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  1. Adapting United States training practices to European utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The factors which must be considered in the process of adapting United States nuclear utility training programs to the needs of a European utility are discussed. Following a review of the present situation and drawing up of a new training program, the management commitments in terms of personnel and finance must be considered. Short term, medium and long term programs are outlined. The long term objectives should include the establishment of a total training centre. This facility should be capable of providing all the training necessary to operate a power plant safely. This would include specific simulator training, classroom training for operators, technician training, staff training, management training etc. In addition to a simulator, it should include an emergency response facility to train personnel. (U.K.)

  2. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  3. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  4. Predictors of Donor Heart Utilization for Transplantation in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jaimin R; Cheng, Allen; Gallo, Michele; Schumer, Erin M; Massey, H Todd; Slaughter, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Optimum use of donor organs can increase the reach of the transplantation therapy to more patients on waiting list. The heart transplantation (HTx) has remained stagnant in United States over the past decade at approximately 2,500 HTx annually. With the use of the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor database (DCD) we aimed to evaluate donor factors predicting donor heart utilization. UNOS DCD was queried from 2005 to 2014 to identify total number of donors who had at least one of their organs donated. We then generated a multivariate logistic regression model using various demographic and clinical donor factors to predict donor heart use for HTx. Donor hearts not recovered due to consent or family issues or recovered for nontransplantation reasons were excluded from the analysis. During the study period there were 80,782 donors of which 23,606 (29%) were used for HTx, and 38,877 transplants (48%) were not used after obtaining consent because of poor organ function (37%), donor medical history (13%), and organ refused by all programs (5%). Of all, 22,791 donors with complete data were used for logistic regression (13,389 HTx, 9,402 no-HTx) which showed significant predictors of donor heart use for HTx. From this model we assigned probability of donor heart use and identified 3,070 donors with HTx-eligible unused hearts for reasons of poor organ function (28%), organ refused by all programs (15%), and recipient not located (9%). An objective system based on donor factors can predict donor heart use for HTx and may help increase availability of hearts for transplantation from existing donor pool. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A large economic liquid metal reactor for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated its ability to build and operate small and medium sized liquid metal reactors and continues to operate the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate long life fuel designs. Similar-sized liquid metal reactors in Europe have been followed by a step-up to the 1200 MWe capacity of the Superphenix plant. To permit the United States to make a similar step-up in capacity, a 1320 MWe liquid metal reactor plant has been designed with the main emphasis on minimizing the specific capital cost in order to be competitive with light water reactor plant and fossil plant alternatives. The design is based on a four parallel heat transport loops arrangement and complies with current regulatory requirements. The primary heat transport loops are now being integrated into the reactor vessel to achieve further reduction in the capital cost

  6. United States extension of indemnification to utilities and contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter discusses the status of the Price-Anderson Act which provides a means of compensation for members of the public who may be injured as a result of a nuclear incident at a licensed commercial power plant or a facility of the United States Government operated by a contractor. It describes the course of bills to extend the Act in 1987 and analyses some of the major issues of the debate (NEA) [fr

  7. United States extension of indemnification to utilities and contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    The status of legislation in the United States, usually known as the Price-Anderson Act, provides an assured source and means of compensation for members of the public who may be injured as a result of a nuclear accident at a licensed commercial nuclear power plant or at a facility of the United States Government operated by a contractor. First a brief overview of the Act and its history is given, then the course of legislation to extend the Price-Anderson Act through the United States Congress is charted with comments made on the major issues of the debate. The Act requires that a least $560 million in insurance and/or Government indemnity is available to cover public liability claims arising out of an accident at a nuclear power plant. The Act also limits the total liability of all persons for any nuclear incident to a predetermined amount and this is one issue discussed. Final action on the legal situation should be taken in 1988. (U.K.)

  8. Trends in radioisotope development and utilization in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W E [Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1976-06-01

    The current trends in radioisotope and radiation technology in the United States are overviewed with emphasis on the developments since the 1973 Conference. The comments focus primarily on the research and development activities receiving the most attention today from the various agencies of the Government. Among the many available radionuclides, technetium-99m has played the single most important role for making possible the developments in the field of nuclear medicine. Many other short lived medium-lived nuclides are applied in the fields of nuclear medicine, cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart, and blood irradiator. Radiation processing is now firmly established in the United States. The trends in sewage treatment, polymer-impregnated materials, bioengineering, and food irradiation are reviewed. The programs for californium-252, strontium-90, cesium-137, plutonium-238, and krypton-85 are also reviewed. The author concludes this paper with the acknowledgement that Japanese researchers have contributed to and have been closely involved in many of the programs discussed. Of particular note is the participation in the clinical phase of the californium-252 radiotherapy program. Several Japanese hospitals have been cooperating with the United States since the very beginning of the californium-252 program in determining the value of the californium-252 neutron therapy. The research being performed is unique, and will contribute greatly to the decisions on the ultimate future of californium-252 for therapeutic purposes.

  9. AP600 level of automation: United States utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkerman, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Design of the AP600 advanced nuclear plant man-machine interface system (M-MIS) is guided by the applicable requirements from the Utility Requirements Document (URD). However, the URD has left certain aspects of the M-MIS to be determined by the designer working together with utilities sponsoring the work. This is particularly true in the case of the level of automation to be designed into the M-MIS. Based on experience from currently operating plants, utilities have specified the identity and roles of personnel in the control room, which has led to establishing a number of level of automation issues for the AP600. The key role of automated computerized procedures in the AP600 automation has been determined and resolved. 5 refs

  10. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  11. Trends in blood utilization in United States cardiac surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robich, Michael P; Koch, Colleen G; Johnston, Douglas R; Schiltz, Nicholas; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya; Hussain, Syed T; Soltesz, Edward G

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether publication of blood conservation guidelines by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons in 2007 influenced transfusion rates and to understand how patient- and hospital-level factors influenced blood product usage. We identified 4,465,016 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database who underwent cardiac operations between 1999 and 2010 (3,202,404 before the guidelines and 1,262,612 after). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to account for hospital- and patient-level clustering. Transfusion rates of blood products increased from 13% in 1999 to a peak of 34% in 2010. Use of all blood components increased over the study period. Aortic aneurysm repair had the highest transfusion rate with 54% of patients receiving products in 2010. In coronary artery bypass grafting, the number of patients receiving blood products increased from 12% in 1999 to 32% in 2010. Patients undergoing valvular operations had a transfusion rate of 15% in 1999, increasing to 36% in 2010. Patients undergoing combined operations had an increase from 13% to 40% over 11 years. Risk factors for transfusion were anemia (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-2.09), coagulopathy (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.51-1.57), diabetes (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28-1.36), renal failure (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.26-1.32), and liver disease (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.31). Compared to the Northeast, the risk for transfusion was significantly lower in the Midwest; higher-volume hospitals used fewer blood products than lower-volume centers. Cell salvage usage remained below 5% across all years. Independent of patient- and hospital-level factors, blood product utilization continues to increase for all cardiac operations despite publication of blood conservation guidelines in 2007. © 2014 AABB.

  12. Advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems--potentials and limitations for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Williams, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential benefits and limitations of advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems for United States utilities. The results of the review of advanced technologies show that for the near and midterm, the only advance reactor and fuel-cycle system with significant potential for United States utilities is the current LWR, and evolutionary, not revolutionary, enhancements. For the long term, the liquid-metal breeder reactor continues to be the most promising advance nuclear option. The major factors leading to this conclusion are summarized

  13. A supply chain analysis framework for assessing state-level forest biomass utilization policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Moseley, Cassandra; Lee, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The number of state policies aimed at fostering biomass utilization has proliferated in recent years in the United States. Several states aim to increase the use of forest and agriculture biomass through renewable energy production. Several more indirectly encourage utilization by targeting aspects of the supply chain from trees standing in the forest to goods sold. This research classifies 370 state policies from across the United States that provides incentives for forest biomass utilization. We compare those policies by types of incentives relative to the supply chain and geographic clustering. We then develop a framework for policy evaluation building on the supply chain steps, which can be used to assess intended and unintended consequences of policy interactions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance forest biomass utilization.

  14. 75 FR 60093 - Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA AGENCY: Department of the... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332(2)(c), the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code...

  15. Health Utilization and Cost Impact of Childhood Constipation in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Olivia; Harman, Jeffrey; Benninga, Marc; Kelleher, Kelly; Mousa, Hayat; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the total health care utilization and costs for children with constipation in the United States. Study design We analyzed data from 2 consecutive years (2003 and 2004) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household survey. We identified

  16. Summary of the fourth conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The fourth informal conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis and loose-part monitoring was held at the Northeast Utilities Service Company offices in Hartford, Connecticut, May 12-14, 1987. Host and general chairman for the meeting was J.V. Persio of Northeast Utilities. This conference provided a forum where utilities could share information on reactor noise analysis on an informal basis. There were about 60 attendees at the meeting representing 10 utilities, 3 reactor vendors, 8 consulting organizations, and 4 universities and research laboratories. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference, dealing with various aspects of loose-part monitoring, neutron noise analysis, and standards activities

  17. Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While extensive evidence suggests that the economic recession has had far reaching effects on many economic sectors, little is known regarding its impact on prescription drug utilization. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between state-level unemployment rates and retail sales of seven therapeutic classes (statins, antidepressants, antipsychotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, opiates, phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibitors and oral contraceptives) in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective mixed ecological design, we examined retail prescription sales using IMS Health Xponent™ from September 2007 through July 2010, and we used the Bureau of Labor Statistics to derive population-based rates and mixed-effects modeling with state-level controls to examine the association between unemployment and utilization. Our main outcome measure was state-level utilization per 100,000 people for each class. Results Monthly unemployment levels and rates of use of each class varied substantially across the states. There were no statistically significant associations between use of ACE inhibitors or SSRIs/SNRIs and average unemployment in analyses across states, while for opioids and PDE inhibitors there were small statistically significant direct associations, and for the remaining classes inverse associations. Analyses using each state as its own control collectively exhibited statistically significant positive associations between increases in unemployment and prescription drug utilization for five of seven areas examined. This relationship was greatest for statins (on average, a 4% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment) and PDE inhibitors (3% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment), and lower for oral contraceptives and atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion We found no evidence of an association between increasing unemployment and decreasing prescription utilization, suggesting that any

  18. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  19. Inconsistencies Exist in National Estimates of Eye Care Services Utilization in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited research and substantial uncertainty about the level of eye care utilization in the United States. Objectives. Our study estimated eye care utilization using, to our knowledge, every known nationally representative, publicly available database with information on office-based optometry or ophthalmology services. Research Design. We analyzed the following national databases to estimate eye care utilization: the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS. Subjects. US adults aged 18 and older. Measures. Self-reported utilization of eye care services. Results. The weighted number of adults seeing or talking with any eye doctor ranges from 87.9 million to 99.5 million, and the number of visits annually ranges from 72.9 million to 142.6 million. There were an estimated 17.2 million optometry visits and 55.8 million ophthalmology visits. Conclusions. The definitions and estimates of eye care services vary widely across national databases, leading to substantial differences in national estimates of eye care utilization.

  20. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. National estimates of healthcare utilization by individuals with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, James W; Donnelly, John P; Franco, Ricardo A; Overton, Edgar T; Rodgers, Joel B; Wang, Henry E

    2014-09-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the United States. Although prior studies have evaluated the HCV-related healthcare burden, these studies examined a single treatment setting and did not account for the growing "baby boomer" population (individuals born during 1945-1965). Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. We sought to characterize healthcare utilization by individuals infected with HCV in the United States, examining adult (≥18 years) outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient visits among individuals with HCV diagnosis for the period 2001-2010. Key subgroups included persons born before 1945 (older), between 1945 and 1965 (baby boomer), and after 1965 (younger). Individuals with HCV infection were responsible for >2.3 million outpatient, 73 000 ED, and 475 000 inpatient visits annually. Persons in the baby boomer cohort accounted for 72.5%, 67.6%, and 70.7% of care episodes in these settings, respectively. Whereas the number of outpatient visits remained stable during the study period, inpatient admissions among HCV-infected baby boomers increased by >60%. Inpatient stays totaled 2.8 million days and cost >$15 billion annually. Nonwhites, uninsured individuals, and individuals receiving publicly funded health insurance were disproportionately affected in all healthcare settings. Individuals with HCV infection are large users of outpatient, ED, and inpatient health services. Resource use is highest and increasing in the baby boomer generation. These observations illuminate the public health burden of HCV infection in the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Trends in the Utilization of Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy, E-mail: Kathy.Han@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the trends in brachytherapy use in cervical cancer in the United States and to identify factors and survival benefits associated with brachytherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 7359 patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) between 1988 and 2009. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences between patients who received brachytherapy and those who did not from 2000 onward (after the National Cancer Institute alert recommending concurrent chemotherapy). Results: Sixty-three percent of the 7359 women received brachytherapy in combination with EBRT, and 37% received EBRT alone. The brachytherapy utilization rate has decreased from 83% in 1988 to 58% in 2009 (P<.001), with a sharp decline of 23% in 2003 to 43%. Factors associated with higher odds of brachytherapy use include younger age, married (vs single) patients, earlier years of diagnosis, earlier stage and certain SEER regions. In the propensity score-matched cohort, brachytherapy treatment was associated with higher 4-year cause-specific survival (CSS; 64.3% vs 51.5%, P<.001) and overall survival (OS; 58.2% vs 46.2%, P<.001). Brachytherapy treatment was independently associated with better CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.71), and OS (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.74). Conclusions: This population-based analysis reveals a concerning decline in brachytherapy utilization and significant geographic disparities in the delivery of brachytherapy in the United States. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS and should be implemented in all feasible cases.

  3. Stereotactic radiotherapy of the prostate: fractionation and utilization in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, Josph P.; Schwartz, David; Shao, Meng; Osborn, Virginia; Schreiber, David; Choi, Kwang

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the utilization and fractionation of extreme hypofractionation via stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Data was analyzed on men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004–2012 and treated with definitive-intent radiation therapy, as captured in the National Cancer Database. This database is a hospital-based registry that collects an estimated 70% of all diagnosed malignancies in the United States. There were 299,186 patients identified, of which 4,962 (1.7%) were identified as receiving SBRT as primary treatment. Of those men, 2,082 had low risk disease (42.0%), 2,201 had intermediate risk disease (44.4%), and 679 had high risk disease (13.7%). The relative utilization of SBRT increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2012. Initially SBRT was more commonly used in academic programs, though as time progressed there was a shift to favor an increased absolute number of men treated in the community setting. Delivery of five separate treatments was the most commonly utilized fractionation pattern, with 4,635 patients (91.3%) receiving this number of treatments. The most common dosing pattern was 725 cGy × 5 fractions (49.6%) followed by 700 cGy × 5 fractions (21.3%). Extreme hypofractionation via SBRT is slowly increasing acceptance. Currently 700-725 cGy × 5 fractions appears to be the most commonly employed scheme. As further long-term data regarding the safety and efficacy emerges, the relative utilization of this modality is expected to continue to increase

  4. Stereotactic radiotherapy of the prostate: fractionation and utilization in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Josph P.; Schwartz, David; Shao, Meng; Osborn, Virginia; Schreiber, David [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Choi, Kwang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To analyze the utilization and fractionation of extreme hypofractionation via stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Data was analyzed on men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004–2012 and treated with definitive-intent radiation therapy, as captured in the National Cancer Database. This database is a hospital-based registry that collects an estimated 70% of all diagnosed malignancies in the United States. There were 299,186 patients identified, of which 4,962 (1.7%) were identified as receiving SBRT as primary treatment. Of those men, 2,082 had low risk disease (42.0%), 2,201 had intermediate risk disease (44.4%), and 679 had high risk disease (13.7%). The relative utilization of SBRT increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2012. Initially SBRT was more commonly used in academic programs, though as time progressed there was a shift to favor an increased absolute number of men treated in the community setting. Delivery of five separate treatments was the most commonly utilized fractionation pattern, with 4,635 patients (91.3%) receiving this number of treatments. The most common dosing pattern was 725 cGy × 5 fractions (49.6%) followed by 700 cGy × 5 fractions (21.3%). Extreme hypofractionation via SBRT is slowly increasing acceptance. Currently 700-725 cGy × 5 fractions appears to be the most commonly employed scheme. As further long-term data regarding the safety and efficacy emerges, the relative utilization of this modality is expected to continue to increase.

