefore, it is important to find out how the recent global financial and economic crisis affects these neighborhoods. Which types of neighborhoods and which residents suffer more than others? This introduction provides an

  7. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  8. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  9. Mapping neighborhood scale survey responses with uncertainty metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Ehlschlaeger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be retained. By keeping individual survey cases as the atomic unit of data representation, this methodology ensures that important covariates are retained and that ecological inference fallacy is eliminated. These techniques are demonstrated with a case study from the Chittagong Division in Bangladesh. The results provide a population-centric understanding of many social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics desired in humanitarian aid and disaster relief planning and operations wherever long term familiarity is lacking. Of critical importance is that the resulting products have easy to use explicit representation of the errors and uncertainties of each of the input sources via the automatically generated summary statistics created at the application's geographic scale.

  10. Work-time sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers: results from the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Loraine D; Pichora, Erin C; Costa, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe summer work-related sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers. Information on time in the sun and sun protection practices at work during the summer of 2006 were collected from 1,337 outdoor workers aged 16-64 years as part of the Second National Sun Survey. Proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) were estimated using procedures appropriate for complex survey designs. Twenty-six percent of all Canadians, 39% of males and 33% of those aged 16-24 years work outdoors during the summer. Although 41% spend four or more hours daily in the sun at work, just over half always or often protect themselves by covering their heads (58%), wearing protective clothing (56%) or wearing sunglasses (54%), and only 29% use sunscreen. Males and those aged 16-24 spend the most work time in the sun but are the least likely to use protection. The prevalence of outdoor work and sun behaviours varies among regions. Study findings confirm the need for strategies to reduce time in the sun and increase the use of sun protection among outdoor workers. In order to be effective, these strategies must include both enhanced workplace policies and practice, and increased individual use of sun protection.

  11. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection. PMID:22851950

  12. Sun Protection Practices and Sun Exposure among Children with a Parental History of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Beth A.; Lin, Tiffany; Chang, L. Cindy; Okada, Ashley; Wong, Weng Kee; Glanz, Karen; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives of melanoma survivors have a substantially higher lifetime risk for melanoma than individuals with no family history. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary modifiable risk factor for the disease. Reducing UV exposure through sun protection may be particularly important for children with a parental history of melanoma. Nonetheless, limited prior research has investigated sun protection practices and sun exposure among these children. Methods The California Cancer Registry was used to identify melanoma survivors eligible to participate in a survey to assess their children's sun protection practices and sun exposure. The survey was administered by mail, telephone, or web to Latino and non-Latino white melanoma survivors with at least one child (0–17 years; N = 324). Results Sun exposure was high and the rate of sunburn was equivalent to or higher than estimates from average risk populations. Use of sun protection was suboptimal. Latino children were less likely to wear sunscreen and hats and more likely to wear sunglasses, although these differences disappeared in adjusted analyses. Increasing age of the child was associated with lower sun protection and higher risk for sunburn whereas higher objective risk for melanoma predicted improved sun protection and a higher risk for sunburns. Perception of high barriers to sun protection was the strongest modifiable correlate of sun protection. Conclusions Interventions to improve sun protection and reduce sun exposure and sunburns in high risk children are needed. Impact Intervening in high risk populations may help reduce the burden of melanoma in the U.S. PMID:25587110

  13. Are neighborhood-level characteristics associated with indoor allergens in the household?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York City Department of City Planning. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n = 261), we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1,000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates), and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 microg/g; cat: >1 microg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 microg/g. Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat, and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions.

  14. Vulnerability and social resilience: comparison of two neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 29th of 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the gulf coast of the United States leading to one of the most powerful disasters in history. Damage costs reached more than 100 billion dollars, as well as 150,000 flooded houses and 1,330 deaths. 10 years later, the damage remains visible in the city of New Orleans, and the rate of recovery is highly varied throughout different neighborhoods in the city. A popular idea is to associate this to the neighborhood social class, i.e. the poorer an area is, the more difficult the recovery process is. However the reality is more complex. This study looks at two economically similar and highly damaged neighborhoods, with two deeply different recoveries. The Lower 9th Ward, an isolated, and poor neighborhood surrounded by water with the Mississippi River and the industrial canal, has experienced an extremely slow recovery. However, in the isolated and relatively poor neighborhood known as Village de l’Est, located on former marshes at the edge of the city between Lake Pontchartrain and the Bayou Bienvenue, the Vietnamese community ties and cohesion have brought the neighborhood back to fruition faster than anyone would have expected. Despite many common features weakening their technical resilience, such as relatively modern and fast urbanization on former natural and low lands protected mostly by levees, their radically different reaction following Katrina points out the key role of social resilience. This communication will aim to present decisive social aspects of resilience aside from geophysical and physical features such as risk awareness, social link and community culture.

  15. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a

  16. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-08-06

    Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants' neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices.

  17. Neighborhood Bridges: 2010-2011 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2011-01-01

    In 2010-2011, students in twenty-five classrooms from eleven schools in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area participated in The Children's Theatre Company's Neighborhood Bridges (Bridges) program. The Children's Theatre Company contracted with the University of Minnesota's Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) to…

  18. Neighborhood Bridges: 2012-2013 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood Bridges is a nationally recognized literacy program using storytelling and creative drama to help children develop their critical literacy skills and to transform them into storytellers of their own lives. In 2012-2013, a total of 640 students in grades three through six from twenty-three classrooms in eleven schools across the…

  19. Systems-Dynamic Analysis for Neighborhood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems-dynamic analysis (or system dynamics (SD)) helps planners identify interrelated impacts of transportation and land-use policies on neighborhood-scale economic outcomes for households and businesses, among other applications. This form of analysis can show benefits and tr...

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  1. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...

  2. Integrated colors in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagnini, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The bivariate spectral type-luminosity class distribution combined with the z-distribution and broad-band photometric data have been used in order to derive integrated colors in Johnson's UBVRIJKL system for the solar neighborhood. The frequency distribution of white dwarfs is also taken into account for the U-B,B-V colors. (Auth.)

  3. About the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-16

    The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program is part of the Better Buildings Initiative—a program within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) that is lowering barriers to energy efficiency in buildings.

  4. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  5. Lectures on controlled topology: Mapping cylinder neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, F [Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-08-15

    The existence theorem for mapping cylinder neighborhoods is discussed as a prototypical example of controlled topology and its applications. The first of a projected series developed from lectures at the Summer School on High-Dimensional Topology, Trieste, Italy 2001. (author)

  6. Lectures on controlled topology: Mapping cylinder neighborhoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.

    2002-01-01

    The existence theorem for mapping cylinder neighborhoods is discussed as a prototypical example of controlled topology and its applications. The first of a projected series developed from lectures at the Summer School on High-Dimensional Topology, Trieste, Italy 2001. (author)

  7. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... comprehensive education reforms that are linked to improved educational outcomes for children and youth in... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  8. Neighborhood Ethnic Density as an Explanation for the Academic Achievement of Ethnic Minority Youth Placed in Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    The underachievement of ethnic minority youth from disadvantaged neighborhoods is a pervasive educational issue this nation is facing. Based on an ecological perspective, we examined the contextual effects of neighborhood ethnic density and neighborhood disadvantage on the academic achievement of Hmong immigrant youths. Utilizing hierarchical…

  9. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  10. The Sun's Mysteries from Space - I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate. Historically, it was the motion of the planets around the. Sun that .... concentrations of magnetic field, the convection is suppressed ... near-Earth space environments. ... Some of these reach our eyes and can be detected during the rare.

  11. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  12. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  13. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  14. Neighborhood Design for Walking and Biking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi; Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Zick, Cathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood designs often relate to physical activity and to BMI. Purpose Does neighborhood walkability/bikeability relate to BMI and obesity risk and does moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) account for some of the relationship? Methods Census 2000 provided walkability/bikeability measures—block group proportions of workers who walk or bike to work, housing age, and population density—and National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003–2006) provided MVPA accelerometer measures. Regression analyses (2011–2012) adjusted for geographic clustering and multiple control variables. Results Greater density and older housing were associated with lower male BMI in bivariate analyses, but there were no density and housing age effects in multivariate models. For women, greater proportions of neighborhood workers who walk to work (M=0.02) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and lower obesity risk. For men, greater proportions of workers who bike to work (M=0.004) and more MVPA was associated with lower BMI and obesity risk. For both effects, MVPA partially mediated the relationships between walkability/bikeability and BMI. If such associations are causal, doubling walk and bike-to-work proportions (to 0.04 and 0.008) would have –0.3 and –0.33 effects on the average BMIs of adult women and men living in the neighborhood. This equates to 1.5 lbs for a 64” woman and 2.3 lbs for a 69” man. Conclusions Although walking/biking to work is rare in the U.S., greater proportions of such workers in neighborhoods relate to lower weight and higher MVPA. Bikeability merits greater attention as a modifiable activity-friendliness factor, particularly for men. PMID:23415119

  15. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  16. Effects of semantic neighborhood density in abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Megan; Desai, Rutvik H

