WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states-latin america

  1. United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

  2. The United States, Latin America, and the Potential for a Naval and Defense Industrial Partnership: The Case of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    at the XV Encontro da Associacao Nacional de Posgraduacao e Pesquisa em Ciencias Sociais (ANPOCS); Grupo de Trabalho Forcas Armadas, Estado e...XV Encontro da Associacao Nacional de Posgraduacao e Pesquisa em Ciencias Sociais (ANPOCS); Grupo de Trabalho Forcas Armadas, Estado e Sociedade

  3. Borders and border representations: Comparative approximations among the United States and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cueva Perus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a comparative approach regarding frontier symbols and myths among the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. Although wars fought over frontiers have greatly diminished throughout the world, the conception of frontier still held by the United States is that of a nationalist myth which embodies a semi-religious faith in the free market and democracy. On the other hand, Latin American and Caribbean countries, whose frontiers are far more complex, have shown extraordinary stability for several decades. This paper points out the risks involved in the spread of United States´ notions of frontier which, in addition, go hand-in-hand with the problem of multicultural segmentation. Although Latin American and Caribbean frontiers may be stable, they are vulnerable to the infiltration of foreing frontier representations.

  4. HTGR development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) development in the United States of America is described, including the organizational structure for the development support, HTGR development programme, and plans for future activities in the field

  5. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  6. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  7. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  8. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W [1; Bloomquist, R Gordon [2; Boyd, Tonya L [1; Renner, Joel [3; (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0000-12-30

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  9. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  10. SUPREME LEADERS OF THE NATION: HISTORY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PRESIDENTIAL SUPREMACY IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín E. Ferraro

    2015-09-01

    .Keywords: Supremacy, Nation, State, Latin America, Presidency, United States, and Constitutional Law

  11. 75 FR 10561 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful QuartersTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters\\TM\\ Two-Roll Set, etc. AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint America...

  12. 75 FR 10345 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc. AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the prices of the 2010 United States Mint America the...

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  14. Social Rehabilitation of Minors in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczykowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America was one of the first countries in the world, which at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century took to building the justice and social rehabilitation system for minors. To date, many reforms have been made, initiated by a variety of circumstances, with their participation. Currently, due to the increase in juvenile criminality, the high costs and low efficiency, questions are posed about the future of the American social rehabilitation system. Next to the typical social rehabilitation trends, ideas of strict punishment of juveniles, on an equal footing with adults, are being implemented. In light of the above, this article is to show the historical and institutional conditions of actions undertaken towards minors, and an attempt to answer the question of what direction the American juvenile social rehabilitation system is heading.

  15. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 2, Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    ''Science, Society and America's Nuclear Waste'' is a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  16. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Hather

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US, we compared federal research funding (FRF with the US gross domestic product (GDP and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU and the People's Republic of China (China over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  17. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-08-16

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  18. Globalization and Education within Two Revolutionary Organizations in the United States of America: A Gramscian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the history, strategy, structure, educational practices, and globalization perspectives of two revolutionary organizations in the United States of America: the Freedom Road Socialist Organization and the League of Revolutionaries for a New America. This article relates the work of these organizations to the theory and…

  19. The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America: Transformation Through Integration and Innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ... and President Bush's National Security Strategy of the United States of America. The President signed the new law with the expectation that "our vast intelligence enterprise will become more unified, coordinated, and effective...

  20. Atomic energy: protocol between Canada and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This agreement amends an agreement signed June 15, 1955 between the governments of Canada and the United States of America concerning the exchange of nulcear technology, information, and materials between the two countries

  1. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  2. 76 FR 15047 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof SetTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set\\TM\\, etc. ACTION: Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set TM ; 2010 United States Mint Silver Proof Set TM ; 2011 United States...

  3. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    a computerized test designed to assess pilot skills by measuring spatial orientation and psychomotor skills and multitasking . The second is the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0028 Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America Joe...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America 5a. CONTRACT

  4. WOMEN LEADERSHIP AND GLOBAL POWER: EVIDENCE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Arup K.Sen; Jessica E. Metzger

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines leadership theories along with the advancement of women within the United States as well as in Latin America. Data from an exploratory survey of 19 women executives in Latin America and 19 women executives in the United States suggest that globalization has transformed the way in which organizations perceive and carry out leadership today. Globalization has paved the way for a new type of leadership style that is more collaborative and less hierarchal, in which relationshi...

  5. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  6. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  7. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Ionizing Radiation, Unit 2. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 2 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to convey factual information relevant to radioactivity and radiation and relate that information both to the personal lives of students…

  8. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 14 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the “Guidelines”), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the United States of America in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 14 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are attached for the information of all Member States

  9. Communication received from the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter, dated 15 September 2003, from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the United States of America in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 15 September 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  10. Communication received from the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 24 May 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the United States of America in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 24 May 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  11. Communication received from the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 28 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004. In light of the request expressed by the Government of the United States of America in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 28 September 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  12. Energetics of the United States of America: An Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drysdale, F. R.; Calef, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A description of the United States' energy system is presented in the form of thirty-one maps and eight major tables. The county has been chosen as the basic unit for reporting estimations of many energy, demographic, and economic variables. The variables include production of all fuels (including hydroelectricity), use of fuels and electricity broken down by sector and end use, existing and planned electricity generation capacity, refinery capacities, and emissions of air pollutants from fuel use. Calculations and assumptions used to make county-level energy estimates are described in detail.

  13. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 September 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  14. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 24 February 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [es

  15. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 7 September 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  16. Mao's steps in Monroe's backyard: towards a United States-China hegemonic struggle in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose León-Manríquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what could be expected given the United States' historical hegemony of Latin America, growing Chinese influence in this region has not led to a dispute between China and the US. Despite activism of hard-line groups in the United States, both parties have faced the issue with noticeable pragmatism. This attitude could be explained by three variables: the US political negligence towards Latin America in the Post-Cold War, the focus of Sino-Latin American relations on economic rather than geopolitical or ideological affairs, and the scanty relevance of the region in the top priorities of overall Washington-Beijing relations.

  17. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 7 September 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  18. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 September 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  19. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 24 February 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008

  20. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 7 September 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [fr

  1. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 September 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [fr

  2. The Physical Economy of the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-06-01

    The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption.

  3. Counselor Preparation in Nigeria and the United States of America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrast counsellor-training programs in two institutions from different cultures. The University of Ilorin, Nigeria and The Pennsylvania State University. While the United States is. an industrialized western nation, Nigeria is a developing African nation. A comparative inquiry of this nature is likely to ...

  4. National Security Strategy of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    build new partnerships based on the principle of reciprocity. Economic tools—including sanctions, anti-mon- ey- laundering and anti-corruption...parency, and help ensure that money reaches its intended destination. INCENTIVIZE REFORMS: The United States will use diplomacy and assistance to

  5. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 1, Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is unit 1 in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  6. Energetics of the United States of America: An Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drysdale, F. R.; Calef, C. E.

    1977-10-01

    In this update, a description of the United States' energy system is presented in the form of thirty-one maps and eight major tables. The county has been chosen as the basic unit for reporting estimations of many energy, demographic and economic variables. The variables include production of all fuels (including hydroelectricity), uses of fuels and electricity broken down by sector and end-use, existing and planned electricity generation capacity, refinery capacities, and emissions of air pollutants from fuel use. Calculations and assumptions used to make county level energy estimates are described in detail. The original atlas (BNL-50501) was cited in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, 3:2052.

  7. Assessment report on uranium in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Assessment of the uranium resources in the United States as of October 1, 1980, indicates a range of reserves, in mean values, from 645 thousand tons of U 3 O 8 (in the $30 per pound of U 3 O 8 cost category) to 1.122 million tons (in the $100 per pound of U 3 O 8 category). Ranges of potential resources are also shown for the same cost categories: from 885 thousand to over 2 million tons of U 3 O 8 in the probable class; 346 thousand to over 1 million tons in the possible class; and 311 thousand to nearly 700 thousand tons in the speculative class. There are an estimated 140 thousand tons of U 3 O 8 that could be recovered as a byproduct of phosphate and copper mining through the year 2009. Production capability studies indicate that the demand could be satisfied from currently estimated resources if there is a transition from current production of lower cost resources to production from the $50 per pound of U 3 O 8 resources by the mid 1990s. If, due to foreign competition or other market forces, production incentives are not maintained, domestic production potential will not be realized, and the United States could become dependent on foreign sources for much of its U 3 O 8

  8. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 13 October 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been recent changes in its plutonium and fuel cycle policy to replace the statement, and has included a Revised Plutonium and Fuel Cycle Policy Statement provided with the report submitted by the United States for 2007 [es

  9. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 13 October 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been recent changes in its plutonium and fuel cycle policy to replace the statement, and has included a Revised Plutonium and Fuel Cycle Policy Statement provided with the report submitted by the United States for 2007

  10. The high dose and low dose food irradiation programmes in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    Many highly acceptable shelf-stable irradiated food items have been developed in the United States of America. The most extensive wholesomeness studies ever carried out on any food-processing method continue to indicate that irradiated foods are wholesome. (author)

  11. Critical area planting in the United States of America | G | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of vegetation on disturbed or critical areas of the United States of America has long been evident. A wide range of climatic, soil and environmental conditions has resulted in a search for suitable grass species and methods for their establishment. Plant material centres have done considerable work in ...

  12. A Review Of The History Of Gender Equality In The United States Of America

    OpenAIRE

    Wedad Andrada Quffa

    2016-01-01

    Gender inequality is one of the important challenges in all modern societies, the United States of America being no exception, despite the progress and significant advances that have been made in the past century. There still is a significant gender gap in many areas - most notable being the pay gap, social norms and practices, education, political participation and social institutions. The present article aims to analyse the legal framework and social framework that has evolved in the United...

  13. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  14. Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance

  15. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  16. Dengue in the United States of America: A Worsening Scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Añez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a febrile illness caused by any of the four dengue virus types (DENV-1 to -4, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. DENV can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Dengue has been historically present in the continental United States (US, in the state of Hawaii, and in the US insular territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. During the second half of the 20th century, most of the cases reported in the US were imported cases brought to the country by travelers. Since 2009, cases of autochthonous dengue have been recognized in the state of Florida after 75 years of absence, followed by intensification of transmission in endemic places including the US territories of US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, which experienced a large dengue epidemic in 2010. The widespread distribution of dengue mosquito vectors, deficient mosquito control measures and increased frequency of DENV-infected visitors to the US coming from dengue-endemic locations or places experiencing epidemics appear to be jointly responsible for the emergence and reemergence of dengue in the US and its territories.

  17. Uranium procurement in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Krusiewski, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy conducts surveys of US uranium marketing activity. The results of this year's survey compared with last year's survey indicate that delivery commitments of US uranium producers to US uranium users have decreased in the early part of this decade, but have increased in the latter part of the decade. Unfilled uranium requirements are nearly the same through 1986 in both surveys, but in the 1987-1990 period this years's unfilled requirements are lower than those reported last year. Non-US purchase commitments by US utilities are somewhat greater than those reported last year. Non-US purchase commitments by US reactor manufacturers and producers have increased significantly over the past year; about two-thirds of these purchase commitments resulted from the settlement of litigation with non-US suppliers. The attitude of US utilities as to their use of non-US uranium has remained the same over the past year. Although some of the utilities were uncertain about future non-US uranium purchases, many of them indicated that they would possibly purchase non-US uranium. Natural uranium inventories of US reactor manufacturers and utilities have increased over the past year, and now amount to about 3 years of forward coverage. The enriched uranium inventories held by these users have decreased over the past year, and now amount to less than 1 year's forward coverage. (author)

  18. Storage options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Richardson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel from commercial reactors in the United States is nearly 25 000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) and is increasing at a rate of about 2000 MTHM per year. By the time the last licence for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, the inventory of spent fuel is expected to be about 85 000 MTHM. Almost all of the spent fuel is stored in water pools at reactor sites, but dry storage has begun to be used by several utilities that have used up their pool capacity. Eventually the spent fuel will be transferred to the Federal waste-management system now being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE is developing a waste-management system consisting of three components: a geologic repository, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper briefly describes how the commercial nuclear utilities are addressing spent fuel storage at their reactor sites and the DOE's strategy for interfacing with the utilities. (author)

  19. Agreed framework of 21 October 1994 between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The attached text of the Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, signed in Geneva on 21 October 1994, is being circulated to all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Resident Representative of the United States of America

  20. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 6 April 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2005. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been changes in their plutonium and fuel cycle policy since their last statement was submitted, and have additionally included a policy statement in the enclosures of the letter [es

  1. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 6 April 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2005. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been changes in their plutonium and fuel cycle policy since their last statement was submitted, and have additionally included a policy statement in the enclosures of the letter

  2. Antibiotic prescription in intensive care units in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Curcio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The intensive care units (ICUs are often considered as the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the total antibiotic consumption is approximately ten fold greater in ICU wards than in general hospital wards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current use of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Three cross-sectional (one-day point prevalence studies were undertaken in 43 Latin American ICUs. Of 1644 patients admitted, 688 received antibiotic treatment on the days of the study (41.8 % and, 392 cases (57 % were due to nosocomial-acquired infections. Of all infections, 22 % (151/688 corresponded to septic shock; and 22 % (151/688 to nosocomial pneumonia (50/151 [33 %], ventilator-associated pneumonia. In 485 patients (70.5 %, cultures were performed before starting antibiotic treatment. The most common microorganisms isolated were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, (30.5 %, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 %. Carbapenems (imipenem or meropenem were the antibiotics most frequently prescribed (151/688, 22 %, followed by vancomycin (103/688, 15 %, piperacillin-tazobactam (86/688, 12.5 % and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (mainly cefepime (83/688, 12 %. In summary, carbapenems were the most frequent antibiotics prescribed in Latin American ICUs. This practice seems justified for the high rates of ESBL-producing Gram-negatives found in our patients. Beyond this reason, the problem of bacterial resistance in LA requires that physicians improve the use of carbapenems. The high prevalence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa in the region, along with the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, have increased markedly. A comprehensive evidence-based stewardship program based on local antimicrobial use and resistance problems should be implemented in our clinical settings.Prescripción de antibióticos en unidades de cuidados intensivos de Latinoamérica. Las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI

  3. State review United States of America. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the chapter 'Risk Assessment in Atomic Energy Law of the United States' of this report you find among other things the Atomic Energy Act, the approval conditions, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, the defense-in-depth concept, probabilistic safety studies, probabilistic probability assessments in the case of external influences onto nuclear power plants, quantitative analyses of the consequences of conceivable accidents, reduction of radiation exposure, the National Environmental Policy Act, the environmental compatibility declaration, the so-called residual risk under the environmental aspect, the classification of the accidents into 9 types, new developments concerning accident analysis, effects of the nuclear fuel cycle on environment, indicial decisions. The chapter about 'Risk Assessment in Civil Law, Criminal Law and Law on Protection of the Environment', deals among other things with the Law on nuisance, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act. In 'Problems of the Cost-Efficiency-Analysis' the significance and purpose of this analysis, the availability of data and information, the monetary quantification of risks and costs, alternatives and the danger of misuse are illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  4. A Review Of The History Of Gender Equality In The United States Of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Andrada Quffa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality is one of the important challenges in all modern societies, the United States of America being no exception, despite the progress and significant advances that have been made in the past century. There still is a significant gender gap in many areas - most notable being the pay gap, social norms and practices, education, political participation and social institutions. The present article aims to analyse the legal framework and social framework that has evolved in the United States of America in order to diminish or completely abolish gender inequality and discrimination. After the 1920 ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, which empowered women with political rights, there was a proposed amendment to the Constitution to guarantee equal rights for women, first introduced in Congress in 1923, passed by both houses in 1972, but which failed ratification - only 35 out of the 38 states needed ratified the amendment before the deadline - 1979, which later was extended to 1982. The United States has since taken some steps in reducing the gender gap and stopping gender discrimination

  5. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  6. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Four: Revolutionary America. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Revolution is the theme of this resource unit, which is the fourth in a social studies series designed for sixth grade students. In the first part of the unit, case studies are used to examine 18th century Boston, Williamsburg, and Philadelphia, contrasting them to 17th century Jamestown and Plymouth settlements. Emphasis is upon examining causes…

  7. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  8. Communication received from the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 9 May 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in which the Government of the United States in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, makes available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 2000. In the light of the request expressed by the United States in its note verbale of 1 December 1997, concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the texts of the enclosure of the letter of 9 May 2002 are attached for the information of all Member States

  9. [Development of legislation and standardization of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Dong; Hou, You-Juan; Meng, Fan-Hong; Chen, Shu-Juan; Wang, Yan-Yao; Jiang, Fan; Ding, Ming

    2012-06-01

    In the present article, the authors summarized the state of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America from 1) history and current state, 2) legislation and its contents, management system and introduction of health insurance system, and 3) standardization. Acupuncture therapy, as a complementary or alternative therapy, has been widely supported and approved by majority of states in the USA. The authors hold that due to differences between the oriental and western cultures and difficulties of Chinese medicine in quantitative and qualitative studies, the legislation on acupuncture therapy for approval of the American Parliament needs paying more efforts.

  10. Latin America and the United States: What Do United States History Textbooks Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates how U.S.-Latin American relations are presented in high school U.S. history textbooks. An examination of 10 textbooks published between 1977-81 revealed inadequate coverage of Latin American cultural diversity and United States foreign policy from the Latin American perspective. (AM)

  11. Forensic palynology: current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Vaughn M; Jones, Gretchen D

    2006-11-22

    The United States of America would seem to be an excellent location for using pollen data in forensic applications. The vegetation within the region is highly diverse ranging from areas of Arctic tundra to some of the most inhospitable deserts anywhere in the Western Hemisphere. The highly varied ecology, great plant diversity, thousands of vegetational microhabitats, and extensive published pollen records for the region provide an ideal setting for these types of analyses. This diversity, often characterized in most locations by unique combinations of pollen types, makes the use of forensic pollen a reliable technique that can often be used to associate individuals with a unique crime scene or geographical region. Nevertheless, forensic pollen studies in the United States of America are currently one of the most highly under utilized techniques available to assist in solving criminal and civil cases. During the past century there has been a very limited attempt to use pollen evidence in either criminal or civil cases, for a variety of reasons, including a lack of available information about the technique, a very limited number of specialists trained to do forensic pollen work, and an almost total absence of academic centers able to train needed specialists or forensic facilities able, or willing, to fund research in this area. Hopefully, this paucity of use will change if certain steps are taken to encourage the routine collection and use of pollen evidence in both criminal and civil cases.

  12. Communications Received from the United States of America Regarding the Supply of Nuclear Material Through the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-29

    On 17 April 1975 the Director General received a letter dated 15 April from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency providing information in connection with contracts and other agreements signed by or on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission for the supply of nuclear material through the Agency.

  13. A Reflection and Comparison of Physician Training in the United States of America and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit S. Aiyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a final year medical student at the University of Birmingham in England, I am very familiar with the training structure of physicians in the National Health Service (NHS. Recently, I had the opportunity to do 4 months of clinical electives at the University of Massachusetts in Worcester, Massachusetts and Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City, New York. This experience allowed me to gain insight on the American training system for medical student graduates that provided a new perspective on physician training. The following reflection will be based on my experiences in the two countries and focus on the working guidelines for junior doctors in the United States that is based on the Accredited Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME Duty Hours protocol, and will be compared to the European Work Time Directive (EWTD guidelines for British junior doctors.

  14. Communication received from the United States of America concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 7 August 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in which the Government of the United States, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available an annual statement of its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 2001. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been changes in their plutonium and fuel cycle policy since their last statement was submitted, and have additionally included a policy statement in the enclosures of the letter. In the light of the request expressed by the United States in its note verbale of 1 December 1997, concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the texts of the enclosures of the letter of 7 August 2002 are attached for the information of all Member States

  15. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Burnham, J.B.; Fisher, F.D.; Ray, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to

  16. The threat in Iran and United States of America criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mahdavi Sabet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran criminal law and United States of America have considered the threat as a crime and have imposed the penalty for it. The threat importance is considered in where that from one side the persons and civilians in accordance with domestic laws and international documents are involved very important right entitled of "Freedom of speech" and the mentioned rights violation is associated with domestic and foreign criminal sanctions and on the other hand, the expression of some words or commit a certain attitude with them and in accordance with the same laws are prohibited and to be considered as the criminal threat. However, the laws of both countries have adopted different approaches regarding the circumstances realization of the mentioned crime and some of its examples, although in some criminal threat characteristics such as lack of necessity to apply the means are unlawful and have similarity in its intentionality. In order to detailed understanding of the similarities and differences of criminal threats in Iran and America laws, which leads to the identification of existing disadvantages and advantages and providing the strategies regarding the deficiencies of the current laws and trends, so we are investigating the structure and threat features in criminal law of both countries.

  17. Native African Arts and Cultures in the New World; A Case Study of African Retentions in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    IZEVBIGIE, Omokaro A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the different languages, and cultures in Africa, there is commonality in religious artistic and musical traditions. Did the native Africans sold into slavery retain any of the traditions in the "New World" in general and in the United States of America in particular? There is considerable retention in the Latin American countries, because the slaves had many more rights in South America than in the United States. Consequently, the African slaves in the United States of America gradual...