  5. Assessing the role of federal community assistance programs to develop biomass utilization capacity in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Mark Nechodom; Adam Barnett; Tad Mason; Eini C. Lowell; John Shelly; Dean Graham

    2008-01-01

    As forest biomass utilization becomes cost effective to harvest, more areas at risk of catastrophic wildfire can be thinned of dense brush and small-diameter trees. In an effort to increase biomass utilization, the USDA Forest Service granted more than $36 million in National Fire Plan-Economic Action Program funds in the Western United States during fiscal years 2001...

  6. Direct and Indirect Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Among Migraine Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon; Sapra, Sandhya; Shah, Neel; Tepper, Stewart; Cappell, Katherine; Desai, Pooja

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this analysis was to provide a contemporary estimate of the burden of migraine, incorporating both direct and indirect costs, by comparing the costs of migraine patients to a matched group of patients without migraine in a large, nationally representative sample of commercially insured patients in the United States. Previous studies have shown that the economic burden of migraine in the United States is substantial for payers, patients, and employers. Despite the availability of multiple acute and preventive pharmacological treatment options and a relatively stable migraine prevalence in the United States, there has been a documented increase in migraine-related healthcare resource and pharmacy use. Given the frequently disabling nature of migraine and its high prevalence, especially during peak productive years, and the lack of recent estimates of the burden of migraine, there is a need to update the existing literature with more current data. This retrospective, observational cohort study identified migraine patients in the Truven Health Market Scan Research Databases between January 2008 and June 2013. Adult patients had 12 months of continuous enrollment before (baseline period) and after (follow-up period) the day they received migraine diagnoses and/or medications (index) and no diagnosis of HIV or malignancy during the study period. The patients with migraine were matched 1:1 to a group of patients without migraine on demographic variables and index date. Direct healthcare utilization and costs and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up period and differences between patients with vs without migraine were assessed. Two additional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. First, an analysis was conducted comparing the odds of having a short-term disability claim between patients with and without migraine after controlling for patient demographic and

  7. Children's orthodontic utilization in the United States: Socioeconomic and surveillance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniado, Nadia; Oliva, Stephanie; Matthews, Gregory J

    2017-11-01

    There has been no epidemiologic study of malocclusion prevalence and treatment need in the United States since the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1991. In this descriptive study, the authors sought to estimate orthodontic treatment prevalence by examining a nationally representative survey to assess current pediatric dental and orthodontic utilization. The 2009 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were used to categorize and compare all types of pediatric dental and orthodontic procedures in children and adolescents up to 20 years old. Descriptive variables included dental insurance, poverty level, and racial/ethnic background. Visits for orthodontic procedures constituted the third largest treatment category (14.5%) and were greatest among the uninsured and higher income populations. Children with public insurance had the fewest orthodontic visits (9.4%). Racial/ethnic disparities were most pronounced among orthodontic visits, with black and Hispanic children receiving the fewest orthodontic procedures (8.89% and 10.56%, respectively). Orthodontic treatment prevalence data suggest that significant disparities exist in orthodontic utilization based on race/ethnicity, poverty level, and insurance status. To establish the burden of malocclusion, describe populations in greatest need of interventions, and craft appropriate programs and policies, an active orthodontic surveillance system is essential. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  9. Utilization of head CT during injury visits to United States emergency departments: 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Brian J; Borczuk, Pierre; Zachrison, Kori S; Goldstein, Joshua N; Berlyand, Yosef; Raja, Ali S

    2018-05-18

    Studies have shown increasing utilization of head computed tomography (CT) imaging of emergency department (ED) patients presenting with an injury-related visit. Multiple initiatives, including the Choosing Wisely™ campaign and evidence-based clinical decision support based on validated decision rules, have targeted head CT use in patients with injuries. Therefore, we investigated national trends in the use of head CT during injury-related ED visits from 2012 to 2015. This was a secondary analysis of data from the annual United States (U.S.) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2012 to 2015. The study population was defined as injury-related ED visits, and we sought to determine the percentage in which a head CT was ordered and, secondarily, to determine both the diagnostic yield of clinically significant intracranial findings and hospital characteristics associated with increased head CT utilization. Between 2012 and 2015, 12.25% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.48-13.02%) of injury-related visits received at least one head CT. Overall head CT utilization showed an increased trend during the study period (2012: 11.7%, 2015: 13.23%, p = 0.09), but the results were not statistically significant. The diagnostic yield of head CT for a significant intracranial injury over the period of four years was 7.4% (9.68% in 2012 vs. 7.67% in 2015, p = 0.23). Head CT use along with diagnostic yield has remained stable from 2012 to 2015 among patients presenting to the ED for an injury-related visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and infection: an evaluation of hospital utilization and management costs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the number of diabetics that seek medical treatment in emergency departments or require hospitalization for infection management in the United States. This study also assesses the socioeconomic impact of inpatient infection management among diabetics. We accessed the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to perform a retrospective analysis on diabetics presenting to the emergency department or hospitalized for infection management from 2006 to 2011. Emergency Department: Since 2006, nearly 10 million diabetics were annually evaluated in the emergency department. Infection was the primary reason for presentation in 10% of these visits. Among those visits, urinary tract infection was the most common infection, accounting for over 30% of emergency department encounters for infections. Other common infections included sepsis, skin and soft tissue infections, and pneumonia. Diabetics were more than twice as likely to be hospitalized for infection management than patients without diabetes. Hospitalization: Since 2006, nearly 6 million diabetics were annually hospitalized. 8-12% of these patients were hospitalized for infection management. In 2011, the inpatient care provided to patients with DM, and infection was responsible for over $48 billion dollars in aggregate hospital charges. Diabetics commonly present to the emergency department and require hospitalization for infection management. The care provided to diabetics for infection management has a large economic impact on the United States healthcare system. More efforts are needed to develop cost-effective strategies for the prevention of infection in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  12. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bolinger, M; Weaver, S

    2014-01-01

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze...

  13. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  14. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An empirical analysis of project cost, performance, and pricing trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weaver, Samantha [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects-defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic ("PV"), concentrating photovoltaic ("CPV"), or concentrating solar power ("CSP" or solar thermal) project larger than 5 MWAC-existed in the United States prior to 2007.

  15. Pediatric traumatic amputations and hospital resource utilization in the United States, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kristen A; McKenzie, Lara B; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity of consequences associated with traumatic amputation, little is known about the epidemiology or healthcare resource burden of amputation injuries, and even less is known about these injuries in the pediatric population. An analysis of patients aged lawn mower, motorized vehicle or explosives/fireworks, and children's hospital type were associated with longer LOS. Pediatric traumatic amputations contribute substantially to the health resource burden in the United States, resulting in 21 million dollars in inpatient charges annually. More effective interventions to prevent these costly injuries among children must be implemented.

  16. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  17. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  18. Utilization of Health Care Coalitions and Resiliency Forums in the United States and United Kingdom: Different Approaches to Strengthen Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Swan, Allan Graeme

    2016-02-01

    The process for developing national emergency management strategies for both the United States and the United Kingdom has led to the formulation of differing approaches to meet similar desired outcomes. Historically, the pathways for each are the result of the enactment of legislation in response to a significant event or a series of events. The resulting laws attempt to revise practices and policies leading to more effective and efficient management in preparing, responding, and mitigating all types of natural, manmade, and technological hazards. Following the turn of the 21st century, each country has experienced significant advancements in emergency management including the formation and utilization of 2 distinct models: health care coalitions in the United States and resiliency forums in the United Kingdom. Both models have evolved from circumstances and governance unique to each country. Further in-depth study of both approaches will identify strengths, weaknesses, and existing gaps to meet continued and future challenges of our respective disaster health care systems.

  19. Predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Mauro, Pia M; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Fan, Amy Z; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-12-01

    To present information on predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD). Face-to-face survey of a representative sample of the adult US general population (n=36,309). Treatment rates for CUD were low in this general population survey (13.7%). Severity of CUD and comorbidity of other lifetime drug use disorders were significant predictors of lifetime treatment utilization for CUD. Preference for self-reliance, minimizing problems, fear of stigma, and financial and structural issues were among the most frequently endorsed reasons for respondents not seeking treatment when they perceived the need for treatment among individuals with lifetime CUD, regardless of whether they eventually utilized treatment at some time in their lives. Given the rising prevalence of CUD in the US over the past decade and currently low treatment rates for CUD, increased provision for services for CUD appears critically needed, especially those that screen for and treat, when present, other drug use disorders. Programs to reduce stigma and financial barriers are needed, as well as programs to increase awareness among the general public, health care professionals about the nature and seriousness of CUD, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ambulatory Healthcare Utilization in the United States: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rafael; Behr, Joshua G.; Tulpule, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    Ambulatory health care needs within the United States are served by a wide range of hospitals, clinics, and private practices. The Emergency Department (ED) functions as an important point of supply for ambulatory healthcare services. Growth in our aging populations as well as changes stemming from broader healthcare reform are expected to continue trend in congestion and increasing demand for ED services. While congestion is, in part, a manifestation of unmatched demand, the state of the alignment between the demand for, and supply of, emergency department services affects quality of care and profitability. The central focus of this research is to provide an explanation of the salient factors at play within the dynamic demand-supply tensions within which ambulatory care is provided within an Emergency Department. A System Dynamics (SO) simulation model is used to capture the complexities among the intricate balance and conditional effects at play within the demand-supply emergency department environment. Conceptual clarification of the forces driving the elements within the system , quantifying these elements, and empirically capturing the interaction among these elements provides actionable knowledge for operational and strategic decision-making.

  1. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  2. Health care access and utilization among children of single working and nonworking mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tainya C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Dietz, Noella; Lee, David J

    2011-01-01

    To examine indicators of health care access and utilization among children of working and nonworking single mothers in the United States, the authors used data on unmarried women participating in the 1997-2008 National Health Interview Survey who financially supported children under 18 years of age (n = 21,842). Stratified by maternal employment, the analyses assessed health care access and utilization for all children. Outcome variables included delayed care, unmet care, lack of prescription medication, no usual place of care, no well-child visit, and no doctor's visit. The analyses reveal that maternal employment status was not associated with health care access and utilization. The strongest predictors of low access/utilization included no health insurance and intermittent health insurance in the previous 12 months, relative to those with continuous private health insurance coverage (odds ratio ranges 3.2-13.5 and 1.3-10.3, respectively). Children with continuous public health insurance compared favorably with those having continuous private health insurance on three of six access/utilization indicators (odds ratio range 0.63-0.85). As these results show, health care access and utilization for the children of single mothers are not optimal. Passage of the U.S. Healthcare Reform Bill (HR 3590) will probably increase the number of children with health insurance and improve these indicators.

  3. Report of the first United States conference on utility experience with neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.N.; Horne, G.P.; Mayo, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    An informal meeting was held in Washington, D.C. on April 3 and 4, 1984, to discuss the current state of the art and experiences with neutron noise analysis in US pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The meeting was attended by 33 persons representing 11 utilities and 3 PWR reactor vendors as well as consultants, universities, and research laboratories. Presentations at the meeting covered several applications of neutron noise for diagnosing such things as vibrations induced by baffle jetting, detection of mechanical degradation of thermal shield supports, and electrical degradation of nuclear instrumentation channels. Twenty-one responses were obtained from a questionnaire circulated to all participants requesting their viewpoints and experiences regarding neutron noise analysis. The meeting participants concluded that a working group on neutron noise analysis should be formed to (1) establish a baseline library of neutron noise data, (2) provide a forum for communicating experiences with neutron noise surveillance, and (3) develop good practices and quality assurance procedures for neutron noise measurement and interpretation

  4. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the sheer number of fires to assess has overwhelmed current manual procedures. To address these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program is helping to fund the efforts of the USGS and its MTBS partners (USFS, National Park Service) to develop, and implement a system to automatically identify fires using satellite data. In near real time, USGS will combine active fire satellite detections from MODIS, AVHRR and GOES satellites with Landsat acquisitions. Newly acquired Landsat imagery will be routinely scanned to identify freshly burned area pixels, derive an initial perimeter and tag the burned area with the satellite date and time of detection. Landsat imagery from the early archive will be scanned to identify undocumented fires. Additional automated fire assessment processes will be developed. The USGS will develop these processes using open source software packages in order to provide freely available tools to local land managers providing them with the capability to assess fires at the local level.

  5. Outpatient Mental Health Treatment Utilization and Military Career Impact in the United States Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; LaCroix, Jessica M; Koss, Kari; Perera, Kanchana U; Rowan, Anderson; VanSickle, Marcus R; Novak, Laura A; Trieu, Theresa H

    2018-04-23

    Service members (SM) are at increased risk of psychiatric conditions, including suicide, yet research indicates SMs believe seeking mental health treatment may negatively impact their military careers, despite a paucity of research examining actual career impacts. This study examined the link between seeking outpatient mental health (MH) treatment and military career impacts within the United States Marine Corps. In Phase 1, a retrospective medical record review of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 38) was conducted. In Phase 2, a sample of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 40) was matched to a non-treatment-seeking sample of Marines ( N = 138) to compare career-progression. In Phase 1, there were no significant links between demographic, military, and clinical characteristics and referral source or receipt of career-affecting treatment recommendations. In Phase 2, MH treatment-seeking Marines in outpatient settings were more likely than matched controls to be separated from the military (95.0% versus 63.0%, p = 0.002), but no more likely to experience involuntary separation. MH treatment-seeking Marines were more likely to have documented legal action (45.0% versus 23.9%, p = 0.008) and had a shorter time of military service following the index MH encounter than matched controls ( p < 0.001). Clinical, anti-stigma, and suicide prevention policy implications are discussed.

  6. Trends Analysis of rhBMP2 Utilization in Single-Level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Yoon, S Tim; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective case study. To evaluate the trends and demographics of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) utilization in single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) in the United States. Patients who underwent single-level ALIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN), a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were analyzed for each patient. A total of 921 patients were identified who underwent a single-level ALIF in this study. The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization increased (35%-48%) from 2005 to 2009, but sharply decreased to 16.7% in 2010 and 15.0% in 2011. The overall incidence of single-level ALIF without rhBMP2 (0.20 cases per 100 000 patients) was more than twice of the incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 (0.09 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization is highest in West (41.4%), followed by Midwest (33.3%), South (26.5%) and Northeast (22.2%). The highest incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 was observed in the group aged less than 65 years (compared with any other age groups, P level ALIF increased from 2006 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 and 2011. The Northeast region had the lowest incidence of rhBMP2 utilization. The group aged less than 65 years trended to have the higher incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization.