    2017-12-01

    Concrete and abstract words are thought to differ along several psycholinguistic variables, such as frequency and emotional content. Here, we consider another variable, semantic neighborhood density, which has received much less attention, likely because semantic neighborhoods of abstract words are difficult to measure. Using a corpus-based method that creates representations of words that emphasize featural information, the current investigation explores the relationship between neighborhood density and concreteness in a large set of English nouns. Two important observations emerge. First, semantic neighborhood density is higher for concrete than for abstract words, even when other variables are accounted for, especially for smaller neighborhood sizes. Second, the effects of semantic neighborhood density on behavior are different for concrete and abstract words. Lexical decision reaction times are fastest for words with sparse neighborhoods; however, this effect is stronger for concrete words than for abstract words. These results suggest that semantic neighborhood density plays a role in the cognitive and psycholinguistic differences between concrete and abstract words, and should be taken into account in studies involving lexical semantics. Furthermore, the pattern of results with the current feature-based neighborhood measure is very different from that with associatively defined neighborhoods, suggesting that these two methods should be treated as separate measures rather than two interchangeable measures of semantic neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sunburn, sun exposure, and sun sensitivity in the Study of Nevi in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Arora, Arshi; Marchetti, Michael A; Orlow, Irene; Dusza, Stephen W; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-11-01

    To examine the joint effect of sun exposure and sunburn on nevus counts (on the natural logarithm scale; log nevi) and the role of sun sensitivity. We describe an analysis of cross-sectional data from 443 children enrolled in the prospective Study of Nevi in Children. To evaluate the joint effect, we partitioned the sum of squares because of interaction between sunburn and sun exposure into orthogonal components representing (1) monotonic increase in log nevi with increasing sun exposure (rate of increase of log nevi depends on sunburn), and (2) nonmonotonic pattern. In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginally significant monotonic pattern of interaction (P = .08). In adjusted analyses, sun exposure was associated with higher log nevi among those without sunburn (P sunburn (P = .14). Sunburn was independently associated with log nevi (P = .02), even though sun sensitivity explained 29% (95% confidence interval: 2%-56%, P = .04) of its effect. Children with high sun sensitivity and sunburn had more nevi, regardless of sun exposure. A program of increasing sun protection in early childhood as a strategy for reducing nevi, when applied to the general population, may not equally benefit everyone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesogenic and youth oriented restaurant marketing in public housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Heinrich, Katie M; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Regan, Gail R; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2014-03-01

    To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, super-size items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options.

  19. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  20. Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Rogers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.

  1. Space, race, and poverty: Spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Whalen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multiple and varied benefits have been suggested for increased neighborhood walkability. However, spatial inequalities in neighborhood walkability likely exist and may be attributable, in part, to residential segregation. OBJECTIVE Utilizing a spatial demographic perspective, we evaluated potential spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities across census tracts in Boston, MA (US. METHODS The independent variables included minority racial/ethnic population percentages and percent of families in poverty. Walkable neighborhood amenities were assessed with a composite measure. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables were first calculated with the Global Moran's I statistic. Then, Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We fit ordinary least squares (OLS regression and spatial autoregressive models when appropriate as a final step. RESULTS Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found in neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. census tract percent Black, but not walkable neighborhood amenities or in the OLS regression residuals. Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were not statistically significant, nor were neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics significantly associated with walkable neighborhood amenities in OLS regression models. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that there is residential segregation in Boston and that spatial inequalities do not necessarily show up using a composite measure. COMMENTS Future research in other geographic areas (including international contexts and using different definitions of neighborhoods (including small-area definitions should evaluate if spatial inequalities are found using composite measures, but also should

  2. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Sleep Outcomes in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-05-16

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.

  3. Gender and the Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Attainment of Black-White Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ryan

    2018-04-01

    Including black-white couples in the study of residential stratification accentuates gendered power disparities within couples that favor men over women, which allows for the analysis of whether the race of male partners in black-white couples is associated with the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods. I investigate this by combining longitudinal data between 1985 and 2015 from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics linked to neighborhood- and metropolitan-level data compiled from four censuses. Using these data, I assess the mobility of black male-white female and white male-black female couples out of and into neighborhoods defined respectively by their levels of whites, blacks, and ethnoracial diversity. My results show that the race of the male partner in black-white couples tends to align with the racial and ethnic composition of the neighborhoods where these couples reside. This finding highlights that the racial hierarchy within the United States affects the residential mobility and attainment of black-white couples, but its influence is conditioned by the race and gender composition of these couples.

  4. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  5. SunPy: Python for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.; Inglis, A. R.; Mumford, S.; Christe, S.; Freij, N.; Hewett, R.; Ireland, J.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Reardon, K.; Savage, S. L.; Shih, A. Y.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2017-12-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community. SunPy aims to provide the software for obtaining and analyzing solar and heliospheric data. This poster introduces a new major release, SunPy version 0.8. The first major new feature introduced is Fido, the new primary interface to download data. It provides a consistent and powerful search interface to all major data providers including the VSO and the JSOC, as well as individual data sources such as GOES XRS time series. It is also easy to add new data sources as they become available, i.e. DKIST. The second major new feature is the SunPy coordinate framework. This provides a powerful way of representing coordinates, allowing simple and intuitive conversion between coordinate systems and viewpoints of different instruments (i.e., Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe), including transformation to astrophysical frames like ICRS. Other new features including new timeseries capabilities with better support for concatenation and metadata, updated documentation and example gallery. SunPy is distributed through pip and conda and all of its code is publicly available (sunpy.org).

  6. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  7. The neighborhood food environment: sources of historical data on retail food stores

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Alma A; Wang May C; Ritchie Lorrene D; Winkleby Marilyn A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract With the rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States, and the minimal success of education-based interventions, there is growing interest in understanding the role of the neighborhood food environment in determining dietary behavior. This study, as part of a larger study, identifies historical data on retail food stores, evaluates strengths and limitations of the data for research, and assesses the comparability of historical retail food store data from a government...

  8. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  9. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  10. Evolving prosocial and sustainable neighborhoods and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony; Hinds, Erika

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we examine randomized controlled trials of community interventions to affect health. The evidence supports the efficacy of community interventions for preventing tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; several recent trials have shown the benefits of community interventions for preventing multiple problems of young people, including antisocial behavior. However, the next generation of community intervention research needs to reflect more fully the fact that most psychological and behavioral problems of humans are interrelated and result from the same environmental conditions. The evidence supports testing new comprehensive community interventions that focus on increasing nurturance in communities. Nurturing communities will be ones in which families, schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces (a) minimize biologically and socially toxic events, (b) richly reinforce prosocial behavior, and (c) foster psychological acceptance. Such interventions also have the potential to make neighborhoods more sustainable.

  11. Defensible Spaces in Philadelphia: Exploring Neighborhood Boundaries Through Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Kramer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Few spatial scales are as important to individual outcomes as the neighborhood. However, it is nearly impossible to define neighborhoods in a generalizable way. This article proposes that by shifting the focus to measuring neighborhood boundaries rather than neighborhoods, scholars can avoid the problem of the indefinable neighborhood and better approach questions of what predicts racial segregation across areas. By quantifying an externality space theory of neighborhood boundaries, this article introduces a novel form of spatial analysis to test where potential physical markers of neighborhood boundaries (major roads, rivers, railroads, and the like are associated with persistent racial boundaries between 1990 and 2010. Using Philadelphia as a case study, the paper identifies neighborhoods with persistent racial boundaries. It theorizes that local histories of white reactions to black in-migration explain which boundaries persistently resisted racial turnover, unlike the majority of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, and that those racial boundaries shape the location, progress, and reaction to new residential development in those neighborhoods.

  12. Private school location and neighborhood characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Barrow

    2002-01-01

    Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...

  13. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Zidar; Timothy A. Bartrand; Charles H. Loomis; Chariss A. McAfee; Juliet M. Geldi; Gavin J. Rigall; Franco Montalto

    2017-01-01

    While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI) as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project ...

  14. Efficiency improvements of photo-voltaic panels using a sun - tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a sun-tracking design, whereby the movement of a photo-voltaic module was controlled to follow the Sun's radiation using a programmable logic-controller unit (PLC). All electronic circuits and the necessary software have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PV module and to collect and store data related to the Sun's radiation. It is found that the daily output the power of the PV was increased by more than 20% in comparison with that of a fixed module. The PV-tracking system can be employed as a standalone device and it could be connected to a personal computer through the RS232 serial port to monitor the whole process on a computer screen. (author)

  15. Efficiency improvements of photo-voltaic panels using a Sun-tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Sun-tracking design, whereby the movement of a photo-voltaic module was controlled to follow the Sun's radiation using a programmable logic-controller (PLC) unit. All electronic circuits and the necessary software have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PV module and to collect and store data related to the Sun's radiation. It is found that the daily output power of the PV was increased by more than 20% in comparison with that of a fixed module. The PV-tracking system can be employed as a stand-alone device and it could be connected to a personal computer through the RS232 serial port to monitor the whole process on a computer screen

  16. Neighborhood scale quantification of ecosystem goods and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are those ecological structures and functions that humans can directly relate to their state of well-being. Ecosystem goods and services include, but are not limited to, a sufficient fresh water supply, fertile lands to produce agricultural products, shading, air and water of sufficient quality for designated uses, flood water retention, and places to recreate. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development’s Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project (TBESDP) modeling efforts organized existing literature values for biophysical attributes and processes related to EGS. The goal was to develop a database for informing mapped-based EGS assessments for current and future land cover/use scenarios at multiple scales. This report serves as a demonstration of applying an EGS assessment approach at the large neighborhood scale (~1,000 acres of residential parcels plus common areas). Here, we present mapped inventories of ecosystem goods and services production at a neighborhood scale within the Tampa Bay, FL region. Comparisons of the inventory between two alternative neighborhood designs are presented as an example of how one might apply EGS concepts at this scale.