  18. Nuclear. Exchange of letters between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America. Treaty series 1993 no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Discussions between officials of the Governments of the United States of America and Canada concerning cooperation between Canada and the United States of America on the application of non-proliferation assurances to Canadian uranium to be transferred from Canada to the United States of America for enrichment and fabrication into fuel and thereafter retransferred to Taiwan for use in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity on Taiwan

  19. Potential cooperation in renewable energy between China and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jun; Sheng, Pengfei; Li, Xuesong; Wang, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    China and the United States of America (US) are developing renewable energy concurrently. In this paper, we seek the opportunities for potential cooperation between these two countries based on the analysis of annual economic data. A mathematical model has been established to characterize correlations among GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, energy prices and the renewable energy cooperation index. Based on statistical analyses, such cooperation can promote economic development, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, improve the environment and realize green growth. If US monetary and technology resources and Chinese markets are combined, benefits can be mutually gained. - Highlights: • An indicator called “renewable energy cooperation index” is introduced. • A model correlates GDP, CO 2 emission, energy price and the cooperation index. • The cooperation can stimulate economy and reduce CO 2 emission. • Combining US and Chinese resources will be mutually beneficial

  20. Regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunno, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    The selection and evaluation of sites for power plants in the United States of America have become increasingly difficult in recent years as pressures from various societal segments have resulted in governmental restraints on selection and burning of fossil fuels, methods of heat dissipation, acquisition of transmission rights of way, and on environmental impact of industrialization in general. New legislation at both Federal and state levels has been enacted that influences power plant siting. In addition to environmental requirements that must be satisfied, implementing procedures require documented justification for sites chosen and public disclosure of the basis for selection. Some states have consolidated their regulatory activities in the power plant siting area to provide for a more unified approach to these problems. Although nuclear plants have by far the most rigorous requirements for documentation of site selection and plant design, the application of the same general philosophies to fossil plants has been made in several states and can be anticipated elsewhere. Individual site-related investigations have not so much changed in basics as they have been enlarged in scope. Whereas in the past the search for siting alternatives was frequently confined to a utility's service area, the additional siting constraints represented in environmental laws, the economies of size of nuclear power plants, and the sharing of plant capacities among utilities have contributed to a widening of the search area. Several states have assumed the responsibility for site search and investigation and their efforts extend state-wide. This paper discusses applications of regional approaches to power plant siting in the United States of America using case studies made by NUS Corporation, an engineering/environmental consulting firm. The universality of these approaches is indicated, leaving to national policies and goals the importance of values assigned to the basic siting factors

  1. The text of a safeguards transfer agreement relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The document reproduces the text of a safeguards transfer agreement of 28 August 1996 relating to a bilateral agreement between Argentina and the United States of America to suspend the application of safeguards pursuant to the agreement of 25 July 1969 between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America in light of the provisions for the application of safeguards pursuant to the quadripartite safeguards agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the IAEA. The Protocol entered into force on 13 January 1997

  2. Radioactive residues at nuclear sites in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, J.; Rampertaap, A.; Greeves, J.; MacKinney, J.; Raguso, M.; Selstrom, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United States of America has a large number of sites where radioactive materials have been mined, processed, produced, or used. Upon completion of activities at these sites, some will be cleaned up completely and released for unrestricted future use. However, at other sites, contamination will remain on the site following cleanup, requiring long term institutional controls. Depending on the purpose or the activity conducted at a specific site, these locations are generally under the jurisdiction of a federal agency: the United States Department of Energy, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or the United States Department of Defense. However, under certain conditions, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission relinquishes regulatory authority to individual states to regulate the commercial uses of radioactive materials (except for nuclear reactors), so some locations with radioactive materials are under the jurisdiction of individual states. Other sites with naturally occurring radioactive contamination may also be controlled by individual states. One or two sites under the jurisdiction of each agency are discussed where radioactive materials either existed in the past or exist today, and the source of contamination, the anticipated end state, and the process by which the responsible agency did or will conduct cleanup and site closure are described. Several issues are reviewed that must be addressed in order to design and implement remediations that will ensure long term protection for the environment and future inhabitants. The role of citizens in environmental cleanups is examined, and how institutional controls may be applied to ensure long term protection of remediations that leave some contaminants in place. (author)

  3. Continuing education requirements among State Occupational Therapy Regulatory Boards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah R. Hall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the contents of each state’s occupational therapy (OT regulatory board requirements regarding licensees’ acquisition of continuing education units in the United States of America. Methods Data related to continuing education requirements from each OT regulatory board of all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States were reviewed and categorized by two reviewers. Analysis was conducted based on the categorization of the continuing education requirements and activities required, allowed, and not allowed/not mentioned for continuing education units. Results Findings revealed non-uniformity and inconsistency of continuing education requirements for licensure renewal between OT regulatory boards and was coupled with lack of specific criteria for various continuing education activities. Continuing education requirements were not tailored to meet the needs of individual licensee’s current and anticipated professional role and job responsibilities, with a negative bias towards presentation and publication allowed for continuing education units. Few boards mandated continuing education topics on ethics related to OT practice within each renewal cycle. Conclusion OT regulatory boards should move towards unifying the reporting format of continuing education requirements across all states to reduce ambiguity and to ensure licensees are equipped to provide ethical and competent practice. Efforts could be made to enact continuing education requirements specific to the primary role of a particular licensee. Finally, assigning the amount of continuing education credits to be awarded for different activities should be based on research evidence rather than arbitrary determination.

  4. Development of the geologic waste disposal programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Ballard, W.W.; Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although alternative concepts are being studied as future options, over at least the next few decades the United States of America is committed to the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic nuclear waste (HLW and TRU) in mined geologic repositories. A 10,000-year minimum isolation period is sought. Responsibility for the management and disposal of United States nuclear waste, in accordance with standards and regulations established, respectively, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), resides with the Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been implemented to provide the facilities and develop the requisite technology for the disposal of HLW and TRU. The NWTS Program is highly structured, adequately funded, and realistically scheduled. The timely realization of its objectives is basic to the furtherance of the new national energy policy being defined by President Reagan and the United States Congress. The first NWTS repository is scheduled to be operational as early as 1998. The host-rock formation, selected on the basis of the results of at-depth investigations via exploratory shafts to be sunk in 1983-1985 at three potential sites previously extensively characterized by surface techniques, will be either basalt, volcanic tuff, or domed or bedded salt. Selection of one site in these formations will not necessarily disqualify others. Also, screening studies of granitic formations in the United States for the siting of later, regionally located repositories are currently being conducted. Each NWTS repository will be licensed by the NRC. The first application for a construction authorization will probably be submitted in 1988. The application will be submitted for a site to be selected in 1987

  5. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. The Text of the Safeguards agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Switzerland and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-04-20

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Switzerland and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 30 December 1965 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for 'the information of all Members.

  8. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement Between Sweden and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Sweden and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 28 July 1966, as amended, between the two Governments for co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America: National Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for the secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. The time is now for educators to be recognizant of these changes.…

  10. National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. Jacobs and Kritsonis say the time is now for educators to be recognizant of…

  11. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  12. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-01-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  13. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-02-23

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 9 December 1970.

  14. 76 FR 32011 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia Notice of Proposal to... Government of the Republic of Bolivia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Columbian Cultures and Certain Ethnological Material from the Colonial and Republican...

  15. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-07-13

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  16. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-04-09

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  17. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency. Thailand and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  19. Escaping social-ecological traps through tribal stewardship on national forest lands in the Pacific Northwest, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake

    2018-01-01

    Tribal communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States of America (USA) have long-standing relationships to ancestral lands now managed by federal land management agencies. In recent decades, federal and state governments have increasingly recognized tribal rights to resources on public lands and to participate in their management. In support of a new...

  20. The Texts of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Israel and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  1. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement berween the two Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development or the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  2. Use and abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cajetan Luna

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the United States of America has experienced economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, and technological advances. However, coexisting with these favorable conditions are underlying and underaddressed social inequalities that may have an impact on patterns of use and abuse of substances, including amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs. For example, since 1975 most of the increase in national income has benefited people who are at the top 20% of the income range. There are disparities between those who do have and those who do not have the skills needed to thrive in a technologically dependent society, and the gap may be widening. New patterns of substance abuse being seen in the United States may in part be explained by the increasing competition to survive financially and interpersonally, the need that those failing to adapt to rapid technological change have to escape psychologically and existentially, and the desire of the socially alienated and disenfranchised to self-medicate with ATSs and at least temporarily avoid social and economical inequities. According to the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, an estimated 13.6 million Americans were users of illicit drugs (1. This number is less than the 13.9 million estimated for 1997, and by comparison less than the highest level, in 1979, when the estimate was 25 million. With respect to stimulants in particular, the overall level of usage has remained constant, but increases have been observed in specific high-risk populations, who need focused outreach and intervention efforts. This article will focus on ATSs in the United States, including relevant demographic and cultural dimensions of their use and abuse, and suggested directions for future ATS research and program development.

  3. Communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency including two statements of the President and the Secretary of State of the United States of America regarding the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

  4. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  5. Occupational employment trends in selected nuclear industry segments in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The United States of America's nuclear energy industry expanded rapidly between 1968 and 1977, with total employment increasing by approximately 60%. Between 1973 and 1977 employment grew at a rate of 6.8% per year. The nuclear industry appears to have reached a mature status with the primary focus on commercial activities. The relative number of workers involved in research and development activities, outside of contract research facilities, has declined considerably since 1968 but appears to have stabilized. The industry labour force still has a relatively high proportion (43%) of scientific, engineering and technical workers. The occupational employment composition appears to have stabilized in the various nuclear segments indicating the emergence of longer run occupational distribution patterns. Employment expanded rapidly between 1968 and 1977 in most nuclear segments, with the exception of the research and development segment, where employment decreased by one-third. The present uncertainties concerning nuclear power development could have substantial impacts on the nuclear-related scientific, engineering, and technical labour force if a sizeable contraction occurs in reactor design and manufacturing and in design of nuclear facilities. (author)

  6. Stakeholders‘ Perceptions on Migrant SPED Teachers in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudore T. Camata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study ascertained the perception toward migrant SPED teachers in selected states in the United States of America, it sought to answer these objectives: (1 determine the respondents‟ demographic profiles, (2 extrapolate the public perception of international SPED teachers in the US in terms of professional competence, professional engagement, and community engagement, (3 identify the perceived socio-cultural, political, economic dimensions of the migrant SPED teachers in the US workforce, (4 analyze the significant relationship of the respondents‟ demographic profiles and their perceptions toward special education teachers in the US. A descriptive design with snow-ball sampling was utilized. An online Sample Size Calculator by Creative Research System, was calculated with a confidence level of 95 percent and a confidence interval of five (5 requiring at least 384 respondents using a modified questionnaire. The respondents‟ socio-demographic profile exhibited no significant relationship between the perceptions toward migrant SPED teachers. But, the experience of having a foreigner friend, working with a colleague with a different culture and the experience of travelling abroad affect their perception significantly. Migrant SPED teachers in the US were positively recognized and accepted by their stakeholders like the parents of the students, colleagues and school administrators. They are perceived to be efficient and effective in the aspects of professional competence, professional and community engagement. Their acceptance, recognition, and how they were perceived by stakeholders became the cornerstones in the achievement of their „American dream‟.

  7. The governance of federal debt in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The United State of America has been experiencing high debt to GDP ratio of more than 100% and these Public debts are detrimental. The main purpose of this study was to examine the shocks of the variables on others in the USA economy by using quarterly data. The variance decomposition and the Generalised Impulse Response Function techniques were employed to analyse the data. The result revealed that high variation of shocks in real federal debt is explained by their own innovations in the short run, by CPI followed by real federal debt its self. In the long run, this leads to CPI and real government spending. The GIRF reveals that in the short run, real federal debt responds negatively to shocks from CPI, real federal interest payment and real federal government tax receipts and positively to real federal debt and real government spending. In medium term, only real federal government tax receipts are negative while the others are positive. In the long run, the response are all positive to shock from the independent variables. The results lead to the recommendation that the US government should focus on real federal debt in the short run. In the medium term, US government should focus on increasing real government spending and reducing only real federal government tax receipts. In the long run the target should real be federal debt, CPI, real federal interest payment, real government spending and real federal government tax receipts

  8. Family caregiver preferences for patient decisional control among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennurajalingam, Sriram; Noguera, Antonio; Parsons, Henrique Afonseca; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Duarte, Eva Rosina; Palma, Alejandra; Bunge, Sofia; Palmer, J. Lynn; Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding family caregivers’ decisional role preferences is important for communication, quality of care, and patient and family satisfaction. The family caregiver has an important role in a patient’s decisional role preferences. There are limited studies on family caregivers’ preferences of the patient’s decisional control at the end of life among Hispanics. Aims To identify Hispanic caregivers’ preferences of the decision control of patients with advanced cancer and to compare the preferences of caregivers in Latin America (HLA) and Hispanic American (HUSA) caregivers. Design We surveyed patients and their family caregivers referred to outpatient palliative care clinics in the United States, Chile, Argentina, and Guatemala. Caregiver preferences of patient’s decisional control were evaluated using the Control Preference Scale. Caregivers’ and patients’ socio-demographic variables, patient performance status, and HUSA patient acculturation level was also collected. Participants A total of 387 caregivers were surveyed: 100 (26%) in Chile, 99 (26%) in Argentina, 97 (25%) in Guatemala, and 91 (24%) in the United States. The median age was 56 years, and 59% were female. Results Caregiver preference of patients decisions control was passive, shared, and active by 10 (11%), 45 (52%) and 32 (37%) HUSA caregivers and 54 (19%), 178 (62%) and 55 (19%) HLA caregivers (p=0.0023). Caregiver acculturation level did not affect the preferences of the HUSA sample (p=0.60). Conclusions Most Hispanic family caregivers preferred the patient to make shared decisions. HLA caregivers preferred more frequently patients to assume a passive decisional role. Acculturation did not influence the preferences of HUSA caregivers. PMID:23670718

  9. Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The document reproduces the full text of the Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty) on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within United States Protocol I Territories for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

  10. Pilot research projects for underground disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.; Collyer, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Disposal of commercial radioactive waste in the United States of America in a deep underground formation will ensure permanent isolation from the biosphere with minimal post-closure surveillance and maintenance. The siting, design and development, performance assessment, operation, licensing, certification and decommissioning of an underground repository have stimulated the development of several pilot research projects throughout the country. These pilot tests and projects, along with their resulting data base, are viewed as important steps in the overall location and construction of a repository. Beginning in the 1960s, research at pilot facilities has progressed from underground spent fuel tests in an abandoned salt mine to the production of vitrified nuclear waste in complex borosilicate glass logs. Simulated underground repository experiments have been performed in the dense basalts of Washington State, the volcanic tuffaceous rock of Nevada and both domal and bedded salts of Louisiana and Kansas. In addition to underground pilot in situ tests, other facilities have been constructed or modified to monitor the performance of spent fuel in dry storage wells and self-shielded concrete casks. As the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) programme advances to the next stage of underground site characterization for each of three different geological sites, additional pilot facilities are under consideration. These include a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) for site verification and equipment performance and testing, as well as a salt testing facility for verification of in situ simulation equipment. Although not associated with the NWTS programme, the construction of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salts of New Mexico is well under way for deep testing and experimentation with the defence programme's transuranic nuclear waste. (author)

  11. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA, and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of south- western USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asth- ma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9% to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8 higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  12. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  13. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the plutonium distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States of America. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analysed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In the three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse and Newport) the suspended particulate matter (1μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah river estuary, in addition to fall-out plutonium, has received up to 0.3Ci of plutonium from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the US Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence plutonium isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Plutonium contents in surface marsh sediment from the Savannah River estuary are lower than those found in nearby bay sediments. In fact, total plutonium concentrations of sediments showed increases from the upper to lower portions of the estuary; however, higher contributions of 238 Pu in the upper portions indicate that releases from the Savannah River Plant do contribute plutonium to the Savannah river estuary. Plutonium concentrations in Spartina were less than 10fCi/g dry weight but are higher than plutonium contents of terrestrial plants ( 238 Pu to the total plutonium activities in the sediment and the Spartina. Plutonium concentrations were about three times higher in the Newport river estuary than in the Neuse and Savannah river estuaries. (author)

  14. Comparison of the legal regulation of crypto-currency in Switzerland, the United States of America and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yakimenka, Aliaksandr

    2017-01-01

    Resume In my graduation thesis I concentrated on the comparative characteristics of the legal regulation of crypto-currency in three countries: Switzerland, the United States of America and Japan. Because it is a very crucial and challenging topic today and many governments are trying to find the solution for it. These countries and their legal regulations are considered to be the best in the world in many aspects, that other countries are trying to be equal to and they took leading position ...

  15. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between Argentina and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Argentina and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 25 June 1969 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 25 July 1969.

  16. On the Formation of Philosophical Environmental Ethics : A Brief History of Environmental Ethics in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakenaka, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to survey the history of philosophical environmental ethics in the United States of America. The backgrounds of the birth of environmental ethics are (a) traditional movement of environmental protection, (b) scientific research on ecosystem and ecology movements, and (c) warnings of global environmental crisis by natural scientists. Environmental ethics as philosophy was formed in the early 1970s against the background of these. From the mid-1980s to the present ti...

  17. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to a Bilateral Agreement between Austria and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-05-18

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Austria and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 11 July 1969 between the two Governments for cooperation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Transfer Agreement entered into force on 24 January 1970.

  18. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-05-06

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America relating to the agreement between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Members will be informed of the entry into force of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement.

  19. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  20. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the protocol suspending the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 26 September 1966 between the Agency, Australia and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  1. Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Reports for the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Incorporated for Fiscal Years 1999 and 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinhoff, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    As requested, we reviewed the audit reports covering the financial statements of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Incorporated, a federally chartered corporation, for the years...

  2. Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Report for the Navy Club of the United States of America for Fiscal Year 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    As requested, the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed the audit report covering the financial statements of the Navy Club of the United States of America, a federally chartered corporation, for the fiscal year ended July 31, 1998...

  3. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Sweden and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The text of the Protocol of 14 April 1975 suspending the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 1 March 1972 between the Agency, Sweden and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Thailand and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Protocol suspending the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 30 September 1964 between the Agency, Thailand and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  5. Communication from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America regarding a joint statement on nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America, transmitting the text of the Joint Statement by the Presidents of the Russian Federation and the United States of America on Nuclear Cooperation issued on 6 July 2009 in Moscow. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned statement is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  6. America Learns Russian: A History of the Teaching of the Russian Language in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Albert

    Chronologically presented is the slow development of Russian language instruction in America from the latter part of the 18th century at Kodiak, Alaska, to the establishment of large undergraduate departments at leading universities. The influence of Harvard University, the University of California, Columbia University, Pennsylvania State…

  7. Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    multilateral organizations, non-governmental organizations, corporations , and strategic influencers provide opportunities for collaboration and...competition requires the seamless integration of multiple elements of national power—diplomacy, information, economics, finance , intelligence, law...national power—diplomacy, information, economics, finance , intelligence, law enforcement, and military. More than any other nation, America can

  8. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971

  9. Experience in the United States with a secondary resource curriculum on ''Science, society and America's nuclear waste''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power and nuclear waste situation in the Usa, is first reviewed. In order to enhance information concerning these topics among pupils and teachers, a resource curriculum, 'Science, society, and America's Nuclear Waste', was developed by teachers for teachers; it consists of four units: nuclear waste, ionizing radiation, the nuclear waste policy act, and the waste management system. It has been well received by teachers. Within nine months after its national introduction, 350000 teacher and student curriculum documents were requested by teachers from all 50 states. Requests have been also received from 250 foreign colleges and universities

  10. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between India and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-09-03

    The text of the Safeguards Agreement between the Agency, the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America providing for the Agency to apply safeguards in relation to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the civil uses of atomic energy, is reproduced in part I of this document for the information of all Members. The text of the co-operation agreement is reproduced in part II. The Safeguards Agreement entered into force on 27 January 1971.

  11. Latin America: Its Land, Story and Peoples (An Instructional Unit for the Middle Grades). Instructional Unit No. 3 with Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    This 8- to 12-week introductory unit is designed to give fifth, sixth or seventh graders an overview of Latin American geography, history (before, during, and after European rule) and culture. Exploring Mexico and Peru in particular, the unit places emphasis on the individual, the family, racial composition, social classes, religion, education,…

  12. Air Attack on America?: Vulnerabilities, Capabilities, and Implications of the Air Defense of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    1918 , the bomber had found acceptance in both Britain and America. In Britain it inspired lasting terror which left that nation determined to...proceed to dedicated patrol areas.62 By November 1918 , this system consisted of 16 fighter squadrons, 480 anti-aircraft guns, and 706 searchlights.63 By...to Romania ; and they greatly impeded execution of the Polish agreement.”11 Over the next couple years, Soviet failure to act on prior agreements and

  13. MIGRATION AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: THE CASES OF SOUTHERN MEXICAN STATES AND THEIR EMIGRANT COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Krannich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.

  14. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  15. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  16. Evolution and trends of the dietetics profession in the United States of America and in Argentina: north and south united by similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defranchi, Romina L Barritta de; Nelson, Jennifer K

    2009-06-01

    Since the early stages the profession of dietetics has been characterized as a multifaceted discipline and influenced by scientific and social changes. Today, health and nutrition-related diseases are becoming more global--as is the dietetics profession. The aim of this article is to review the history, education, work and challenges for dietetic practitioners in North and South America, specifically in the United States and in the Argentinean Republic. It was in Argentina where the first Latin American dietetics school was established. Both countries have since shaped the profession creating standards for education and practice in response to advances in the biopsychosocial sciences and economic and environmental changes. Reviewing both the past and current diversities in both Americas contributes to a better understanding of professional strengths and weaknesses, and can prepare dietetics specialists to meet today's needs. Regardless of local disparities, it is interesting that current and future challenges for the dietetics profession are similar between the two countries, such as growing rates of obesity, limited access to and choice of healthy diets among various income groups, busy lifestyles and decline of family meals. These common issues and the availability of Internet tools offer a unique opportunity for partnership and research that can lead to successful creative nutrition interventions and programs. In turn, such joint initiatives will confirm the essential role for the profession--not only in the western hemisphere--but also globally.

  17. Cross-cultural temperamental differences in infants, children, and adults in the United States of America and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, Larissa M; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina; Gartstein, Maria A; Fisher, Philip A; Putnam, Samuel P

    2012-04-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the US during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  19. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  20. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  1. Beaver Valley Unit 1, United States of America, 2007. Annex III. Description of Selected Open Phase Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    On 27 Nov. 2007, during a non-routine walkdown of the off-site switchyard to investigate line voltage differences, the licensee discovered that the Phase A conductor of a 138 kV off-site power circuit of the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 1 had broken off in the switchyard. This break occurred between the off-site feeder breaker and the line running on-site to the A train system station service transformer, located inside the site security fence. The terminal broke on the switchyard side of a revenue-metering current transformer/voltage transformer installed in 2006 to track the station’s power usage through this line. During normal power operation, no appreciable current goes through this 138 kV line because the unit generator normally powers the station buses (loads). The licensee determined that the break on the 138 kV Phase A had occurred 26 days earlier and, therefore, had not been restored within 72 h as required by technical specifications.

  2. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.D.; Horton, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Subsequent to the directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, a variety of activities were undertaken to provide support for continued operation. The United States has made substantial progress in achieving ALMR program objectives. The metal fuel cycle is designed to recycle and burn its own actiniums, and has the potential to be a very effective burner of actiniums generated in the LWRs. The current emphasis in the IFR Program is on the comprehensive development of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) technology, to be followed by a period of technology demonstration which would verify the economic feasibility of the concept. The United States has been active in international cooperative activities in the fast reactor sector since 1969. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab

  3. Do Bananas Have a Culture? United Fruit Company Colonies in Central America 1900-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalia Shragai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the processes underlying the development of the unique identifications and culture which evolved among the First Class Workers of the United Fruit Company - the vast majority of whom were citizens of the United States, working alongside Europeans and Central Americans - during the first half of the twentieth century. Examining the social and cultural practices widespread among the Company’s colonies, I trace the nature of the ‘Banana Culture’, a term coined by the members of this group.