  7. Increasing Utilization Of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery In The United States Between 1997 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana Knight, Elia M.; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Bakaki, Paul M.; Koroukian, Siran M.; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Kaiboriboon, Kitti

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009. METHODS We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery. RESULTS The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery significantly increased from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery. PMID:25630252

  8. Treatment utilization among persons with opioid use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment. Among persons with OUD, 81.93% had prescription (Rx) OUD only, 9.75% had heroin use disorder (HUD) only, and 8.32% had Rx OUD+HUD. Persons with Rx OUD+HUD tended to be white, adults aged 18-49, males, or uninsured. The majority (80.09%) of persons with OUD had another substance use disorder (SUD), and major depressive episode (MDE) was common (28.74%). Of persons with OUD, 26.19% used any alcohol or drug use treatment, and 19.44% used opioid-specific treatment. Adolescents, the uninsured, blacks, native-Hawaiians/Pacific-Islanders/Asian-Americans, persons with Rx OUD only, and persons without MDE or SUD particularly underutilized opioid-specific treatment. Among alcohol/drug use treatment users, self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation treatment were commonly used services. Most people with OUD report no use of OUD treatment. Multifaceted interventions, including efforts to access insurance coverage, are required to change attitudes and knowledge towards addiction treatment in order to develop a supportive culture and infrastructure to enable treatment-seeking. Outreach efforts could target adolescents, minority groups, and the uninsured to improve access to treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. An examination of electricity generation by utility organizations in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity generation in the Southeast United States. The relationship cooling degree days (CDD) and heating degree days (HDD) shared with electricity generation by fuel source was explored. Using seasonal autoregressive integrated weighted average (ARIMA) and seasonal simple exponentially smoothed models, retrospective time series analysis was run. The hypothesized relationship between climatic variability and total electricity generation was supported, where an ARIMA model including CDDs as a predictor explained 57.6% of the variability. The hypothesis that climatic variability would be more predictive of fossil fuel electricity generation than electricity produced by clean energy sources was partially supported. The ARIMA model for natural gas indicated that CDDS were the only predictor for the fossil fuel source, and that 79.4% of the variability was explained. Climatic variability was not predictive of electricity generation from coal or petroleum, where simple seasonal exponentially smoothed models emerged. However, HDDs were a positive predictor of hydroelectric electricity production, where 48.9% of the variability in the clean energy source was explained by an ARIMA model. Implications related to base load electricity from fossil fuels, and future electricity generation projections relative to extremes and climate change are discussed. - Highlights: • Models run to examine impact of climatic variability on electricity generation. • Cooling degree days explained 57.6% of variability in total electricity generation. • Climatic variability was not predictive of coal or petroleum generation. • Cooling degree days explained 79.4% of natural gas generation. • Heating degree days were predictive of nuclear and hydroelectric generation.

  10. An Analysis of the Impact of Sport Utility Vehicles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.

    2000-08-01

    It may be labeled sport utility vehicle, SUV, sport-ute, suburban assault vehicle, or a friend of OPEC (Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries). It has been the subject of comics, the object of high-finance marketing ploys, and the theme of Dateline. Whatever the label or the occasion, this vehicle is in great demand. The popularity of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) has increased dramatically since the late 1970s, and SUVs are currently the fastest growing segment of the motor vehicle industry. Hoping to gain market share due to the popularity of the expanding SUV market, more and more manufacturers are adding SUVs to their vehicle lineup. One purpose of this study is to analyze the world of the SUV to determine why this vehicle has seen such a rapid increase in popularity. Another purpose is to examine the impact of SUVs on energy consumption, emissions, and highway safety.

  11. Problem alcohol use and healthcare utilization among persons with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, William S; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-09-01

    The emergency department (ED) and hospital settings represent crucial opportunities for engaging treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Thus, there is a need to identify factors associated with healthcare utilization among persons with CUD to improve screening and intervention approaches. Problematic alcohol use may be a salient risk factor. Using data from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we determined factors, including different patterns of alcohol use, associated with past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization among persons aged 12 years or older meeting criteria for CUD in the past year (N=16,757). We also determined the prevalence and correlates of problem alcohol use among persons with CUD to further inform its association with healthcare utilization. Among persons with CUD, 40.15% and 10.04% reported past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization, respectively. Severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) (≥6 AUD symptoms), female sex, Black race, low income, major depressive episode (MDE), and other substance use disorders were associated with increased odds of healthcare utilization; current (i.e., last month) alcohol use patterns were not. Persons with CUD that were males, ages 18-25 (vs. ages 12-17), Hispanic (vs. White), and with low income, other drug use disorders, or MDE had increased odds of AUD. Findings suggest that screening and intervention efforts for improving treatment initiation or engagement for CUD may target cannabis-using women, blacks, low-income adults or those with severe AUD in the past year, another substance use disorder, or MDE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Twenty-year trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisley, Kelly R; Preston, Jennifer F; Dolan, James P; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2017-08-01

    Trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the U.S. over time have not been previously described. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we analyzed patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia over a 20-year period (1992-2011) to estimate rates of Heller myotomy, locations where the procedures were performed (rural, urban or teaching) and changes in technique (laparoscopic vs open) as well as outcomes of length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Over the last 20 years, the total number of Heller myotomies performed in the U.S. has increased (1576 cases in 1992 to 5046 cases in 2011, p = 0.001). These procedures are now being performed laparoscopically (0.9%-67.0%, p Heller myotomy at teaching institutions with decreased in-hospital mortality and shorter LOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Evaluation of Resource Utilization and Treatment Patterns in Patients with Actinic Keratosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl V; Zografos, Panagiotis; Norlin, Jenny M; Urbanek, Bill; Mamay, Carl; Makin, Charles; Erntoft, Sandra; Chen, Chi-Chang; Hines, Dionne M; Mark Siegel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To compare health care resource utilization and treatment patterns between patients with actinic keratosis (AK) treated with ingenol mebutate gel (IngMeb) and those treated with other field-directed AK therapies. A retrospective, propensity-score-matched, cohort study compared refill/repeat and adding-on/switching patterns and outpatient visits and prescriptions (health care resource utilization) over 6 months in patients receiving IngMeb versus those receiving imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac sodium, and methyl aminolevulinate or aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (MAL/ALA-PDT). The final sample analyzed included four matched treatment cohort pairs (IngMeb and comparator; n = 790-971 per treatment arm). Refill rates were similar except for imiquimod (15% vs. 9% for imiquimod and IngMeb, respectively; P < 0.05). MAL/ALA-PDT treatment repetition rates were higher than IngMeb refill rates (20% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). Topical agent add-on/switch rates were comparable. PDT had higher switch rates than did IngMeb (5% vs. 2%; P < 0.05). The IngMeb cohort had a significantly lower proportion of patients with at least one AK-related outpatient visit during the 6-month follow-up than did any other cohort: versus imiquimod (50% vs. 66%; P < 0.0001), versus 5-fluorouracil (50% vs. 69%; P < 0.0001), versus diclofenac sodium (51% vs. 56%; P = 0.034), and versus MAL/ALA-PDT (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.0001). There were significantly fewer AK-related prescriptions among patients receiving IngMeb than among patients in other cohorts. Results based on the first 6 months after treatment initiation suggested that most field-directed AK therapies had clinically comparable treatment patterns except imiquimod, which was associated with higher refill rates, and PDT, which was associated with significantly more frequent treatment sessions and higher switching rates. IngMeb was also associated with significantly fewer outpatient visits than were other field-directed therapies. Copyright

  14. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  15. Self-reported healthcare provider utilization across United States Midwestern households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Dominick

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between health care provider usage and demographics of patients is necessary for the development of educational materials, outreach information, and programs targeting individuals who may benefit from services. This analysis identified relationships between health care provider usage and individual's demographics. A sample of Midwestern U.S. respondents (n = 1265 was obtained through the use of an online survey distributed February 12–26, 2016 and was targeted to be representative of the population of the Midwestern states sampled in terms of sex, age, income, and state of residence. Specific factors identified as significant in contributing to provider usage (in the past five years differed across the eleven provider types studied. In the most commonly used practitioners (the general or primary physician, relationships between provider usage and age, income, health insurance coverage status, and having children in the household were identified. Furthermore, significant (and positive correlations were identified between the usage of various practitioners; reporting the use of one type of practitioner studied was correlated positively with reporting the use of another type of health care provider studied in this analysis. This analysis provides insight into the relationships between health care provider usage and demographics of individuals, which can aid in the development of educational materials, outreach programs, and policy development. Keywords: Healthcare, Provider use, Clinician use, Primary physician

  16. The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in the United States: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-11

    We develop projections of future spending on, and savings from, energy efficiency programs funded by electric and gas utility customers in the United States, under three scenarios through 2025. Our analysis, which updates a previous LBNL study, relies on detailed bottom-up modeling of current state energy efficiency policies, regulatory decisions, and demand-side management and utility resource plans. The three scenarios are intended to represent a range of potential outcomes under the current policy environment (i.e., without considering possible major new policy developments). By 2025, spending on electric and gas efficiency programs (excluding load management programs) is projected to double from 2010 levels to $9.5 billion in the medium case, compared to $15.6 billion in the high case and $6.5 billion in the low case. Compliance with statewide legislative or regulatory savings or spending targets is the primary driver for the increase in electric program spending through 2025, though a significant share of the increase is also driven by utility DSM planning activity and integrated resource planning. Our analysis suggests that electric efficiency program spending may approach a more even geographic distribution over time in terms of absolute dollars spent, with the Northeastern and Western states declining from over 70% of total U.S. spending in 2010 to slightly more than 50% in 2025, with the South and Midwest splitting the remainder roughly evenly. Under our medium case scenario, annual incremental savings from customer-funded electric energy efficiency programs increase from 18.4 TWh in 2010 in the U.S. (which is about 0.5% of electric utility retail sales) to 28.8 TWh in 2025 (0.8% of retail sales). These savings would offset the majority of load growth in the Energy Information Administration’s most recent reference case forecast, given specific assumptions about the extent to which future energy efficiency program savings are captured in that forecast

  17. Cochlear implantation in the world's largest medical device market: utilization and awareness of cochlear implants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L

    2013-03-01

    Provision of cochlear implants (CIs) for those within the criteria for implantation remains lower in the United States than in some other developed nations. When adults and children are grouped together, the rate of utilization/provision remains low at around 6%. For children, the provision rate is about 50% of those who could benefit from an implant, compared with figures of about 90% for the Flanders part of Belgium, the United Kingdom and other European countries. The probable reasons for this underprovision include: low awareness of the benefits of CIs among the population; low awareness among health-care professionals; the lack of specific referral pathways; some political issues relating to the Deaf Community; and financial issues related to health provision. Such financial issues result in situations which either fail to provide for access to implants or provide too low a level of the necessary funding, especially for low-income individuals covered by public health-care programs such as Medicaid. These issues might be mitigated by adoption and publication of standards for best clinical practices for CI provision, availability of current cost-effectiveness data, and the existence of an organization dedicated to cochlear implantation. Such an organization, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACI Alliance), was recently organized and is described in the paper by Niparko et al. in this Supplement.

  18. Trends Analysis of rhBMP Utilization in Single-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C; Meisel, Hans-Joerg

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective study. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been widely used in spinal fusion surgery, but there is little information on rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the trends and demographics of rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level PLIF. Patients who underwent single-level PLIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database, a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 100 000 patients searched in the database. A total of 2735 patients had single-level PLIF. The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 maintained at a relatively stable level (28% to 31%) from 2005 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 (9.9%) and 2011 (11.8%). The overall incidence of single-level PLIF without rhBMP-2 (0.68 cases per 100 000 patients) was statistically higher ( P level PLIF with rhBMP-2 (0.21 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 utilization was the highest in West (30.1%), followed by Midwest (26.9%), South (20.5%), and Northeast (17.8%). The highest incidence of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 was observed in the age group level PLIF. There was a 3-fold increase in the rate of PLIF without rhBMP-2 compared to PLIF with rhBMP-2, with both procedures being mainly done in patients less than 65 years of age.

  19. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  20. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  1. Assistive technology needs, functional difficulties, and services utilization and coordination of children with developmental disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; Gold, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) enhances the ability of individuals with disabilities to be fully engaged in activities at home, at school, and within their communities-especially for children with developmental disabilities (DD) with physical, sensory, learning, and/or communication impairments. The prevalence of children with DD in the United States has risen from 12.84% in 1997 to 15.04% in 2008. Thus, it is important to monitor the status of their AT needs, functional difficulties, services utilization, and coordination. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey on Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, which found that 90% or more of parents of both children with DD and other CSHCN reported that their child's AT needs were met for vision, hearing, mobility, communication, and durable medical equipment; furthermore, children with DD had lower odds of AT needs met for vision and hearing and increased odds for meeting AT needs in mobility and communication. Our findings outline the current AT needs of children with DD nationally. Fulfilling these needs has the potential to engender positive lifelong effects on the child's disabilities, sense of independence, self-confidence, and productivity.

  2. Health care resource utilization before and after perampanel initiation among patients with epilepsy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Edward; Laliberté, François; Wang, Zhixiao; Barghout, Victoria; Haider, Batool; Lejeune, Dominique; Germain, Guillaume; Choi, Jiyoon; Wagh, Aneesha; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health care resource utilization following the initiation of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States. Health care claims from Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse database between December 2012 and November 2015 were analyzed. Patients newly initiated on perampanel, having ≥1 epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 345.xx, ICD-10-CM code G40.xxx) or nonfebrile convulsion (ICD-9-CM code 780.39, ICD-10-CM code R56.9) diagnosis, and having ≥6 months of baseline and observation periods were included. Patients <12 years old at perampanel initiation were excluded. Of the 2,508 perampanel patients included in the study, the mean [median] (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 35.8 [34] (±16.0) years and 56.2% were female. The mean [median] (±SD) observation duration was 459.8 [462] (±146.3) days in the postperampanel period. The postperampanel period was associated with significantly lower rates of all health care resource utilization outcomes than the pre-period. For the post- versus pre-period, perampanel users had 42.3 versus 53.8 overall hospitalizations per 100 person-years (rate ratio [RR] = 0.80, p < 0.001) and 1,240.2 versus 1,343.8 outpatient visits per 100 person-years (RR = 0.91, p < 0.001). Epilepsy-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits were 25.2 versus 33.6 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.76, p < 0.001) and 327.0 versus 389.0 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.84, p < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, a significantly lower rate of status epilepticus in the post-period (1.8 events per 100 person-years) was observed compared to the pre-period (4.4 events per 100 person-years; RR = 0.43, p < 0.001). The monthly time trend of hospitalizations showed an increasing trend leading up to the initiation of perampanel, after which the hospitalizations decreased steadily. Use of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy was

  3. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  4. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  5. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  6. Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, R M; Wong, J; Kashanian, J; Lee, M; Samadi, D B; Pinkhasov, M M; Shabsigh, R

    2010-03-01

    Significant gender disparities exist in life expectancy and major disease morbidity. There is a need to understand the major issues related to men's health that contributes to these significant disparities. It is hypothesized that, high-risk behaviors and low utilization of all and preventive health services contribute to the higher mortality and the higher and earlier morbidity in men. Data was collected from CDC: Health United States, 2007; Health Behavior of Adults: United States 2002-04; and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2005 Summary. In United States, men are more likely to be regular and heavy alcohol drinkers, heavier smokers who are less likely to quit, non-medical illicit drug users, and are more overweight compared to women. Men are less likely to utilize health care visits to doctor's offices, emergency departments (ED), and physician home visits than women. They are also less likely to make preventive care, hospice care, dental care visits, and have fewer hospital discharges and shorter hospital stays than women. High-risk behaviors and low utilization of health services may contribute to the lower life expectancy in men. In the context of public health, behavioral and preventive interventions are needed to reduce the gender disparity.