  17. White dwarf cosmochronology in the solar neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Soderblom, D. R.; Cignoni, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cummings, J., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method that consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 ≲ M {sub initial}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 < Age (Gyr) < 10. Furthermore, the observed total age of ∼10 Gyr for the oldest white dwarfs in the local sample is consistent with the early seminal studies that have determined the age of the Galactic disk from stellar remnants. The main shortcoming of our study is the small size of the local white dwarf sample. However, the presented technique can be applied to larger samples in the future.

  18. White dwarf cosmochronology in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Soderblom, D. R.; Cignoni, M.; Cummings, J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method that consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 ≲ M initial /M ☉ ≲ 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 < Age (Gyr) < 10. Furthermore, the observed total age of ∼10 Gyr for the oldest white dwarfs in the local sample is consistent with the early seminal studies that have determined the age of the Galactic disk from stellar remnants. The main shortcoming of our study is the small size of the local white dwarf sample. However, the presented technique can be applied to larger samples in the future.

  19. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zidar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project team performed a detailed study of physical, social, legal, and economic conditions in the pilot neighborhood over the course of several years, culminating in the development of an agent-based model simulation of GI implementation. The model evaluates a whether PWD’s GI goals can be met in a timely manner, b what kinds of assumptions regarding participation would be needed under different theoretical GI policies, and c the extent to which GI could promote sustainable redevelopment. The model outcomes underscore the importance of private land in helping PWD achieve its GI goals in Point Breeze. Achieving a meaningful density of GI in the neighborhoods most in need of sustainable redevelopment may require new and creative strategies for GI implementation tailored for the types of land present in those particular communities.

  20. Examining the Sociolinguistic Context in Schools and Neighborhoods of Pre-Adolescent Latino Students: Implications for Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Erika; Whiting, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the sociolinguistic contexts of neighborhoods and schools in two predominantly Latino communities in the United States. We used census data to assess social and ethnic composition and observational data to compare and contrast environmental print, language use, and availability of community services in Spanish in these schools…

  1. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2011-0169] Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of... order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  2. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  3. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  4. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely populated areas

  5. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  6. Do neighborhood economic characteristics, racial composition, and residential stability predict perceptions of stress associated with the physical and social environment? Findings from a multilevel analysis in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Mentz, Graciela; Stokes, Carmen; Galea, Sandro

    2008-09-01

    As the body of evidence linking disparities in the health of urban residents to disparate social, economic and environmental contexts grows, efforts to delineate the pathways through which broader social and economic inequalities influence health have burgeoned. One hypothesized pathway connects economic and racial and ethnic inequalities to differentials in stress associated with social and physical environments, with subsequent implications for health. Drawing on data from Detroit, Michigan, we examined contributions of neighborhood-level characteristics (e.g., poverty rate, racial and ethnic composition, residential stability) and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender) to perceived social and physical environmental stress. We found that neighborhood percent African American was positively associated with perceptions of both social and physical environmental stress; neighborhood percent poverty and percent Latino were positively associated with perceived physical environmental stress; and neighborhood residential stability was negatively associated with perceived social environmental stress. At the individual level, whites perceived higher levels of both social and physical environmental stress compared to African American residents of the same block groups, after accounting for other variables included in the models. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding and addressing contributions of neighborhood structural characteristics to perceptions of neighborhood stress. The consistency of the finding that neighborhood racial composition and individual-level race influence perceptions of both social and physical environments suggests the continuing importance of understanding the role played by structural conditions and by personal and collective histories that vary systematically by race and ethnicity within the United States.

  7. KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD: A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF NEARBY WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P. [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: noemi.giammichele@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: pierre.bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: patrick.dufour@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  8. Predictors of sun protection behaviors and severe sunburn in an international online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy A; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviors and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical, and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviors. Self-report data were gathered on behalf of the GenoMEL consortium using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the United States, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behavior were perceived barriers to protection (beta = -0.44/beta = -0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude toward suntans were less likely to protect (beta = -0.16/beta = -0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviors resulting in severe sunburn. Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social, and psychological barriers associated with nonuptake of sun protection. (c)2010 AACR.

  9. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  10. Heating the Chromosphere in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The best-studied star the Sun still harbors mysteries for scientists to puzzle over. A new study has now explored the role of tiny magnetic-field hiccups in an effort to explain the strangely high temperatures of the Suns upper atmosphere.Schematic illustrating the temperatures in different layers of the Sun. [ESA]Strange Temperature RiseSince the Suns energy is produced in its core, the temperature is hottest here. As expected, the temperature decreases further from the Suns core up until just above its surface, where it oddly begins to rise again. While the Suns surface is 6,000 K, the temperature is higher above this: 10,000 K in the outer chromosphere.So how is the chromosphere of the Sun heated? Its possible that the explanation can be found not amid high solar activity, but in quiet-Sun regions.In a new study led by Milan Goi (Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute), a team of scientists has examined a process that quietly happens in the background: the cancellation of magnetic field lines in the quiet Sun.Activity in a SupergranuleTop left: SDO AIA image of part of the solar disk. The next three panels are a zoom of the particular quiet-Sun region that the authors studied, all taken with IRIS at varying wavelengths: 1400 (top right), 2796 (bottom left), and 2832 (bottom right). [Goi et al. 2018]The Sun is threaded by strong magnetic field lines that divide it into supergranules measuring 30 million meters across (more than double the diameter of Earth!). Supergranules may seem quiet inside, but looks can be deceiving: the interiors of supergranules contain smaller, transient internetwork fields that move about, often resulting in magnetic elements of opposite polarity encountering and canceling each other.For those internetwork flux cancellations that occur above the Suns surface, a small amount of energy could be released that locally heats the chromosphere. But though each individual event has a small

  11. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  12. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  13. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  14. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  15. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  16. Parents' knowledge and behaviour concerning sunning their babies; a cross-sectional, descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topsever Pinar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. Methods In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 ± 6.5 years and 8.3 ± 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%, housewives (81.4% with an educational level of ≥6 years (71.2%. Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%, diaper rash (5.9% and neonatal jaundice (12.7%. In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2% were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7% of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10–11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor ≥ 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Conclusion Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any.

  17. Parents' knowledge and behaviour concerning sunning their babies; a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Nihal; Filiz, Tuncay M; Topsever, Pinar; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2006-10-31

    For centuries, sunlight has been used for therapeutic purposes. Parents still sun their infants to treat neonatal jaundice, nappy rash or mostly to supply vitamin D for bone development as a consequence of health beliefs. In this study we aimed to assess knowledge and behaviour of parents about benefits of sunlight and sun protection. In this study, parents attending to governmental primary healthcare units for their children's routine vaccinations, upon their informed consent, were consecutively enrolled during one month. Data were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The mean age of 118 enrolled parents and their babies were 27.9 +/- 6.5 years and 8.3 +/- 5.8 months, respectively. Most of the participants were mothers (93.2%), housewives (81.4%) with an educational level of > or =6 years (71.2%). Sunlight was considered beneficial for bone development (86.4%), diaper rash (5.9%) and neonatal jaundice (12.7%). In case of neonatal jaundice 72.0% of the participants reported that they would consult a physician. Most of the participants (82.2%) were sunning their babies outdoors. Nearly half (49.7%) of them got this information from medical staff. Fifty two percent of the parents were sunning their babies before 10-11 a.m. and/or after 3 p.m. Only 13.6% of parents reported using sunscreen for their babies, and the majority of them were using sun protecting factor > or = 15. One forth of the sunscreen users was using sunscreen according to their physicians' advice. Most of the participants were aware of the benefits of sunlight; especially for bone development. However they were displaying inappropriate behaviour while sunning their babies for health reasons. More education should be given to parents about the danger of sunlight at primary health care units while advising to sun their babies, if any.

  18. The relationship between neighborhood empowerment and dental caries experience: a multilevel study in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of contextual social capital (neighborhood empowerment and individual social capital (social support and social network with dental caries experience in adolescents and adults. METHODS: A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 573 subjects, 15-19 and 35-44 years of age, from 30 census tracts in three cities of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. Caries experience was assessed using the DMFT index (decayed, missing and filled teeth and participants were divided into two groups according to the median of the DMFT index in low and high caries experience. Demographic, socioeconomic, behaviors, use of dental services and social capital measures were collected through interviews. Neighborhood empowerment was obtained from the mean scores of the residents in each census tract. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience. RESULTS: High caries experience was inversely associated with neighborhood empowerment (OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.33 - 0.99. Individual social capital was not associated with caries experience. Other associated factors with caries experience were age (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.18 and being a female (OR = 1.72; 95%CI 1.08 - 2.73. CONCLUSION: The association between neighborhood empowerment and caries experience suggests that the perception of features of the place of residence should be taken into account in actions of oral health promotion.