  4. Latin America: A Cultural Region of the World; An Instructional Unit for Grades 8, 9, 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    This teaching package or unit is part of a sequence of materials developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. Concepts, key ideas and facts introduced in earlier grades on socio-cultural patterns are reinforced by this multidisciplinary approach. The major topic emphasis is the history of the periods since the beginning of the Independence…

  5. Job satisfaction among immigrant nurses in Israel and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, M; Ea, E; Ehrenfeld, M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to examine perceptions of job satisfaction among immigrant registered nurses (RNs) in Israel and the USA. Former Soviet Union (FSU) RNs in Israel and Filipino RNs in the USA make up the majority of the immigrant nursing workforce in their host countries. However, little is known about their perception of job satisfaction. Data were gathered using the Index of Work Satisfaction Scale among 71 FSU RNs recruited from three different courses in baccalaureate and master's degree programmes at a central Israeli university, and 96 Filipino RNs attending a national convention hosted by the Philippine Nurses Association of America. The required sample size was obtained by means of the WINPEPI COMPARE2 program, used to determine power and sample size for comparisons of two groups in cross-sectional designs. The findings show that FSU RNs perceived pay and professional status as important, although they were least satisfied with pay. For Filipino RNs, organizational policies and interactions were most important and they were least satisfied by task requirements. Although the average length of residence in the host country was similar in the two samples, significant differences were found between FSU and Filipino RNs in selected demographic variables and components of job satisfaction. Different characteristics of immigrant RNs affect their distinct perceptions of job satisfaction. As successful adjustment of international immigrant RNs to their workplace could enhance perceptions of job satisfaction, nursing managers should support professional advancement of immigrant RNs through mentorship and educational programmes. There is a need to conduct longitudinal studies among international immigrant RNs in order to better understand changes in their job satisfaction over time and contributing factors. Generalization of the findings is limited, because a convenience sample was used to recruit FSU and Filipino immigrant RNs. © 2012 The Authors

  6. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This teachers guide is unit 3, the nuclear waste policy act, in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear power plants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  7. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the 3rd unit, (The Nuclear Waste Policy Act) a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  8. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 4, The waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the teachers guide to unit 4, (The Waste Management System), of a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  9. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 4, The waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is unit 4 (The Waste Management System) in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  10. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.D.; Horton, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The United States has made substantial progress in achieving LMR programme objectives. A decision was made in 1988 to select the General Electric ALMR concept known as PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Safe Module) for advanced conceptual design. A 3-year contract was awarded to General Electric in January of this year for concentrated trade-off studies and advanced design development. The strategy is to integrate those advancements that best meet programme objectives into a national ALMR system concept. (author). 8 figs

  11. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium; Comunicacion recibida de los Estados Unidos de America en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-05

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 24 February 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una carta, de fecha 24 de febrero de 2010 de la Mision Permanente de los Estados Unidos de America ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de America, en cumplimiento del compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices'), y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil a 31 de diciembre de 2008.

  12. Track record of the AREVA NP Nuclear Fuel in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott T.; Bordy, Michelaristide

    2006-01-01

    Having its American, German and French legacy, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to PWR and BWR reactors around the world. To develop its action on the world market, AREVA NP has organized its activities on its major locations in Europe (France, Germany and Belgium) and in the USA. Also AREVA NP is strongly represented in the other nuclear countries (Asia, Eastern Europe, South America, South Africa and remaining European countries). Today AREVA NP has supplied more than 110,000 PWR and 51,000 BWR fuel assemblies to the world market. In the USA, AREVA NP has produced about 28,000 PWR fuel assemblies. Representing almost a quarter of the PWR American fuel market, AREVA NP is currently supplying or starting to supply 22 reactors from its 2 manufacturing plants located at Lynchburg (VA) and Richland (WA). This supply is currently based on HTP and Mark-BW designs, which have been distributed to all types of the US reactors and satisfy the NRC requirements. Also they are prepared for the current development of reactors, including AREVA NP's EPR reactor. At the time being our US PWR fuel takes the advantage of the thorough review performed on all our products, in order to keep the most proven and best performance features and allow US to better respond to each customer need. We propose the AGORA products with enough flexibility and variants to offer customized products, well suited to each customer's needs. These products incorporate a set of common characteristics and associated features, which are: · the use of the M5R alloy, as cladding material and as structural material. · a welded structure comprising the HMP alloy 718 bottom end grid, the MONOBLOC guide thimbles and the ROBUST FUELGUARD as lower tie plate. AREVA NP's fuel activities are supported by their engineering, manufacturing and fuel services which enable AREVA NP to provide utilities with licensed fuel design, a complete fuel package and suitable

  13. Communication dated 4 March from the Governor for the Russian Federation and the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States of America concerning UN Security Council resolution 1803 (2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 4 March 2008 from the Governor for the Russian Federation and the Resident Representatives of China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, attaching the text of a statement agreed by the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, with the support of the High Representative of the European Union and read by the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom on the occasion of the adoption on 3 March 2008 of United Nations Security Council resolution 1803 (2008). The letter and, as requested therein, the attached text, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  14. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the United States Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program is to develop the technology to the point that the private sector can deploy a safe, economic breeder reactor. The LMFBR will provide virtually inexhaustible supplies of electrical energy for the long term and will provide additional confidence to LWR nuclear deployment in the near term. The LMFBR program consists of a streamlined research and development effort focussing on those actions needed to enable private sector financing of industrial deployment including plant demonstration and technology efforts in reactor fuels, components, materials, physics, and safety

  15. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.D.; Horton, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The United States have made substantial progress in achieving Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program objectives. A decision was made in 1988 to select the General Electric ALMR concept known as PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Safe Module) for advanced conceptual design. A 3-year contract was awarded to General Electric in January of last year for concentrated trade-off studies and advanced design development. The strategy is to integrate those advancements that best meet program objectives into a national ALMR system concept. (author). 10 figs, 1 tab

  16. Status of spent nuclear fuel management in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The United States produces approximately 20% of its electricity in nuclear power reactors, currently generating, approximately 2,000 metric tons of uranium (tU) of spent nuclear fuel annually. Over the past half century, the country has amassed 33,000 tU of commercial spent nuclear fuel that is being stored at 119 operating and shutdown reactors located on 73 sites around the nation. The cumulative discharge of the spent fuel from reactors is estimated to total approximately 87,000 tU by 2035. Many sites have reracked the spent fuel in their storage pool to maximize pool capacity, and a number of reactor sites have been forced to add dry storage to accommodate the growing inventory of fuel in storage. In addition, research and defense programme reactors have produced spent fuel that is being stored in pools at Federal sites. Much of this fuel will be transferred to dry storage in the coming years. Under current plans, the commercial and federally owned fuel will remain in storage at the existing sites until the United States Department of Energy (DOE) begins receipt at a federal receiving facility. (author)

  17. United States of America. Status of commercial LILW site closure in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States has adopted the requirements of 10 CFR Part 61 for the licensing standards of all new commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facilities. In general, low level waste as addressed in 10 CFR Part 61 is that waste that is not classified as high level waste, transuranic waste, or naturally occurring or accelerator produced radioactive materials. The requirements of this regulation dictate that certain standards be met by any new licensed facility. Obviously, arid locations offer certain advantages over humid locations with regards to controlling moisture infiltration and movement, the primary mechanism for radionuclide transport. Whereas relatively simple thick vegetated caps designed for enhancing evapotranspiration may be suitable for arid locations, more humid facilities may require more elaborate means to provide for the same degree of long term isolation of wastes from the biosphere. In general, the closure systems at low level disposal facilities built in humid areas of the United States tend to have more engineering features than those in more arid locations

  18. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) between the United States of America, India and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Stavropoulos, Vasileios; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-11-01

    The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has been extensively used worldwide to assess Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) behaviors. Therefore, investigating cultural limitations and implications in its applicability is necessary. The cross-cultural feasibility of a test can be psychometrically evaluated with measurement invariance analyses. Thus, the present study used Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) to examine the IGDS9-SF measurement invariance across gamers from the United States of America (USA), India, and the United Kingdom (UK). A total of 1013 gamers from the USA (n = 405), India (n = 336), and the UK (n = 272) were recruited. Although the one-factor structure of the IGD construct was supported, cross-country variations were demonstrated considering the way that this was reflected on items assessing preoccupation/salience, tolerance, deception, gaming escapism/mood modification, as well as daily activities' impairment related to gaming. Furthermore, the same scores on items assessing withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, lack of control over gaming engagement, escapism/mood modification and daily activities impairment associated to gaming, have been found to reflect various levels of IGD severity across the three groups. The implications of these results are further discussed in the context of existing evidence regarding the assessment of IGD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Lives and Politics of Latinas in the United States: A Selective Bibliography [and] Women and Politics in Latin America: A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Catherine, Comp.; Searing, Susan, Comp.

    Two bibliographies list over 200 sources of information on Latin American women living in the United States and in Latin America. The first bibliography cites books, chapters from books, journal articles, pamphlets, dissertations, and theses dealing with the lives and politics of Mexican-American, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Central and South…

  20. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement Relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Iran and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Protocol suspending the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 4 March 1969 between the Agency, Iran and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force, pursuant to Section 3 thereof, on 15 May 1974.

  1. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The

  2. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in the Development of Infant Temperament: People's Republic of China, the United States of America, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Gonzalez, Carmen; Carranza, Jose A.; Ahadi, Stephan A.; Ye, Renmin; Rothbart, Mary K.; Yang, Suh Wen

    2006-01-01

    Investigated early development of temperament across three cultures: People's Republic of China (PRC), United States of America (US), and Spain, utilizing a longitudinal design (assessments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age). Selection of these countries presented an opportunity to conduct Eastern-Western/Individualistic-Collectivistic comparisons. The…

  3. Maritime security report : cocaine smuggling from South America to Europe and the United States increased in 2000 via commercial maritime and other modes of transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    An increase in the detected and estimated transatlantic flow of cocaine smuggled from South America to the United States and Europe in 2000 has been reported by the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). According to the ONDCP "Annual A...

  4. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  5. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  6. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to The Bilateral Agreement between the Philippines and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-14

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Philippines and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  8. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The text of the Protocol suspending the application of safeguards pursuant to the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 9 December 1966, as amended, between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  9. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  10. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to The Bilateral Agreement between the Philippines and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Philippines and the United States of America relating to the agreement between those Governments concerning co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  11. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Colombia and the United States of America. Protocol Prolonging the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Protocol of 28 March 1977 prolonging the Agreement of 9 December 1970 between the Agency, Colombia and the United States of America for the application of safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force, pursuant to section 2, on 28 March 1977.

  12. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-03-08

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Republic of China and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 18 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  13. The Text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to a Bilateral Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Safeguards Transfer Agreement between the Agency, the Republic of China and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 18 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the promotion and development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  14. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The ideas, values, and practices associated with the United States in public discourse remained relatively steady over time, which might explain the country’s longevity as a reference culture and its po...

  15. Poliovirus immunity in newly resettled adult refugees in Idaho, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Gilles, Ryan; Reed, Alex J; Messerschmidt, Matt; Kinney, Rebecca

    2015-06-12

    In the United States, vaccines have eliminated wild poliovirus (WPV) infection, though resettling refugees may lack immunity and importation of WPV remains a concern. A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence of poliovirus immunity in adult refugees resettling in Boise, Idaho, U.S.A.; immunity was evaluated using two definitions: serotypes 1, 2 and 3 positive, or serotypes 1 and 3 positive. This survey evaluated 795 adult refugees between August 2010 and November 2012. Poliovirus immunity in adults >18 years was 55.3% for serotypes 1, 2 and 3 combined, and 60% for serotypes 1 and 3 only. This study demonstrated a WPV immunity rate of poliovirus immunity in all newly arrived adult refugees, either by expanding pre-departure immunization or by screening for immunity at resettlement and vaccinating when indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An appraisal of existing decontamination technology used in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, J.S.; Frost, F.; Curran, A.R.; Grave, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a review of decontamination technology applied by industry to radioactively contaminated components in the U.S.A. In addition some newer techniques under development or recently emerging are discussed. Mechanical, chemical, manual and other techniques such as electropolishing and ultrasonics are reviewed. Whilst the emphasis is mainly on non-destructive techniques for components some discussion of segmentation is included as this is inevitable during concrete decontamination; and also when decontamination of components occurs as part of a decommissioning programme the use of segmentation techniques may facilitate the process. A bibliography has been included to facilitate further reading. It is important to consider the relevance of the US data in this report to the United Kingdom both to the learning curve of development and the different nuclear reactor systems in the respective countries. The authors have therefore listed some conclusions and recommendations which have become apparent to them whilst undertaking the study. (U.K.)

  17. Togetherness in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jan Knippers

    1984-01-01

    There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)

  18. Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in selected countries from Latin American and Caribbean adult intensive care units (ICUs. A systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed was performed to identify articles published over the last decade. Where appropriate, data also were collected from the reference list of published articles, health departments of specific countries, and registries. Independent cohort data from all countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela signified a high rate of ICU infections (prevalence: Argentina, 24%; Brazil, 57%. Gram-negative pathogens, predominantly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, accounted for >50% of ICU infections, which were often complicated by the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and clonal outbreaks. Empirical use of antimicrobial agents was identified as a strong risk factor for resistance development and excessive mortality. Infection control strategies utilizing hygiene measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs reduced the rate of device-associated infections. To mitigate the poor health outcomes associated with infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, urgent focus must be placed on infection control strategies and local surveillance programs.

  19. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M.

    2009-11-01

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  20. Personal characteristics associated with injecting drug use among Latinas in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P < 0.05 or older than 44 years. IDU was an estimated 7.1 times greater for Latinas who reported marijuana use and 5.4 times greater for Latinas who reported inhalant use when compared to Latinas not using these drugs (P < 0.01. In light of recent studies indicating that IDU is a serious public health problem for Latinas in the United States, the observed associations represent first steps in an effort to understand the Latina subgroups most affected by IDU and the underlying risk factors or causes of this behavior.

  1. Extirpations of grizzly bears in the contiguous United States of America, 1850-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Merrill, Troy

    2002-01-01

    We investigated factors associated with the distribution of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in 1850 and their extirpation during 1850–1920 and 1920–1970 in the contiguous United States. We used autologistic regression to describe relations between grizzly bear range in 1850, 1920, and 1970 and potential explanatory factors specified for a comprehensive grid of cells, each 900 km2 in size. We also related persistence, 1920–1970, to range size and shape. Grizzly bear range in 1850 was positively related to occurrence in mountainous ecoregions and the ranges of oaks (Quercus spp.), piñon pines (Pinus edulis and P. monophylla), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis), and bison (Bos bison) and negatively related to occurrence in prairie and hot desert ecoregions. Relations with salmon (Oncorynchus spp.) range and human factors were complex. Persistence of grizzly bear range, 1850–1970, was positively related to occurrence in the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine range, and local size of grizzly bear range at the beginning of each period, and negatively related to number of humans and the ranges of bison, salmon, and piñon pines. We speculate that foods affected persistence primarily by influencing the frequency of contact between humans and bears. With respect to current conservation, grizzly bears survived from 1920 to 1970 most often where ranges at the beginning of this period were either larger than 20,000 km2 or larger than 7,000 km2 but with a ratio of perimeter to area of grizzly bear range would be as extensive as it is now. Although grizzly bear range in the Yellowstone region is currently the most robust of any to potential future increases in human lethality, bears in this region are threatened by the loss of whitebark pine.

  2. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Jerry D [Reactor Systems Development and Technology, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Horton, Kenneth E [Division of International Programs, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  3. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Jerry D.; Horton, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  4. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  5. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  6. Host records for Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from birds of North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne; Proctor, Heather

    2007-07-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is a broadly distributed blood-feeding parasite that has been collected from many birds of temperate regions. Previously, the most complete host list was published in 1938, and it included 15 North American (Canada, United States, and Mexico) host species. In the process of a general survey of bird-associated mites in Alberta, Canada, we recovered many O. sylviarum specimens. Herein, we update the previous host list with these observations and records published since 1938. We collected mites by washing the bodies of salvaged birds and examining the filtrate. Northern fowl mites were collected from 26 host species, with 16 of these species being the first host records for North America. Including results from the current study, O. sylviarum has been reported from 72 species of North American birds from 26 families. This updated host list will be useful to anyone interested in the role of O. sylviarum in transmission of avian disease.

  7. Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America: how a woman scorned threatened the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Anna; Kornblet, Sarah; Katz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    The case of Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America stemmed from a domestic dispute when Ms. Bond attempted to retaliate against her best friend by attacking her with chemical agents. What has emerged is a much greater issue--a test of standing on whether a private citizen can challenge the Tenth Amendment. Instead of being prosecuted in state court for assault, Ms. Bond was charged and tried in district court under a federal criminal statute passed as part of implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Ms. Bond's argument rests on the claim that the statute exceeded the federal government's enumerated powers in criminalizing her behavior and violated the Constitution, while the government contends legislation implementing treaty obligations is well within its purview. This question remains unanswered because there is dispute among the lower courts as to whether Ms. Bond, as a citizen, even has the right to challenge an amendment guaranteeing states rights when a state is not a party to the action. The Supreme Court heard the case on February 22, 2011, and, if it decides to grant Ms. Bond standing to challenge her conviction, the case will be returned to the lower courts. Should the court decide Ms. Bond has the standing to challenge her conviction and further questions the constitutionality of the law, it would be a significant blow to implementation of the CWC in the U.S. and the effort of the federal government to ensure we are meeting our international obligations.

  8. The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

  9. Two concepts of uranium geology in the United States of America that may be useful in Latin American uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Two concepts of the origin and deposition of uranium are described that are somewhat different from the conventional sandstone deposits of the United States of America. The first concept relates to granites as source and host rocks. Work done in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming provides considerable support for a granitic source. Calculations indicate that between 50 and 75% of the uranium has been leached from the granite to depths of nearly 400 m, and could have been source rocks for deposits in the Tertiary sandstones in adjacent basins. Areas of intense fracturing are also hosts for redeposition and concentration of uranium in granites of the Granite Mountains. The second concept describes resurgent cauldrons as source and host rocks. The development of resurgent cauldrons provides a variety of geological settings favourable for both intra-caldera deposits and deposits forming in adjacent basins. A collapsed caldera may contain a lake into which sediments from ejected material carrying uranium could be carried and into which direct contributions of uranium could come from the underlying magma. Weathering of uranium-bearing material deposited outside the caldera could provide uranium to be redeposited in conventional deposits such as roll fronts. Geological investigations carried out in the Great Basins of Utah and Nevada are cited. (author)

  10. How many schools adopt interviews during the student admission process across the health professions in the United States of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Greer; Startsman, Laura F; Bankston, Karen; Michaels, Julia; Danek, Jennifer C; Fair, Malika

    2016-01-01

    Health profession schools use interviews during the admissions process to identify certain non-cognitive skills that are needed for success in diverse, inter-professional settings. This study aimed to assess the use of interviews during the student admissions process across health disciplines at schools in the United States of America in 2014. The type and frequency of non-cognitive skills assessed were also evaluated. Descriptive methods were used to analyze a sample of interview rubrics collected as part of a national survey on admissions in the health professions, which surveyed 228 schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and public health. Of the 228 schools, 130 used interviews. The most desirable non-cognitive skills from 34 schools were identified as follows: communication skills (30), motivation (22), readiness for the profession (17), service (12), and problem-solving (12). Ten schools reported using the multiple mini-interview format, which may indicate potential for expanding this practice. Disparities in the use of interviewing across health professions should be verified to help schools adopt interviews during student admissions processes.

  11. Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from gaseous diffusion plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, J.F.; Behrend, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants in the United States of America currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions, liquid effluent treatment sludges, waste oils and solvents, scrap metals and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large quantities of scrap metal generated during the Cascade Improvement Program are stored above ground at each of the diffusion plants. The radionuclides of primary concern are uranium and 99 Tc. Current radioactive waste treatment consists of uranium dissolution in weak acids followed by chemical precipitation and/or solvent extraction for uranium recovery. Current disposal operations consist of above ground storage of scrap metals, shallow land burial of inorganic solids and incineration of combustible wastes. With increased emphasis on reducing the potential for off-site radiological dose, several new treatment and disposal options are being studied and new projects are being planned. One project of particular interest involves the installation of a high temperature incinerator to thermally degrade hazardous organic wastes contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. Other technologies being studied include fixation of uranium-bearing sludges in concrete before burial, decontamination of scrap metals by smelting and use of specially engineered centralized burial grounds. (author)

  12. The state of primary care in the United States of America and lessons for primary care groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperski, M

    2000-04-01

    The health care system of the United States of America (USA) is lavishly funded and those with adequate insurance usually receive excellent attention. However, the system is fragmented and inequitable. Health workers often find it difficult to separate vocational roles from business roles. Care tends to focus on the acute rather than the chronic, on 'episodes of illness' rather than 'person-centred' care, on short-term fixes rather than long-term approaches, on scientific/technical solutions rather than discourse or the 'art of healing', and on individual health rather than population health. The majority of US doctors are trained in the 'hightech' hospital paradigm and there is no equivalent of the United Kingdom (UK) general practitioner (GP), who lies at the hub of a primary health care team (PHCT) and who is charged with taking a long-term view, co-ordinating health care for individual patients, and acting as patient advocate without major conflicting financial incentives. However, primary care groups/trusts (PCGs) could learn from US management and training techniques, case management, NHS Direct equivalents, and the effects of poorly developed PHCTs. PCGs could develop the UK's own version of utilisation management. A cash-limited, unified budget within an underfunded National Health Service poses threats to general practice. In both the USA and the UK, primary care is a prominent tool in new attempts at cost control. PCGs offer the opportunity of better integration with public health and social services, but threaten GPs' role as independent advocates by giving them a rationing role. Managed care has forced a similar role onto our US counterparts with consequent public displeasure and professional disillusion. UK GPs will have to steer a careful course if they are to avoid a similar fate.

  13. Communication dated 12 March 2009 received from the Permanent Missions of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America regarding a joint statement on Iran's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 12 March 2009 from the Permanent Missions of China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, transmitting to the attention of all Member States of the IAEA a joint statement on Iran's nuclear programme, delivered at the March Board of Governors meeting. As requested in that communication, the attached statement is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  14. United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacey, K.; Gerrard, J.