  7. Decadal analysis of deceased organ donation in Spain and the United States linking an increased donation rate and the utilization of older donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorson, Jeff; Roberts, John Paul

    2013-09-01

    After the foundation of the National Transplant Organization, Spanish rates of deceased donor donation rapidly outpaced US growth over the decade from 1989 to 1999. An analysis of the following decade, 1999-2009, demonstrated a markedly flattened growth curve for Spanish deceased donor organ procurement, which increased only 2.4% from 33.6 to 34.4 donors per million population (pmp). In comparison, over the same decade in the United States, the rate of deceased donation increased from 20.9 to 26.3 donors pmp (25.8%). An age group comparison demonstrated a much higher donation rate among older donors in Spain. For example, the number of donors older than 70 years increased from 3.8 to 8.8 pmp (a 132% increase), and they now constitute 25.4% of all Spanish organ donors. In contrast, the number of US donors older than 70 years increased from 1.0 to 1.3 pmp, and they constitute only 4.4% of total deceased donors. Over the same decade, the number of younger donors (15-30 years old) decreased from 6.6 to 2.5 pmp (a 62% decrease) in Spain, and this contrasted with a slightly increased US donation rate for the same age subgroup (a 15.5% increase from 5.8 to 6.7 pmp). Although older donors were more rarely used in the United States, growth in donation over the 2 decades (1989-2009) was strongly associated with the utilization of donors aged 65 or older (P < 0.01). United Network for Organ Sharing regions demonstrated significant differences in utilization rates for older donors. In conclusion, strategies aimed toward achieving US donation rates equivalent to the Spanish benchmark should target improved utilization rates for older donors in the United States instead of emulating elements of the Spanish organ procurement system. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  9. Utilization of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer in the United States: Results from the National Cancer Database (1998-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugen, Cory M; Hu, Brian; Jeldres, Claudio; Burton, Claire; Nichols, Craig R; Porter, Christopher R; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2016-11-01

    Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for the treatment of testicular cancer is a relatively rare and complex operation that may contribute to differences in utilization. We sought to characterize the use of RPLND between different categories of cancer center facilities in the United States. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with germ cell tumors treated at different types of cancer centers between 1998 and 2011. The proportion of patients who underwent RPLND was stratified by stage and histology and then compared between treatment facilities. RPLND utilization was then compared between facility types as a function of time. A total of 59,652 patients met inclusion criteria and 5,475 (9.2%) underwent RPLND. The proportion of patients treated with RPLND for non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) was significantly different between cancer center types for all stages (Pcancer centers. There was no difference in the proportion of RPLND utilization for stage II and III seminoma stratified by treatment facility. There was a significantly decreased trend in the utilization of RPLND for stage I (P = 0.032) NSGCT whereas utilization was increased for stage III NSGCT (P≤0.001) over the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing RPLND for NSGCT varies significantly by the type of cancer center and is used most often in academic cancer centers. Utilization of RPLND decreased for stage I NSGCT and increased for stage III NSGCTs during the study period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  16. Health Care Access and Utilization Among Adults Aged 18-64, by Poverty Level: United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E; Ward, Brian W

    2016-10-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2015 •From 2013 through 2015, the percentage of adults aged 18-64 who were uninsured at the time of interview decreased for poor (40.0% to 26.2%), near-poor (37.8% to 23.9%), and not-poor (11.7% to 7.7%) adults. •The percentage of adults aged 18-64 who had a usual place to go for medical care increased for poor (66.9% to 73.6%) and near-poor (71.1% to 75.9%) adults. •The percentage of adults aged 18-64 who had seen or talked to a health professional in the past 12 months increased for poor (73.2% to 75.8%) and near-poor (71.9% to 75.9%) adults. •The percentage of adults aged 18-64 who did not obtain needed medical care due to cost at some time during the past 12 months decreased for poor (16.8% to 12.4%), near-poor (14.6% to 11.0%), and not-poor (4.9% to 3.8%) adults. In 2014, U.S. adults could purchase a private health insurance plan through the Health Insurance Marketplace or state-based exchanges established as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Additionally, under ACA some states opted to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults. Individuals living in or near poverty may have benefited disproportionately from these changes given their lower rates of health insurance coverage (1). Data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are used to describe recent changes in health insurance coverage and selected measures of health care access and utilization for adults aged 18-64 by family poverty level. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  17. Disparities in eye care utilization among the United States adults with visual impairment: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Barker, Lawrence E; Crews, John E; Primo, Susan A; Zhang, Xinzhi; Elliott, Amanda F; McKeever Bullard, Kai; Geiss, Linda S; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of annual eye care among visually impaired United States residents aged 40 years or older, by state, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Cross-sectional study. In analyses of 2006-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 21 states, we used multivariate regression to estimate the state-level prevalence of yearly eye doctor visit in the study population by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and other), annual income (≥$35,000 and education ( high school). The age-adjusted state-level prevalence of yearly eye doctor visits ranged from 48% (Missouri) to 69% (Maryland). In Alabama, Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, New Mexico, and North Carolina, the prevalence was significantly higher among respondents with more than a high school education than among those with a high school education or less (P education, and income, we also found significant disparities in the prevalence of yearly eye doctor visits among states. Among visually impaired US residents aged 40 or older, the prevalence of yearly eye examinations varied significantly by race/ethnicity, income, and education, both overall and within states. Continued and possibly enhanced collection of eye care utilization data, such as we analyzed here, may help states address disparities in vision health and identify population groups most in need of intervention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  19. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  1. Religiosity and Utilization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Foreign-Born Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, John D.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, P. Cougar; Trinidad, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between religiosity and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a sample of foreign-born Hispanic adults, even when excluding prayer as a form of CAM. Data were collected using a self-report Spanish-language survey. Study participants consisted of 306 respondents between…

  2. Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model to estimate utility-scale photovoltaic (UPV) deployment trends from present day through 2030. The analysis seeks to inform the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) planning activities related to UPV development on federal lands in Nevada as part of the Resource Management Plan (RMP) revision for the Las Vegas and Pahrump field offices. These planning activities include assessing the demand for new or expanded additional Solar Energy Zones (SEZ), per the process outlined in BLM's Western Solar Plan process.

  3. Analysis of the United States Marine Corps’ Utilization of Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services as a Source of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-03

    difficult within the DoD because “most incentives and motivations are not apparent for either government or industry ” (p. 84). Doane and Spencer (1997...stated that industry incentives and motivation seem to be based on the same profit and loss theories that were present before acquisition reform...purchased items needed for the unit’s day-to-day operations, such as digital cameras, commercial tactical clothing and eyewear , plasma televisions, lawn

  4. Analysis of the United States Marine Corps Utilization of Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services as a Source of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    initiatives. However, this alignment is difficult within the DoD because “most incentives and motivations are not apparent for either government or industry ...p. 84). 12 Doane and Spencer (1997) stated that industry incentives and motivation seem to be based on the same profit and loss theories that were...clothing and eyewear , plasma televisions, lawn equipment, and so forth. These items could potentially be sourced from DDS on a free-issue basis

  5. Outcomes, utilization, and costs among thalassemia and sickle cell disease patients receiving deferoxamine therapy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delea, Thomas E; Hagiwara, May; Thomas, Simu K; Baladi, Jean-Francois; Phatak, Pradyumna D; Coates, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) reduces morbidity and mortality associated with transfusional iron overload. Data on the utilization and costs of care among U.S. patients receiving DFO in typical clinical practice are limited however. This was a retrospective study using a large U.S. health insurance claims database spanning 1/97-12/04 and representing 40 million members in >70 health plans. Study subjects (n = 145 total, 106 sickle cell disease [SCD], 39 thalassemia) included members with a diagnosis of thalassemia or SCD, one or more transfusions (whole blood or red blood cells), and one or more claims for DFO. Mean transfusion episodes were 12 per year. Estimated mean DFO use was 307 g/year. Central venous access devices were required by 20% of patients. Cardiac disease was observed in 16% of patients. Mean total medical costs were $59,233 per year including $10,899 for DFO and $8,722 for administration of chelation therapy. In multivariate analyses, potential complications of iron overload were associated with significantly higher medical care costs. In typical clinical practice, use of DFO in patients with thalassemia and SCD receiving transfusions is low. Administration costs represent a large proportion of the cost of chelation therapy. Potential complications of iron overload are associated with increased costs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  7. Attributable Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs for Patients With Primary and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmu; Prabhu, Vimalanand S; Marcella, Stephen W

    2018-04-17

    The economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs attributable to primary CDI and recurrent CDI (rCDI). This is a database (MarketScan) study. Patients without CDI were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI but no recurrences to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI. Patients with primary CDI but no recurrences were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI plus 1 recurrence in order to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to rCDI. Adjusted estimates for incremental cumulative hospitalized days and healthcare costs over a 6-month follow-up period were obtained by generalized linear models with a Poisson or gamma distribution and a log link. Bootstrapping was used to obtain 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 55504 eligible CDI patients were identified. Approximately 25% of these CDI patients had rCDI. The cumulative hospitalized days attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were 5.20 days (95% CI, 5.01-5.39) and 1.95 days (95% CI, 1.48-2.43), respectively. The healthcare costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were $24205 (95% CI, $23436-$25013) and $10580 (95% CI, $8849-$12446), respectively. The HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI are quite substantial. It is necessary to reduce the burden of CDI, especially rCDI.

  8. Demographics, Resource Utilization, and Outcomes of Elderly Patients With Chronic Liver Disease Receiving Hospice Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Natsu; Golabi, Pegah; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Mishra, Alita; Venkatesan, Chapy; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-11-01

    Hospice offers non-curative symptomatic management to improve patients' quality of life, satisfaction, and resource utilization. Hospice enrollment among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is not well studied. The aim of tis tudy is to examine the characteristics of Medicare enrollees with CLD, who were discharged to hospice. Medicare patients discharged to hospice between 2010 and 2014 were identified in Medicare Inpatient and Hospice Files. CLDs and other co-morbidities were identified by International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision codes. Generalized linear model was used to estimate regression coefficients with P-values. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 2,179 CLD patients and 34,986 controls without CLD met the inclusion criteria. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were the most frequent cause of CLD. CLD patients were younger (70 vs. 83 years), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 39.3%), had longer hospital stay (length of stay, LOS) (19.4 vs. 13.0 days), higher annual charges ($175,000 vs. $109,000), higher 30-day re-hospitalization rates (51.6 vs. 34.2%), and shorter hospice LOS (13.7 vs. 17.7 days) than controls (all PCLD have longer and costly hospitalizations before hospice enrollment as compared with patients without CLD. It was highly likely that these patients were enrolled relatively late, which could potentially lead to less benefit from hospice.

  9. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  10. Utilization and Short-Term Outcomes of Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in the United States and Canada: An Analysis of New York and Ontario Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Landon, Bruce E; Matelski, John; Ling, Vicki; Stukel, Therese A; Paterson, J Michael; Gandhi, Rajiv; Hawker, Gillian A; Ravi, Bheeshma

    2018-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are common and effective surgical procedures. This study sought to compare utilization and short-term outcomes of primary TKA and THA in adjacent regions of Canada and the United States. The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent primary TKA or THA, comparing administrative data from New York and Ontario in 2012-2013. Demographic features of the TKA and THA patients, per capita utilization rates, and short-term outcomes were compared between the jurisdictions. A higher percentage of New York hospitals performed TKA compared to Ontario hospitals (75.7% versus 42.1%; P New York hospitals (mean 179 versus 327 in Ontario hospitals; P New York compared to Ontario, both for TKA (16.1 TKAs versus 21.4 TKAs per 10,000 population per year; P New York hospitals; P New York patients were discharged directly home (46.2% versus 90.9% of Ontario patients; P New York compared to Ontario (30-day rates, 4.6% versus 3.9% [P New York but has a smaller percentage of hospitals performing these procedures. Patients are more likely to be discharged home and less likely to be readmitted in Ontario. Our results suggest areas where each jurisdiction could improve. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  12. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  13. Trends in resource utilization and rate of cervical disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion throughout the United States from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Fein, Arielle W; Cazzulino, Alejandro; Lehman, Ronald A; Phillips, Frank M; An, Howard S; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-11-08

    The typically accepted surgical procedure for cervical disc pathology has been the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), although recent trials have demonstrated equivalent or improved outcomes with cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Trends for these two procedures regarding utilization, revision procedures, and other demographic information have not been sufficiently explored. The present study aims to provide data regarding ACDF and CDA from 2006 to 2013 in the United States. The present study is a retrospective national database analysis. The present study included 20% sample of discharges from US hospitals, which is weighted to provide national estimates. Functional measures such as national incidence, hospital costs, length of stay (LOS), routine discharge, revision burden, and patient characteristics were used in the present study. Patients from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database who underwent primary ACDF, revision ACDF, primary CDA, and revision CDA from 2006 to 2013 were included. Demographic and economic data for the procedures' respective International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were collected. A total of 1,059,403 ACDF and 13,099 CDA surgeries were performed in the United States from 2006 to 2013. The annual number of ACDF increased by 5.7% nonlinearly from 120,617 in 2006 to 127,500 in 2013 (mean per year 132,425; range 120,617-147,966); CDA increased by 190% nonlinearly from 540 in 2006 to 1,565 in 2013 (mean per year 1,637; range 540-2,381). Cervical disc arthroplasty patients were younger and had more private or "other" insurance, including worker's compensation (p<.0001). Mean LOS was longer for ACDF (ACDF 2.3 days vs. CDA 1.5; p<.0001). Routine discharge was higher in the CDA group (CDA 96% vs. ACDF 89%; p-value<.0001). The mean hospital-related cost was more expensive for ACDF (ACDF $16,178 vs. CDA $13,197; p-value=.0007). Cervical disc arthroplasty mean revision burden, defined as

  14. Family culture in mental health help-seeking and utilization in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States: The NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Alice P; Morales, Eduardo S; Mays, Vickie M

    2014-07-01

    Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among Latinos and Asian Americans. Analyses were limited to Latino adults with a clinical need for mental health services, indexed by meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder during the past 12 months (N = 527). One-third of Latinos with a clinical need used any type of service in the past year, including specialty mental health, general medical, and informal or religious services. High behavioral familismo was significantly associated with increased odds of using informal or religious services, but not specialty or medical services. Self-perceived need and social perceptions of need for care within close networks (i.e., told by family/friends to seek professional help) also were significant predictors of service use. These results carry important implications toward expansions of the mental health workforce in the informal and religious services settings.

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  16. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  17. Hispanics have the lowest stem cell transplant utilization rate for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in the United States: A CIBMTR report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita

    2017-08-15

    Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Trends in resource utilization by children with neurological impairment in the United States inpatient health care system: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Berry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Care advances in the United States (US have led to improved survival of children with neurological impairment (NI. Children with NI may account for an increasing proportion of hospital resources. However, this assumption has not been tested at a national level.We conducted a study of 25,747,016 US hospitalizations of children recorded in the Kids' Inpatient Database (years 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Children with NI were identified with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses resulting in functional and/or intellectual impairment. We assessed trends in inpatient resource utilization for children with NI with a Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test using all 4 y of data combined. Across the 4 y combined, children with NI accounted for 5.2% (1,338,590 of all hospitalizations. Epilepsy (52.2% [n = 538,978] and cerebral palsy (15.9% [n = 164,665] were the most prevalent NI diagnoses. The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI did not change significantly (p = 0.32 over time. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 5.3% (n = 345,621 of all hospitalizations, 13.9% (n = 3.4 million of bed days, and 21.6% (US$17.7 billion of all hospital charges within all hospitals. Over time, the proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI decreased within non-children's hospitals (3.0% [n = 146,324] in 1997 to 2.5% [n = 113,097] in 2006, p<.001 and increased within children's hospitals (11.7% [n = 179,324] in 1997 to 13.5% [n = 209,708] in 2006, p<0.001. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 24.7% (2.1 million of bed days and 29.0% (US$12.0 billion of hospital charges within children's hospitals.Children with NI account for a substantial proportion of inpatient resources utilized in the US. Their impact is growing within children's hospitals. We must ensure that the current health care system is staffed, educated, and equipped to serve this growing segment of vulnerable children.