  19. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  20. Using GPS Data to Study Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew G; Sheehan, Daniel M; Quinn, James W; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna; Bader, Michael M D; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2016-03-01

    Urban form characteristics intended to support pedestrian activity, collectively referred to as neighborhood walkability, are thought to increase total physical activity. However, little is known about how neighborhood walkability influences utilization of neighborhood space by residents and their overall physical activity. Sociodemographic information and data on mobility and physical activity over 1-week periods measured by GPS loggers and accelerometers were collected from 803 residents of New York City between November 2010 and November 2011. Potentially accessible neighborhood areas were defined as land area within a 1-kilometer distance of the subject's home (radial buffer) and within a 1-kilometer journey on the street network from the home (network buffer). To define actual areas utilized by subjects, a minimum convex polygon was plotted around GPS waypoints falling within 1 kilometer of the home. A neighborhood walkability scale was calculated for each neighborhood area. Data were analyzed in 2014. Total residential neighborhood space utilized by subjects was significantly associated with street intersection density and was significantly negatively associated with residential density and subway stop density within 1 kilometer of the home. Walkability scale scores were significantly higher within utilized as compared with non-utilized neighborhood areas. Neighborhood walkability in the utilized neighborhood area was positively associated with total weekly physical activity (32% [95% CI=17%, 49%] more minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity across the interquartile range of walkability). Neighborhood walkability is associated with neighborhood spaces utilized by residents and total weekly physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Workplace Neighborhoods, Walking, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Perceived Health

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Oakes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on how the built environment in residential neighborhoods affects walking and other physical activity. The neighborhood around the workplace has been examined far less. This study explored the neighborhood around the workplace and its correlation with the amount of walking, level of physical activity, body mass index, and perceived health of those who (a) worked away from home (N = 446) and (b) were retired or unemployed (N = 207). Study participants were recruited...

  2. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized co...

  3. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  4. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  5. "Earth, Sun and Moon": Computer Assisted Instruction in Secondary School Science--Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Orhan; Bilen, Kadir; Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a web-based teaching method on students' academic achievement and attitudes in the elementary education fifth grade Science and Technology unit, "System of Earth, Sun and Moon". The study was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups comprising 54 fifth grade students attending…

  6. Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David S; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    Sociologists have given considerable attention to identifying the neighborhood-level social-interactional mechanisms that influence outcomes such as crime, educational attainment, and health. Yet, cultural mechanisms are often overlooked in quantitative studies of neighborhood effects. This paper adds a cultural dimension to neighborhood effects research by exploring the consequences of legal cynicism. Legal cynicism refers to a cultural frame in which people perceive the law as illegitimate, unresponsive, and ill equipped to ensure public safety. The authors find that legal cynicism explains why homicide persisted in certain Chicago neighborhoods during the 1990s despite declines in poverty and declines in violence city-wide.

  7. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  8. Neighborhood Effects on Health: Concentrated Advantage and Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Brian K.; Do, D. Phuong; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe; Seeman, Teresa; Lurie, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    We investigate an alternative conceptualization of neighborhood context and its association with health. Using an index that measures a continuum of concentrated advantage and disadvantage, we examine whether the relationship between neighborhood conditions and health varies by socio-economic status. Using NHANES III data geo-coded to census tracts, we find that while largely uneducated neighborhoods are universally deleterious, individuals with more education benefit from living in highly educated neighborhoods to a greater degree than individuals with lower levels of education. PMID:20627796

  9. Thermal heliotrope - A passive sun-tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byxbee, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Continuous sun tracking device consists of helical bimetallic coil and control mechanism. Coil produces torque and angular displacement with temperature change, and acts as device's driving element. Control mechanism, concentric shading mechanism containing bimetallic sensor coil, controls tracking rate and provides for reset cycle.

  10. Save Beady Kid from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Thompson, Wesley; Pecore, John

    2017-01-01

    Art and science help students investigate light energy and practice fair testing. With the goal of finding a way to save "Beady Kid" from invisible rays, students used science practices to investigate the transfer of light energy from the Sun. During this art-integrated science lesson presented in this article, upper elementary (grades…

  11. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.

  12. Self-Powered Sun Sensor Microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; Graaf, G. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    An analog sun sensor has been designed based on shade profile proportional to the angle of incidence of incoming light projected onto a 2×2 array of photodiodes. This concept enables an autonomous self-powered optical system with two the main functions (electrical power generation for the amplifier

  13. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Young, Antony Richard; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data clearly support a substantial skin cancer risk from sun holidays. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. No smoking guns under the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Sun is a typical main sequence star that generates its energy via the fusion of hydrogen into helium in two chains of nuclear reactions: the so-called pp chain and the CNO chain. If the nucleon number, electric charge, lepton flavour and energy are conserved and the Sun is in a steady state, then the total solar neutrino flux is fixed, to a good approximation, by the solar luminosity (approximately 65 billion neutrinos/cm2/s at Earth), independent of the specific nuclear reactions that power the Sun and produce neutrinos by beta decay or the electron capture of reaction products. The neutrinos from the dominant pp chain are produced by the beta decay of proton pairs (pp), boron-8 and lithium-4, and by electron capture by pp pairs and beryllium-7. Their spectra can be measured directly in the laboratory or calculated from the standard theory of electroweak interactions. To a very good approximation, they are independent of the conditions in the Sun. Only their relative contributions depend on the detailed ...

  15. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Neighborhood Immigrant Composition, Limited English Proficiency, and Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M. Mojica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective early detection technologies, more than half (61% of colorectal cancers in the United States and 55% in California are identified at an advanced stage. Data on colorectal cancer patients (N=35,030 diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariate analyses found a relationship among neighborhood concentration of recent immigrants, neighborhood rates of limited English proficiency, and late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis. Hispanics living in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of recent immigrants (compared to the lowest percentage had greater odds (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.22, 2.02 of late-stage diagnosis whereas Hispanics living in neighborhoods with the highest percentage of limited English proficiency (compared to the lowest percentage had lower odds (OR .71, 95% CI .51, .99 of late-stage diagnosis. These relationships were not observed for other ethnic groups. Results highlight the complex relationship among race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics, and colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis.

  17. Intersection of neighborhood dynamics and socioeconomic status in small-area walkability: the Heart Healthy Hoods project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Pedro; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Badland, Hannah M; Galán, Iñaki; Franco, Manuel

    2017-06-06

    Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics. All census sections of the city of Madrid (n = 2415) were included. Area-level SES was measured using a composite index of 7 indicators in 4 domains (education, wealth, occupation and living conditions). Two neighborhood dynamics factors were computed: gentrification, proxied by change in education levels in the previous 10 years, and neighborhood age, proxied by median year of construction of housing units in the area. Walkability was measured using a composite index of 4 indicators (Residential Density, Population Density, Retail Destinations and Street Connectivity). We modeled the association using linear mixed models with random intercepts. Area-level SES and walkability were inversely and significantly associated. Areas with lower SES showed the highest walkability. This pattern did not hold for areas with an increase in education level, where the association was flat (no decrease in walkability with higher SES). Moreover, the association was attenuated in newly built areas: the association was stronger in areas built before 1975, weaker in areas built between 1975 and 1990 and flat in areas built from 1990 on. Areas with higher neighborhood socioeconomic status had lower walkability in Madrid. This disadvantage in walkability was not present in recently built or gentrified areas.

  18. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents’ walking. Objectives: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighbor...

  19. The Sun among the stars. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardorp, J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy distributions from 3308 to 8390 Angstroem of two candidates for a solar spectral analog and of 14 other northern G-type dwarfs are compared to the solar energy distribution via stellar spectrophotometric standards. The reliability of the stellar and solar flux-calibrations is evaluated. While the stellar calibration seems to be in good shape, solar calibrations differ widely. Labs.and Neckel's calibration is the best match to the energy distributions from 4500 to 8390 Angstroem of those four stars that share the Sun's ultraviolet line spectrum (16 Cyg B, G5V, and the three Hyades stars VB 64, 106, and 142). Below 4500 Angstroem, discrepancies of up to 6% remain which do not seem to be genuine Sun-star differences. An error in the Labs and Neckel tables between 5700 and 6000 Angstroem is corrected. The NASA Standard Tables of Solar Spectral Irradiance cannot be trusted, since there seems to be no star in the sky that look like the NASA-sun. The four stars mentioned are taken to be perfect solar spectral analogs. An improved table of solar spectral irradiance is then given by the magnitudes of 16 Cyg B minus 32.945, based on Tueg's atellar and Labs and Neckel's solar calibrations. The Sun's place in the UBV system is V = -26.71 +- 0.03, B-V = 0.665 +- 0.005, and U-B = 0.20 +- 0.01. Most previous photometric investigations found a bluer Sun because they used the wrong solar calibration. For deriving accurate albedos of planets, any one of the calibrated G-type stars can be used as a standard star, when corrections are applied, although the solar analogs themselves are to be preferred. The MK system of spectral classification should be revised. (orig.)

  20. Capturing the two dimensions of residential segregation at the neighborhood level for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi eOka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual and methodological foundations of segregation studies are that (i segregation involves more than one group, and (ii segregation measures need to quantify how different population groups are distributed across space. Therefore, percentage of population belonging to a group is not an appropriate measure of segregation because it does not describe how populations are spread across different areal units or neighborhoods. In principle, evenness and isolation are the two distinct dimensions of segregation that capture the spatial patterns of population groups. To portray people’s daily environment more accurately, segregation measures need to account for the spatial relationships between areal units and to reflect the situations at the neighborhood scale. For these reasons, the use of local spatial entropy-based diversity index (SHi and local spatial isolation index (Si to capture the evenness and isolation dimensions of segregation, respectively, are preferable. However, these two local spatial segregation indexes have rarely been incorporated into health research. Rather ineffective and insufficient segregation measures have been used in previous studies. Hence, this paper empirically demonstrates how the two measures can reflect the two distinct dimensions of segregation at the neighborhood level, and argues conceptually and set the stage for their future use to effectively and meaningfully examine the relationships between residential segregation and health.