    1995-01-01

    Objectives of programmes addressing radwaste management in the Russian Federation are outlined, recent achievements in cooperative agreements between the USA and the Russian Federation as well as current or planned activities to further radwaste management objectives are described

  15. Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy; Newsome, David; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2010-01-01

    Hiking, horse riding and mountain biking are popular in protected areas in Australia and the United States of America. To help inform the often contentious deliberations about use of protected areas for these three types of activities, we review recreation ecology research in both countries. Many impacts on vegetation, soils and trails are similar for the three activities, although there can be differences in severity. Impacts include damage to existing trails, soil erosion, compaction and nutrification, changes in hydrology, trail widening, exposure of roots, rocks and bedrock. There can be damage to plants including reduction in vegetation height and biomass, changes in species composition, creation of informal trails and the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Due to differences in evolutionary history, impacts on soil and vegetation can be greater in Australia than in the USA. There are specific social and biophysical impacts of horses such as those associated with manure and urine, grazing and the construction and use of tethering yards and fences. Mountain bike specific impacts include soil and vegetation damage from skidding and the construction of unauthorised trails, jumps, bridges and other trail technical features. There are gaps in the current research that should be filled by additional research: (1) on horse and mountain bike impacts to complement those on hiking. The methods used need to reflect patterns of actual usage and be suitable for robust statistical analysis; (2) that directly compares types and severity of impacts among activities; and (3) on the potential for each activity to contribute to the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Additional research will assist managers and users of protected areas in understanding the relative impacts of these activities, and better ways to manage them. It may not quell the debates among users, managers and conservationists, but it will help put it on a more scientific footing. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. The Text of the Agreement of 4 April 1975 between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-09-28

    The text of the Agreement of 4 April 1975 between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 12 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to section 32, on 4 April 1975.

  17. Communication dated 23 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America with regard to Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism Plenary Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 23 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America transmitting the 16 June 2009 message from President Barack Obama to the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Plenary Meeting held in the Hague on 16-17 June 2009. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned message is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  18. The Text of the Agreement of 4 April 1975 between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 4 April 1975 between the Agency, Israel and the United States of America relating to the agreement of 12 July 1955 between the two Governments for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to section 32, on 4 April 1975.

  19. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium; Comunicacion recibida de los Estados Unidos de America en relacion con sus poleticas referentes a la gestion del plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-18

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 6 April 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2005. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been changes in their plutonium and fuel cycle policy since their last statement was submitted, and have additionally included a policy statement in the enclosures of the letter [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una carta, de fecha 6 de abril de 2007, de la Mision Permanente de los Estados Unidos de America ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, en cumplimiento de los compromisos que contrajo en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices'), y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil a 31 de diciembre de 2005. La Mision Permanente de los Estados Unidos comunica asimismo en su carta que, desde su ultima declaracion, se han producido cambios en la politica relativa al plutonio y al ciclo del combustible del pais, y adjunta a dicha carta una declaracion de politica al respecto.

  20. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  1. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  2. Communication Received from the United States of America Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium; Comunicacion recibida de los Estados Unidos de America en relacion con sus politicas referentes a la gestion del plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-20

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 13 October 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of the United States of America, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009. The Permanent Mission of the United States has also communicated in its letter that there have been recent changes in its plutonium and fuel cycle policy to replace the statement, and has included a Revised Plutonium and Fuel Cycle Policy Statement provided with the report submitted by the United States for 2007 [Spanish] La Secretaria ha recibido una carta, de fecha 13 de octubre de 2010, de la Mision Permanente de los Estados Unidos de America ante el OIEA, en cuyos anexos el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de America, en cumplimiento de su compromiso contraido en virtud de las Directrices para la gestion del plutonio (transcritas en el documento INFCIRC/549 de 22 de junio de 1998 y denominadas en adelante las 'Directrices'), y de conformidad con los anexos B y C de las Directrices, presenta las cifras anuales de sus existencias de plutonio no irradiado de uso civil y las cantidades estimadas de plutonio contenido en el combustible gastado de reactores de uso civil al 31 de diciembre de 2009. La Mision Permanente de los Estados Unidos comunica asimismo en su carta que se han producido recientemente cambios en la politica relativa al plutonio y al ciclo del combustible del pais y, en sustitucion de la declaracion anterior, adjunta una declaracion de politica revisada relativa al plutonio y al ciclo del combustible que se facilito junto el informe

  3. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The History of Ethics and Professionalism within Optometry in the United States of America 1898-2015, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R Norman

    2016-01-01

    The history surrounding the development of codes of ethics and other official statements of desired professional conduct adopted by the American Optometric Association (AOA) reveals the struggle optometry faced in the United States ofAmerica (USA) in establishing itself as a leading primary health care profession. Information regarding the events and documents reported in this paper were obtained through research of the historical literature and archival material held in The Archives & Museum of Optometry at the American Optometric Association's headquarters at 243 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO; through current Association documents; and from discussions with those participating in the drafting of the more recent updates to the Association's ethical statements; codes, oaths, standards, and resolutions. This writing is an update to an earlier paper by the author, The history of ethics in the American Optometric Association 1898-1994. J Am Optom Assoc 1994; 65:427-444, which was written to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the then current Code of Ethics of the AOA. An additional purpose of this present writing is to help the reader understand, from a historical perspective, some of the driving forces and imperatives for the advancement of optometry's professional stature. Forces outside as well as within the profession were found to have influenced the drafting and redrafting of the official ethical and professional conduct statements meant to guide the professional behavior of the membership of the AOA. Ethical codes and other statements of desired conduct have been essential to the establishment of the profession of optometry. As optometry has grown and matured as a provider of primary eye and vision care services, so have its ethical emphases. To further understand the ethical and legal challenges for optometry as it worked to establish itself as a reputable profession, it is suggested the reader investigate in more detail the information provided in the

  5. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  6. Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Professor Tony F. Chan Assistant Director for Mathematics and Physical Sciences National Science Foundation United States of America on 23rd May 2007. Here visiting ATLAS experiment with P. Jenni and M. Tuts.

  7. 15th December 2010 - Legislative Leadership Institute Academy of Foreign Affairs Wisconsin, United States of America visiting the CMS undergorund area and LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela and Head of International Relations F. Pauss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Delegation list: Kenneth V. Cockrel, Jr, President, Detroit City Council, United States of America Mr Tim Day, Chairman, Board of Trustees, LLIAFA Christopher Heaton Harris, House of Commons, Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Senator W. Briggs Hopson, III, Mississippi State Senate, United States of America Senator Aloisea Inyumba, Republic of Rwanda Deputy Francis Kaboneka, Parliament, Republic of Rwanda Raymond O'Dwyer, County Manager, Waterford, Republic of Ireland Senator John Pippy,Pennsylvania State Legislature, United States of America Senator Jim Walsh, Seanad Éireann, Republic of Ireland Senator Roderick D. Wright, Chairman, Governmental Organization Committee, California State Senate, United States of America Mrs Amy Polasky,President, LLIAFA Mrs Cate Zeuske, Vice President, LLIAFA Mr David Steffen, Staff, LLIAFA Dr Sybille Ambühl Switzerland Official Guide Mr Doug Jenkins Security Detail (US)

  8. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  9. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... lack thereof denied workers their rights under the laws of the Dominican Republic relating to freedom of association, the right to organize, child labor, forced labor, the right to bargain collectively... (``submissions'') regarding labor law matters in Central America and the Dominican Republic. A Federal Register...

  10. Geological implications of recently derived vertical velocities of benchmarks of the south-central United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2005-05-01

    It has been long-recognized that the south-central United States of America bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is actively subsiding, resulting in a slow, yet unrelenting inundation of the coast from south Texas to southwestern Alabama. Today's motions are but the latest chapter in the subsidence history of the GOM, a region that has accommodated the deposition of over 20 km of deltaic and continental margin sediments since mid Mesozoic time. Understanding the recent history of displacements and the processes responsible for subsidence are especially critical for near-term planning for coastal protection and restoration activities. Documentation of the true magnitude and geography of vertical motions of the surface through time has been hampered because previous measurement schemes did not employ reference datums of sufficient spatial and temporal precision. This situation has been somewhat improved recently through the recent analysis of National Geodetic Survey (NGS) 1st order leveling data from >2710 benchmarks in the region by Shinkle and Dokka (NOAA Technical Report 50 [2004]). That paper used original observations (not adjusted) and computed displacements and velocities related to NAVD88 for benchmarks visited during various leveling surveys from 1920 through 1995. Several important characteristics were observed and are summarized below. First, the data show that subsidence is not limited to areas of recent sediment accumulation such as the wetland areas of the modern delta (MRD) of the Mississippi River or its upstream alluvial valley (MAV), as supposed by most current syntheses. The entire coastal zone, as well as inland areas several hundred km from the shore, has subsided over the period of measurement. Regionally, vertical velocities range from less than -52 mm/yr in Louisiana to over +15 mm/yr in peripheral areas of eastern Mississippi-Alabama. The mean rate is ~-11 mm/yr in most coastal parishes of Louisiana. In the Mississippi River deltaic plain

  11. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  12. Communication of 28 August 2003 received from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 28 August 2003 from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of participating Governments of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group' (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities'. The original version of the paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997, and a revision was issued on 17 April 2000 as INFCIRC/539/Rev.1. 2. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA

  13. A critique of the US Surgeon General?s conclusions regarding e-cigarette use among youth and young adults in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Polosa, Riccardo; Russell, Christopher; Nitzkin, Joel; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.

    2017-01-01

    Background In December 2016, the Surgeon General published a report that concluded e-cigarette use among youth and young adults is becoming a major public health concern in the United States of America. Methods Re-analysis of key data sources on nicotine toxicity and prevalence of youth use of e-cigarettes cited in the Surgeon General report as the basis for its conclusions. Results Multiple years of nationally representative surveys indicate the majority of e-cigarette use among US youth is ...

  14. Racial Conflict in the United States of America : A Deconstructive Perspective on Native Speaker by Changrae Lee

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand, Amin

    2010-01-01

    Written about the time of the Golden Venture incident, Chang-rae Lee’s Native Speaker makes a particular reference to that incident, whereby implying that particular immigrants, on the grounds of their racial identities, are mistreated and considered as aliens by some Americas. While some whites discriminate against immigrants, there is widespread ethnic tension between Korean Americans and African Americans. Significantly, racial conflict between Koreans and blacks and the racist attitude of...

  15. A temperature-limited assessment of the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission and establishment in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of West Nile virus across North America after its introduction in 1999 highlights the potential for foreign arboviruses to become established in the United States of America. Of particular concern is Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which has been responsible for multiple African epidemics resulting in death of both humans and livestock, as well as major economic disruption due to livestock loss and trade restrictions. Modern globalization, travel, and commerce allow viruses to easily jump from one continent to another; and it is likely only a matter of time before RVFV reaches North American shores. We used a degree-day model in combination with livestock population data and a pathways analysis to identify regions and times where RVFV is most likely to enter and become established in the United States of America. Transmission risk of the disease varies across the country from 325 annual risk days in parts of Florida to zero risk days in the far North and in high mountain regions. Areas of particular concern are where there are a high number of possible transmission days, a large livestock population, and proximity to likely locations for the disease to enter the country via mosquito vector or human host. These areas should be monitored closely during transmission “risk seasons” so that if the virus does enter the country and begins to become established, it can be quickly controlled and eliminated before spreading further. Areas most at risk include the Baltimore and New York City metro areas as well as much of the region between these urban centers; most of Texas, especially around Houston; Florida; Atlanta; southwest Nebraska; southern California and Arizona; and the central valley of California.

  16. Support for disease management, depression, self-care, and clinical indicators among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes in San Diego County, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C; Walker, Chris; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2010-09-01

    This study used a social-ecological framework to examine predictors of depression, diabetes self-management, and clinical indicators of health risk among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes residing in the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region in San Diego County, California, United States of America. Important links were observed between greater social-environmental support for disease management and less depression, better diabetes self-management, and lower body mass index and serum triglyceride concentrations. Less depressive symptomatology was also related to lower hemoglobin A1c levels. Findings suggest that programs aiming to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes should consider multilevel, social, and environmental influences on health, behavior, and emotional well-being.

  17. Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic characterization of the museum archived nitrates from the United States of America, South Africa and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Hosono, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Midori; Okumura, Azusa

    2018-06-01

    Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic composition of the museum archived nitrates from the United States of America, South Africa and Australia was studied. The analyzed specimens were collected in middle 19th to early 20th centuries, and represent world-wide acquisition of the Smithsonian Institution Natural Museum of Natural History (Washington, D. C., USA) and the Natural History Museum (London, UK). The samples consist of transparent to semi-transparent aggregates of minute nitrate, euhedral crystallites which imply precipitation from percolating fluids under ample space and dry regimes. The major nitrate chemistry is saltpetre (KNO 3 ) with minor nitratine (NaNO 3 ). A binary plot of δ 15 N vs. δ 18 O of almost all nitrates indicates a trend, reflecting microbial origin through nitrification of ammonium. The diagram excludes the contribution of meteoric origin formed by mass-independent, photochemical reaction of NO with ozone in stratosphere. Calculated paleo-ambient fluid compositions responsible for microbial nitrification imply extreme evaporative concentration of relevant fluids under dry climatic regimes in the Northern Cape Province (South Africa) and in the Northern Territory (central Australia), and even throughout the United States of America. The dual isotopic characterization provides direct evidence to the origin of the museum archived nitrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. We're Going to Nicaragua: The United States, Nicaragua, and Counterterrorism in Central America during the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Travis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first two years of Ronald Reagan’s second term the United States developed an offensive strategy for dealing with conflict in the developing world. States like Nicaragua were the prime target of this policy. Scholars refer to this as the Reagan offensive: the first time that the United States eschewed the norms of containment and sought to “roll-back” the gains of communism. However, the Reagan offensive was also significantly driven by a response to the emergent threat of international terrorism. U.S. policy with Nicaragua demonstrates the importance of terrorism in the development of a more aggressive United States.

  19. A National Blessing: Debt and Public Credit in the Atlantic Foundation of the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Battistini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the premises, the author analyses how the different historiographical trends concerning the Atlantic world have reduced the centrality of the State, and recent researches which focused on the processes of State-building and on the financial revolutions between the Seventeenth and the Nineteenth centuries. Within this frame, the essay outlines an Atlantic history of the foundation of the U.S. through a reading of the Report on Public Credit (1782 of Robert Morris, Superintendent of Finances, and some writings of Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. The author argues that the institution of public debt and the foundation of the national bank constituted an adequate response not only to the need of State which characterized European history, but also to the capitalistic practices which marked European economies. The author underlines the continuity between the processes of State-building and the transition to capitalism in Europe and America in the age of the democratic revolutions.

  20. United States earthquake early warning system: how theory and analysis can save America before the big one happens

    OpenAIRE

    Rockabrand, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States is extremely vulnerable to catastrophic earthquakes. More than 143 million Americans may be threatened by damaging earthquakes in the next 50 years. This thesis argues that the United States is unprepared for the most catastrophic earthquakes the country faces today. Earthquake early warning systems are a major solution in practice to reduce economic risk, to protect property and the environment, and to save lives. Ot...

  1. Introduction to Urban and Community Forestry in the United States of America: History, Accomplishments, Issues and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yadong; Zhang Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    The urban and community forestry movement in the United States has matured over the last 20 years from managing street trees, to understanding the benefits of trees in urban ecosystems, and now to managing urban green infrastructure. This paper introduced the history, development, and major accomplishments of the urban and community forestry movement, highlighted the economic, ecological, environmental, and social values of forests and trees to communities, and discussed issues and trends of the urban and community forestry program in the United States.

  2. Contemporary prophetic preaching theory in the United States of America and South Africa: A comparative study through the lens of shared Reformation roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Tubbs Tisdale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article two homileticians – one from the United States of America (USA and one from South Africa (SA − enter into a dialog regarding how the task of prophetic preaching today might be revived, reframed and redefined in light of the Reformation principle of the viva vox Evangelii [living voice of the gospel]. Each author begins by summarising four contemporary approaches to prophetic preaching set forth by Reformed and Lutheran homiletical scholars in their respective contexts. Then each addresses the questions: Where do I particularly see Reformation themes and emphases at work in the work of these homileticians? And how might those Reformation emphases continue to challenge and reframe preaching practices today? Finally, each gives initial eflections on how a comparison between the perspectives deeens and expands his or her nderstanding of prophetic preaching and its role in church and society.

  3. A Cross-cultural Comparison of Interpersonal Violence in the Lives of College Students from Two Colleges from The Bahamas and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Fielding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of studies that compare interpersonal violence cross nationally. This paper reports the findings of a cross-sectional study which compares and contrasts violence in the lives of 740 college students, as children and as adults, in The Bahamas and the United States of America. Overall, students in The Bahamas were subjected to more violence (more frequently spanked than their American counterparts. Frequency of spanking when the student was a preteen and teenager were linked to anger outbursts in adulthood, and higher numbers of anger outbursts were linked with violent behaviours of students. Although Bahamian students were exposed to more violence than the American students, this did not result in Bahamian students being more violent than American students in interpersonal relationships. However, Bahamian students were more likely than American students to anticipate using corporal punishment on their children and to condone violence in marital relationships.

  4. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change.

  5. What about a Disability Rights Act for Canada?: Practices and lessons from America, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The Harper government and most national political parties are committed to a federal act for dealing with accessibility rights for persons with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to identify progressive lessons from countries with similar legislation for consideration by Canadian authorities. Countries surveyed are the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. While disability rights legislation is widely accepted to be a necessary policy initiative in light of ongoing barriers and exclusion, experience suggests that such laws are far from a sufficient response to promote access. Other policy instruments required include supportive employment programs, tax incentives, and the direct provision of basic supports.

  6. Airline deregulation in the United States of America = Desregulamentação aérea nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Neto, José Felix de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise detalhada sobre a regulamentação e desregulamentação da indústria aeroviária nos Estados Unidos da América. Dado o rápido crescimento tanto em tamanho quanto em influência das companhias aéreas nos EUA, o governo federal estabeleceu leis e regulamentações para posicionar a indústria no que se acreditava ser a direção correta. A ausência de um profundo entendimento das particularidades da indústria aeroviária resultou em uma crescente insatisfação entre as companhias aéreas. A desregulamentação veio como uma solução para muitos problemas, mas também tem sido considerada como uma maldição tanto para companhias aéreas como para passageiros. Através de uma revisão da literatura, esse artigo discute as reais consequências da desregulamentação aérea nos EUA e como isso tem influenciado a maneira como as pessoas voam na America

  7. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  8. United States of America, European economy and inequality: A perspective from the economic history, 1910-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Manera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the Great Recession on the economies of the United States and the major economies of Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, based on the analysis of the national accounts of the countries chosen. The paper provides additional weight to the conclusions reached by Piketty, but using different sources: a reduction in the share of wages in national income and an increase in social inequality. This can be explained because the downward trend in capital productivity cannot be corrected, so an increase in the share of gross operating surplus in national income (q and in social inequality is bolstered to maintain the rate of profit, a process which is accompanied by the growing financialization of the economy.

  9. United States Earthquake Early Warning System: How Theory and Analysis Can Save America Before the Big One Happens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Documentation for 201447 Spending more on ShakeAlert now and including sustainable operating costs can be justified. In a 2016 publication in...Seismological Research Letters, entitled “ Benefits and Costs of Earthquake Early Warning,” Strauss and Allen determine that “according to FEMA’s cost ...statistical life in the United States is USD 6.6 million.”48 As such, the benefits outweigh the costs as the earthquake early warning system alone would

  10. Latin American Cultural Resiliency to External Foreign Policy: Strategic Implications for the United States as China Extends into Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    American Development Bank, and United States Export -Import Bank combined for that year.”7 Furthermore, China has signed free trade agreements with... American Relations, 930. 23   two countries is the result of China’s export to Mexico . China’s investment in Mexico is also substantially larger than... Mexico at War Against China in the WTO (2005) China Hits Markets (2005) The Dragon Monopolizes (2005) Chinese Pirates Invade Chiapas (2005

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF THE PRINCIPLES GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING OF UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (FASB RULES)

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Olivares, Percy Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Framework for the preparation and presentation of financial statements is a statement that directs and informs the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP), which in turn is valid in our country, on the application to determine the accounting principles generally accepted in Peru, in its supplementary nature as established by Resolution No. 013-98 Accounting Standards Council, an organ of the Public Accounts of the Nation. The Framework is the backbone of ...

  12. Epidemiological and economic burden of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic literature review of data across Europe and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Claire; Thompson, Paula L; van Walsem, Anneloes; Faure, Céline; Maier, William C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) weighs heavily on health expenditure and is strongly associated with increasing age. Due to population aging, increasing global prevalence of AD will pose huge challenges to public health and elderly care systems in all countries across the world. This study aimed to better understand the burden of AD from a healthcare perspective. A systematic literature review of journal articles published between January 2002 and December 2012 was performed for studies conducted in France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using Medline, Embase, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. 3,288 references were initially retrieved, and 39 epidemiological and 66 economic publications were selected for data extraction. AD incidence rates greatly varied between countries; however, prevalence was more consistent across all included countries, ranging between 3-7%. Overall, medical costs were lower in France compared to other included countries and increased with AD severity, e.g., direct medical costs per year for mild AD ranged from 5,476 int$ in France to 27,380 int$ in Spain. Limitations, such as heterogeneous methodology and missing data, prevented the comparison of results across studies between countries or the conclusion of any trend over time. This review corroborates previous understanding that AD burden is high for both society and healthcare providers. Limitations regarding study heterogeneity restricted conclusions; further research is required. Stakeholders could benefit from new healthcare strategies addressing both epidemiological and economic aspects of AD.

  13. Turning Diversity into Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Managing Diversity in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy M. Sutanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esty, Griffin, and Hirsch (1995 state that today’s workforce is truly a mosaic of different races, ages, genders, ethnic groups, religions, and lifestyles. As a manager or a supervisor, it is your job to make sure that the desperate pieces of a mosaic fit together in a harmonious, coordinated way, maximally utilizing the talents and abilities of each employee. If skillfully managed, this diversity can bring a competitive advantage to an organization. If not, however, the bottom line can be negatively affected, and the work environment can become unwelcoming. Dealing with a diverse work group is new terrain for most managers and supervisors. The United States rose to the top using a-one-size-fits-all approach to managing employees. This work in past because, historically, most of the work force was white, and male. This has all changed. The following parts will clearly provide a description about diversity, changes in the United States work force, challenges and opportunities of the changes for organizations, and how managers and supervisors as front liners deal with diversity and to turn diversity into a competitive advantage.