  19. Utilizing Culture to Improve Communication and School Involvement with Parents from Diverse Backgrounds as a Means to Improve Student Achievement Levels in the United States: A National Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School leadership in communicating to parents and students from diverse backgrounds is a problem in education that must be addressed. As the population of the United States is becoming more and more diverse, school administrators must develop new ways to reach their stakeholders. All families must be involved in their children's academic progress…

  20. The burden of family caregiving in the United States: work productivity, health care resource utilization, and mental health among employed adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopps M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Markay Hopps, Laura Iadeluca, Margaret McDonald, Geoffrey T MakinsonPfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: Family caregiving is an increasingly important component of care for patients and the elderly. Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the burden of family caregiving among employed adults. Methods: Employed adults (≥18 years from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were classified as family caregivers if they reported currently caring for at least one adult relative. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance assessed whether employed caregivers, weighted to the US population, differed from employed non-caregivers on behavioral characteristics, workplace productivity, and health care resource utilization. Results: Eight million workers were family caregivers in the United States, more often female than male (51% vs. 49%, P < 0.05, and 53% were between 40 and 64 years of age. Eighteen percent of caregivers were Hispanic compared with 15% of non-caregivers (P < 0.05. Similar behavioral characteristics between caregivers and non-caregivers included daily alcohol consumption (6% vs. 5% and lack of vigorous exercise (25% vs. 29%, but caregivers had a higher prevalence of smoking (26% vs. 19%, P < 0.05. Caregivers reported a higher mean percentage of work time missed (8% vs. 4%, P < 0.05 and greater productivity impairment (24% vs. 14%, P < 0.05. Some form of depression was reported by 53% of caregivers compared with 32% of non-caregivers (P < 0.05, and more caregivers had self-reported insomnia than non-caregivers (46% vs. 37%, P < 0.05. The number of self-reported diagnosed comorbidities was higher among caregivers compared with that of non-caregivers (5.0 vs. 3.1, P < 0.05, as was the mean number of outpatient visits in the previous 6 months (4.1 vs. 2.7, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Family caregiving is associated with a multidimensional burden that impacts caregivers and has implications for

  1. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  2. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  3. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  4. A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-11-01

    Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.

  5. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  6. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  7. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  8. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  9. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  10. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting a number of programs directed at improving nuclear power's ability to compete by the mid 1990s in providing some of what will be urgently needed new baseload capacity, and at meeting both utility requirements and public goals. More specifically, we are co-funding demonstration by 1993 of the process for life extension of current nuclear plants. We are supporting the development of new ALWR designs which rely more on methods such as natural circulation, gravity, reduced power density, or the characteristics of materials, rather than engineered systems to provide safety. These designs will meet the criteria set forth in EPRI's Utility Requirements Documents. We have established a cost-sharing program to demonstrate the success of the nuclear plant standardization and licensing process by obtaining NRC certification by 1992 or 1993 of two evolutionary 1300MWe ALWR designs. We are also cost-sharing a program to certify by 1995 passively safe 600MWe ALWRs employing more natural safety features and modular construction. These programs will involve a rule-making hearing process. We are supporting the development and possible certification early in the next century of modular high temperature gas reactor and advanced liquid metal reactor plant designs. We are planning to demonstrate the early site approval licensing process through a cost-sharing arrangement with the private sector by 1995. In developing the National Energy Strategy, we are examining the issue of a fully satisfactory regulatory process, including the possibility of legislation codifying 10 CFR Part 52, limiting the possible delays associated with a potential second hearing and dealing with emergency planning issues before start of construction. We recently announced a restructured plan to develop a permanent waste repository by 2010. By 1995 we expect to have made significant progress in evaluating the suitability of Yucca Mountain. We expect to have selected a

  11. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  12. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  13. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  14. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  15. Evaluation of predicted Medfly (Ceratitis capitata quarantine length in the United States utilizing degree-day and agent-based models [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Collier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by pest insects pose a significant threat to agriculture worldwide. In the case of Ceratitis capitata incursions on the US mainland, where it is not officially established, repeated detections are followed by quarantines and treatments to eliminate the invading population. However, it is difficult to accurately set quarantine duration because non-detection may not mean the pest is eliminated. Most programs extend quarantine lengths past the last fly detection by calculating the amount of time required for 3 generations to elapse under a thermal unit accumulation development model (“degree day”. A newer approach is to use an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS to explicitly simulate population demographics and elimination. Here, predicted quarantine lengths for 11 sites in the continental United States are evaluated using both approaches. Results indicate a strong seasonality in quarantine length, with longer predictions in the second half of the year compared with the first; this pattern is more extreme in degree day predictions compared with ABS. Geographically, quarantine lengths increased with latitude, though this was less pronounced under the ABS. Variation in quarantine lengths for particular times and places was dramatically larger for degree day than ABS, generally spiking in the middle of the year for degree day and peaking in second half of the year for ABS. Analysis of 34 C. capitata quarantines from 1975 to 2017 in California shows that, for all but two, quarantines were started in the second half of the year, when degree day quarantine lengths are longest and have the highest uncertainty. For a set of hypothetical outbreaks based on these historical quarantines, the ABS produced significantly shorter quarantines than degree day calculations. Overall, ABS quarantine lengths were more consistent than degree day predictions, avoided unrealistically long values, and captured effects of rare events such as cold snaps.

  16. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  17. Conceptual and empirical themes regarding the design of technology transfer programs : a review of wood utilization research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  20. Injectable naltrexone, oral naltrexone, and buprenorphine utilization and discontinuation among individuals treated for opioid use disorder in a United States commercially insured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jake R; Schackman, Bruce R; Leff, Jared A; Linas, Benjamin P; Walley, Alexander Y

    2018-02-01

    We investigated prescribing patterns for four opioid use disorder (OUD) medications: 1) injectable naltrexone, 2) oral naltrexone, 3) sublingual or oralmucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, and 4) sublingual buprenorphine as well as transdermal buprenorphine (which is approved for treating pain, but not OUD) in a nationally representative claims-based database (Truven Health MarketScan®) of commercially insured individuals in the United States. We calculated the prevalence of OUD in the database for each year from 2010 to 2014 and the proportion of diagnosed patient months on OUD medication. We compared characteristics of individuals diagnosed with OUD who did and did not receive these medications with bivariate descriptive statistics. Finally, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model of time to discontinuation of therapy as a function of therapy type, controlling for relevant confounders. From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of commercially insured individuals diagnosed with OUD grew by fourfold (0.12% to 0.48%), but the proportion of diagnosed patient-months on medication decreased from 25% in 2010 (0.05% injectable naltrexone, 0.4% oral naltrexone, 23.1% sublingual or oralmucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 1.5% sublingual buprenorphine, and 0% transdermal buprenorphine) to 16% in 2014 (0.2% injectable naltrexone, 0.4% oral naltrexone, 13.8% sublingual or oralmucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 1.4% sublingual buprenorphine, and 0.3% transdermal buprenorphine). Individuals who received medication therapy were more likely to be male, younger, and have an additional substance use disorder compared with those diagnosed with OUD who did not receive medication therapy. Those prescribed injectable naltrexone were more often male, younger, and diagnosed with additional substance use disorders compared with those prescribed other medications for opioid use disorder (MOUDs). At 30 days after initiation, 52% for individuals treated with injectable naltrexone, 70% for individuals treated

  1. Disparities in Healthcare Access and Utilization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from Immigrant Non-English Primary Language Households in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Lin, MS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD in United State (US has surged from 1 in 150 children in 2007 to 1 in 88 children in 2012 with substantial increase in immigrant minority groups including Hispanic and Somali children. Our study objective is to examine the associations between household language among children with ASD and national health quality indicators attainment. Methods: We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using cross-sectional data from the publicly-available 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN to investigate the association between household language use and quality indicators of medical home, adequate insurance, and early and continuous screening. Results: Approximately, 28% of parents of children with ASD from non-English primary language (NEPL households reported their child having severe ASD as compared with 13% of parents from English primary language (EPL households. Older children were more likely to have care that met the early and continuous screening quality indicator, while lower income children and uninsured children were less likely to have met this indicator. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Despite the lack of differences in the attainment of quality indicators by household language, the higher severity found in children in NEPL households suggests that they are exceptionally vulnerable. Enhanced early screening and identification for these children and supporting their parents in navigating the complex US health care delivery system would increase their participation in early intervention services. Immigration of children with special health care needs from around the world to the US has been increasing from countries with diverse healthcare systems. Our findings will help to inform policies and interventions to reduce health disparities for children with ASD from immigrant populations. As the prevalence of

  2. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  3. Mental health service utilization for psychiatric disorders among Latinos living in the United States: the role of ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, and language/social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K M; Martins, S S; Hatzenbuehler, M L; Blanco, C; Bates, L M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2012-03-01

    To examine aspects of Latino experience in the US as predicting service utilization for mood, anxiety, and substance disorders. Latino participants 18 and older in the NESARC (N = 6,359), a US national face to face survey. Outcomes were lifetime service utilization for DSM-IV lifetime mood/anxiety or substance disorders, diagnosed via structured interview (AUDADIS-IV). Main predictors were ethnic subgroup, ethnic identity, linguistic/social preferences, nativity/years in the US, and age at immigration. Higher levels of Latino ethnic identity and Spanish language/Latino social preferences predicted lower service utilization for mood disorders [ethnic identity OR = 0.52, language/social OR = 0.44] and anxiety disorders [ethnic identity OR = 0.67, language/social OR = 0.47], controlling for ethnic subgroup, disorder severity, time spent in the US, and economic and practical barriers Service utilization for alcohol/drug disorders was low across all Latino subgroups, without variation by examined predictors. Ethnic/cultural factors are strong determinants of service utilization for mood/anxiety, but not substance use disorders among Latinos in the US strategies to increase service utilization among Latinos with psychiatric disorders should be disorder specific, and recognize the role of ethnicity and identity as important components of a help-seeking model.

  4. Cross-Sectional Study of Unmet Mental Health Need in 5- to 7-Year Old Latino Children in the United States: Do Teachers and Parents Make a Difference in Service Utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Hollinshead, Marisa O; Collins, Brian A; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the rates of mental health service utilization in young Latino children of immigrants in relation to maternal and teacher reports of child mental health need. Specific knowledge is lacking about gaps in service utilization among young Latino children, the fastest growing and possibly the most underserved segment of the US child population. The associations of mental health service utilization (Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents) and mental health need (clinical levels of internalizing, externalizing, or total problems reported by mothers [Child Behavior Checklist] and teachers [Teacher's Report Form]) were examined in a community sample of young Latino children of immigrants ( n = 228; mean age = 6) and compared across mothers' and teachers' responses. Mother-teacher agreement was also studied. Sixty-five children (28.5 %) had a mental health need; most (76.9 %) of these received no services. For all types of mental health need, service utilization was more likely when need was reported by mothers rather than teachers ( p = .03). Teachers' reports were not associated with service utilization. Mother-teacher agreement was low for externalizing ( r = .23; p ≤ 0.01) and total problems ( r = .21; p ≤ 0.05), and nonsignificant for internalizing problems. This study is the first in the United States to document, in such a young Latino group, high rates of unmet need comparable to those among older Latino youth; low or no mother-teacher agreement on which children had a mental health need; low utilization of school-based services; and a lack of association between service utilization and teacher-reported mental health need-both for externalizing and internalizing problems. These findings suggest that schools are not effectively leveraging mental health services for young Latino children. Potential factors responsible for the findings are discussed.

  5. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  6. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

  7. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm 2 of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm 2 . The other three spots are 100 cm 2 or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10 2 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 and 8.5 x 10 4 dis/min-100 cm 2 . No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer

  8. State Policies Influence Medicare Telemedicine Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Jonathan D; Doarn, Charles R; Aly, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Medicare policy regarding telemedicine reimbursement has changed little since 2000. Many individual states, however, have added telemedicine reimbursement for either Medicaid and/or commercial payers over the same period. Because telemedicine programs must serve patients from all or most payers, it is likely that these state-level policy changes have significant impacts on telemedicine program viability and utilization of services from all payers, not just those services and payers affected directly by state policy. This report explores the impact of two significant state-level policy changes-one expanding Medicaid telemedicine coverage and the other introducing telemedicine parity for commercial payers-on Medicare utilization in the affected states. Medicare claims data from 2011-2013 were examined for states in the Great Lakes region. All valid claims for live interactive telemedicine professional fees were extracted and linked to their states of origin. Allowed encounters and expenditures were calculated in total and on a per 1,000 members per year basis to standardize against changes in the Medicare population by state and year. Medicare telemedicine encounters and professional fee expenditures grew sharply following changes in state Medicaid and commercial payer policy in the examined states. Medicare utilization in Illinois grew by 173% in 2012 (over 2011) following Medicaid coverage expansion, and Medicare utilization in Michigan grew by 118% in 2013 (over 2012) following adoption of telemedicine parity for commercial payers. By contrast, annual Medicare telemedicine utilization growth in surrounding states (in which there were no significant policy changes during these years) varied somewhat but showed no discernible pattern. Although Medicare telemedicine policy has changed little since its inception, changes in state policies with regard to telemedicine reimbursement appear to have significant impacts on the practical viability of telemedicine programs

  9. The utilization of performance evaluation instruments by technical trainers to evaluate maintenance personnel in the nuclear power industry in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornberger, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the utilization of performance evaluation instruments by technical trainers in the evaluation of maintenance personnel in US nuclear power plants. Performance evaluation of maintenance personnel has been identified by nuclear utilities and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the only acceptable method of determining worker competence. The NRC requires performance evaluation to be conducted to performance standards, but it does not specify the standards or the method to be utilized. Each plant is free to establish its own standards and methods of evaluation. This was a descriptive study utilizing descriptive statistics for the analysis of the data. The subjects included 655 maintenance trainers in 72 US nuclear plants. Conclusions of the study include: (1) Technical trainers are in compliance with NRC regulations. (2) Evaluation materials developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations are used by technical trainers in every one of the 62 plants that responded. (3) In-plant or self-developed Performance Evaluation Instruments are utilized by 419 or 95.2% of the technical trainers. (4) Technical trainers incorporate nine common components into their Performance Evaluation Instruments. (5) Technical trainers evaluate maintenance processes and the product produced by workers when following procedures and specifications are critical and when safety hazards are involved. (6) Technical trainers believe that utilizing Performance Evaluation Instruments makes their job easier by providing documentation about the quality and standards of maintenance skills. (7) Technical trainers believe that maintenance workers benefit when their skills are assessed through the use of Performance Evaluation Instruments

  10. Utilization and success rates of unstimulated in vitro fertilization in the United States: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John David; DiMattina, Michael; Reh, Andrea; Botes, Awie; Celia, Gerard; Payson, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To examine the utilization and outcomes of natural cycle (unstimulated) IVF as reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) in 2006 and 2007. Retrospective analysis. Dataset analysis from the SART Clinical Outcome Reporting System national database. All patients undergoing IVF as reported to SART in 2006 and 2007. None. Utilization of unstimulated IVF; description of patient demographics; and comparison of implantation and pregnancy rates between unstimulated and stimulated IVF cycles. During 2006 and 2007 a total of 795 unstimulated IVF cycles were initiated. Success rates were age dependent, with patients Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  12. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  14. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  15. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  16. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  17. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  19. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  2. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  5. Health care resource utilization and medical costs of spinal cord injury with neuropathic pain in a commercially insured population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jay M; Juneau, Paul; Sadosky, Alesia; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bryce, Thomas N; Nieshoff, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate health care resource use, costs, and cost drivers among patients with neuropathic pain (NeP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a commercially insured population. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study comparing SCI patients with and without NeP. Truven Health MarketScan commercial claims database from 2005 through 2012. Commercially insured SCI patients with NeP (n=3524) propensity score matched to SCI patients without NeP (n=3524). Not applicable. Health care resource utilization and expenditures for the 12 months after NeP onset (index event; identified through International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis 338.0x or use of NeP-specific antiepileptic drugs or NeP-specific antidepressants) in patients with SCI compared with matched patients without NeP. Utilization over 12 months postindex among patients with SCI-associated NeP was higher than among SCI-only patients for inpatient admissions (27.4% vs 22.1%), emergency department visits (36.7% vs 26.4%), and office visits per patient (mean ± SD: 13.0±9.5 vs 9.5±8.3); all P values were patient with SCI-associated NeP during the 12-month postindex period. Patients with evidence of NeP secondary to SCI have significantly higher health care utilization and total costs compared with SCI patients without evidence of NeP. Factors contributing to NeP in patients with SCI need to be clinically assessed to determine the optimal approach for treating these individuals. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptual and Empirical Themes regarding the Design of Technology Transfer Programs: A Review of Wood Utilization Research in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Ellefson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of technologies produced by research is critical to innovation within all organizations. The intent of this paper is to take stock of the conceptual underpinnings of technology transfer processes as they relate to wood utilization research and to identify conditions that promote the successful transfer of research results. Conceptually, research utilization can be viewed from multiple perspectives, including the haphazard diffusion of knowledge in response to vague and imprecise demands for information, scanning of multiple information sources by individuals and organizations searching for useful scientific knowledge, engagement of third parties to organize research results and communicate them to potential users, and ongoing and active collaboration between researchers and potential users of research. Empirical evidence suggests that various types of programs can promote technology transfer (venture capital, angel investors, business incubators, extension services, tax incentives, and in-house entities, the fundamental effectiveness of which depends on research results that are scientifically valid and consistent with the information needs of potential users. Furthermore, evidence suggests preference toward programs that are appropriately organized and governed, suitably led and creatively administered, and periodically evaluated in accordance with clear standards of success.