  1. Neighborhood Influences on Perceived Social Support Among Parents: Findings from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dunn, Erin C.; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. Methodology/Principal Findings The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Conclusion Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time. PMID:22493683

  2. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shalini A; Koenen, Karestan C; Dunn, Erin C; Buka, Stephen; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03), predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  3. Neighborhood influences on perceived social support among parents: findings from the project on human development in Chicago neighborhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini A Tendulkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support is frequently linked to positive parenting behavior. Similarly, studies increasingly show a link between neighborhood residential environment and positive parenting behavior. However, less is known about how the residential environment influences parental social support. To address this gap, we examine the relationship between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and collective efficacy and the level and change in parental caregiver perceptions of non-familial social support. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data for this study came from three data sources, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN Study's Longitudinal Cohort Survey of caregivers and their offspring, a Community Survey of adult residents in these same neighborhoods and the 1990 Census. Social support is measured at Wave 1 and Wave 3 and neighborhood characteristics are measured at Wave 1. Multilevel linear regression models are fit. The results show that neighborhood collective efficacy is a significant (ß = .04; SE = .02; p = .03, predictor of the positive change in perceived social support over a 7 year period, however, not of the level of social support, adjusting for key compositional variables and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage. In contrast concentrated neighborhood disadvantage is not a significant predictor of either the level or change in social support. CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that neighborhood collective efficacy may be important for inducing the perception of support from friends in parental caregivers over time.

  4. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  5. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  6. Outdoor play among children in reletion to neighborhood characteristics. A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, S.I.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  7. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  8. Does the Perceived Neighborhood Reputation Contribute to Neighborhood Differences in Social Trust and Residential Wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Agneta; Timpka, Toomas; Svensson, Tommy; Karlsson, Nadine; Lindqvist, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a mixed methods approach to examine if the reputation of a housing area has bearing on residential wellbeing and social trust in three pairs of socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between area reputation and…

  9. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Pierre; Noé, Laurent; Lavenier, Dominique; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Kucherov, Gregory; Giraud, Mathieu

    2008-12-16

    Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  10. Optimal neighborhood indexing for protein similarity search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarity inference, one of the main bioinformatics tasks, has to face an exponential growth of the biological data. A classical approach used to cope with this data flow involves heuristics with large seed indexes. In order to speed up this technique, the index can be enhanced by storing additional information to limit the number of random memory accesses. However, this improvement leads to a larger index that may become a bottleneck. In the case of protein similarity search, we propose to decrease the index size by reducing the amino acid alphabet. Results The paper presents two main contributions. First, we show that an optimal neighborhood indexing combining an alphabet reduction and a longer neighborhood leads to a reduction of 35% of memory involved into the process, without sacrificing the quality of results nor the computational time. Second, our approach led us to develop a new kind of substitution score matrices and their associated e-value parameters. In contrast to usual matrices, these matrices are rectangular since they compare amino acid groups from different alphabets. We describe the method used for computing those matrices and we provide some typical examples that can be used in such comparisons. Supplementary data can be found on the website http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/reblosum. Conclusion We propose a practical index size reduction of the neighborhood data, that does not negatively affect the performance of large-scale search in protein sequences. Such an index can be used in any study involving large protein data. Moreover, rectangular substitution score matrices and their associated statistical parameters can have applications in any study involving an alphabet reduction.

  11. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  12. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path....

  13. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  14. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  15. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  16. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  17. Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sheleigh; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Gallois, Cindy; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between sun protection and physical activity in young adults (18-30 years) involved in four organised sports. Participants (n=237) in field hockey, soccer, tennis and surf sports completed a self-administered survey on demographic and sun-protective behaviours while playing sport. Differences in sun-protective behaviour were explored by sport and by gender. Sunburn during the previous sporting season was high (69%). There were differences between sports for sunburn, sunscreen use and reapplication of sunscreen. Lifesaving had the highest rates compared with the other three sports. Hats and sunglasses worn by participants varied significantly by sports. A greater proportion of soccer and hockey players indicated they were not allowed to wear a hat or sunglasses during competition. For all sports, competition was played mainly in the open with no shade provision for competitors while they were playing. There were some gender differences within each of the sports. Female soccer and tennis players were more likely to wear sunscreen compared with males. Female hockey players were more likely to wear a hat compared with males. Our findings highlight that there is still room for improvement in sun-protective behaviours among young adult sport competitors. There is a need for a systematic approach to sun protection in the sporting environments of young adults. Health promotion efforts to increase physical activity need to be paired with sun protection messages.

  18. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  19. Seek a Minor Sun: The Distribution of Habitable Planets in the Hertzsprung-Russell-Rosenberg Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The Sun-Earth systems has long been used as a template to understand habitable planets around other stars and to develop missions to seek them. However, two decades of exoplanet studies have shown that many, if not most planetary systems around G dwarf stars do not resemble the Solar System. Moreover, an objective census of our Galaxy might ignore solar- type stars and focus on M dwarfs, which constitute some 80% of all stars in the neighborhood. Recent work has shown that M dwarfs have more close-in planets than solar-type stars, and perhaps more planets in the "habitable zone" defined by stellar irradiation. M dwarfs also burn hydrogen over a vastly longer time; slow evolution on the main sequence means a planet can remain habitable for much longer, providing a more permissive environment for the evo- lution of life and intelligence. If M dwarfs are such compelling locales to look for life, why are we ourselves not orbiting a red Sun?

  20. One size doesn't fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita B; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald P; DeSantis, Amy S; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-01-19

    Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8):e71417, 2013). While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry), neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system), and walkability (street audit) in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years) living in two United States (U.S.) low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime) with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years) and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0.007) as compared to their counterparts living in less

  1. One size doesn’t fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Richardson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3:235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4:454-61, 2011. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532:299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12:915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8:e71417, 2013. While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. Methods In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry, neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system, and walkability (street audit in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years living in two United States (U.S. low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. Exposure: To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Results Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0

  2. Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Social Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Sapna; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in local social organization through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in Chicago neighborhoods. We construct a typology of community participation based on two dimensions: instrumental vs. expressive motivations for participation and formal vs. informal modes of…

  3. Working with neighborhood organizations to promote wildfire preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly Johnson Shiralipour; Martha C. Monroe; Michelle Payton

    2006-01-01

    Several government agencies and other natural resource managers have instituted outreach programs to promote wildfire preparedness in wildland-urban interface (WUI) neighborhoods that complement community-wide efforts. To help these programs become more effective, research was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the role that neighbors and neighborhood...

  4. Planning and Partnerships for the Renewal of Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Urban universities are a key resource for municipal government, businesses, community organizations, and citizens to foster partnerships for successful renewal of distressed urban neighborhoods. From its experience over the past decade, the Ohio State University has created a successful model for engagement with its neighborhoods and the City of…

  5. Contemporary Neighborhood Theories: Integration versus Romance and Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stever, James A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the integrative, romantic, and reactive theories of neighborhood government within the context of the urban reform movement and argues that the integrative theory is the one best suited for an effective political relationship between the neighborhood and the greater metropolis. (EB)

  6. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update--Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update: Workshop Summary" is based on the original study "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: Early Childhood Development," which was released in October of 2000. From the time of the original publication's release, much has occurred to cause a fundamental reexamination of the nation's…

  7. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  8. Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

  9. Neighborhood Characteristics and the Social Control of Registered Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socia, Kelly M.; Stamatel, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses geospatial and regression analyses to examine the relationships among social disorganization, collective efficacy, social control, residence restrictions, spatial autocorrelation, and the neighborhood distribution of registered sex offenders (RSOs) in Chicago. RSOs were concentrated in neighborhoods that had higher levels of social…

  10. Subgraphs in vertex neighborhoods of K-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, J.; Brandt, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In a K-free graph, the neighborhood of every vertex induces a K-free subgraph. The K-free graphs with the converse property that every induced K-free subgraph is contained in the neighborhood of a vertex are characterized, based on the characterization in the case r = 3 due to Pach [8]....

  11. Counseling in the Gentrified Neighborhood: What School Counselors Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren E.; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Gentrification occurs when the prevailing demographic and economic environment of an urban neighborhood changes in ways related to social class and physical renewal. Gentrification effects are both positive and negative; however, low-income residents may be disproportionately negatively affected. As neighborhoods transform, schools also change.…

  12. Neighborhood disadvantage and ischemic stroke: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen F; Liang, Li-Jung; Vassar, Stefanie D; Stein-Merkin, Sharon; Longstreth, W T; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Yan, Tingjian; Escarce, José J

    2011-12-01

    Neighborhood characteristics may influence the risk of stroke and contribute to socioeconomic disparities in stroke incidence. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and incident ischemic stroke and examine potential mediators of these associations. We analyzed data from 3834 whites and 785 blacks enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ages≥65 years from 4 US counties. The primary outcome was adjudicated incident ischemic stroke. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was measured using a composite of 6 census tract variables. Race-stratified multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological risk factors. Among whites, in models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke hazard was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods in the lowest compared with the highest neighborhood socioeconomic status quartile (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.72) with greater attenuation of the hazard ratio after adjustment for biological risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.16; 0.88-1.52) than for behavioral risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.30; 0.99-1.70). Among blacks, we found no significant associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status and ischemic stroke. Higher risk of incident ischemic stroke was observed in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods among whites, but not among blacks. The relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and stroke among whites appears to be mediated more strongly by biological than behavioral risk factors.