  14. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Muñoz, María del Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Escamilla, Marco Antonio; Mendenhall, Emily

    2014-10-01

    To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011) and in Chicago (January-July 2010). Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad) and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems) were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  15. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Lara Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011 and in Chicago (January-July 2010. Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. RESULTS: The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P < 0.0001. Among those with comorbid depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  16. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhetri Bimal K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108 and FeLV (n=30,017 positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. Results This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p Conclusions The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical

  17. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-01-05

    Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108) and FeLV (n=30,017) positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA) were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US) from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p < 0.05). The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical distributions of these infections can inform

  18. A comparative analysis of surface winds in the Mid-Continental United States of America during severe droughts in the 1950s and 2010s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, R.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Schepanski, K.; Gill, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    In 2011 the Mid-Continental United States of America experienced its worst drought since the 1930s `Dust Bowl` and subsequent 1950s Southwest drought. Both the 1950s and 2010s droughts have had negative ecological and economic impacts the Mid-Continental US (i.e. crops, livestock, fuel, and transportation). Drought distribution, severity, and duration in North America are influenced by large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate variability as well as mesoscale land-surface forcing. Intense surface heating during a drought's summer months promotes dry convection and convergence thereby indirectly increasing dust emissions through increased surface-winds. Thus, drought years are frequently linked with increased dust storms and overall dust production that can affect visibility, crop production, and human health. Another important aspect that influences dust production is the potential change in behavior of surface winds during different drought and non-drought regimes over the past 60 years. This investigation compares historic and modern surface winds to determine if the wind-driven drought and dust producing conditions have changed. We examine hourly wind speed data from 79 meteorological stations distributed over the mid-continental USA (25° to 49°N,-116° to -93°W) for two drought periods (1954-1956, 2011-2013), and two relatively wet time periods (1983-1987, 1992-1998), as determined using the Palmer-Drought Severity Index. Our preliminary examination of annual and seasonal distributions of wind speed and show that wind speeds were statistically higher during the 1950s compared with the 2010s drought and wind speeds were also greater during the spring months compared to other seasons. Characterizing these winds is a first step in identifying if these changes are a result of land surface changes, general circulation changes associated with atmospheric anomalies, and/or climate change.

  19. Regulatory approaches to, and practice of, PSA in Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, M.; Schaefer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Performing level-1 probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) is the established standard in most countries using nuclear power. In addition, level-2 PSA has become more and more widespread over the past few years. However, regulatory requirements and practice differ from country to country, especially with respect to level-2 analyses. In an effort to determine these differences more precisely, the ISaR Institute for Safety and Reliability, on behalf of VGB PowerTech Service GmbH, conducted a study of these seven countries: Finland, France, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The study focused on level-2 PSA carried out by plant operators within the framework of periodic safety reviews. The findings of the study are based on extensive interviews of at least one expert each on the operators' and the authorities' side for each of the seven countries. Points taken into account in particular included the criteria imposed by regulators on PSA carried out by operators; the rank of PSA within the regulatory framework; the required versus the actual scopes of analysis; the objectives and uses of PSA; reviews of the analyses; the methods employed. (orig.)

  20. Regulatory approaches in the United States of America for safe management and disposal of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeves, J.T.; Bell, M.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Regulation of the safe management and disposal of commercial, man-made, long-lived radioactive wastes in the United States is the responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In some instances, state regulatory authorities have entered into agreements with the NRC to exercise regulatory authority over management and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and uranium mill tailings within their borders. The legal and regulatory framework employed to achieve safe management and disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes in the US regulatory system is quite detailed, and in many cases the requirements are considerably prescriptive. The NRC has undertaken an initiative to move in the direction of adopting risk-informed, performance-based and risk-informed, less-prescriptive regulations. The current status and future direction of the legal and regulatory framework for management and disposal of commercial long-lived radioactive waste in the US is described. (author)

  1. Overview of uranium mill tailings remedial action project of the United States of America 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, R.

    1997-01-01

    From the early 1940's through the 1960's the United States federal government contracted for processed uranium ore for national defense research, weapons development and commercial nuclear energy. When these contracts were terminated, the mills ceased operation leaving large uranium tailings on the former mill sites. The purpose of the Uranium Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) is to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to the tailings at these abandons sites. There are 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites, in 10 states and an Indian reservation lands, included for clean up under the auspices of UMTRA. Presently the last 2 sites are under remediation. This paper addresses the progress of the project over the last two years. (author)

  2. Development of the heavy-water organic-cooled reactor. Status report from the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, C A [Atomics International, Division of North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1967-01-01

    In late 1964 the United States Atomic Energy Commission decided to undertake the development of the heavy-water-moderated nuclear power reactor as part of its overall programme for the development of advanced converter reactors. The inclusion of the heavy-water reactor concept was based on its indicated potential for achieving: efficient utilization of available fuel resources; generation of low cost electric power; feasibility of scale-up to very large single unit plant sizes for the dual purpose of generating power and desalting sea water. The excellent neutron economy inherent in heavy-water moderation allows a significant increase in the amount of power which can be generated from a given amount of ore. If one takes into account the amount of uranium required not only for burn-up but also to inventory new reactors in a rapidly expanding nuclear economy, heavy-water reactors show the potential of extracting one and a half to two times more power from the ore mined than light-water reactors. Such an improvement in dynamic fuel utilization will postpone the depletion of low cost uranium ore reserves, providing more time for the discovery of new ore resources and the development of economic fast breeder reactors. The excellent neutron economy of the heavy-water reactor also allows the achievement of appreciable burn-up with low enrichment fuel, with consequent low fuel cycle costs and therefore low energy generation costs. These low fuel cycle costs make the economics of this type of reactor rather insensitive to rising ore costs. They also make the concept well suited for the most economic production of the large quantities of heat required for water desalination. The use of individual pressure tubes for circulating the coolant through the reactor vessel lends itself to the development of a modular type design, which can be scaled up to very large single unit plant sizes by simply increasing the number of identical pressure tube modules and the number of coolant

  3. Livestock forage and mineral relations on a shrub-steppe rangeland in northwestern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uresk, D.W.; Rickard, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The study area is the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve, a portion of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation located in the semi-arid region of south-central Washington. Small experimental pastures were subjected to four consecutive years of moderate spring grazing by yearling steers. These pastures are unique in that they represent grazing stresses imposed upon previously ungrazed (by livestock) plant communities. These communities had been protected from grazing by livestock for more than 30 years under ERDA management. Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum), the dominant species, was the major forage plant in the diet of the steers during the 1974 grazing season, followed by Cusick's bluegrass (Poa cusickii), Thurber's needlegrass (Stipa thurberiania) and hawksbeard (Crepis atrabarba). These four species made up approximately 93% of the total diet. The forage intake ranged from 9.9 kg/head daily to 10.9 kg/head daily during the grazing season. During this period, these steers gained a total of 21.6 kg/ha live weight. Fifteen kg of forage consumed produces 1 kg of live steer for a 6.7% conversion. The conversion rate for crude protein was 12.7%, 83.3% for phosphorus and 25.6% for calcium. (author)

  4. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  5. United States of America [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Western Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotariu, G.J.; Mott, W.E.

    1968-01-01

    A research and development program on the radiation curing of wood impregnated with a monomer was initiated in the United States in 1961 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission at West Virginia University; this program has continued until today. The USAEC has also sponsored three studies covering different geographical areas of the country, in an attempt to determine the potential of wood-polymer materials. Another effort led to the design of a 200 pound per hour pilot plant for the manufacture of wood-methyl methacrylate materials and projected costs for a 300 pound per hour production plant. And the most recent AEC study involved the evaluation of over 8000 pounds of wood-polymer materials by 68 manufacturers of wood products; the wood-polymer materials utilizing 41 species of wood were produced for the AEC by Lockheed-Georgia Company, Dawsonville, Georgia. In 1965, studies on the thermal-catalytic production of wood polymers were begun at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York

  6. Results From the United States of America's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Denstel, Kara D; Beals, Kim; Bolling, Christopher; Wright, Carly; Crouter, Scott E; McKenzie, Thomas L; Pate, Russell R; Saelens, Brian E; Staiano, Amanda E; Stanish, Heidi I; Sisson, Susan B

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 United States (U.S.) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth provides a comprehensive evaluation of physical activity levels and factors influencing physical activity among children and youth. The report card includes 10 indicators: Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Active Transportation, Organized Sport Participation, Active Play, Health-related Fitness, Family and Peers, School, Community and the Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments. Nationally representative data were used to evaluate the indicators using a standard grading rubric. Sufficient data were available to assign grades to 7 of the indicators, and these ranged from B- for Community and the Built Environment to F for Active Transportation. Overall Physical Activity received a grade of D- due to the low prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines. A grade of D was assigned to Health-related Fitness, reflecting the low prevalence of meeting cardiorespiratory fitness standards. Disparities across age, gender, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups were observed for several indicators. Continued poor grades suggest that additional work is required to provide opportunities for U.S. children to be physically active. The observed disparities indicate that special attention should be given to girls, minorities, and those from lower socioeconomic groups when implementing intervention strategies.

  7. United States of America [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Western Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.; Mott, W. E. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 2054 (United States)

    1968-10-15

    A research and development program on the radiation curing of wood impregnated with a monomer was initiated in the United States in 1961 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission at West Virginia University; this program has continued until today. The USAEC has also sponsored three studies covering different geographical areas of the country, in an attempt to determine the potential of wood-polymer materials. Another effort led to the design of a 200 pound per hour pilot plant for the manufacture of wood-methyl methacrylate materials and projected costs for a 300 pound per hour production plant. And the most recent AEC study involved the evaluation of over 8000 pounds of wood-polymer materials by 68 manufacturers of wood products; the wood-polymer materials utilizing 41 species of wood were produced for the AEC by Lockheed-Georgia Company, Dawsonville, Georgia. In 1965, studies on the thermal-catalytic production of wood polymers were begun at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.

  8. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  9. Nuclear power in the United States of America and in Europe - a market survey from a vendor's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, T.A.; Gueldner, R.

    2002-01-01

    A world population continuing to grow must be provided with sufficient energy supplies at acceptable prices and so as to affect the environment and the climate as little as possible. A growing energy requirement can be met sustainably by a diversified energy mix. Globally, there is a reassessment of nuclear power. Under aspects of the economy, protection of the environment and the climate, geological availability, and geopolitics, nuclear power will make valuable contributions to a solution. In the United States, the use of nuclear power has become attractive again in the course of deregulation and as a result of massive increases in plant availability. The nuclear power plants currently in operation offer a promising outlook for the future, also because of the current price increases for natural gas. As a consequence of the Green Paper by the EU Commission on the continuity of supply, nuclear power is being reassessed also in Europe. As a result of deregulation of the electricity market, efforts have been made to increase the competitiveness of existing generating capacities. In accordance with changed market conditions, producers have adapted to the requirements of the market by establishing strategic partnerships. The envisaged construction of a nuclear power plant in Finland shows that also new nuclear power plants can be attractive in deregulated European markets and that, e.g., also the problems of spent fuel and waste management can be solved if the political will exists to do so. In Germany, on the other hand, the political framework conditions for nuclear power continue to be difficult. Unless Germany is willing to fall behind internationally in power generation, all available types of power generation will have to be advanced and combined into a mix serving future needs also in this country. There must be no disruption of technological know-how. Nuclear power must be an important option kept open under reasonable political boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  10. Female cluster headache in the United States of America: what are the gender differences? Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2012-06-15

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey regarding gender differences in cluster headache demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnostic delay, triggers, treatment response and personal burden. Very few studies have looked at the gender differences in cluster headache presentation. The United States Cluster Headache Survey is the largest study of cluster headache sufferers ever completed in the United States and it is also the largest study of female cluster headache patients ever presented. The total survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions which dealt with various issues related to cluster headache including: demographics, clinical characteristics, concomitant medical conditions, family history, triggers, smoking history, diagnosis, treatment response and personal burden. A group of questions were specifically targeted to female cluster headache patients. The survey was placed on a website from October to December 2008. For all survey responders the diagnosis of cluster headache needed to be made by a neurologist but there was no validation of the headache diagnosis by the authors. 1134 individuals completed the survey (816 male, 318 female). Key Points that define the differences between female and male cluster headache include: a. Age of onset: women develop cluster headache at an earlier age than men and are more likely to develop a second peak of cluster headache onset after 50 years of age. b. Family history: woman cluster headache sufferers are more likely to have a family history of both cluster headache and migraine and have an increased familial risk of Parkinson's disease. c. Comorbid conditions: female cluster headaches sufferers are significantly more likely to experience depression and have asthma than males. d. Aura issues: aura with cluster headache is equally common in both sexes, but aura duration is shorter in women. Women are much more likely to experience sensory, language and brainstem auras. e. Pain

  11. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  12. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments’ Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  13. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America, dated 12 October 2012, in which it requests that the Agency circulates, to all Member States, a letter of 5 September 2012 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Mr Richard J.K. Stratford, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments’ Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  14. La comunicación para la salud como disciplina en las universidades estadounidenses Health communication as a field of study in universities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Alcalay

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state of development of communications related to health in universities of the United States of America. This specialty is essential for people's well-being, and it involves interpersonal, organizational, and mass communications. In the United States, communications for health promotion is an area of applied communications with social relevance and generally performed in interdisciplinary settings. A number of universities in the United States offer communications master's degree programs with an emphasis on health. However, so far, the only program with a formal graduate degree in health and communications is one jointly offered by the Emerson University Department of Communications and the Tufts School of Medicine. Developing and including this specialization in the schools of communications in Latin America is crucial to improving the quality of life of the peoples of the continent.

  15. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  16. Scientists, engineers and technicians in nuclear reactor operation and maintenance. Fifteen years of growth and change in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chewning, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Between 1962 and 1977 the number of nuclear reactors in the United States of America increased from 4 to 65, and the total capacity increased from 730 to 47013 MW. Employment in the reactor operation and maintenance sector, which increased correspondingly from 633 to 17270, showed the earmarks of a maturing industry. By the end of that 15-year span, fewer workers were involved in research and development activities, and the proportion of scientists and engineers had decreased as the duties and responsibilities became more standardized and routine and could be taken over by highly trained technicians. There were also subtle changes in the discipline mixes. Nuclear and reactor engineers took their place in the labour force in increasing numbers as nuclear engineering was recognized as a distinct occupation, and there was a corresponding decrease in the proportion of more traditional engineering disciplines. Life science disciplines increased as concern grew for the health and safety of nuclear workers and the general public, and the physical science disciplines decreased in importance as proportionally less research and development was carried out in reactor operation and maintenance. A profile of nuclear power plant personnel drawn from refined data shows that the industry has truly 'come of age.' By far the largest group of workers is made up of technicians, with the second largest group made up of skilled craftworkers. Less than 30% of all workers in nuclear power operation and maintenance in 1977 were in professional occupations. (author)

  17. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  18. A profile of acute care in an aging America: snowball sample identification and characterization of United States geriatric emergency departments in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Teresita M; Olade, Tolulope Oyeyemi; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    The aging of America poses a challenge to emergency departments (EDs). Studies show that elderly patients have poor outcomes despite increased testing, prolonged periods of observation, and higher admission rates. In response, emergency medicine (EM) leaders have implemented strategies for improved ED elder care, enhancing expertise, equipment, policies, and protocols. One example is the development of geriatric EDs gaining in popularity nationwide. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first research to systematically identify and qualitatively characterize the existence, locations, and features of geriatric EDs across the United States. The primary objective was to determine the number, distribution, and characteristics of geriatric EDs in the United States in 2013. This was a survey with potential respondents identified via a snowball sampling of known geriatric EDs, EM professional organizations' geriatric interest groups, and a structured search of the Internet using multiple search engines. Sites were contacted by telephone, and those confirming geriatric EDs presence received the survey via e-mail. Category questions included date of opening, location, volumes, staffing, physical plant changes, screening tools, policies, and protocols. Categories were reported based on general interest to those seeking to understand components of a geriatric ED. Thirty-six hospitals confirmed geriatric ED existence and received surveys. Thirty (83%) responded to the survey and confirmed presence or plans for geriatric EDs: 24 (80%) had existing geriatric EDs, and six (20%) were planning to open geriatric EDs by 2014. The majority of geriatric EDs are located in the Midwest (46%) and Northeast (30%) regions of the United States. Eighty percent serve from 5,000 to 20,000 elder patients annually. Seventy percent of geriatric EDs are attached to the main ED, and 66% have from one to 10 geriatric beds. Physical plant changes include modifications to beds (96%), lighting (90

  19. Small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada. Information gathered as a result of invitations from Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    As part of its activities in connection with the development of nuclear power, and in response to the resolutions adopted by the General Conference, the Agency has been undertaking a continuing study of the technology and economics of small and medium sized power reactors, particularly with reference to the needs of the less-developed countries. This report summarizes the information gathered on the small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada, as a result of the opportunity afforded by these Member States to the Agency. It may be recalled that, at the third regular session of the General Conference, the United States Government offered to provide the Agency with relevant technical and economic data on several small power reactor projects of its Atomic Energy Commission. The Agency accepted the offer and since June 1960 it has sent one or two staff members at approximately six-monthly intervals to follow the development of nine power reactor projects in the United States which represent six different reactor systems. Last year, the Agency issued a report summarizing the information obtained through their visits and study of available published literature. The present document, which should be read in conjunction with that document, brings the information up to date and provides additional information on certain phases of the projects already discussed in the last report. Three more power reactor projects are also dealt with, namely the experimental gas-cooled reactor (EGCR), the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and the Hallam nuclear power facility (HNPF). Early in 1962, the Canadian Government expressed its willingness to make available to the Agency relevant information on the NPD and CANDU projects. The coverage of the NPD reactor is based upon the published information supplied by AECL of Canada and the visit by one of the staff members to the NPD site. The Agency wishes to acknowledge with thanks the co-operation extended

  20. Current Status of Spent Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Treatment in Various Countries: United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Due to the previous strategic US decision on treating SNF as waste and not pursuing the reprocessing option, development work for the FR fuel cycle was only performed in a few laboratories, although interest is now increasing again. ORNL together with ANL have been influential in promoting the wider use of centrifugal contactors (favoured due to the high fissile content and decay power of FR fuel materials), associated remote handling systems and hardware prototypes for most unit operations in the reprocessing conceptual designs in the context of their development of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. There is limited experience with reprocessing tests on the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF) MOX fuel. ORNL has undertaken small tests on laboratory scale dissolution and solvent extraction of MOX fuel irradiated to 220 GW/t HM burnup at around 2 kg batch scale [180-186]. The initiative called the breeder reprocessing engineering test (BRET) was started in the 1980s with a focus on the developmental activity of the US DOE to demonstrate breeder fuel reprocessing technology while closing the fuel cycle for the FFTF. The process was supposed to be installed at the existing Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The major objectives of BRET were to: - Develop and demonstrate reprocessing technology and systems for breeder fuel; - Close the fuel cycle for the FFTF; - Provide an integrated test of breeder reactor fuel cycle technology - reprocessing, safeguards and waste management. The quest for pyrochemical alternatives to aqueous reprocessing has been under way in the USA since the late 1950s. Approaches examined at various levels of development and for a variety of fuels include alloy melting, FP volatilization and adsorption, fluoride and chloride volatility methods, redox solvent extractions between liquid salt and metal phases, precipitation and fractional crystallization, and electrowinning and electro

  1. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight…

  2. The impact of monthly variation of the Pacific–North America (PNA teleconnection pattern on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific–North America teleconnection (PNA is the leading general circulation pattern in the troposphere over the region of North Pacific to North America during wintertime. This study examined the impacts of monthly variations of the PNA phase (positive or negative phase on wintertime surface-layer aerosol concentrations in the United States (US by analyzing observations during 1999–2013 from the Air Quality System of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-AQS and the model results for 1986–2006 from the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. The composite analyses on the EPA-AQS observations over 1999–2013 showed that the average concentrations of PM2.5, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols over the US were higher in the PNA positive phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest positive PNA index values than in the PNA negative phases (25 % of the winter months examined, and this fraction of months had the highest negative PNA index values by 1.0 µg m−3 (8.7 %, 0.01 µg m−3 (0.5 %, 0.3 µg m−3 (29.1 %, 0.1 µg m−3 (11.9 %, 0.6 µg m−3 (13.5 %, and 0.2 µg m−3 (27.8 %, respectively. The simulated geographical patterns of the differences in concentrations of all aerosol species between the PNA positive and negative phases were similar to observations. Based on the GEOS-Chem simulation, the pattern correlation coefficients were calculated to show the impacts of PNA-induced variations in meteorological fields on aerosol concentrations. The PNA phase was found (i to influence sulfate concentrations mainly through changes in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, precipitation (PR, and temperature; (ii to influence nitrate concentrations mainly through changes in temperature; and (iii to influence concentrations of ammonium, organic carbon, and black

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  4. The United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in the USA is recounted. Starting with the making of the nuclear bomb during the Second World War, the next phase (1947-1954) was the development of the peaceful atom. The commercial origins of the nuclear electric power demonstration programme during 1954-1961 are recalled. The years 1961-1968 saw the building of Westinghouse pressurized water reactors both in the USA and overseas. 1968-1975 saw the construction and operation of more nuclear power plants and the development of a regulatory framework. However, problems also began to emerge in this period; licensing changes and delays, construction delays, equipment modifications, escalating costs, public hearing and legal delays and reliability issues. These led in 1975-1979 to a cessation of growth and increased public opposition. The accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986 and their impacts are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. 《美国公共图书馆思想研究(1731-1951)》评述%Review on A Study of Public Library Thoughts in the United States of America (1731-1951)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新兴

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the research literatures concerning public library thoughts in the United States of America at home and abroad, and elaborates the writing features, theoretical and practical values of ZHENG Yong-tian’s book A Study of Public Library Thoughts in the United States of America (1731-1951),in order to promote the research on public library thoughts and the development of Chinese librarianship.%文章梳理国内外的美国公共图书馆思想研究文献,评析郑永田专著《美国公共图书馆思想研究(1731-1951)》的写作特点、理论与实践价值,以期促进公共图书馆思想研究,推动我国图书馆事业发展。

  6. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  7. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  8. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  9. The Knowledge-about-Older-Patients - Quiz (KOP-Q) for nurses: Cross-cultural validation between the Netherlands and United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, Jeroen; Hoogerduijn, Jita G; Klaassen, Sharon; Lagerwey, Mary D; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-08-01

    The Knowledge about Older Patients-Quiz (KOP-Q) is designed as a unidimensional scale measuring knowledge of hospital nurses about older patients. Furthermore, the KOP-Q measures a second unidimensional construct, certainty of hospital nurses about their knowledge. The KOP-Q is developed and validated in the Netherlands. Whether the KOP-Q can be used in other countries is unknown given the cultural and language differences. Investigate the level of measurement invariance of the KOP-Q between the Netherlands and United States of America (USA). A multicenter international cross-sectional design. Four general hospitals in the Netherlands and four general hospitals in the USA. Nurses from the Netherlands (n=201) and the USA (n=130) were invited to participate by email from the ward manager, distributing flyers and present messages on the online hospital communication boards. Questions of the KOP-Q were completed online. The level of measurement invariance (configural, metric or scalar invariance) across countries was tested by running increasingly constrained structural equation models, and testing whether these models fitted the data. Both the knowledge and certainty construct of the KOP-Q proved unidimensional in the Netherlands and USA sample. Test results of the measurement invariance across the Netherlands and USA indicated a stable, partial scalar invariance (15 items full scalar invariance) for the knowledge items and full scalar invariance for the certainty items. The KOP-Q shows to function uniformly across both language groups and can therefore be used to assess nurses' knowledge and their certainty about this knowledge which can be important for educational and/or quality improvement programs in the USA. Furthermore, the KOP-Q is suitable to make comparisons between the Netherlands and the USA using latent variable models. Before the KOP-Q can be used in other countries, cross-cultural tests should again be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Communication dated 2 April 2009 received from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America regarding a joint statement by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and U.S. President Barack Obama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 2 April 2009 from the Permanent Missions of the Russian Federation and the United States of America, transmitting to the attention of all Member States of the IAEA a joint statement by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and U.S. President Barack Obama issued on 1 April 2009. As requested in that communication, the attached statement is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  11. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  12. A critique of the US Surgeon General's conclusions regarding e-cigarette use among youth and young adults in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Russell, Christopher; Nitzkin, Joel; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2017-09-06