  7. Interim report on the fate of wood preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is studying the environmental impact of preservatives associated with in-service utility poles. As part of this endeavor, two EPRI contractors, META Environmental, Inc. (META) and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. (Atlantic), have collected soil samples from around wood utility poles nationwide, for various chemical and physical analyses. This report covers the results for 107 pole sites in the US. These pole sites included a range of preservative types, soil types, wood types, pole sizes, and in-service ages. The poles in this study were preserved with one of two types of preservative: pentachlorophenol (PCP) or creosote. Approximately 40 to 50 soil samples were collected from each wood pole site in this study. The soil samples collected from the pole sites were analyzed for chlorinated phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) if the pole was preserved with PCP, or for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) if the pole was preserved with creosote. The soil samples were also analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and cationic exchange capacity (CEC). Additional samples were used in studies to determine biological degradation rates, and soil-water distribution and retardation coefficients of PCP in site soils. Methods of analysis followed standard EPA and ASTM methods, with some modifications in the chemical analyses to enable the efficient processing of many samples with sufficiently low detection limits for this study. All chemical, physical, and site-specific data were stored in a relational computer database

  8. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  10. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  14. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  15. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  16. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  20. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  2. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  3. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  4. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  6. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  7. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  8. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  9. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  10. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  12. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  14. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  15. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Kurt Pregitzer; Alan Lucier

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th...

  16. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  17. Supportive care utilization and treatment toxicity in children with Down syndrome and acute lymphoid leukaemia at free-standing paediatric hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Elizabeth G; Li, Yimei; Fisher, Brian T; Rheingold, Susan R; Fitzgerald, Julie; Seif, Alix E; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Bagatell, Rochelle; Aplenc, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Although inferior outcomes of children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) are established, national supportive care patterns for these patients are unknown. A validated retrospective cohort of paediatric patients diagnosed with ALL from 1999 to 2011 was assembled from the US Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to examine organ toxicity, sepsis, and resource utilization in children with and without DS. Among 10699 ALL patients, 298 had DS-ALL (2·8%). In a multivariate model, DS was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·6-2·7), respiratory (OR 2·1, 95% CI: 1·6-2·9), neurologic (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·9-6·2), and hepatic (OR 1·4, 95% CI 1·0-1·9) dysfunction and sepsis (OR 1·8, 95% CI: 1·4-2·4). Children with DS-ALL used significantly more respiratory support, insulin, and anti-infectives, including broad-spectrum Gram-positive agents, quinolones, and azoles. They used significantly fewer analgesics and antiemetics compared to non-DS-ALL children. Ultimately, this study confirms the increased risk of infectious and end-organ toxicity in children with DS-ALL and quantifies important differences in resource utilization between children with DS and non-DS ALL. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the impact of these care variations and developing specific supportive care guidelines for this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  20. Single and Cumulative Relations of Social Risk Factors with Children's Dental Health and Care-Utilization Within Regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Alyssa J; Gromoske, Andrea N; Olson, Melissa A; Chaffin, Jeffrey G

    2016-03-01

    The purpose is to examine the relation of social risk factors, and the cumulative burden of social risk factors, on parent-reported dental health and dental care-seeking behavior. National Survey of Children's Health data (2011-2012) were analyzed for US children by Title V Block Grant regions. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated for ten social risk factors, as well as a cumulative risk index, to find any associations with poor condition of teeth, presence of dental caries, and no dental care visits. Almost all of the risk factors were significantly associated with poor condition of teeth and presence of dental caries for the US. Models associating no dental care visits suggested that low family income (OR 1.58), poor maternal mental health (OR 1.54), high school education or less (OR 1.34), and multi-racial/other race (OR 1.18) were significant factors for the US. Regional variation existed for those risk factors and their association with the outcomes, but income, education, and poor maternal mental health consistently played a significant role in adverse outcomes. The cumulative risk index was strongly related to poor oral health outcomes, with a weaker relationship to dental care utilization. US children experiencing certain social risk factors, such as low family income, high school education or less, and poor maternal mental health, are likely to be at greater risk for poor dental health and low levels of dental-care seeking behavior. Children experiencing multiple social risks are at greater risk for poor oral outcomes than children who experience fewer social risks. An approach that involves the social determinants of health is needed to address these issues.

  1. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  2. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  10. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  11. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  12. The United States nuclear merchant ship program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The issues of financial protection contemplate appropriate financing to permit construction of the involved vessels. In addition, the licensing process will require a demonstrated ability for financial response in the event of injury to persons or damage to property. Since the thrust in the United States is to use the Price-Anderson framework for Insurance and Indemnity, much attention is devoted to this legislation. The pre-existing regime is related to the distinguishing requirements of the Maritime field with proposals being advanced to more nearly parallel the insurance coverage philosophy of Europe, i.e., to utilize insurance pools for the nuclear risks and utilize the conventional insurance market for non-nuclear risks. Public affairs issues impact heavily on legislation efforts and thusly become significant in developing a program for Financial Protection

  13. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  14. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  15. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  16. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  17. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  18. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  19. Patterns of research utilization on patient care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Janice

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational context plays a central role in shaping the use of research by healthcare professionals. The largest group of professionals employed in healthcare organizations is nurses, putting them in a position to influence patient and system outcomes significantly. However, investigators have often limited their study on the determinants of research use to individual factors over organizational or contextual factors. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of research use among nurses working in acute care hospitals, with an emphasis on identifying contextual determinants of research use. A comparative ethnographic case study design was used to examine seven patient care units (two adult and five pediatric units in four hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Alberta. Data were collected over a six-month period by means of quantitative and qualitative approaches using an array of instruments and extensive fieldwork. The patient care unit was the unit of analysis. Drawing on the quantitative data and using correspondence analysis, relationships between various factors were mapped using the coefficient of variation. Results Units with the highest mean research utilization scores clustered together on factors such as nurse critical thinking dispositions, unit culture (as measured by work creativity, work efficiency, questioning behavior, co-worker support, and the importance nurses place on access to continuing education, environmental complexity (as measured by changing patient acuity and re-sequencing of work, and nurses' attitudes towards research. Units with moderate research utilization clustered on organizational support, belief suspension, and intent to use research. Higher nursing workloads and lack of people support clustered more closely to units with the lowest research utilization scores. Conclusion Modifiable characteristics of organizational context at the patient care unit

  20. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  1. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Characterizing the sustainable forestry issue network in thc United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabethann O' Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Issue network analysis techniques were applied to the issue sustainable forestry in the United States to identify potential public and private outcomes for the issue. A quantitative approach based on work by Laumann and Knoke [(The Organizational State (1987)] was utilized in conjunction with the Delphi method. Results suggest that the parity in the distribution of...

  4. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km 2 (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO 2 emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar, but also hydrogen and

  5. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km{sup 2} (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO{sub 2} emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar

  6. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  7. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  8. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  9. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  10. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  11. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  12. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  13. Competitive bidding for independent power: developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliman, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States electric utilities are using competitive bidding programs to procure power supplies from non-utility generators and, in some cases, to establish contracts with energy service companies for the implementation of demand-side management projects. Such programs are viewed as a path to efficient contracts in the private power industry. But bidding programs are complex, subject to pitfalls, and are developing very quickly. This paper reports on that development as of the early 1990s and, as an illustration, briefly describes and analyzes the bidding program of an electric utility in the State of New York. (author). 2 tabs

  14. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  15. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  17. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  18. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... prices for chiropractic services in Oklahoma. Antitrust law treats naked agreements among competitors that set prices as per se illegal.\\2\\ Where competitors economically integrate in a joint venture... that is designed to control costs and assure quality of care by monitoring over-utilization of health...

  19. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  20. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  1. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  2. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Latent heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) composites were tested in a laboratory. The stainless steel units were 1.5 m high cylinders with internal heat exchangers of tubes with fins. One unit was tested with 116 kg SAT with 6% extra water. Another...... in the thickened phase change material after melting. The heat content in the fully charged state and the heat released after solidification of the supercooled SAT mixtures at ambient temperature was higher for the unit with the thickened SAT mixture. The heat discharged after solidification of the supercooled SAT...

  3. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  4. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  5. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  6. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Advanced fuel cell development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are being developed in the United States to complement and/or supplant phosphoric acid cells for commercial and utility use. This paper described the two technologies and the programs for their development

  8. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  9. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  10. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  11. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  12. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  13. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  14. Multiattribute Fixed-State Utility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    of a companion distribution, are presented in Appendix A. Because of the theory of conditional expected utility and the modelling of the utilities by...obtain approximations to the moments, using the companion V ) ) distribution discussed in Section 3. The moments of both distributions are discussed...1956b, 21, 207-216. Slavic, P. "From Shakespeare to Simon: Speculation -- and some evidence -- about man’s ability to process information." O g . a

  15. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  16. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  17. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  18. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  19. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  20. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  1. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  2. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  4. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  5. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  6. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  7. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  8. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  11. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  12. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  13. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  14. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  15. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  16. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  17. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W [1; Bloomquist, R Gordon [2; Boyd, Tonya L [1; Renner, Joel [3; (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0000-12-30

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  18. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  19. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  20. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  1. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  2. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  3. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  4. Subjective Probabilities for State-Dependent Continuous Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractFor the expected utility model with state dependent utilities, Karni, Schmeidler and Vind (1983) have shown how to recover uniquely the involved subjective probabilities if the preferences, contingent on a hypothetical probability distribution over the state space, are known. This they

  5. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  6. Agency transformation and state public utility commissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Douglas N.

    2006-01-01

    The demise of public utility commissions has been periodically predicted (sometimes hoped for). In their long history they have been attacked by critics as ineffective, inefficient, expensive, or unnecessary. Further, the demonstrated survivability of the commission concept has often been uncharitably attributed to powerful political constituencies, self-preservation manoeuvrings by commissioners themselves, and inertia. The implications of this article point another way. Commission regulation of public utilities has survived mainly because of continued need for social oversight of these critical industry sectors and the capacity of PUCs strategically to adapt to fundamental changes in their surroundings. Two transformational upheavals are treated here - a challenge of flexibility and responsiveness by the dramatic run-up in costs and prices in the 1970s and challenge to relevance by the policy shift to greater reliance on market competition in the 1990s - and regulation's successful accommodation to them. Viewed this way commission regulation is more in a position of 'second wind' than 'last breath'. (author)

  7. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  8. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  9. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  10. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  11. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  12. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  13. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  14. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  15. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  16. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  17. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  18. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  19. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  20. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  2. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  3. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  4. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  5. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  6. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  7. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  8. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  9. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  10. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  11. Online marketing strategies of plastic surgeons and clinics: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James

    2011-07-01

    The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.

  12. Subjective Expected Utility Theory without States of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Karni

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops an axiomatic theory of decision making under uncertainty that dispenses with the state space. The results are subjective expected utility models with unique, action-dependent, subjective probabilities, and a utility function defined over wealth-effect pairs that is unique up to positive linear transformation.

  13. Optimal Residential Load Scheduling Under Utility and Rooftop Photovoltaic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hafeez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, electrical energy consumption is increasing rapidly. Especially, in the residential sector, more than 80% of electrical energy is being consumed because of consumer negligence. This brings the challenging task of maintaining the balance between the demand and supply of electric power. In this paper, we focus on the problem of load balancing via load scheduling under utility and rooftop photovoltaic (PV units to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR in demand-side management. For this purpose, we adopted genetic algorithm (GA, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, wind-driven optimization (WDO, and our proposed genetic WDO (GWDO algorithm, which is a hybrid of GA and WDO, to schedule the household load. For energy cost estimation, combined real-time pricing (RTP and inclined block rate (IBR were used. The proposed algorithm shifts load from peak consumption hours to off-peak hours based on combined pricing scheme and generation from rooftop PV units. Simulation results validate our proposed GWDO algorithm in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while considering all three scenarios which we have considered in this work: (1 load scheduling without renewable energy sources (RESs and energy storage system (ESS, (2 load scheduling with RESs, and (3 load scheduling with RESs and ESS. Furthermore, our proposed scheme reduced electricity cost and PAR by 22.5% and 29.1% in scenario 1, 47.7% and 30% in scenario 2, and 49.2% and 35.4% in scenario 3, respectively, as compared to unscheduled electricity consumption.

  14. Evaluation of predicted Medfly (Ceratitis capitata quarantine length in the United States utilizing degree-day and agent-based models [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Collier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by pest insects pose a significant threat to agriculture worldwide. In the case of Ceratitis capitata incursions on the US mainland, where it is not officially established, repeated detections are followed by quarantines and treatments to eliminate the invading population. However, it is difficult to accurately set quarantine duration because non-detection may not mean the pest is eliminated. Most programs extend quarantine lengths past the last fly detection by calculating the amount of time required for 3 generations to elapse under a thermal unit accumulation development model (“degree day”. A newer approach is to use an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS to explicitly simulate population demographics and elimination. Here, predicted quarantine lengths for 11 sites in the continental United States are evaluated using both approaches. Results indicate a strong seasonality in quarantine length, with longer predictions in the second half of the year compared with the first; this pattern is more extreme in degree day predictions compared with ABS. Geographically, quarantine lengths increased with latitude, though this was less pronounced under the ABS. Variation in quarantine lengths for particular times and places was dramatically larger for degree day than ABS, generally spiking in the middle of the year for degree day and peaking in second half of the year for ABS. Analysis of 34 C. capitata quarantines from 1975 to 2017 in California shows that, for all but two, quarantines were started in the second half of the year, when degree day quarantine lengths are longest and have the highest uncertainty. For a set of hypothetical outbreaks based on these historical quarantines, the ABS produced significantly shorter quarantines than degree day calculations. Overall, ABS quarantine lengths were more consistent than degree day predictions, avoided unrealistically long values, and captured effects of rare events such as cold snaps.