  13. Cognitive Aspects of Regularity Exhibit When Neighborhood Disappears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sau-Chin; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Although regularity refers to the compatibility between pronunciation of character and sound of phonetic component, it has been suggested as being part of consistency, which is defined by neighborhood characteristics. Two experiments demonstrate how regularity effect is amplified or reduced by neighborhood characteristics and reveals the…

  14. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  15. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  16. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  17. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  18. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  19. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  20. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  1. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  2. The apparent motion of the Sun revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Oliver

    2002-05-01

    The knowledge of the apparent motion of the Sun - due to the combined effects of the rotation of the Earth around its proper axis and the translation around the Sun - is important both in natural and man-made systems. In particular, a proper explanation of the seasons requires an understanding of this solar geometry. In this paper we present a simple derivation of the relevant formulae based on vector algebra. The possible trajectories are discussed in detail. An approximate explicit formula for the seasonal variations of solar radiation is derived and discussed. The calculations give useful insights into the geometry of the problem and are thought to be helpful for the undergraduate teaching of solar energy engineering, classical mechanics and astronomy.

  3. Phonotactics, Neighborhood Activation, and Lexical Access for Spoken Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Luce, Paul A.; Pisoni, David B.; Auer, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic phonotactics refers to the relative frequencies of segments and sequences of segments in spoken words. Neighborhood density refers to the number of words that are phonologically similar to a given word. Despite a positive correlation between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density, nonsense words with high probability segments and sequences are responded to more quickly than nonsense words with low probability segments and sequences, whereas real words occurring in dense similarity neighborhoods are responded to more slowly than real words occurring in sparse similarity neighborhoods. This contradiction may be resolved by hypothesizing that effects of probabilistic phonotactics have a sublexical focus and that effects of similarity neighborhood density have a lexical focus. The implications of this hypothesis for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:10433774

  4. Research Progresses of Halo Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi-long, Liang; Jing-kun, Zhao; Yu-qin, Chen; Gang, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    The stellar streams originated from the Galactic halo may be detected when they pass by the solar neighborhood, and they still keep some information at their birth times. Thus, the investigation of halo streams in the solar neighborhood is very important for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. In this paper, the researches of halo streams in the solar neighborhood are briefly reviewed. We have introduced the methods how to detect the halo streams and identify their member stars, summarized the progresses in the observation of member stars of halo streams and in the study of their origins, introduced in detail how to analyze the origins of halo streams in the solar neighborhood by means of numerical simulation and chemical abundance, and finally discussed the prospects of the LAMOST and GAIA in the research of halo streams in the solar neighborhood.

  5. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

  6. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  7. Sun Protection; A risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.

  8. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  9. Comparison of two personal ultraviolet index monitors for sun awareness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is known to have both adverse and beneficial consequences for human health. Sunburn and skin cancer are probably the most well-known acute and chronic adverse health impacts. These themes have recently been discussed in the media for the general public; consequently interest in sun protection is growing. The promotion of the use of practical personal strategies to reduce adverse health risks, such as healthy sun behaviour, sun protection mechanisms and solar ultraviolet radiation awareness tools, is increasing. One such tool is the personal UV index (UVI monitor, promoted commercially as a viable tool for sun awareness; however, such instruments have not been scientifically evaluated in a South African context. Here, two different types of personal UVI monitors, commercially available in South Africa, were compared with a research-grade UVB biometer for a continuous 7-h period on 02 March 2012 in Pretoria. One of the two personal UVI monitors showed reasonable agreement with the UVB biometer, whereas the other monitor overestimated UVI by up to 4 UVI units. When comparing two identical products manufactured by the same company, one monitor overestimated UVI twofold, suggesting inter-instrument variability may be a concern. Commercially available, personal UVI monitors should be used with caution as a public health tool for sun awareness in South Africa.

  10. New eyes on the sun a guide to satellite images and amateur observation

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    Information collected by satellites recently sent by the USA, the European Space Agency, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Russia to monitor the Sun has changed our knowledge and understanding of the Sun, particularly its effect on Earth. This book presents these findings in a way that will be welcomed by amateur astronomers, students, educators and anyone interested in the Sun. Enhanced by many colour photographs, the book combines newly acquired scientific understanding with detailed descriptions of features visible on the Sun’s surface and in its atmosphere. In the past, observing the Sun has been left to academics with specialised instruments, since solar observation has been unsafe because of the risk of eye damage.  This book explains how amateur astronomers can safely observe the various solar phenomena using special hydrogen-alpha telescopes that are not too expensive. Amateurs can now make a positive contribution to science by monitoring the Sun as professionals do.  Amateurs can also acces...

  11. Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Sophie J; Gottschlich, Elizabeth A; Holman, Dawn M; Watson, Meg

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends clinical counseling for individuals ages 10 to 24 years to decrease skin cancer risk. A national, random sample of US American Academy of Pediatrics members practicing primary care in 2002 (response rate 55%) and 2015 (response rate 43%). Surveys explored attitudes and experiences regarding sun protection counseling; indoor tanning questions were added in 2015. χ 2 tests compared demographics and counseling responses across years, and multivariable logistic regression models examined counseling predictors. More pediatricians in 2015 (34%) than in 2002 (23%) reported discussing sun protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors' indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more. Although improved, sun protection counseling rates remain low. Indoor tanning counseling can be improved. Because early-life exposure to UV radiation increases risk and clinician counseling can positively impact prevention behaviors, pediatricians have an important role in skin cancer prevention; counseling may save lives. Time constraints remain a barrier. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. The structure and evolution of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Severino, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This book equips the reader with a coherent understanding of the structure of the Sun and its evolution and provides all the knowledge required to construct a simplified model of the Sun. The early chapters cover key aspects of basic physics and describe the Sun’s size, mass, luminosity, and temperature. Using a semi-empirical approach, the structure of the present Sun is then modeled in detail, layer by layer, proceeding from the photosphere to the convection zone, radiation zone, and core. Finally, all stages of the Sun’s evolution, from its formation to the end of its life, are carefully explained. The book is primarily intended for university students taking the initial steps in moving from physics to astrophysics. It includes worked exercises and problems to illustrate the concepts discussed, as well as additional problems for independent study. With the aim of helping the reader as much as possible, most of the mathematics required to use the book are provided in the text.

  13. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations

  14. Learning about the Dynamic Sun through Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Luhmann, J.; MacCallum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Can we hear the Sun or its solar wind? Not in the sense that they make sound. But we can take the particle, magnetic field, electric field, and image data and turn it into sound to demonstrate what the data tells us. We present work on turning data from the two-satellite NASA mission called STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) into sounds and music (sonification). STEREO has two satellites orbiting the Sun near Earth's orbit to study the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Corona. One sonification project aims to inspire musicians, museum patrons, and the public to learn more about CMEs by downloading STEREO data and using it to make music. We demonstrate the software and discuss the way in which it was developed. A second project aims to produce a museum exhibit using STEREO imagery and sounds from STEREO data. We demonstrate a "walk across the Sun" created for this exhibit so people can hear the features on solar images. We show how pixel intensity translates into pitches from selectable scales with selectable musical scale size and octave locations. We also share our successes and lessons learned.

  15. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  16. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  17. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Function: The Contributions of Neighborhood-Level Perceptions of Safety From Crime and Walking for Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Venurs H Y; Rachele, Jerome N; Brown, Wendy J; Ghani, Fatima; Turrell, Gavin

    2018-04-20

    Residents of more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poorer physical function, although the reasons for this remain unknown. It is possible that neighborhood-level perceptions of safety from crime contribute to this relationship through its association with walking for recreation. Data were obtained from the fourth wave (collected in 2013) of the HABITAT (How Areas in Brisbane Influence HealTh and AcTivity) multilevel longitudinal study of middle- to older-aged adults (46-74 y) residing in 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia. The data were analyzed separately for men (n = 2190) and women (n = 2977) using multilevel models. Residents of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods had poorer physical function, perceived their neighborhoods to be less safe from crime, and do less walking for recreation. These factors accounted for differences in physical function between disadvantaged and advantaged neighborhoods (24% for men and 25% for women). This study highlights the importance of contextual characteristics, through their associations with behaviors, that can have in explaining the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and physical function. Interventions aimed at improving neighborhood safety integrated with supportive environments for physical activity may have positive impact on physical function among all socioeconomic groups.

  18. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-01

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  19. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  20. A practical equation of state for the sun and sun-like stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.H.; Daeppen, W.

    2012-01-01

    For models of the Sun and Sun-like stars, a high-quality equation of state is crucial. Conversely, helio- and asteroseismological observations put constraints on the physical formalisms. They effectively turn the Sun and stars into laboratories for dense plasmas. For models of the Sun and Sun-like stars, the most accurate equation of state so far has been the one developed as part of OPAL opacity project of Livermore. However, the OPAL equation of state is limited in two important respects. First, it is only available in the form of pre-computed tables that are provided from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Applications to stellar modeling require therefore interpolation, with unavoidable loss of accuracy. Second, the OPAL equation of state is proprietary and not freely available. Varying its underlying physical parameters is therefore no option for the community. We report on the most recent progress with the development of a high-precision emulation of the OPAL equation of state that will lead to an in-line tool for modelers (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Sun-Direction Estimation Using a Partially Underdetermined Set of Coarse Sun Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of different methods to estimate the sun-direction vector using a partially underdetermined set of cosine-type coarse sun sensors (CSS), while simultaneously controlling the attitude towards a power-positive orientation, is presented. CSS are commonly used in performing power-positive sun-pointing and are attractive due to their relative inexpensiveness, small size, and reduced power consumption. For this study only CSS and rate gyro measurements are available, and the sensor configuration does not provide global triple coverage required for a unique sun-direction calculation. The methods investigated include a vector average method, a combination of least squares and minimum norm criteria, and an extended Kalman filter approach. All cases are formulated such that precise ground calibration of the CSS is not required. Despite significant biases in the state dynamics and measurement models, Monte Carlo simulations show that an extended Kalman filter approach, despite the underdetermined sensor coverage, can provide degree-level accuracy of the sun-direction vector both with and without a control algorithm running simultaneously. If no rate gyro measurements are available, and rates are partially estimated from CSS, the EKF performance degrades as expected, but is still able to achieve better than 10∘ accuracy using only CSS measurements.