    In December 2016, the Surgeon General published a report that concluded e-cigarette use among youth and young adults is becoming a major public health concern in the United States of America. Re-analysis of key data sources on nicotine toxicity and prevalence of youth use of e-cigarettes cited in the Surgeon General report as the basis for its conclusions. Multiple years of nationally representative surveys indicate the majority of e-cigarette use among US youth is either infrequent or experimental, and negligible among never-smoking youth. The majority of the very small proportion of US youth who use e-cigarettes on a regular basis, consume nicotine-free products. The sharpest declines in US youth smoking rates have occurred as e-cigarettes have become increasingly available. Most of the evidence presented in the Surgeon General's discussion of nicotine harm is not applicable to e-cigarette use, because it relies almost exclusively on exposure to nicotine in the cigarette smoke and not to nicotine present in e-cigarette aerosol emissions. Moreover, the referenced literature describes effects in adults, not youth, and in animal models that have little relevance to real-world e-cigarette use by youth. The Surgeon General's report is an excellent reference document for the adverse outcomes due to nicotine in combination with several other toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but fails to address the risks of nicotine decoupled from tobacco smoke constituents. The report exaggerates the toxicity of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) by focusing on experimental conditions that do not reflect use in the real-world and provides little discussion of emerging evidence that e-cigarettes may significantly reduce harm to smokers who have completely switched. The U.S. Surgeon General's claim that e-cigarette use among U.S. youth and young adults is an emerging public health concern does not appear to be supported by the best available evidence on the health risks

  13. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  14. Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

  15. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [fr

  16. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  17. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  18. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  19. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) Contract Number: DE-EE0006339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Kodie [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) leveraged the highest concentration of renewable resources in the U.S. as well as operation of the leading independent microgrid installations and other distributed technologies to collect and analyze real-time data streams, advance power system simulations and analysis, identify educational and training gaps and develop solutions-focused curricula. The SWUSA-DTTC consortium posed a unique collaboration between universities and utilities to ensure that classes were focused on subjects and topics of interest to the utilities and ones that had practical benefit related to the preparedness for accommodating high penetration of solar and other distributed energy technologies. This approach to have a close collaboration and shared effort to develop the course content and curriculum is unique and a significant departure from conventional course development. This coursework and training was intended to endure over a long time horizon (10-20 year time frame), and include professionals over the entire Southwest region and the rest of the US, and even outreach into foreign countries. Project Objectives In order to support the increase in power systems research, development, and analytical capacity, the SWUSA-DTTC brought together respected professors in Power Systems education, student/professor research and development, and valuable industry and utility experience. Through this program, the partnered universities created and/or modified existing curricula available to students and professionals in the form of university courses, short courses, videos, consortia-led training, and online materials. During this time, the supporting vendors and utilities provided the SWUSA-DTTC with technical advisory roles as well as providing input and feedback in terms of utility and related energy industry needs. The goals were to create power and energy systems training, curricula, and

  20. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency on Behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 12 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA, on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its origins, role and activities.'The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 5 November 2009

  1. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency on Behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 12 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the IAEA, on behalf of the Participating Governments of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its origins, role and activities.'The original version of this paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997: revisions were issued on 17 April 2000, 16 September 2003 and 5 November 2009 [es

  2. Federally Chartered Corporation: Review of the Financial Statement Audit Report for the Navy Club of the United States of America for Fiscal Year 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The main purpose of the corporation is to further, encourage, promote, and maintain comradeship among those persons who are or have been in active service of the United States Navy, the United States...

  3. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  4. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  5. The Ties that Bind: Race and Restitution in Education Law and Policy in South Africa and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    The parallels between South Africa and the United States run deep. For the United States, that moment of transition, at least as far as education is concerned, was the landmark ruling of 1954, described in the shorthand, "Brown v. Board of Education"; for South Africa, that moment came 40 years later when every citizen could, for the…

  6. Dress: Images of America. Elementary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit which traces the history of dress in America over the last century. Using authentic visuals including posters, paintings, advertising, documentary photography, movies, cartoons,…

  7. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of the Russian Federation and the United States of America to the IAEA enclosing the text of a declaration on nuclear energy and nonproliferation joint actions, and the text of a joint statement by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Sergey Lavrov, and U.S. Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 10 July 2007 from the Resident Representatives of the Russian Federation and the United States of America with the attachments of a Declaration on Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation Joint Actions published by the Russian Federation and the United States of America on 3 July 2007; and the text of a Joint Statement by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. As requested in that communication, the letter and its attachments are circulated for the information of Member States

  8. A Study Identifying and Validating Competencies Needed for Mid-Managers That Work in Housing and Residence Life at Colleges and Universities in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hassel Andre

    2016-01-01

    The researcher identified a gap in the knowledge of competencies needed for midmanagers that work in housing and residence life at the southeast colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and develop a consensus on competencies needed by mid-managers. The review of the literature describes and…

  9. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  10. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alex P. Schmid; Gordon Clubb; Jason Rineheart; Yulia  Netesova

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI) announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder ...

  11. Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

    2014-04-01

    A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families.

  12. Outcomes of care for 16,924 planned home births in the United States: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, the number of home births in the United States rose by 41%, increasing the need for accurate assessment of the safety of planned home birth. This study examines outcomes of planned home births in the United States between 2004 and 2009. We calculated descriptive statistics for maternal demographics, antenatal risk profiles, procedures, and outcomes of planned home births in the Midwives Alliance of North American Statistics Project (MANA Stats) 2.0 data registry. Data were analyzed according to intended and actual place of birth. Among 16,924 women who planned home births at the onset of labor, 89.1% gave birth at home. The majority of intrapartum transfers were for failure to progress, and only 4.5% of the total sample required oxytocin augmentation and/or epidural analgesia. The rates of spontaneous vaginal birth, assisted vaginal birth, and cesarean were 93.6%, 1.2%, and 5.2%, respectively. Of the 1054 women who attempted a vaginal birth after cesarean, 87% were successful. Low Apgar scores (home births in the United States, outcomes are congruent with the best available data from population-based, observational studies that evaluated outcomes by intended place of birth and perinatal risk factors. Low-risk women in this cohort experienced high rates of physiologic birth and low rates of intervention without an increase in adverse outcomes. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Disease features and outcomes in United States lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterparts in Latin America: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student's t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights

  14. Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement concerning the application of the Agreement between Australia and the United States of America concerning peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Agreement was concluded by an Exchange of notes constituting an Agreement between the Governments of Australia and the United States and concerns the application of different Articles in the Agreement of 5th July 1979 concerning peaceful uses of nuclear energy which entered into force on 16th January 1981. It details each Party's responsibilities regarding safeguards, physical protection and retransfers of nuclear material. It entered into force on the day of its signature and will remain in force for as long as the Agreement between both countries concerning peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (NEA) [fr

  15. Expanding the TRI Network for Doctoral Researchers in the Fields of Terrorism, Political Violence and Armed Conflict to the United States of America and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2011, the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI announced the creation of a post-graduate terrorism research network in the United Kingdom. The idea was to compile a list of post-graduates conducting research in the UK in the overlapping fields of terrorism, political violence, and armed conflict. While much research is conducted in these three overlapping fields, those involved in research are often unsure what is going on outside their own university department. They also wonder how their own work relates to current research developments elsewhere. To address these concerns, TRI has been inviting UK researchers to complete a profile form

  16. 6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 November 2013 - Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office and Other international organizations in Geneva Ambassador J. Balmaceda Serigos signing the guest book with Adviser for Latin America J. Salicio Diez; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton (Spouse, Son and First Secretary present).

  17. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  18. ‘When we are tired we shall rest’: bus boycotts in the United States of America and South Africa and prospects for comparative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Charles Catsam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at some of the practical, methodological, and disciplinary issues connected to comparative and transnational history through the lens of bus boycotts in South Africa and the United States in the 1950s. Comparative history by its very nature requires historians to transcend both the restrictive boundaries that the profession sometimes imposes as well as a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach to scholarship. Yet as the suggestive comparisons between boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the Transvaal in the mid-1950s show, such work can be rewarding in providing a transnational framework for understanding protest movements that transcend national borders. Catsam argues in the end of his article that “a deeper understanding of both [the American and South African] struggles together may well help us better to grasp the significance of each separately.”

  19. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  20. Uso de la vacuna contra el carbunco en los Estados Unidos de América Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States of America: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This piece presents the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the United States of America concerning the use of aluminum hydroxide adsorbed cell-free anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, or AVA and the use of chemoprophylaxis against Bacillus anthracis in the United States. The recommended vaccination schedule consists of three subcutaneous injections, at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and three booster vaccinations, at 6, 12, and 18 months. To maintain immunity, an annual booster injection is recommended. Approximately 95% of vaccinees seroconvert, with a fourfold rise in anti-PA (protective antigen IgG titers after three doses. Analysis of data from the United States' Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System has documented no pattern of serious adverse events clearly associated with the vaccine, except injection-site reactions. Vaccination is contraindicated in the case of a previous history of anthrax infection or anaphylactic reaction following a previous dose of AVA or any of the vaccine components. In addition, vaccination should be postponed in the case of moderate or severe acute illness. Pregnant women should be vaccinated against anthrax only if the potential benefits of vaccination outweigh the potential risks to the fetus. Vaccination during breast-feeding is not medically contraindicated. Routine preexposure vaccination with AVA is indicated for persons engaged in: a work involving production quantities or concentrations of B. anthracis cultures or b activities with a high potential for aerosol production. For the military and other select populations or for groups for which a calculable risk can be assessed, preexposure vaccination may be indicated. Following confirmed or suspected exposure to B. anthracis, postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, penicillin VK, or amoxicillin. If the vaccine is available, prophylaxis should continue for 4 weeks

  1. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  2. Uranium Potential and Socio-Political Environment for Uranium Mining in the Eastern United States Of America with Emphasis on the Coles Hill Uranium Deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, N.W., E-mail: MMastilovic@vaunic.com [Virginia Uranium, Inc., Chatham, VA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Virginia Uranium, Inc. (“VUI”) is an exploration and development company that holds exclusive rights to the world class Coles Hill uranium project in Pittsylvania County, Virginia. This project has the potential to supply significant uranium to the market. Since the 1980s over US$60 million has been expended to advance the project. The Coles Hill uranium deposit is located in south central Virginia and is probably the largest undeveloped uranium deposit in the United States. It has a measured and indicated resource of 119 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}{sup (A)} {sup (B)} at a cut-off grade of 0.025% U{sub 3}O{sub 8} based on a National Instrument 43-101 technical report prepared for Santoy Resources Ltd. and Virginia Uranium, Inc. by Behre Dolbear and Company, Ltd., Marshall Miller and Associates, Inc., and PAC Geological Consulting Inc. dated February 2, 2009 and revised April, 2009. The whole rock analyses of the deposit indicate a relatively monomineralic ore that does not contain quantities of heavy metals that are typical of uranium ores of the southwestern United States. The Colorado School of Mines Research Institute conducted mill mineral processing tests in the 1980s. Project pre-feasibility studies and other plans completed in the 1980s will be updated over the next 12 months.Mining and support personnel can reasonably be recruited from the local area, as the skill sets needed for miners exist already among people and companies who are comfortable with farming and heavy equipment. Virginia currently requires that uranium mining regulations and permitting be adopted by law prior to approving a mining operation at Coles Hill. Virginia has regulated and permitted many similar mining industries. In fact, lead has been mined in the state from 1750–1981 and heavy metal sands have been mined since 1991 in Dinwiddie County that is over 90 miles/144 kilometers east of Coles Hill. A process to evaluate uranium mining through the Virginia Coal and Energy

  3. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  4. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  5. Development of a Faith-Based Mental Health Literacy Program to Improve Treatment Engagement Among Caribbean Latinos in the Northeastern United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Susan; Cordero, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) worldwide. Although depression can be successfully treated, 75% of Americans do not receive care. Treatment rates among Latinos immigrants are significantly lower than non-immigrant Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. Known factors for mental health-care disparities such as poverty, insurance coverage, language barriers, and access to specialty mental health services in Latino neighborhoods do not fully explain the differences in treatment rates. Significant, but poorly understood factors influencing depression treatment among Latinos in the United States are lack of culturally congruent care, low mental health literacy, and stigma. Even though churches are a major source of health information, social and spiritual support for Latinos, the conceptualization of culturally congruent care rarely addresses religious beliefs. Therefore, one strategy to reduce disparities in depression treatment is to partner with churches to address faith-based stigma. Community-based participatory research is recognized as a methodology particularly well suited for creating successful culturally targeted interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the process of creating a faith-based mental health literacy intervention in the Caribbean Latino community using the principles of community-based participatory research. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Status of the implementation of the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene strategy in United States of America health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegranzi, Benedetta; Conway, Laurie; Larson, Elaine; Pittet, Didier

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) launched a multimodal strategy and campaign in 2009 to improve hand hygiene practices worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the implementation of the strategy in United States health care facilities. From July through December 2011, US facilities participating in the WHO global campaign were invited to complete the Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework online, a validated tool based on the WHO multimodal strategy. Of 2,238 invited facilities, 168 participated in the survey (7.5%). A detailed analysis of 129, mainly nonteaching public facilities (80.6%), showed that most had an advanced or intermediate level of hand hygiene implementation progress (48.9% and 45.0%, respectively). The total Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework score was 36 points higher for facilities with staffing levels of infection preventionists > 0.75/100 beds than for those with lower ratios (P = .01) and 41 points higher for facilities participating in hand hygiene campaigns (P = .002). Despite the low response rate, the survey results are unique and allow interesting reflections. Whereas the level of progress of most participating facilities was encouraging, this may reflect reporting bias, ie, better hospitals more likely to report. However, even in respondents, further improvement can be achieved, in particular by embedding hand hygiene in a stronger institutional safety climate and optimizing staffing levels dedicated to infection prevention. These results should encourage the launch of a coordinated national campaign and higher participation in the WHO global campaign. Copyright © 2014 World Health Organization. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activities at the electric power research institute to support the modernization of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1998-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States are operating with a vast majority of their original analog instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment. Many of the I and C systems in the plants need to be modernized in a reliable and cost-effective manner to replace obsolete equipment, to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, to improve plant performance, and to maintain safety. The major drivers for the replacement of the safety, control, and information systems in nuclear power plants are the obsolescence of the existing hardware and the need for more cost-effective power production. Competition between power producers is dictating the need for more cost-effective power production. The increasing O and M costs to maintain systems experiencing obsolescence problems is counter to the needs for more cost-effective power production and improved competitiveness. Modern technology, especially digital systems, offers improved functionality, performance, and reliability; solutions to obsolescence of equipment; reduction in O and M costs, and the potential to enhance safety. Digital I and C systems with their inherent advantages will be implemented only if reliable and cost-effective implementation and licensing acceptance is achieved and if the modernized system supports reduced power production costs. Increasing competition will continue to be a major factor in the operation of nuclear power plants. I will continue to dictate the need for improved productivity and cost-effectiveness. EPRI and its members utilities are working together on an industry-wide Instrumentation and Control Program to address I and C issues and to develop cost-effective solutions. (author)

  8. Distribution of sulphur isotopes of sulphates in groundwaters from the principal artesian aquifer of Florida and the Edwards aquifer of Texas, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rightmire, C.T.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Back, W.; Rye, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.

    1974-01-01

    New information on the sources of sulphate dissolved in groundwater is obtainable from the measurement of the sulphur isotope composition of sulphates. Field studies in the Floridan aquifer, Florida, and the Edwards aquifer, Texas, show that the use of sulphur isotope data in conjunction with hydrologic and geochemical techniques permits refinements of interpretation. In the Floridan the interpretation of the chemical data, particularly the SO 4 2- concentration and the SO 4 2- /Cl - ratio, leads to the conclusion that recharging maritime rainfall, solution of intraformational gypsum, and mixing with ocean-like saline waters are the sources of sulphate in the groundwater. Sulphur isotope data substantiate this interpretation. The Edwards in the area studied can be separated into two hydrologie units on the basis of water chemistry and aquifer characteristics. The sulphide-free waters in the part of the aquifer upgradient from a distinct sulphide boundary are low in sulphate (less than 100 mg/1) and contain no sulphide. The waters downgradient from that boundary contain greater than 150 mg/1 sulphate and all contain measurable quantities of sulphide. Interpretation of the SO 4 2- concentration and SO 4 2- /Cl ratio on the basis of the Florida study leads to the erroneous conclusion that the solution of intraformational gypsum is again a major source of sulphate in the sulphide-free part of the aquifer. Isotope analyses, however, show that the gypsum is likely to be Permian in age and introduced into the aquifer by the recharge water. The absence of evidence for enrichment in 34 S in the sulphate in the sulphide-bearing portion of the aquifer leads to the possibility of H 2 S migration upgradient from downdip oil fields. (author)

  9. Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Latin America: A Comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gómez, Luis F.; Perel, Pablo; Pichardo, Rafael; González, Angel; Sánchez, José R.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Aguilera, Ximena; Silva, Eglé; Oróstegui, Myriam; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P.; Rosero, Luis; Schapochnik, Noberto; Ortiz, Zulma; Ferrante, Daniel; Casas, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Methods and Findings Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998–2007, n = 31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999–2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region’s average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained. PMID:23349785

  10. Major cardiovascular risk factors in Latin America: a comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC region.Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998-2007, n=31,009 from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US population (1999-2004 Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9, 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31, and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4, respectively. Compared to LAC region's average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively. However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%.Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained.

  11. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  12. Gender-based discrimination as reflected in the laws of urinary segregation: Comparing facilities in South Africa’s major cities with those in East Coast cities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws advocate the equal treatment of people of different genders, but there are still claims of gender-based discrimination. However, indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that great strides have been made in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, more exact and tangible method of detecting and describing discrimination is presented, based on the difference between the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. The same was done at six East Coast cities in the United States of America (USA; N=124. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13 in South Africa, with women receiving fewer services than those for men. The same tendency was not found in the USA. These results suggest that, despite the progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action applied in South Africa, South African women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, tangible level.

  13. Elia Kazan's America America: A Message for America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Merle

    2018-06-01

    Elia Kazan's 1963 film, America America is a tribute to the immigrant experience of his own forebears, and has relevance to the refugee crisis of today. In stark black and white cinematography, the film provides insight into the refugee-immigrant experience, personified in Stavros, a young man longing for freedom, obsessed with an idealized America. His hope and innocence cannot safeguard him. His memories of his happy childhood and loving family create idealizing transferences to a world of others who manipulate and betray him as he undertakes his quest. Eventually he too learns to manipulate and betray, unconsciously identifying with the aggressor. History will offer ethical challenges, the black and white cinematography mirroring the black and white perception of good and bad, the shades of grey evoking a maturation of understanding.

  14. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  15. Drug policy in United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Edmundo G.; Médico internista, President and Chief Executive Officer, LatAmScience. Florida, USA.

    2009-01-01

    The USA federal prescription drug policies are inconsistent. The federal government regulates the development, production, marketing and safety of prescription drugs in the country through various legal mechanisms as well as private and governmental institutions. Patent laws also play an important role in this process protecting the pharmaceutical industry. The government has no direct mechanism to control prices of prescription drugs nor does it have a policy to cover the whole US popula...

  16. Contribution from the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    It is expected that replacement of UO 2 fuel by MOX fuel in the core of BN type reactor would not be a major difficulty for standard Sn codes and ENDF data library. Replacement of the blanket by stainless steel would cause some difficulties although experience exists with ZPR-3, EBR-II and CIRANO reactors. Major difficulties that are expected are concerned with data and methods (high order 3-D transport calculations with anisotropic scattering). The effects on transients would not necessarily be large, as effects are local. A calculational scheme which would enable easy intercomparison includes US and European codes for both ENDFB-V, ENDFB-VI and JEF2 data processing; neutron calculations are to be compared to Monte Carlo calculations used as benchmark

  17. Health and health services in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region.

  18. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 20 September 1990 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 15 June 1990, and concluded on 20 September 1990, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Zaire. The supplied material will be an instrumented fuel element containing uranium enriched to 19.98 percent in the isotope uranium-235. 1 tab

  19. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  20. Rabies in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies in the Americas Search this site Welcome Previous Meetings Steering Committee Contact Sitemap Welcome The Rabies in the Americas (RITA) meeting is an annual event that has been held since 1990 managers of rabies programs, wildlife biologists, laboratory personnel and other people interested in

  1. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  2. America in Perspective: Yesterday's Questions and Today's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    In 1780, a prize was established in France for the best answer to the question; "Was the discovery of America a blessing or a curse to mankind?" This question and its only response from an individual living in America, constitute the basis of a high school history class unit. The background of the question and the content are developed,…

  3. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows that ...

  4. Status of soil acidification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Fenn; T. G. Huntington; S. B. McLaughlin; C. Eagar; A. Gomez; R. B. Cook

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of...

  5. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  6. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  7. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  8. The America COMPETES Act and the FY2009 Budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stine, Deborah D

    2008-01-01

    The America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) responds to concerns that the United States may not be able to compete economically with other nations in the future due to insufficient investment today in science and technology research...

  9. 76 FR 17485 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  10. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  11. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver...

  12. Tourette Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outcomes Find a Doctor Find information for Select Audience Parents Adults with Tourette Kids Teens Educators Professionals ... About Tourette Tourette Association of America Welcomes NFL Marketing Executive Julie Haddon to Its Board of Directors ...

  13. Arthritis in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Arthritis in America Time to Take Action! Language: English ( ... by about 40% by being physically active. Problem Arthritis is common and a growing health threat. Arthritis ...

  14. Rediscovering South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Charles; Shearer, Thomas D; Staszak, Michael

    1997-01-01

    In presenting the U.S. National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement the Clinton Administration states that, "The unprecedented triumph of democracy and market economies throughout the (Latin America...

  15. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connected Twitter @PVA1946 Facebook @Paralyzed Veterans of America Instagram @PVA1946 National Veterans Wheelchair Games App Download Now ... 838-7782 CONNECT WITH US Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Flickr STAY INFORMED WITH NEWS & UPDATES Enter your ...