  15. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  17. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  18. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  19. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  20. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  1. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  2. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  3. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  5. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  6. 49 CFR 565.14 - Motor vehicles imported into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles imported into the United States...) REQUIREMENTS VIN Requirements § 565.14 Motor vehicles imported into the United States. (a) Importers shall utilize the VIN assigned by the original manufacturer of the motor vehicle. (b) All passenger cars...

  7. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  8. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  9. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  10. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  11. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  12. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  13. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  15. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  16. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  17. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  18. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  19. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  20. ISO developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    An important feature of the restructuring process in the United States is the creation of independent system operators (ISOs) to coordinate dispatch and access to transmission grids. A number of ISOs have been proposed and are summarized here. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the pricing of transmission to give proper economic signals to market participants, and the locational pricing scheme now operating in the PJM system offers the best hope for efficient pricing. (author)

  1. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  2. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  3. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  4. United States position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The United States policy on severe accidents was published in 1985 for both new plant applications and for existing plants. Implementation of this policy is in progress. This policy, aided by a related safety goal policy and by analysis capabilities emerging from improved understanding of accident phenomenology, is viewed as a logical development from the pioneering work in the WASH-1400 Reactor Safety Study published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1975. This work provided an estimate of the probability and consequences of severe accidents which, prior to that time, had been mostly evaluated by somewhat arbitrary assumptions dating back 30 years. The early history of severe accident evaluation is briefly summarized for the period 1957-1979. Then, the galvanizing action of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on severe accident analysis, experimentation and regulation is reviewed. Expressions of US policy in the form of rulemaking, severe accident policy, safety research, safety goal policy and court decisions (on adequacy of safety) are discussed. Finally, the NRC policy as of March 1988 is stated, along with a prospective look at the next few years. (author). 19 refs

  5. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  6. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  7. Clinical utility of dabigatran in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Abdulla; Elnour, Asim A.; Sadik, Adel; Mandil, Mahmoud Abu; AlShamsi, Ali; Suwaidi, Aesha Al; Bhagavathula, AkshayaSrikanth; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Hamad, Farah; Nuaimi, Saif K. Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide early data regarding clinical utility of dabigatran in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This was an ethics approved retrospective cross sectional study. We retrieved a total of 76 patients who were using dabigatran from September to December 2014 in the Cardiology Clinic at Al-Ain Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE. The primary analysis was designed to test the frequency of bleeding events (rate) with dabigatran 75, 110, and 150 mg. Results: The mean age ± standard deviation of cohort was 67.9 ± 1.5 years (range; 29-98 years), composed of males (52.6%) with mean age of 66.3 ± 1.7 years, and females (47.4%) with mean age of 69.6 ± 1.1 years. The highest age group was those between 61-80 years (60.5%). Most comprised the age strata of ≤75 years (73.7%). The main indication for dabigatran use was atrial fibrillation. The rate of bleeding with dabigatran was 18/76 (23.7%), and melena was the leading cause of bleeding 8/76 (10.7%). The hospitalization rate was 67.1%, dabigatran withdrawal rate was 0.01%, and mortality rate was 6.5%. The cohort had exhibited incidences of minor bleeding with one fatal major bleeding, high co-morbidities, admission, and readmission, which was not directly linked to dabigatran. We did not identify any relation of death due to dabigatran. Conclusion: Dabigatran is a suitable alternative to warfarin obviating the need for repetitive international normalized ratio monitoring, however, it may need plasma drug monitoring. PMID:26593161

  8. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  9. A multicenter study of plasma use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triulzi, Darrell; Gottschall, Jerome; Murphy, Edward; Wu, Yanyun; Ness, Paul; Kor, Daryl; Roubinian, Nareg; Fleischmann, Debra; Chowdhury, Dhuly; Brambilla, Donald

    2015-06-01

    Detailed information regarding plasma use in the United States is needed to identify opportunities for practice improvement and design of clinical trials of plasma therapy. Ten US hospitals collected detailed medical information from the electronic health records for 1 year (2010-2011) for all adult patients transfused with plasma. A total of 72,167 units of plasma were transfused in 19,596 doses to 9269 patients. The median dose of plasma was 2 units (interquartile range, 2-4; range 1-72); 15% of doses were 1 unit, and 45% were 2 units. When adjusted by patient body weight (kg), the median dose was 7.3 mL/kg (interquartile range, 5.5-12.0). The median pretransfusion international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.9 (25%-75% interquartile range, 1.6-2.6). A total of 22.5% of plasma transfusions were given to patients with an INR of less than 1.6 and 48.5% for an INR of 2.0 or more. The median posttransfusion INR was 1.6 (interquartile range, 1.4-2.0). Only 42% of plasma transfusions resulted in a posttransfusion INR of less than 1.6. Correction of INR increased as the plasma dose increased from 1 to 4 units (p plasma. The most common issue locations were general ward (38%) and intensive care unit (ICU; 42%). This large database describing plasma utilization in the United States provides evidence for both inadequate dosing and unnecessary transfusion. Measures to improve plasma transfusion practice and clinical trials should be directed at patients on medical and surgical wards and in the ICU where plasma is most commonly used. © 2014 AABB.

  10. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  11. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  12. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the United...

  13. States of Confusion: Regulation of Surrogacy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some countries, including Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Norway, ban commercial surrogacy (Patton 2010, 523). Others, such as India and the Ukraine, have actively tried to be seen as commercial surrogacy destinations (Mohapatra 2012, 412, 432–437, 441–448). Unlike either of these approaches, the United States (US) has no national stance on surrogacy. In fact, there are no national laws or regulations related to surrogacy in the US (Margalit 2014). Instea...

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  16. Transmission policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  17. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  18. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  19. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  20. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  1. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  2. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  3. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  4. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...

  5. Climate change law and politics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The United States has an extensive system of environmental law. Congress has passed numerous environmental statutes, but no major ones since 1990. While there was a general consensus on the need for environmental regulation during the 1970s and 1980s, it has broken down and the issue has become the subject of bitter partisan division. One consequence is that the U.S. has no comprehensive statute on climate change, and none appears imminent. A sweeping climate change bill passed the House of Representatives in 2009 but died in the Senate in 2010, and the political situation is such that it now appears that it will be at least several years before Congress enacts any serious climate change legislation. Meanwhile, the federal government is utilizing old statutes, especially the Clean Air Act of 1970, to cobble together a regulatory program. States and regional groupings of states, as well as cities, are also playing important roles in formulating climate change strategies.

  6. Climate change law and politics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, Michael B. [Columbia Law School New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Change Law

    2014-07-01

    The United States has an extensive system of environmental law. Congress has passed numerous environmental statutes, but no major ones since 1990. While there was a general consensus on the need for environmental regulation during the 1970s and 1980s, it has broken down and the issue has become the subject of bitter partisan division. One consequence is that the U.S. has no comprehensive statute on climate change, and none appears imminent. A sweeping climate change bill passed the House of Representatives in 2009 but died in the Senate in 2010, and the political situation is such that it now appears that it will be at least several years before Congress enacts any serious climate change legislation. Meanwhile, the federal government is utilizing old statutes, especially the Clean Air Act of 1970, to cobble together a regulatory program. States and regional groupings of states, as well as cities, are also playing important roles in formulating climate change strategies.

  7. Illinois state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Illinois. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  8. Illinois State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Illinois. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  9. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  10. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations

  11. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  12. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  13. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  14. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  15. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  16. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  17. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  20. Pennsylvania state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  1. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  2. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  3. Maryland state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  4. Ohio state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Ohio. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations

  5. Ohio state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Ohio. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  6. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  7. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  8. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  10. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    approach accounts for the observed heterogeneity in the microdata, but is simple to implement because we do not need to specify utility functions and estimate utility parameters. We find that each of the four tax acts created substantial welfare gains, and that the gains were concentrated almost......An emerging consensus is that labor force participation is more responsive to taxes and transfers than hours worked. To understand the implications of participation responses for the welfare analysis of tax reform, this paper embeds this margin of labor supply in an explicit welfare theoretic...... framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  11. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  12. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  13. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  14. 31 CFR 500.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 500.520..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  15. 31 CFR 515.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 515.520..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  16. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  17. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin K. Khoury; Stephanie L. Greene; Karen A. Williams; Chrystian C. Sosa; Chris. Richards

    2017-01-01

    Crop wild relatives native to the United States have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected to increase with better information about the species and improving breeding tools. But this utilization may be constrained by their limited representation in genebanks and the ongoing loss...

  18. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  19. Transmission policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Economics

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  20. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  1. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team More Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of ... Gronberg (2011) for updated arsenic map. Featured publications United States Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow ...

  2. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  3. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended

  4. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  7. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  8. Uranium procurement in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Krusiewski, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy conducts surveys of US uranium marketing activity. The results of this year's survey compared with last year's survey indicate that delivery commitments of US uranium producers to US uranium users have decreased in the early part of this decade, but have increased in the latter part of the decade. Unfilled uranium requirements are nearly the same through 1986 in both surveys, but in the 1987-1990 period this years's unfilled requirements are lower than those reported last year. Non-US purchase commitments by US utilities are somewhat greater than those reported last year. Non-US purchase commitments by US reactor manufacturers and producers have increased significantly over the past year; about two-thirds of these purchase commitments resulted from the settlement of litigation with non-US suppliers. The attitude of US utilities as to their use of non-US uranium has remained the same over the past year. Although some of the utilities were uncertain about future non-US uranium purchases, many of them indicated that they would possibly purchase non-US uranium. Natural uranium inventories of US reactor manufacturers and utilities have increased over the past year, and now amount to about 3 years of forward coverage. The enriched uranium inventories held by these users have decreased over the past year, and now amount to less than 1 year's forward coverage. (author)

  9. The United States Approach to PLiM for LTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The organizational structure for PLiM in the United States of America varies widely from plant to plant. For example, some plants may have a dedicated PLiM organization that coordinates the PLiM activities and provides the PLiM study results to the appropriate plant organizations (e.g. maintenance, engineering and operations) for implementation. Other plants may not have a dedicated PLiM organization, but rely on various organizations (e.g. design engineering, system engineering and maintenance) to conduct needed PLiM studies for LTO on a case by case (e.g. by component groups, such as piping, cables and transformers) or by individual components (turbine generator or steam generator). The organizational structure for preparing an LRA varies from utility to utility, but a typical structure is based on creating a project team to address each major discipline of the needed studies. The team members may be from utility organizations, contracted consultants who specialize in preparing LRAs, or a combination of the two groups, which is most common. A typical organizational structure is shown. The team typically consists of 10 to 20 full time members, with several other part time support members from various expert organizations (both utility and contracted consultants) needed to perform the engineering, ageing management and environmental studies and to prepare the supporting documentation for the LRA project

  10. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  11. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  12. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  13. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C. R.; Orvis, D. D. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented.

  14. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  15. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  16. Uranium resources in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The United States are certainly the country which is the most concerned by a better evaluation of uranium resources. This is so because of the importance of the American nuclear program and because of a certain number of doubts in their uranium supply. This is probably why studies concerning American uranium resources have been very frequent in recent months. Although, most of these studies are not yet finished it is perhaps possible to draw a few conclusions in order to better see the framework of this important uranium resources problem. This is what this article attempts, using among other studies, the one carried-out for the National Science Foundation which is among the most complete, especially concerning the complete range of resources [fr

  17. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  18. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  20. Unplanned pregnancies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    1986-03-01

    Unplanned pregnancies constitute an epidemic in the United States. Over 3 million unplanned pregnancies occur, and over 1.5 million induced abortions are performed each year. Women of minority races and those with less than 12 years of education are at high risk of having unwanted children. Fear of complications (not the complications themselves) is the most powerful deterrent to women's use of contraception. Much of this fear is due to bad press. Recent good news about contraception, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, protection against ectopic pregnancy, and absence of teratogenic effects, has not received appropriate media coverage. For healthy women younger than 35 years, failure to use fertility control is more dangerous than use of any method.

  1. Global context for the United States Forest Sector in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify markets for, and competitors to, the United States forest industries in the next 30 years. The Global Forest Products Model was used to make predictions of international demand, supply, trade, and prices, conditional on the last RPA Timber Assessment projections for the United States. It was found that the United States, Japan...

  2. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...

  3. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized to...

  4. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under Article...

  5. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  6. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States. [61 FR...

  7. A proposed United States resource classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is a world-wide problem calling for world-wide communication to resolve the many supply and distribution problems. Essential to a communication problem are a definition and comparability of elements being communicated. The US Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the US Bureau of Mines and the US Department of Energy, has devised a classification system for all mineral resources, the principles of which, it is felt, offer the possibility of world communication. At present several other systems, extant or under development (Potential Gas Committee of the USA, United Nations Resource Committee, and the American Society of Testing and Materials) are internally consistent and provide easy communication linkage. The system in use by the uranium community in the United States of America, however, ties resource quantities to forward-cost dollar values rendering them inconsistent with other classifications and therefore not comparable. This paper develops the rationale for the new USGS resource classification and notes its benefits relative to a forward-cost classification and its relationship specifically to other current classifications. (author)

  8. Latin America and the United States: What Do United States History Textbooks Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates how U.S.-Latin American relations are presented in high school U.S. history textbooks. An examination of 10 textbooks published between 1977-81 revealed inadequate coverage of Latin American cultural diversity and United States foreign policy from the Latin American perspective. (AM)

  9. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  10. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  11. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  12. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  13. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  14. Energy market environments in Europe and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puettgen, H.B.; Haubrich, H.J.; Stotz, J.; Winje, D.; Klappa, G.; Denton, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    On July 21, the technical program of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) 1997 Summer Meeting began with a joint plenary, cosponsored by VDE-ETG. Simultaneous translation allowed the audience to listen to the presentations in either German or English. Emerging Energy Market Environments in Europe and the United states was chaired by H.J. Haubrich, RWTH, and H.B. Puettgen, Georgia Institute of Technology. Following welcome addresses and introductory remarks by E.F. Peschke, chair or the local organizing committee, K. Bechtold, BEWAG, Berlin, H. Wolters, VDE chair, L. Bochanky, ETG chair, Charles K. Alexander, IEEE president, and Robert A. Dent, PES president, the following presentations were given: The Process of Integration of the East and West European Networks, Juergen Stotz, VEAG, Germany; Electric Power Turns into a Commodity: A Change of Paradigm in the Power Industry, Dietmar Winje, BEWAG, Germany; The Brave New World of Customer Satisfaction, Gale Klappa, Southwest Utilities, United Kingdom; Deregulation Risks and Opportunities, Donald H. Denton, Jr., Duke Power Company, United States. Summaries of the four presentations are included

  15. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  16. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  17. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  18. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  19. Efficiency evaluation of the state owned electric utilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Tripta; Deshmukh, S.G.; Kaushik, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for accessing comparative efficiencies of Indian State Owned Electric Utilities (SOEU), which have been mainly responsible for the generation, distribution and transmission of electricity in India. Performance of 26 utilities was evaluated using the non-parametric technique of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and the impact of scale on the efficiency scores was also evaluated. The results indicate that the performance of several SOEUs is sub-optimal, suggesting the potential for significant cost reductions. Separate benchmarks were derived for possible reductions in employees' number, and the results indicate that several utilities deploy a much larger number of employees than that required by a best practice utility, and significant savings are possible on this account. It was also found that the bigger utilities display greater inefficiencies and have distinct scale inefficiencies. Exploiting scale efficiencies by suitable restructuring and unbundling of SOEUs are therefore crucial measures that may foster efficiencies in the SOEUs. The paper discusses these results in the context of related policy issues

  20. Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde

    2009-01-01

    We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.