  2. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  3. Neighborhood Walkability and Walking for Transport Among South Asians in the MASALA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    The neighborhood built environment can have a strong influence on physical activity levels, particularly walking for transport. In examining racial/ethnic differences in physical activity, one important and understudied group is South Asians. This study aims to describe the association between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport among South Asian men and women in the United States in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using the baseline dataset of the MASALA study (N = 906). Mean age was 55 years old and 54% of the sample was male. Weekly minutes spent walking for transport was assessed using a questionnaire adapted from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Neighborhood walkability was measured using Walk Score, a composite index of walkability. After adjusting for covariates, with each 10-point increase in Walk Score, South Asian American men engaged in 13 additional minutes per week of walking for transport (P = .008). No association was observed between walkability and walking for transport in South Asian American women. Results provide new evidence for how the effects of environmental influences on walking for transport may vary between South Asian men and women.

  4. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  5. Revelation of the Sun Self-Similarity Skeletal Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of databases of photographic images of a surface of the Sun, its atmosphere and the closest its space environment taken at various spatial resolutions and for various types of radiation of a surface of the Sun by means of a method multilevel dynamic contrasting, has revealed presence skeletal structures as on the Sun directly such and in its environment. It is demonstrated the revealed a global structures of the Sun and powerful ejections of mass of its corona, as well as the structures of its atmosphere, protuberances, sun-spots and a globular structures of its photosphere

  6. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Chin Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery. The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  7. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Stimson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. PMID:29518956

  8. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Chen, Si; Low, Chien-Tat; Cerin, Ester; Stimson, Robert; Wong, Pui Yun Paulina

    2018-03-07

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  9. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  10. Neighborhood Economic Deprivation and Social Fragmentation: Associations With Children's Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Saini, Ekjyot K; Philbrook, Lauren E; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-12-09

    A growing body of work indicates that experiences of neighborhood disadvantage place children at risk for poor sleep. This study aimed to examine how both neighborhood economic deprivation (a measure of poverty) and social fragmentation (an index of instability) are associated with objective measures of the length and quality of children's sleep. Participants were 210 children (54.3% boys) living predominantly in small towns and semirural communities in Alabama. On average children were 11.3 years old (SD = .63); 66.7% of the children were European American and 33.3% were African American. The sample was socioeconomically diverse with 67.9% of the participants living at or below the poverty line and 32.1% from lower-middle-class or middle-class families. Indicators of neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2012 American Community Survey and composited to create two variables representing neighborhood economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Child sleep period, actual sleep minutes, and efficiency were examined using actigraphy. Higher levels of neighborhood economic deprivation were associated with fewer sleep minutes and poorer sleep efficiency. More neighborhood social fragmentation was also linked with poorer sleep efficiency. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, child health, and family socioeconomic status. Findings indicate that living in economically and socially disadvantaged neighborhoods predicts risk for shorter and lower-quality sleep in children. Examination of community context in addition to family and individual characteristics may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors shaping child sleep.

  11. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and genetic influences on alcohol use: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2018-05-07

    Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.

  12. Exploring neighborhoods in the metagenome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P; Klingenberg, Heiner; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter

    2014-07-14

    The variety of metagenomes in current databases provides a rapidly growing source of information for comparative studies. However, the quantity and quality of supplementary metadata is still lagging behind. It is therefore important to be able to identify related metagenomes by means of the available sequence data alone. We have studied efficient sequence-based methods for large-scale identification of similar metagenomes within a database retrieval context. In a broad comparison of different profiling methods we found that vector-based distance measures are well-suitable for the detection of metagenomic neighbors. Our evaluation on more than 1700 publicly available metagenomes indicates that for a query metagenome from a particular habitat on average nine out of ten nearest neighbors represent the same habitat category independent of the utilized profiling method or distance measure. While for well-defined labels a neighborhood accuracy of 100% can be achieved, in general the neighbor detection is severely affected by a natural overlap of manually annotated categories. In addition, we present results of a novel visualization method that is able to reflect the similarity of metagenomes in a 2D scatter plot. The visualization method shows a similarly high accuracy in the reduced space as compared with the high-dimensional profile space. Our study suggests that for inspection of metagenome neighborhoods the profiling methods and distance measures can be chosen to provide a convenient interpretation of results in terms of the underlying features. Furthermore, supplementary metadata of metagenome samples in the future needs to comply with readily available ontologies for fine-grained and standardized annotation. To make profile-based k-nearest-neighbor search and the 2D-visualization of the metagenome universe available to the research community, we included the proposed methods in our CoMet-Universe server for comparative metagenome analysis.

  13. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged dating violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  17. A critical review of seven selected neighborhood sustainability assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Ayyoob, E-mail: sharifi.ayyoob@a.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Murayama, Akito, E-mail: murayama@corot.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2013-01-15

    Neighborhood sustainability assessment tools have become widespread since the turn of 21st century and many communities, mainly in the developed world, are utilizing these tools to measure their success in approaching sustainable development goals. In this study, seven tools from Australia, Europe, Japan, and the United States are selected and analyzed with the aim of providing insights into the current situations; highlighting the strengths, weaknesses, successes, and failures; and making recommendations for future improvements. Using a content analysis, the issues of sustainability coverage, pre-requisites, local adaptability, scoring and weighting, participation, reporting, and applicability are discussed in this paper. The results of this study indicate that most of the tools are not doing well regarding the coverage of social, economic, and institutional aspects of sustainability; there are ambiguities and shortcomings in the weighting, scoring, and rating; in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation; and, only those tools which are embedded within the broader planning framework are doing well with regard to applicability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven widely used assessment tools were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a lack of balanced assessment of sustainability dimensions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tools are not doing well regarding the applicability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refinements are needed to make the tools more effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment tools must be integrated into the planning process.

  18. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  19. A critical review of seven selected neighborhood sustainability assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Ayyoob; Murayama, Akito

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood sustainability assessment tools have become widespread since the turn of 21st century and many communities, mainly in the developed world, are utilizing these tools to measure their success in approaching sustainable development goals. In this study, seven tools from Australia, Europe, Japan, and the United States are selected and analyzed with the aim of providing insights into the current situations; highlighting the strengths, weaknesses, successes, and failures; and making recommendations for future improvements. Using a content analysis, the issues of sustainability coverage, pre-requisites, local adaptability, scoring and weighting, participation, reporting, and applicability are discussed in this paper. The results of this study indicate that most of the tools are not doing well regarding the coverage of social, economic, and institutional aspects of sustainability; there are ambiguities and shortcomings in the weighting, scoring, and rating; in most cases, there is no mechanism for local adaptability and participation; and, only those tools which are embedded within the broader planning framework are doing well with regard to applicability. - Highlights: ► Seven widely used assessment tools were analyzed. ► There is a lack of balanced assessment of sustainability dimensions. ► Tools are not doing well regarding the applicability. ► Refinements are needed to make the tools more effective. ► Assessment tools must be integrated into the planning process.

  20. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  1. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Moon and sun shadowing effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The deficit due to the absorption of cosmic rays by the Moon and the Sun can be observed detecting the muon flux generated in extensive air showers. This phenomenon, known as cosmic ray shadow, can be used to study the behaviour of the geomagnetic, solar and interplanetary magnetic fields, to measure the antiproton-proton ratio and to determine the angular resolution and alignment of the detectors to confirm its accuracy and precision. Many experiments using surface or underground detectors have measured the Moon and Sun shadow: MINOS, CYGNUS, CASA, Tibet, MACRO, Soudan2, L3+C, Milagro, BUST, GRAPE and HEGRA. The MINOS experiment (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) uses two layered steel and plastic scintillator detectors (Near Detector and Far Detector) along with a muon neutrino beam (NuMI - Neutrinos at the Main Injector) to search for ν μ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. However the magnetic field and the fiducial volume of the underground Far Detector at Soudan Underground Mine State Park (Minnesota, USA) allow a great opportunity to investigate cosmic rays at TeV surface energy. The deficit caused by the Moon and the Sun was detected by the MINOS Far Detector and this could also be done using the Near Detector. In this report we describe the motivation of measuring this effect. We present the recent results from MINOS along with its experimental apparatus and, in addition, the main results from the various experiments. We also make considerations about the possibility of doing such a measurement with the MINOS Near Detector. (author)

  3. A critical evaluation of the UK SunSmart campaign and its relevance to Black and minority ethnic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebanjo, Evelyn; Bushell, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is rising to epidemic proportions. While the majority of skin cancers are treatable, malignant melanoma kills over 2,000 people in the United Kingdom each year, with all skin cancers killing a total of more than 2,500 people annually. SunSmart, the United Kingdom's major skin cancer public health initiative, was implemented to raise awareness about sun exposure and to promote sun safety behaviours. However, it has failed to curb the incidence and mortality rates. Furthermore, while Australia has the highest skin cancer incidence rates globally, the mortality rates are lower than those in the United Kingdom. There has also been a growing amount of evidence demonstrating ethnic disparities in skin cancer survival rates. Even though incidence rates of skin cancer among Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are significantly lower, it is often diagnosed late, resulting in higher mortality rates. This, coupled with climate change and the proportion of BME groups expected to rise in the United Kingdom from 8% to 20% by 2051, raises public health concerns. This article aims to critically analyse the UK SunSmart campaign's success in addressing skin cancer in the population and in particular its relevance to BME communities. It also compares this approach with the Australian campaign. This article demonstrates that Australia's campaign has been more successful than the United Kingdom's due to their more comprehensive application of health promotion and public health principles.