  16. The Vietnamese in America. In America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Paul

    The history of Vietnamese immigration to the United States is traced, and contributions Vietnamese immigrants have made to the United States are reviewed in this book which is part of a series for children. Most Vietnamese immigrants came in the wake of the Vietnam War, making them among the recent immigrants to the United States. Determination,…

  17. Health-related behaviors and overweight: a study of Latino adolescents in the United States of America Conductas relacionadas con la salud y sobrepeso: estudio en adolescentes latinoamericanos residentes en los Estados Unidos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study examined, by gender, differences in being overweight among adolescents of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and other Latin American heritage who live in the United States of America, and investigated the relationships between these differences and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and family characteristics. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study obtained and analyzed data from nationally representative samples of Latino 8th and 10th graders in the Monitoring the Future study from 1991 to 2004 (N = 11 265. RESULTS: A higher proportion of Mexican-American girls were overweight than other Latin American girls, both before and after adjusting for many confounders. For both genders, being overweight was inversely associated with socioeconomic status and frequency of vigorous exercise, and positively associated with the amount of television viewing. No family characteristic variable examined was associated with overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent exercising and time spent watching television are two potentially modifiable risk factors that, if targeted, may result in important reductions in overweight. The findings indicate the need to identify gender- and culturally-appropriate interventions that can increase physical activity and reduce sedentary activities among Latino adolescents, particularly in families of low socioeconomic status.OBJETIVOS: Analizar las diferencias, según el sexo, en el sobrepeso de adolescentes de origen mexicano, puertorriqueño y de otros países latinoamericanos que viven en los Estados Unidos de América e investigar la relación entre esas diferencias y el estatus socioeconómico, las conductas relacionadas con la salud y las características familiares. MÉTODOS: En este estudio transversal por encuesta se obtuvieron y analizaron los datos de muestras representativas para el país de estudiantes latinoamericanos del 8.° y 10.° grados del estudio Monitoring the Future de 1991 a 2004 (N

  18. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  19. Readings from Asia: Questioning America Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerim Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chang Sei-jin. Sangsangdoen America: 1945 nyǒn 8wol ihu Hangukui neisǒn seosanǔn ǒtteoke mandǔleogǒtnǔnga 상상된 아메리카: 1945년 8월 이후 한국의 네이션 서사는 어떻게 만들어졌는가 [Imagined America: How national narratives of Korea have been constructed since August 1945]. Seoul: Purǔn Yeoksa, 2012.Research on U.S.–South Korean relations has continued steadily over the decades, especially in the fields of history and literature, resulting in many notable studies. However, the general tendency of this scholarship has been to introduce and analyze the United States as a discrete entity. While this perspective is useful in some regards, it is also necessary to investigate how this entity was felt, perceived, and constructed by those on the receiving end. By shifting the focus from “what America was in South Korea” to “how America was imagined in South Korea,” Sei-Jin Chang’s Imagined America: How National Narratives of Korea Have Been Constructed since August 1945 provides an insightful approach to this issue of complexity.

  20. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  1. Use and abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants in the United States of America Uso y abuso de estimulantes anfetamínicos en Estados Unidos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cajetan Luna

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the United States of America has experienced economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, and technological advances. However, coexisting with these favorable conditions are underlying and underaddressed social inequalities that may have an impact on patterns of use and abuse of substances, including amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs. For example, since 1975 most of the increase in national income has benefited people who are at the top 20% of the income range. There are disparities between those who do have and those who do not have the skills needed to thrive in a technologically dependent society, and the gap may be widening. New patterns of substance abuse being seen in the United States may in part be explained by the increasing competition to survive financially and interpersonally, the need that those failing to adapt to rapid technological change have to escape psychologically and existentially, and the desire of the socially alienated and disenfranchised to self-medicate with ATSs and at least temporarily avoid social and economical inequities. According to the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, an estimated 13.6 million Americans were users of illicit drugs (1. This number is less than the 13.9 million estimated for 1997, and by comparison less than the highest level, in 1979, when the estimate was 25 million. With respect to stimulants in particular, the overall level of usage has remained constant, but increases have been observed in specific high-risk populations, who need focused outreach and intervention efforts. This article will focus on ATSs in the United States, including relevant demographic and cultural dimensions of their use and abuse, and suggested directions for future ATS research and program development.En los Estados Unidos de América, la popularidad de los compuestos anfetamínicos de consumo legal e ilegal, junto con las prácticas de uso y abuso que con ellos se asocian, han variado

  2. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  3. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  4. America, Linearly Cyclical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    AND VICTIM- ~ vAP BLAMING 4. AMERICA, LINEARLY CYCUCAL AF IMT 1768, 19840901, V5 PREVIOUS EDITION WILL BE USED. C2C Jessica Adams Dr. Brissett...his desires, his failings, and his aspirations follow the same general trend throughout history and throughout cultures. The founding fathers sought

  5. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton, and Mrs. Laura Bush on stage at the Sewall-Belmont House. Mrs. Bush was joined by Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne and Senators Hillary Clinton (NY) and Pete Domenici (NM), who Save America's Treasures established by the Clinton Administration. Secretary Dirk Kempthorne, Senator

  6. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to

  7. America's Success Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplisea, Eric A.

    1974-01-01

    America's earliest schools taught career awareness and job skills, but for 200 years it was a speciality curriculum--cultivating a classical heritage predominated. Recently the hard sell message is that schooling and credentialism ensure entry into the "successful life". Vocational educators must become leaders, explode this myth, and redefine…

  8. Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  9. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  10. GEONETCast Americas - Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Component Identification and Selection Discussion Version 2.2.0: June 11, 2014, provides". . . an overview of a GEONETCast Americas ground station, its components, and helpful discussion to relating the also available in Spanish, English. GNC-A Ground Station Simplified Component Diagram GEONETCast

  11. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  12. Racism Is Alive and Well in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    2009-01-01

    If the recent elections of a Black man to the presidency and a Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court of the United States, or news that Ku Klux Klan membership is down from its estimated high of 6 million in 1924 to about 8,000 in 2008 makes one think racism is gone from America, think again! Idaho residents still express concern about the image of…

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Mexican States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Mexican States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 9 March 2004. It was signed on 29 March 2004 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 4 March 2011, the date on which the Agency received from the United Mexican States written notification that Mexico's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  14. The Bible in America and Britain at War

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This year marks the centenary of America’s entrance into what was known as the Great War on the side of France and Great Britain. On April 6, 1917, having passed both the Senate and the House of Representatives, the United States of America declared war against Germany. Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the people of the United States of America: Therefore, be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of...

  15. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MACRA Resource Portal The Heart Failure Society of America, Inc. (HFSA) represents the first organized effort by heart failure experts from the Americas to provide a forum for all those interested ...

  16. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Uitdewilligen, G.

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  17. The Spy in Early America: The Emergence of a Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-29

    defensive posture which makes the United States’ brand of imperialism so difficult to pin down, and which ties American colonialism to its earliest...America as the underdog nation which could overcome tremendous obstacles with pluck and resilience required some examples of obstacles. The 1807...early brand of proto-feminism of the "Vision of the New Woman" of nineteenth century America, to peace movements and assert that there is a special

  18. The Merida Initiative: Security-Surveillance Harmonization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2009-01-01

    This work analyses the Merida Initiative, whose objective is to coordinate the information systems used against terrorism, organized crime, and drug and arms trafficking between the United States, Mexico and Central America. This implies the introduction of communication equipment, data bases and surveillance technology, which not only reinforces the security policies of the ‘western hemisphere’, but also consolidates and broadens the spaces of exception in Mexico and Central America, thus er...

  19. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Bolivia. 28 Panama It produces marijuana and serves as a critical transit country for all drugs coming from South America to the United...Colombian drug cartels. Paraguay This is a marijuana producing country. Its production probably never leaves South America; it is believed to supply...broad diversification of their products. The Mexican DTOs went through great efforts to establish laboratories for the cheap synthetic drugs in Mexico

  20. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for America the Beautiful...

  1. 78 FR 26116 - Pricing for the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter...

  2. 78 FR 5245 - Pricing for New Product-America the Beautiful Quarters® Three-Roll Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for New Product--America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Three-Roll Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing pricing for a new product, the America the Beautiful...

  3. 77 FR 3035 - Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters® Bags & Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Annual Sets and America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Bags & Rolls AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for annual sets and the America the...

  4. 77 FR 31069 - Pricing for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 America the Beautiful...

  5. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  6. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-17

    yesterday, the reserved market throughout the country for in- formatics has also been extended to computer software programs. The DIARIO OFICIAL ...Pemex Northern States Price Cuts 97 PARAGUAY Journalists Union Denounces Arrest of Members (EL DIARIO , 25 Oct 86) .....; .. 98 Police...topple the elected government in Man- • agua — including US$200 000 to the anti-San- dinista "Friends of the Democratic Centre in Central America". I

  7. Cholera in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  8. 76 FR 59115 - Notice of Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Availability of Patent Fee Changes Under the Leahy- Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and... of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e., September 26, 2011) by operation of the fifteen percent... in effect sixty days after the date of enactment of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (i.e...

  9. 77 FR 981 - Changes To Implement the Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 4 / Friday... Inventor's Oath or Declaration Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States... inventor's oath or declaration provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act. The Office proposes to...

  10. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  11. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  12. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive...

  13. TIMEKEEPING IN THE AMERICAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J M; Lombardi, M A

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  14. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  15. Les relations économiques États-Unis / Amérique latine pendant les années Bush : la nouvelle donne Economic Relations between the United States and Latin America in the Bush Years: Changing Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Azuelos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alors que l’élection de George B. Bush à la présidence des États-Unis avait pu autoriser certains à nourrir l’espoir d’une relance du processus d’intégration économique entre l’Amérique latine et l’Amérique du Nord, le bilan de ces huit années est mitigé et bien des incertitudes pesaient sur l’avenir de ce processus au moment de l’entrée en fonction de Barack Obama. Pour éclairer cette évolution, l’article replace les années Bush dans le contexte du recentrage sur la dimension économique de la relation qui fut consécutif à la fin de la guerre froide. La première partie, fondée sur l’étude des données chiffrées disponibles concernant les échanges commerciaux et des mouvements de capitaux, met en évidence une progression en trompe l’œil de ces flux, suggérant un désintérêt relatif des États-Unis pour leur traditionnelle arrière-cour. Pour rendre compte de cette nouvelle donne, la seconde partie revient sur le cadre géopolitique et géoéconomique dans laquelle s’inscrit la relation à partir de 2001.While George W. Bush’s election had promised to revive the drive towards further economic integration in the Americas, as he was leaving office eight years later the achievements of his presidency seemed rather mixed and the future of U.S.-Latin America relations uncertain. To shed light on this turnaround, this paper sets the Bush years in the wider context of post-Cold War renewed U.S. emphasis on the economic dimension of its relationship to Latin America. The first part, which focuses on quantitative data, concludes that although two-way trade and capital flows did grow significantly between 2000 and 2007, the momentum of the 1990s was largely lost. In an attempt to account for this trend, the second part focuses on the geopolitical and geoeconomic background which led to the United States’ relations with Latin America taking a new direction after 2001.

  16. Ordinance concerning the implementation of the Agreement for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy between the Swiss Government and the Government of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-01-01

    This Ordinance sets out the conditions for implementation of the Agreement for co-operation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy concluded by Switzerland and the United States on 21 June 1956, in particular with respect to classified information and material. The Ordinance entered into force on 1 April 1957 [fr

  17. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, E.

    2006-01-01

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  18. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  19. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  2. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-01-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  3. Exchange of notes constituting an agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America concerning Australian ores containing uranium or thorium (monazite and xenotime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Agreement which entered into force on the date of its signature concerns the procedures for treatment of ores transferred from Australia to the United States containing more than 0.05 per cent by weight of uranium, thorium or both. It provides that such transfers are subject to the provisions of the Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy concluded between both countries on 5 July 1979; in particular with a view to non-proliferation principles. (NEA) [fr

  4. Central America's shrinking forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.

  5. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Uddin Khan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  6. America's Cultural Awakening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brents, William B

    2007-01-01

    Although the collapse of the Soviet Union elevated the United States to a hyper superpower status, globalization in terms of modernity, economics, security, and culture would dramatically affect its ascendancy...

  7. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  8. 3 CFR 8349 - Proclamation 8349 of February 27, 2009. Read Across America Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to meet the demands of the global economy. New technologies and steep competition abroad require our... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8349 of February 27, 2009. Read Across... February 27, 2009 Proc. 8349 Read Across America Day, 2009By the President of the United States of America...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...

  10. A new conservation partnership: conserving the migratory birds of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Capp; David Mehlman

    Over five billion birds move each year across the Americas, flying great distances over almost every location and habitat on the continents (Weidensaul 1999). Over 350 of the over 800 bird species in the United States migrate each year to Latin America and the Caribbean (Degraaf and Rappole 1995). Some fly each way over 4000 miles, chasing the seasons across oceans and...

  11. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits

  12. Assessing the 'Arrival of Democracy' in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Review Essay. In the 1970s and 1980s, Central America was associated with military governments, revolutionary movements, civil war, extreme inequality, and authoritarianism in the ‘backyard’ of the United States. Broad social mobilizations and political repression

  13. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  14. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Tapping America's Potential, Progress Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapping America's Potential, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, 15 of America's most prominent business organizations joined together to express their deep concern about the ability of the United States to sustain its scientific and technological leadership in a world where newly energized foreign competitors are investing in the capacity for innovation--the key driver of productivity and…

  15. Reducing Bias: Research Notes on Racism in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, Richard

    This paper highlights recent developments in research on racism in the United States, and notes several conceptual issues of significance for the long-range planning work of those interested in reducing racism in America and particularly in Idaho. Growth in the number of minority researchers has resulted in increased attention toward racism as it…

  16. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides…

  17. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  18. The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Kopp; L. B. Smart; C. A. Maynard; J. G. Isebrands; G. A. Tuskan; L. P. Abrahamson

    2001-01-01

    Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing non-native...

  19. Rogue America: Benevolent Hegemon or Occupying Tyrant?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    .... Based on this working definition, America?s foreign policy history does not support characterization as a rogue state, though its dominant military and some imperialist history are exploited in rogue-America rhetoric...

  20. America's New War on Poverty: A Reader for Action. Companion to the Public Television Series "America's War on Poverty."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Robert, Comp.

    Companion to a five-part public television documentary, this book describes efforts across the United States to fight poverty, and also prescribes that we all take responsibility for a fight against economic inequality. The book's goal is to contribute to a meaningful discussion about poverty in America, a topic that cannot be broached today…

  1. The First National Report Card on Quality of Health Care in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    How good is the quality of health care in America? To answer this question Elizabeth McGlynn led a team of experts in the largest and most comprehensive examination ever conducted of health care quality in the United States...

  2. Soft Power and Its Impact on U.S. Influence in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Jason

    2004-01-01

    .... The United States' continued dependence on imported petroleum from Venezuela, and America's concern over Venezuela's growing relationship with Cuba, make this country also important to U. S. foreign policy...

  3. Wind Powering America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. (NREL); Dougherty, P. J. (DOE)

    2001-07-07

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately $60 billion investment and $1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced.

  4. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  5. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  6. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  7. [Health manpower in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R P; Brito, P

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes the country studies on the development of the health manpower situation published in this issue of Educación médica y Salud, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1986. The countries covered are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the United States of America. In these studies, the concept of disequilibrium or lack of balance and proportion was used to describe and examine some specific situations. However, no study took this concept as an object of further theoretical development, and in some it was preferred to replace it explicitly with the term "problem." The following categories of health personnel are considered: physicians, nurses and "other professions" (the latter very briefly). Professional training, the labor market, the relationship between supply and demand and the relationship with the geographic distribution of members of the health professions in the country are discussed. The studies summarized show that the situations and trends are similar in most of the countries, but that specific variations exist owing to structural and situational aspects in each. The most notable differences are seen between the characteristics of the manpower in the developed and in the developing countries. The variations in the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean are also brought out. Finally, there is a discussion of the occupational pyramid of the human resources in the health field, which consists of three horizontal segments. At the vertex are the university-trained categories; the middle is occupied by the technicians and auxiliary personnel, and at the base are the occupations requiring a low educational level.

  8. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  9. The pCS20 PCR assay for Ehrlichia ruminantium does not cross-react with the novel deer ehrlichial agent found in white-tailed deer in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mahan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer are susceptible to heartwater (Ehrlichia [Cowdria] ruminantium infection and are likely to suffer high mortality if the disease spreads to the United States. It is vital, therefore, to validate a highly specific and sensitive detection method for E. ruminantium infection that can be reliably used in testing white-tailed deer, which are reservoirs of antigenically or genetically related agents such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma (Ehrlichia phagocytophilum (HGE agent and Ehrlichia ewingii. Recently, a novel but as yet unnamed ehrlichial species, the white-tailed deer ehrlichia (WTDE, has been discovered in deer populations in the United States. Although the significance of WTDE as a pathogen is unknown at present, it can be distinguished from other Ehrlichia spp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In this study it was differentiated from E. ruminantium by the use of the pCS20 PCR assay which has high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of E. ruminantium. This assay did not amplify DNA from the WTDE DNA samples isolated from deer resident in Florida, Georgia and Missouri, but amplified the specific 279 bp fragment from E. ruminantium DNA. The specificity of the pCS20 PCR assay for E. ruminantium was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Similarly, the 16S PCR primers (nested that amplify a specific 405-412 bp fragment from the WTDE DNA samples, did not amplify any product from E. ruminantium DNA. This result demonstrates that it would be possible to differentiate between E. ruminantium and the novel WTDE agent found in white tailed deer by applying the two respective PCR assays followed by Southern hybridizations. Since the pCS20 PCR assay also does not amplify any DNA products from E. chaffeensis or Ehrlichia canis DNA, it is therefore the method of choice for the detection of E. ruminantium in these deer and other animal hosts.

  10. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  11. Homelessness in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…

  12. Arabs in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐长贵

    2004-01-01

    In the eyes of many people in the United States, Arab-Americans are an invisible part of the population. Though Arab-Americans as a community have made great contributions to American society in the fields from literature to politics to medicine, many Americans know very little about Americans of Arab descent(血统).

  13. Latin America Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-16

    end of this month. Both units have a generating capacity of 78 megawatts. 2909 CSO: 3348/452 71 JPRS- JAM -85-033 16 April 1985 CHILE ECONOMY...and furniture? Southern Haiti is also renowned for strawberries and other produce and trading with this neighbour would be doing a genuinely good

  14. Literacy in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This collection of essays addresses issues related to basic literacy and mathematical competence in the United States. Articles include the following: "The Roots of Literacy" (David Hawkins); "Historical Perspectives on Literacy and Schooling" (Daniel P. Resnick); "Reconciling the Literacies of Generations" (William…

  15. Gente Sana en Comunidades Saludables: la visión de Salud para Todos en los Estados Unidos de América Healthy People in Healthy Communities: the vision of Health for All in the United States of America for 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puentes-Markides

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first decade of the new millennium, "Healthy People 2010" will be the official designation of the health promotion and disease prevention policy of the United States of America. The policy's work plan carries on the vision of Health for All that is promoted by the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization and whose attainment will be the responsibility of each and every person on earth. Healthy People in Healthy Communities, as the approach to Healthy People 2010 will be called, will have two general objectives for the United States as a whole. One is to increase the years of healthy life, incorporating the concept of quality of life into that of healthy life expectancy. The second objective is to eliminate health disparities. Twenty-eight priority areas and more than 400 goals will be consolidated through community initiatives and close communication among the public, health authorities, and community leaders. The experience of the United States is particularly interesting because it is participatory, as shown by the creation and consolidation of alliances between numerous sectors, bipartisan political support, use of scientific tests to support decisions, and efforts to strengthen data collection processes. The broad acceptance and adoption of the objectives of Healthy People by practically all fifty states reaffirms the initiative's validity in various socioeconomic and cultural contexts. Healthy People 2010 will be launched publicly during a conference that will be held in Washington, D.C., from 24 to 28 January 2000, with support from the Healthy People Consortium and the Partnerships for Networked Consumer Health Information.

  16. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  17. Mexican pharmacies: benefits and risks for border residents in the United States of America and Mexico Farmacias mexicanas: beneficios y riesgos para los residentes de la frontera entre Estados Unidos de América y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Homedes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits and risks of using Mexican pharmacies by better understanding the sociodemographics and medication needs of pharmacy clients in Ciudad Juárez; and to ascertain the role and expertise of pharmacy clerks and their impact on medication use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 32 pharmacies in Ciudad Juárez conducted in August 2007-January 2008. Medical professionals interviewed 230 pharmacy clients and 25 pharmacy owners and clerks, and observed 152 clerk-client interactions. The cost of the most frequently-purchased medications was compared with pricing at pharmacies in El Paso, Texas, United States. RESULTS: Of the 311 medications purchased, the most frequent were: antibiotics (54, analgesics (49, fixed drug combinations (29, and blood pressure medications (26. Only 38% were purchased with a prescription; 62% of the prescription drugs bought without a prescription were self-prescribed. Many products purchased were of limited therapeutic value, and others could be harmful when used inappropriately. Pharmacy clerks were poorly trained and did not offer appropriate information on drug use; contraindications were never discussed. Contrary to popular perception, some generic drugs were cheaper in the United States than in Mexico. Conflicts of interest were identified that could be leading to over-medication. CONCLUSIONS: While the risks are evident, some uninsured, chronically-ill United States residents may benefit from access to medications previously recommended by a physician, without obtaining a new prescription. The authors suggest five steps for reducing the risks and improving pharmaceutical utilization in the border area.OBJETIVO: Determinar los beneficios y riesgos que supone acudir a farmacias mexicanas mediante una mejor comprensión de los datos sociodemográficos de los clientes de las farmacias de Ciudad Juárez y sus necesidades de medicamentos; y evaluar la función y

  18. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  19. Federal Support for Preserve America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi's Heritage Tourism Industry Post Hurricane Katrina also received a $150,000 Preserve America Grant Arkansas Delta, one for music, one for African-American history, and one for agriculture. The project will

  20. Environmental Governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple purposes of nature - livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists - have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a recourse-rich region, unequal power relations,

  1. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  2. Proceedings from the second science team meeting of the United States of America Department of Energy and the People's Republic of China Academia Sinica Joint Research Program on CO/sub 2/-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The six papers presented here as the proceedings of this second Joint CO/sub 2/ Research Team Meeting are examples of the research progress during the last two years. The first paper is documentation of the first numerical climate simulation model developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics in Beijing. Two papers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center at Asheville, North Carolina, demonstrate the work being done on the United States Historical Climatology Network data (the time series of temperature, precipitation, and sunshine) in the US. The fourth paper speaks of climate variability on a regional scale being much larger than that based on averages of global-wide data and therefore more difficult to predict. The China Precipitation Proxy Index covers a period of 510 years. This permits comparison of contemporary climate patterns (i.e., the last 100 years) with the period of the Little Ice Age when the mean temperature over China was 2/degree/ colder than present. The fifth paper is fascinating documentation of the effects of climate change upon the wild elephants whose habitat has shifted from as far north as Beijing, in historical times, to a currently small, sequestered section in the southwest corner of the country. The final paper demonstrates the pragmatic exchange of both data and technical assistance between the two countries.

  3. Negotiation process of agreement for cooperation between the government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan concerning peaceful uses of atomic energy (1988) and future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy cooperation between the United States and Japan had proceeded well based on agreement for cooperation between the governments of both countries concerning peaceful uses of atomic energy. This article reviewed background and negotiation process of the agreement in details. Along with strengthening movement of non-proliferation policy after nuclear explosion tests in India and investigation results of international nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE) on compatibility of peaceful use of nuclear energy and non-proliferation policy, fifteen negotiation meetings of the agreement were held from August 1982 to January 1987 and the agreement was enacted in July 1988, which assured a stable and long-term development of nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Stable general consent of nuclear facilities with agreed safeguards concepts, reciprocal agreement on equal terms and international transport of recovered plutonium were main agenda of negotiation. From the substantial agreement to signature and enactment of the agreement, their needed the hard process of the US domestic procedure and congressional review. Guideline of maritime transport of plutonium was added as an appendix in October 1988. Evaluation of negotiation process and future problems were also discussed since this agreement would end in July 2018 but be extended automatically unless terminated by written notice six months prior to the termination. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  5. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  6. Principal Areas of Activity to Improve the Monitoring of Nuclear Material Security and Accounting in the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, within the Framework of the Program of Cooperation with the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erastov, Victor V.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.

    2004-01-01

    scientific activities. Financial support has been provided by the United States to create a regulatory basis; to supply information; increase transportation security of nuclear material; create educational centers and improve the professional skill of experts and methodology and metrology of nuclear material measurements; and develop agency MPC and A inspections.

  7. America's looming creativity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  8. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  9. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  10. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...% of the Class A Common Units of TransRail, giving RailTex a 70% ownership interest in TransRail and control of W&C through TransRail. The MG Principals will retain the Class B Common Units of TransRail... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35605] RailAmerica, Inc...

  11. Support for disease management, depression, self-care, and clinical indicators among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes in San Diego County, United States of America Indicadores clínicos y apoyo para el manejo de la enfermedad, la depresión, el autocuidado en hispanos que padecen diabetes tipo 2 en el Condado de San Diego, Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addie L. Fortmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used a social-ecological framework to examine predictors of depression, diabetes self-management, and clinical indicators of health risk among Hispanics with type 2 diabetes residing in the United States (U.S.-Mexico border region in San Diego County, California, United States of America. Important links were observed between greater social-environmental support for disease management and less depression, better diabetes self-management, and lower body mass index and serum triglyceride concentrations. Less depressive symptomatology was also related to lower hemoglobin A1c levels. Findings suggest that programs aiming to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes in Hispanics with type 2 diabetes should consider multilevel, social, and environmental influences on health, behavior, and emotional well-being.En este estudio se utilizó un marco socioecológico para analizar los factores predictivos de la depresión, la autogestión de la diabetes y los indicadores clínicos de riesgo para la salud en hispanos que padecen diabetes tipo 2 residentes en la zona fronteriza entre México y los Estados Unidos del Condado de San Diego en California. Se observaron vínculos importantes entre un mayor apoyo socioambiental para el manejo de la enfermedad y una presencia menor de la depresión, una mejor autogestión de la diabetes, y menores índices de masa corporal y concentraciones de triglicéridos séricos. La presencia menor de síntomas depresivos también se relacionó con niveles inferiores de hemoglobina A1c. Estos resultados indican que los programas dirigidos a mejorar la autogestión de la diabetes y los resultados en materia de salud en los hispanos que padecen diabetes tipo 2 deben tener en cuenta las influencias sociales y ambientales sobre la salud, el comportamiento y el bienestar emocional.

  12. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Overview of Lidar Contributions to the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Meadows, B.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Bell, E.; Browell, E. V.; Campbell, J. F.; DiGangi, J. P.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fan, T. F.; Feng, S.; Fried, A.; Kooi, S. A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) is an Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission sponsored by the Earth Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. A major objective is to enhance our knowledge of the sources/sinks and transport of atmospheric CO2 through the application of remote and in situ airborne measurements of CO2 and other atmospheric properties on spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community. ACT-America consists of five campaigns to measure regional carbon and evaluate transport under various meteorological conditions in three regional areas of the Continental United States. Three of the five campaigns, summer 2016, winter 2017, and fall 2017, have taken place. Data have been collected during these campaigns using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with in-situ instruments on both aircraft and three lidar systems on the C-130, along with instrumented towers and coordinated under flights with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. The lidar systems include the Harris Corp. Multi-Frequency Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), the NASA Langley ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) and the Goddard Cloud Physics Laboratory (CPL). The airborne lidars provide unique data that complement the more traditional in situ sensors. Lidar CO2 measurements provide integrated views of spatial variations of partial columns of atmospheric CO2 which can be adjusted to the column of scientific interest by changing flight altitudes. Lidar backscatter data provide detailed views of atmospheric layers, including the atmospheric boundary layer, residual layers, and cloud layers. The combination of these two lidars provide a far more comprehensive view of atmospheric structure and CO2 content than can be achieved with in situ measurements alone. This presentation provides an overview of the application of these three lidar systems toward achieving ACT-America

  14. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  15. Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    The Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 29 state wind working groups (welcoming New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri in 2006) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 120 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 34 states attended the 5th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Pittsburgh in June.

  16. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L.; Alatorre, C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. America's nuclear waste backlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses three topics: concern and controversy relating to nuclear waste; high-level waste storage and politics of waste disposal. The most pressing waste disposal problem concerns spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants. It was expected that commercial spent fuel would be sent to commercial reprocessing plants. The feasibility of commercial reprocessing in the United States is contingent on the expansion of the nuclear power industry. The current high-level liquid waste inventory is about 77 million gallons. These are stored at Richland, Washington; Aiken, South Carolina; and Idaho Falls, Idaho. The only commercial high-level wastes ever produced are stored at the defunct reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. A high-level waste repository must be capable of isolating wastes that will remain dangerous for thousands of years. Salt has long been considered the most suitable medium for high-level and transuranic waste disposal. The timetable for opening a deep geological repository is one of the issues that will have to be dealt with by Congress. The 97th Congress appears ready to act on high-level nuclear waste legislation. Even opponents of nuclear expansion admit the necessity of legislation. Even if Congress gets its act together, it does not mean that the nuclear waste issue is gone. There are still unknowns - future of reprocessing, the needs and demands of the military; the health of the nuclear power industry; the objections of residents in potential site areas; the possibility of a state veto, and the unsolved technological problems in geologic site selection

  19. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  20. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  1. Clitopilus argentinus in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Clitopilus argentinus is reported for the first time from North America. A full description and illustrations of the basidiomata and microscopic structures are provided. An X-ray elemental analysis of the diagnostic ‘hyaline’ incrustations of the pileus surface shows these extracellular structures

  2. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  3. Going Digital in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Edward J.

    This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and…

  4. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  5. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  6. The Second Discovery of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard S.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the major areas of concern considered at the first international conference on Science and Man in the Americas. Topics emphasized include: natural resources of the oceans, movements of the earth's crust, volcanology, energy resources, and food production as it relates to the world population problem. (JR)

  7. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  8. Tenure and America's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…

  9. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  10. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  11. The Punjabi Pioneer Experience in America: Recognition or Denial?

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, KB

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the experience of Punjabi pioneers in California with particular refcicncc to Punjabi-Mexican families of the early $Cttlcrs. It lfillCS Chat their history confinns the fiexibllity of etmic identity and culture, and helps to displace the old anthropological concept of 'culture' martbing in bounded units throueh time and space. The Punjabi pioneers to America in the early twentieth century encountered more constraints than opportunities whelfthey nUiflted. b...

  12. The puritan heritage and current economic attitudes in America

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Emory

    1987-01-01

    This essay sustains that the contemporary economic yearnings of American society are deeply rooted in seventeenth century Puritan Massachusetts — a cultural heritage which the people are unwilling and perhaps unable to abandon.The author identifies five of the most firmly-held assumptions as a beginning for the study of cultural values and economics in the United States today: 1. The assumption that America has a special, divinely ordained role as a world leader — exemplar of democratic ideal...

  13. Black Tourism in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Solgaard, Emilie Olivia Dam; Kovacova, Nikola; Munk, Jakob; Chinan, Ovidiu; Krin, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates elements of black tourism, and visitor motivations. Our goal is to reach an understanding of visitor motivations, and how dark sites and their symbols may have an impact on its visitors. Through theories of semiotics, classification, and historical processes, we have reached a satisfying conclusion, but theoretical data was not our only tool to reach this conclusion. Relevant research questions, study cases and methods played a big role in our project report. We used t...

  14. Progress in food irradiation: United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynjolfsson, A [Army Natick Research and Development Command, MA (USA). Food Engineering Lab.

    1978-12-01

    On 20 pages, a detailed situation report on the research- and development level of irradiation of several foodstuffs, radio-microbiology, dosimetry, and the radiation sources used is given. The Radio-chemical alterations are explored at model systems.

  15. Introducing a spanish business in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    BELTRÁN CASTELLANO, JORGE

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Mi TFC realizado en la Florida State University consistió en un trabajo de investigación sobre la comunicación y el lenguaje en el ámbito de los negocios. Con los datos que obtuve de este trabajo y con conocimientos de la carrera hice un trabajo de sobre cuál sería el método a proceder y las decisiones a tomar en caso de que un empresario español decidiese establecerse en Estados Unidos. Con el objetivo de hacer el trabajo más sencillo y atractivo a la vista, lo estructuré en torno a...

  16. Maritime Limits and Boundaries of United States of America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA is responsible for depicting on its nautical charts the limits of the 12 nautical mile Territorial Sea, 24 nautical mile Contiguous Zone, and 200 nautical mile...

  17. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bush, George

    2002-01-01

    ...: freedom, democracy, and free enterprise. In the twenty-first century, only nations that share a commitment to protecting basic human rights and guaranteeing political and economic freedom will be able to unleash the potential...

  18. The Death Penalty in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Miron Popa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty dramatically signifies that society does not excuse or condone the taking of innocent lives. It symbolizes the value of the innocent victim. Incapacity can be imposed by long terms ofimprisonment, particularly for habitual offenders; the policy of "keeping criminals off the streets" does indeed protect the public for a period of time, although it is done at a considerable cost. The object of deterrence is to make the certainty and severity of punishment so great as to inhibit potential criminals from committingcrimes. The best available estimates of the certainty of punishment for serious crime suggest that very few crimes actually result in jail sentences for the perpetrators.

  19. Biomass: An overview in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T. [USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC (United States); Shapouri, H.

    1993-12-31

    Concerns about the heavy reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels, environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels, environmental impacts of agricultural activities, the need to find sustainable renewable sources of energy, and the need for a sustainable agricultural resource base have been driving forces for the development of biomass as a source of energy. The development of biomass conversion technologies, of high-yielding herbaceous and short-rotation woody biomass crops, of high-yielding food, feed, and fiber crops, and of livestock with higher levels of feed conversion efficiencies has made the transition from total reliance on fossil fuels to utilization of renewable sources of energy from biomass a reality. A variety of biomass conversion technologies have been developed and tested. Public utilities, private power companies, and the paper industry are interested in applying this technology. Direct burning of biomass and/or cofiring in existing facilities will reduce emissions of greenhouse and other undesirable gases. Legislation has been passed to promote biomass production and utilization for liquid fuels and electricity. Land is available. The production of short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses provides alternatives to commodity crops to stabilize income in the agricultural sector. The production of biomass crops can also reduce soil erosion, sediment loadings to surface water, and agricultural chemical loadings to ground and surface water; provide wildlife habitat; increase income and employment opportunities in rural areas; and provide a more sustainable agricultural resource base.

  20. Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mudarri, D, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Costs and Benefits of Smoking Restrictions: An Assessment of the Smoke-Free Environment Act of 1993 (H.R. 3434) , submitted to Subcommittee on Health and the Environment; Energy and Commerce Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, April 1994. CDC, ...

  1. United States of America (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    This statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) cites the goal of population assistance contained in the preamble of the Report of the International Conference on Population, which was to improve the population's standard of living and quality of life. ESCAP program activities should embody various points from the International Conference on population at Mexico City, including an emphasis on the mutually reinforcing roles of population and other development programs, well developed family planning programs in which abortion is not presented as a method of family planning, measures to ensure full integration of women into all phases of development, research to develop improved methods of contraception and service delivery, and important roles for nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. The US position on population assistance has 3 main elements: the expansion of voluntary family planning services throughout the developing world, the unacceptability of abortion as a family planning method, and the need for wise economic policies in addition to family planning services. In some countries family planning can alleviate high population growth rates which seriously overburden already inadequate resources, and in others family planning is more important to the health and welfare of individual mothers and children. The US agrees with the opinion of the Mexico City Conference that private sector organizations can make significant contributions in family planning. During the past 2 decades, the US has provided over $US2500 million in population assistance to developing countries through bilateral agreements, multilateral institutions, and private organizations. The US intends to continue its support for population programs which slow population growth, promote economic development, and respect internationally recognized human rights. Coercion in family planning programs cannot be reconciled with the principle that all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsably the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. Voluntarism is an essential element in population programs because family planning touches the most intimate areas of the lives of couples, because longterm change in fertility behavior is achieved only when the choices reflect the free decisions of couples, because user-preferences and the motivation of providers to improve program acceptability are compromised by coercion, and because voluntarism is a basic human right.

  2. The National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McConnell, J. M

    2007-01-01

    .... Our adversaries -- foreign intelligence services, terrorists, foreign criminal enterprises and cyber intruders -- use overt, covert, and clandestine activities to exploit and undermine US national security interests...

  3. Adult education in the United States of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; McBain, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    -party alignment in linking adult education to occupational skill training, and English-language instruction to civic learning, while tightening standards and accountability measures for states, thus conditioning curricular content, but also opening to new providers. While this still hides party differences...... and Opportunity Act was signed into law. In this contribution we examine how broader Republican and Democrat party-values feed into the legal debate around the reauthorization of the 1998 Act, and whether the ‘great recession’ has had a detectable influence. Our findings pinpoint at a slow but steady across...

  4. HTGR programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The HTGR is being developed by the US Department of Energy within the Division of HTGRs is reported. Fuel design, development and demonstration activities are being conducted by General Atomics and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During FY-1990 the US continued work in cooperative projects with the KFA-Forschungszentrum Juelich and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on post irradiation examination of fuel capsules and continued the Fission Product Transport Test Program with the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in the COMEDIE in-pile loop at the SILOE reactor at Grenoble. Other activities included installation of the high temperature core-conduction-cooldown test furnace at ORNL which will be used for testing of irradiated fuel compacts under accident conditions. Finally, the US fuel performance experts participated in the MHTGR Cost Reduction Study which is a major effort within the US commercial MHTGR program. 1 tab

  5. Controlling imported malaria cases in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2017-02-01

    We extend the mathematical malaria epidemic model framework of Dembele et al. and use it to ``capture" the 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported data on the 2011 number of imported malaria cases in the USA. Furthermore, we use our ``fitted" malaria models for the top 20 countries of malaria acquisition by USA residents to study the impact of protecting USA residents from malaria infection when they travel to malaria endemic areas, the impact of protecting residents of malaria endemic regions from mosquito bites and the impact of killing mosquitoes in those endemic areas on the CDC number of imported malaria cases in USA. To significantly reduce the number of imported malaria cases in USA, for each top 20 country of malaria acquisition by USA travelers, we compute the optimal proportion of USA international travelers that must be protected against malaria infection and the optimal proportion of mosquitoes that must be killed.

  6. 77 FR 46615 - Changes To Implement Miscellaneous Post Patent Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) expands the scope of information... instituted. Section 6(a) and (d) of the Leahy-Smith American Invents Act also contains provisions (35 U.S.C...

  7. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  8. Impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on patients with bacteremia in intensive care units and resistance patterns in Latin America Impacto de la terapia antimicrobiana inapropiada en pacientes con bacteriemia en unidades de cuidado intensivo y patrones de resistencia en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cortés

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Patient care in an intensive care unit (ICU is associated with an increased risk of developing nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is responsible for a great number of cases, 23% of which have attributable mortality in developed countries and can affect up to 52% of ICU patients. The main cause of mortality is inadequate and inappropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy. The incorrect use of antimicrobials is a major risk for identifying multidrug resistant microorganisms, thereby involving increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Implementing several surveillance systems and becoming acquainted with resistance patterns represent a valuable tool for identifying, preventing and treating this infectious complication. There is paucity of data regarding antimicrobial resistance in bacteremic patients in Latin America, and the available data reveals a worrying scenario.El manejo médico en la unidad de cuidado intensivo (UCI se asocia con un mayor riesgo de infecciones intrahospitalarias. Las bacteriemias tienen una alta frecuencia en dichas unidades, se presentan hasta en el 52% de los pacientes allí asistidos y en los países desarrollados se les atribuye una mortalidad del 23%, que se debe fundamentalmente al uso de tratamiento empírico inadecuado o inapropiado. El uso incorrecto de los antimicrobianos es uno de los principales factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la resistencia bacteriana, que conlleva la selección de microorganismos multirresistentes, el aumento de la morbilidad y la mortalidad y el incremento en los días de estancia hospitalaria y del costo por hospitalización. La implementación de diferentes sistemas de vigilancia y el conocimiento de la variabilidad en la resistencia a los antimicrobianos constituyen valiosas herramientas para identificar y prevenir la resistencia a los antibióticos y para orientar la terapéutica. En América Latina disponemos de pocos datos sobre las tasas de resistencia y aquellos disponibles

  9. Experiencias de la instauración de normas relativas al contenido de plomo en aire y el agua, en los Estados Unidos de América Establishing lead in air and water standards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Davis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Estados Unidos de América se ha logrado una disminución de la exposición a plomo de la población en general, gracias al establecimiento de diversas normas. En este artículo se destaca parte de los conocimientos adquiridos a través de la experiencia obtenida en este país en materia de plomo, en particular respecto al aire y al agua. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales es la posibilidad de contar con una base científica sólidamente establecida y claramente entendida, a partir de la cual se tomarán las medidas correspondientes. Los efectos secundarios de ciertas normas concernientes al aire ponen de manifiesto de qué manera los esfuerzos orientados a solucionar un problema pueden aportar beneficios en otras áreas, si bien pueden surgir consecuencias no deseadas, debido a la falta de previsión y de evaluación. Asimismo, en este documento se discuten las diferencias entre los enfoques centralizados y los descentralizados para el manejo de la exposición a plomo.Lead regulations and standards have resulted in a lower exposure to lead in the general population of the United States of America. This paper highlights some of the know-how developed through lead-containing experiences, particularly regarding lead content in air and water. The availability of a solid and clear scientific knowledge is central to the success of these policies. Collateral effects of some air-related standards show the extent to which problem-oriented efforts may be beneficial in other areas, inasmuch as they may have untoward consequences if careful planning and evaluation are not considered. Finally, this paper presents a discussion of the differences between centralized and decentralized approaches to lead exposure control.

  10. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  11. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  12. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  15. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  16. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  17. ACHP | Summary of the Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative Preserve America: Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage (logo) Summary of the Preserve America Initiative Preserve America is a White House initiative that encourages and supports community efforts to preserve and enjoy our priceless cultural and natural heritage. The goals of the initiative include a greater shared

  18. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  19. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  20. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  1. Pleistocene Palaeoart of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the great time depth of Pleistocene rock art and mobiliary ‘art’ in the four other continents, the available evidence from the Americas is very limited, and restricted at best to the last part of the final Pleistocene. A review of what has so far become available is hampered by a considerable burden of literature presenting material contended to be of the Ice Age, even of the Mesozoic in some cases, that needs to be sifted through to find a minute number of credible claims. Even the timing of the first colonization of the Americas remains unresolved, and the lack of clear-cut substantiation of palaeoart finds predating about 12,000 years bp is conspicuous. There are vague hints of earlier human presence, rendering it likely that archaeology has failed to define its manifestations adequately, and Pleistocene palaeoart remains almost unexplored at this stage.

  2. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  3. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  4. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  5. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  6. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  7. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  8. Credit Stagnation in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...

  9. The impact in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace

  10. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  11. Latin America Report, No. 2755.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-21

    value of the cruzeiro may rise relative to European and Japanese currencies, "thus reducing the competitiveness of our products in those markets." At...The Tourist Office estimates that 21,600 people visited French Guiana in 1982, compared to 20,000 in 1981.* Hotel capacity is concentrated in ...their policy in Central America that has been repre- sented by the existence of the Contadora Group and the Declaration of Cancun . But there is

  12. Latin America Report No. 2692

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-14

    monetary, fiscal and other measures including currency devaluation and trade protectionism. Also, some countries, especially in Latin America, having ex...petroleum exporters like Nigeria , Mexico and Venezuela which until a year ago seemed to have unlimited resources, are now confronted with serious...sole responsibility of the Barbados Government, have been carried out with the financial assistance of the IMF . "Despite the ill-informed and

  13. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  14. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  15. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  16. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  17. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  18. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-25

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  19. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  20. Risk factors for asthma and cough among Hispanic children in the southwestern United States of America, 2003-2004 Factores de riesgo de asma y tos en niños hispanos en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gonzales

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and mother's place of birth (Mexico vs. United States of America on the prevalence of asthma and dry nighttime cough among children 2-12 years old residing in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data were collected from November 2003 through March 2004 as part of a health survey of Hispanic mothers with young children who sought emergency, nutrition, or other clinical services. Information about respiratory health was obtained for one randomly selected child per United States-born (no. = 144 or Mexico-born (no. = 125 mother. Information on maternal and household sociodemographic variables, smoking, parental asthma, and child's exposure to room or automobile ETS during the previous seven days was also collected. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Most sociodemographic and ETS exposure variables differed significantly by mother's country of birth. Modeled asthma prevalence was 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03-3.68] times greater in children of United States-born mothers than children of Mexico-born mothers. This difference persisted after known asthma risk factors were controlled for, including parental asthma, socioeconomic and demographic variables, and child ETS exposure. Childrens' recent automobile ETS exposure was associated with dry nighttime cough [adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.19-3.15] and asthma (PR = 2.09; 95% CI = 0.99-4.39. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ETS in automobiles is an important risk factor for asthma and dry nighttime cough among Hispanic children in the southwest United States, regardless of mother's country of birth. Further research is needed to identify causes of the higher prevalence of asthma in Hispanic children of United States-born mothers.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó el impacto de la exposición al humo ambiental del tabaco (HAT y del país de nacimiento