  4. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  5. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  6. Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    To examine the relationship of corporal punishment with children's behavior problems while accounting for neighborhood context and while using stronger statistical methods than previous literature in this area, and to examine whether different levels of corporal punishment have different effects in different neighborhood contexts. Longitudinal cohort study. General community. 1943 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scales of the Behavior Problems Index. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated with a 0.71 increase (Pcorporal punishment and children's externalizing behavior problems was not dependent on neighborhood context. The research found no discernible relationship between corporal punishment and internalizing behavior problems.

  7. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  8. Good and Bad Neighborhood Approximations for Outlier Detection Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirner, Evelyn; Schubert, Erich; Zimek, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Outlier detection methods have used approximate neighborhoods in filter-refinement approaches. Outlier detection ensembles have used artificially obfuscated neighborhoods to achieve diverse ensemble members. Here we argue that outlier detection models could be based on approximate neighborhoods...... in the first place, thus gaining in both efficiency and effectiveness. It depends, however, on the type of approximation, as only some seem beneficial for the task of outlier detection, while no (large) benefit can be seen for others. In particular, we argue that space-filling curves are beneficial...

  9. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  10. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  11. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  12. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...... formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino...

  13. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Businger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed

  14. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  15. Study of Λ parameters and crossover phenomena in SU(N) x SU(N) sigma models in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, J.; Kogut, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The spin system analogues of recent studies of the string tension and Λ parameters of SU(N) gauge theories in 4 dimensions are carried out for the SU(N) x SU(N) and O(N) models in 2 dimensions. The relations between the Λ parameters of both the Euclidean and Hamiltonian formulation of the lattice models and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. The one loop finite renormalization of the speed of light in the lattice Hamiltonian formulations of the O(N) and SU(N) x SU(N) models is calculated. Strong coupling calculations of the mass gaps of these spin models are done for all N and the constants of proportionality between the gap and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. These results are contrasted with similar calculations for the SU(N) gauge models in 3+1 dimensions. Identifying suitable coupling constants for discussing the N → infinity limits, the numerical results suggest that the crossover from weak to strong coupling in the lattice O(N) models becomes less abrupt as N increases while the crossover for the SU(N) x SU(N) models becomes more abrupt. The crossover in SU(N) gauge theories also becomes more abrupt with increasing N, however, at an even greater rate than in the SU(N) x SU(N) spin models

  16. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  17. Banks and the Racial Patterning of Homicide: A Study of Chicago Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Veléz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While bank investment is a driving force behind neighborhood viability, few studies have directly examined the effects of bank loan practices on neighborhood crime rates. This paper proposes that variation in residential bank loans helps explain the higher rates of homicide in minority neighborhoods in Chicago compared to white neighborhoods. It finds that black and Latino neighborhoods would experience fewer homicides if more financial capital were infused into these neighborhoods. These findings suggest that neighborhoods are shaped profoundly by the decisions of external economic actors.

  18. Trends in sun exposure knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: 1986 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J K; Rigel, D S; Amonette, R A

    1997-08-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology's national program Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention, developed in response to the rising incidence of invasive melanoma in the United States, has annually during the past decade produced extensive print, radio, and television coverage about the dangers of sun exposure and benefits of sun protection. We measured the progress achieved in increasing the awareness and knowledge of skin cancer and changing the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that affect skin cancer risk. We also describe current sun-related behavior including sunburning, assess the likelihood of practicing sun protection strategies, and provide a baseline against which future changes in sun protection behavior may be evaluated. A 1996 telephone survey repeated questions used in 1986 to evaluate change and used classifying questions to better define attitudes and behaviors. From 1986 to 1996, the knowledge of the perceived harmful effects of the sun significantly broadened, but the UV exposure behavior as measured by sunburning (30% to 39%) and regular use of a tanning booth (2% to 6%) also increased. There was a decline in the attitude that having a tan was healthy; however, in 1996 having a tan was still considered to enhance appearance, particularly by men. Sunscreen use increased (35% to 53%). Women, younger persons, persons residing in areas with fewer sunny days, and whites were more likely to tan intentionally, but men who lived in the South were more likely to sunburn. During the past decade, the early process of change involving cognitive and emotional activities began. With this study, high-risk population subsets performing specific adverse behavior were identified. In the future, they can be targeted with messages that promote attitudinal and behavioral change.

  19. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P [Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  1. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood.We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI.Findings suggest that

  2. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  3. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  4. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  5. Neighborhood Social Predictors of Weight-related Measures in Underserved African Americans in the PATH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah

    2015-11-05

    African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.

  6. Estimation of Hedonic Single-Family House Price Function Considering Neighborhood Effect Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Shimizu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the formulation of hedonic models, in addition to locational factors and building structures which affect the house prices, the generation of the omitted variable bias is thought to occur in cases when local environmental variables and the individual characteristics of house buyers are not taken into consideration. However, since it is difficult to obtain local environmental information in a small neighborhood unit and to observe individual characteristics of house buyers, these variables have not been sufficiently considered in previous studies. We demonstrated that non-negligible levels of omitted variable bias are generated if these variables are not considered.

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Telomere Length: Results from the Fragile Families Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that protect genetic material. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the relationship between exposure to spatially concentrated disadvantage and telomere length for white and black mothers. We find that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with shorter telomere length for mothers of both races. This finding highlights a potential mechanism through which the unique spatially concentrated disadvantage faced by African Americans contributes to racial health disparities. We conclude that equalizing the health and socioeconomic status of black and white Americans will be very difficult without reducing levels of residential segregation in the United States.

  8. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  9. Race, Age, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Low Birth Weight Disparities Among Adolescent Mothers: An Intersectional Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies examined socioeconomic contributors to racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes between African-American and Caucasian adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study examined the intersections of maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status in explaining these disparities in low birth weight outcomes across a statewide sample of adolescent mothers. Using data from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2010-2011, birth cases for 16,472 adolescents were geocoded by street address and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census. Multilevel models with interaction terms were used to identify significant associations between maternal racial status, age, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income) and low birth weight outcomes across census tracts. Significant racial differences were identified in which African-American adolescents had greater odds of low birth weight outcomes than Caucasian adolescents (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.64, 2.15). Although racial disparities in low birth weight outcomes remained significant in context of maternal age and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the greatest disparities were found between African-American and Caucasian adolescents that lived in areas of higher socioeconomic status (psocioeconomic status. Further investigations using intersectional frameworks are needed for examining the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status and birth outcome disparities among infants born to adolescent mothers.

  10. The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of…

  11. Bringing urban governance back in: Neighborhood conflicts and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Urban governance and its impact on contentious politics have received remarkably little attention in existing studies on mental health. Drawing on a measure of neighborhood conflicts developed in a survey of thirty-nine urban neighborhoods in Guangzhou, China, this article investigates the potential link between urban governance and mental health. Net of sociodemographic, relational, and environmental measures, it finds that among residents' conflicts with different entities of urban governance, only those with local/grassroots governments are significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Moreover, these subgroups of government-oriented conflicts associated with more depressive symptoms are related to neighborhood planning and communal properties, reflecting a dilemma in the Chinese model of urban governance. By offering a relational interpretation of neighborhood conflicts, this study not only challenges the previous view that community building in China improves mental health, but calls attention to the significance of urban governance in research on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_NeighborhoodStabilizationProg

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of Miami-Dade County's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) areas. NSP is a HUD program to provide emergency assistance to state and local governments...

  14. CHAPTER 9: USING CENSUS DATA TO APPROXIMATE NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Despite the development of innovative neighborhood data collection methods, such as systematic social observation (1, 2), and the utilization of novel administrative data sources including delinquent tax records, homelessness shelter utilization, reports of housing ...

  15. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load: Evidence from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Rikke; Dich, Nadya

    2016-07-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Following this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found related to AL and this relationship was particularly robust for women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  17. Do neighborhood characteristics in Amsterdam influence adiposity at preschool age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical

  18. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  19. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  20. Renewal strategies and neighborhood participation on urban blight

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hosseini; Ahmad Pourahmad; Ali Taeeb; Milad Amini; Sara Behvandi

    2017-01-01

    Urban blight had its own rational and hierarchical function in the past. Nowadays it is featured with structural and functional shortage. Therefore, it has lost the capacity to meet the residents’ needs. Along with intensification of urban blight problems in cities, and downtowns in particular, which affects different aspects of urban life, many urban planners have shown special attention to such districts. Laleh-Zar neighborhood is an example of these neighborhoods, which on the one hand due...