  1. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  2. The impacts of regulation via the allowed rate of return constraint on social welfare, input choices, and level of output in the privately-owned electric utilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phongam, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of change in price elasticity of demand for electricity on social welfare, allowed rate of return, and marginal revenue product of each input used to produce electricity. Price elasticities of demand for electricity in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors are compared as well as total demand in 1987. Also compared are these price elasticities between 1982 and 1987. Several conclusions are: (1) There is an overcapitalization in privately-owned electric utilities because at the chosen level of output, marginal revenue product of capital is less than its price. (2) Elastic demand for electricity will improve values of social welfare and marginal revenue product of inputs. (3) Tightening allowed rate of return will increase the amount of capital and labor usages, but decrease fuel, output, and social welfare. (4) Both residential and industrial demand for electricity are elastic, but commercial demand is inelastic. (5) By making comparison of price elasticity of demand between 1982 and 1987, it shows that price elasticity of demand for electricity in residential, industrial, and total demand are increasing. However, for the commercial sector, the price elasticity is decreasing somewhat

  3. Electric Utility Generating Units: Repealing the Clean Power Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Power Plan established emission guidelines for states to follow in limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing power plants. EPA is proposing to repeal the CPP and rescind the accompanying legal memorandum.

  4. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  5. Missouri state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and rgulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  6. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  7. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  8. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  9. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  10. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  11. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  12. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  13. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  14. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  15. Recurrent Kawasaki disease, United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A.; Holman, Robert C.; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S.; Guest, Jodie L.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Methods Data from the United States and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance (1984–2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001–2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared to non-recurrent KD patients. Results Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984–2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared to non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients experiencing a recurrent KD episode were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite IVIG treatment. Conclusions Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. PMID:26096590

  16. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  18. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Storage options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Richardson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel from commercial reactors in the United States is nearly 25 000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) and is increasing at a rate of about 2000 MTHM per year. By the time the last licence for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, the inventory of spent fuel is expected to be about 85 000 MTHM. Almost all of the spent fuel is stored in water pools at reactor sites, but dry storage has begun to be used by several utilities that have used up their pool capacity. Eventually the spent fuel will be transferred to the Federal waste-management system now being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE is developing a waste-management system consisting of three components: a geologic repository, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper briefly describes how the commercial nuclear utilities are addressing spent fuel storage at their reactor sites and the DOE's strategy for interfacing with the utilities. (author)

  20. Geriatric drug therapy and healthcare utilization in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerfalk, Anita; Ruigómez, Ana; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Johansson, Saga

    2002-05-01

    To describe the use of prescription drug therapy, especially polypharmacy, in an elderly general population; to relate that use to age, gender, and different types of healthcare utilization; and to investigate the influence of selection of different time windows on the result of the quantity as well as the categories of drugs used. Data on a sample of 5000 patients aged 65-90 years in 1996 were derived from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). The population covered by GPRD is broadly representative of the UK population treated in general practice. Drug use was assessed using 2 time windows - current use of individual drugs on a random day (index date) and 1 month following the index date. Healthcare utilization was analyzed by use of information on visits to general practitioners (GPs), hospitalizations, and referrals to specialists. Women used more drugs than men; however, the prevalence of polypharmacy, defined as concomitant use of > or =5 drugs, was similar in both genders. The most frequently used therapeutic groups were cardiovascular, central nervous, and gastrointestinal system drugs. Almost 80% of both women and men visited a GP at least once a year. Overall, women used more ambulatory care services and men were hospitalized more often. Use of random date compared with 1-month period resulted in a significant underestimation of the amount of drugs used for acute conditions and, consequently, the risk of polypharmacy. The overall results confirm the findings in earlier studies suggesting that the GPRD might be a useful tool in further studies on prescription drug use among elderly persons. More information on the appropriateness of drug use is needed to prevent overuse as well as underuse of medications among the elderly.

  1. The future of food irradiation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, R W [Food Safeguards Council Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    According to statistics released by the U.S. Public Health Service, between 50 and 80 million cases of foodbome diseases will be contracted by American consumers every year and as many as 10,000 of those will die as a consequence. The World Health Organization and the Commission on World Hunger have estimated that 25 percent of the world`s food supply is lost to spoilage and infestation. The solution for the twin problems of foodbome disease and hunger is food irradiation. Many food when exposed to ionizing radiation produced by radionuclides or electron beam machines will not only experience extended shelf life but most of the harmful pathogens contained on those foods will be destroyed. Food irradiation has been researched and developed for more than 50 years and this technology has been approved by almost every major government agency, including the FDA, the American Medical Association, and the World Health Organization. Irradiated food has been consumed by military personnel, hospital patients and astronauts in space with absolutely no ill effects. Scientists from every technological discipline have endorsed the safety and reliability of this technology and it is currently being utilized in more than 37 countries. Yet it is not used in the United States and food producers who even think about using it are severely criticized and boycotted by anti-nuclear organizations. What do we see as the future of food irradiation in the United States? Will this technology ever be used here? Will there be a time when consumers can feel confident that all the data and facts have been carefully presented on this important and beneficial technology. This paper discusses some of the history of food irradiation and explores problems facing the food industry and the difficulty getting the right message to the public. It also looks at the industry`s efforts to promote food irradiation commerce in the United States, and examines the role government has played in the development of

  2. The future of food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    According to statistics released by the U.S. Public Health Service, between 50 and 80 million cases of foodbome diseases will be contracted by American consumers every year and as many as 10,000 of those will die as a consequence. The World Health Organization and the Commission on World Hunger have estimated that 25 percent of the world's food supply is lost to spoilage and infestation. The solution for the twin problems of foodbome disease and hunger is food irradiation. Many food when exposed to ionizing radiation produced by radionuclides or electron beam machines will not only experience extended shelf life but most of the harmful pathogens contained on those foods will be destroyed. Food irradiation has been researched and developed for more than 50 years and this technology has been approved by almost every major government agency, including the FDA, the American Medical Association, and the World Health Organization. Irradiated food has been consumed by military personnel, hospital patients and astronauts in space with absolutely no ill effects. Scientists from every technological discipline have endorsed the safety and reliability of this technology and it is currently being utilized in more than 37 countries. Yet it is not used in the United States and food producers who even think about using it are severely criticized and boycotted by anti-nuclear organizations. What do we see as the future of food irradiation in the United States? Will this technology ever be used here? Will there be a time when consumers can feel confident that all the data and facts have been carefully presented on this important and beneficial technology. This paper discusses some of the history of food irradiation and explores problems facing the food industry and the difficulty getting the right message to the public. It also looks at the industry's efforts to promote food irradiation commerce in the United States, and examines the role government has played in the development of

  3. Initial state regulation of investor-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitski, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines state initiation of public service (or utility) commission regulation of investor-owned utilities (IOUs) using an economic theory of regulation. The decision to regulate IOUs is assumed to have depended on the strength of competing interest groups, e.g. consumers and producers, and on institutional factors, e.g. whether commissioners were appointed or elected. Regulators, which then had jurisdiction over IOU rates, are assumed to have been optimizing agents. The potential benefits of regulation, in turn, translated into pressure to initiate regulation. To test this, a hazard model is applied to state-level data. On the demand side of the regulation market, the distribution of federal power and population density were unrelated, while a set of time dummies was positively related to the probability that a state initiated regulation. On the supply side, the fraction of the population that was urban and whether the governor was Republican or not were positively and negatively related to this probability

  4. Washington state foster care: dental utilization and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen E; Grembowski, David

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dental utilization and expenditures for children enrolled in Washington State (WA) foster care (FC). This cross-sectional study used 2008 Medicaid enrollment and claims files for children ages WA FC program for ≥11 months (N = 10,177). Regression models were used to examine associations between utilization and expenditures and sex, race, age group, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) (i.e., disability), substance abuse, behavior problems, placement setting (Foster Home Care, Kinship Care, Group Care, Other), and urbanicity. Only 43 percent of the children utilized any dental care; the adjusted mean expenditure was $198.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) $181.35, $215.36]. Fewer utilized diagnostic (41 percent), preventive (39 percent), restorative (11 percent), or complex (5 percent) services. Associated with utilization (P ≤ 0.01) were: female [ARR = 1.05, 95% CI(1.01, 1.10)]; 0-2 years [ARR = 0.18, 95% CI(0.15, 0.21)], [3-5 years ARR = 0.78, 95% CI(0.74, 0.83)]; Native American [ARR = 0.85, 95% CI(0.80, 0.91)]; SSI [ARR = 1.10, 95% CI(1.04, 1.17)]; Kinship Care [ARR = 0.94, 95% CI(0.90, 0.98)]; Group Care [ARR = 1.25 95% CI(1.15, 1.37)]; and urban/rural urbanicity with population WA FC for ≥11 months during 2008 did not receive dental care. Research is needed to determine the level of unmet need among children in FC and interventions to improve access to oral health of the children. Enforcement of existing federal legislation is needed. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Multidimensional poverty: an alternative measurement approach for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waglé, Udaya R

    2008-06-01

    International poverty research has increasingly underscored the need to use multidimensional approaches to measure poverty. Largely embraced in Europe and elsewhere, this has not had much impact on the way poverty is measured in the United States. In this paper, I use a comprehensive multidimensional framework including economic well-being, capability, and social inclusion to examine poverty in the US. Data from the 2004 General Social Survey support the interconnectedness among these poverty dimensions, indicating that the multidimensional framework utilizing a comprehensive set of information provides a compelling value added to poverty measurement. The suggested demographic characteristics of the various categories of the poor are somewhat similar between this approach and other traditional approaches. But the more comprehensive and accurate measurement outcomes from this approach help policymakers target resources at the specific groups.

  6. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  7. Conspicuous Consumption in the United States and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David

    2016-01-01

    How do differences in the motive for conspicuous consumption in the United States and China affect the incidence of taxes in those countries? In this paper I develop a model of conspicuous consumption in which a consumer cares not only about the direct utility she receives from consumption......, but also about the way her consumption pattern affects her peer group's belief about her well-being. Estimating the model on American and Chinese data, I find that a Chinese consumer cares 20% more than an American consumer about peer beliefs. I use the estimated model in several experiments related to tax...... incidence. I find that the 1990–2002 American luxury tax on automobiles led to widespread but small welfare gains, and that the stronger Chinese motive for conspicuous consumption leads to fewer households harmed and larger median welfare gains from a 10% tobacco excise tax....

  8. National Survey of Interscholastic Sport Sponsorship in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PIERCE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to cuts in educational funding in the United States, interscholastic athletic administrators have turned to corporate sponsorship to fund athletic departments. While the academic literature in sport management has extensively covered corporate sponsorship at the intercollegiate and professional level, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence, nature, and importance of sponsorship to high school athletics in the United States. This paper identified factors that predicted the use of sponsorship, the amount of revenue generated from sponsorship, who is responsible for selling sponsorship, motivators behind not soliciting sponsorship, and the extent to which fundraising and participation fees are utilized to supplement athletic department budgets. The most common form of alternative revenue generation is fund raising (87% of schools followed by, sponsorship (57% and participation fees (34%. One-third of schools reported using sponsorship in response to budget cuts, and over one-fourth solicited sponsorship to prevent charging participation fees. Results also indicated that while the majority of high school athletic departments solicited corporate sponsorship, administrators were cautious in the so-licitation of sponsorship as evidenced by the small dollar amounts involved and overall impact on the budget, reliance on game program advertisements and facility signage to activate sponsorships, and a lack of outsourcing to sport marketing firms to sell the sponsorships. There is clearly room for growth in the interscholastic sport sponsorship market.

  9. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  10. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After deregulation of consumer credit and resultant availability, ... Germany, United States, United Kingdom and France are some of the countries ... social insurance, development policy and rehabilitative function of discharge and fresh start.

  11. Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the perinatal risks of midwife-attended planned home births in the United States from 2010 through 2012 and compared them with recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for planned home births. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files from 2010 through 2012 were utilized to analyze the frequency of certain perinatal risk factors that were associated with planned midwife-attended home births in the United States and compare them with deliveries performed in the hospital by certified nurse midwives. Home birth deliveries attended by others were excluded; only planned home births attended by midwives were included. Hospital deliveries attended by certified nurse midwives served as the reference. Perinatal risk factors were those established by ACOG and AAP. Midwife-attended planned home births in the United States had the following risk factors: breech presentation, 0.74% (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.56); prior cesarean delivery, 4.4% (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 2.0-2.17); twins, 0.64% (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.84-2.31); and gestational age 41 weeks or longer, 28.19% (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.68-1.74). All 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher among midwife-attended planned home births when compared with certified nurse midwives-attended hospital births, and 3 of 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher in planned home births attended by non-American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB)-certified midwives (other midwives) when compared with home births attended by certified nurse midwives. Among midwife-attended planned home births, 65.7% of midwives did not meet the ACOG and AAP recommendations for certification by the American Midwifery Certification Board. At least 30% of midwife-attended planned home births are not low risk and not within

  12. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives.

  14. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  15. Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART ...the American public’s concerns. 50 APPENDIX A UNITED STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART Source: US Citizenship and Immigration...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  18. Archaeomagnetic research in the United States midcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Stacey Nicole

    This dissertation combines archaeomagnetic and independent chronometric data from 240 archaeological features to develop a regional secular variation curve for the U.S. midcontinent. These data were obtained from features located between 31.5--40.5° N latitude and 82.5--93.5° W longitude that have been dated to between 60 and 10,700 cal BP. The archaeomagnetic samples were collected from 41 sites within this region over the past 35 years under the direction of four different researchers: Robert DuBois (University of Oklahoma), Daniel Wolfman (University of Arkansas and New Mexico State Museum), Wulf Gose (University of Texas at Austin), and myself. In this project, the data are initially smoothed through the moving windows method to form the first approximation of the curve. Outlier analyses and pairwise statistical comparisons are utilized to refine the smoothed curve, and the results are compared to other Holocene-aged secular variation records from North America. These analyses indicate that the final curve should be treated as three distinct segments with different precision and use recommendations. First, the 850--75 cal BP segment can be used to date archaeomagnetic sample from the project area with expected temporal precision of 100--200 years. Second, the 2528--850 cal BP segment can be used cautiously to date archaeomagnetic samples with an expected temporal precision of 200--300 years. Third, the 9755--4650 cal BP segment should be used for contextual dating purposes only, in that an undated sample can be put into a regional context through comparison with the segment's constituent samples. Finally, three archaeological problems are addressed through the archaeomagnetic data. First, archaeomagnetic data are used to resolve the temporal conflict between an eastern Tennessee structure's morphology and a much earlier radiocarbon date obtained for the structure. Then, archaeomagnetic data are used to address a number of internal chronology questions

  19. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  20. Iran and the United States: Recreating a Strategic Partnership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weynand, Gordon W

    2009-01-01

    Iran's geographical location, regional influence, large and well-educated population, extensive petroleum resources, and functioning theocratic democracy make it critical for the United States to seek...

  1. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  2. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  3. United States Department of Energy/United States Environmental Protection Agency beneficial uses program for the use of cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; McMullen, W.H.; Yeager, J.G.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1982-03-01

    The goal of the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Beneficial Uses Program for use of Cesium-137 is to identify and develop ways in which this isotope can be utilized to aid in the solution of major national and international problems. Gamma radiation from Cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for safety. The first full-scale demonstration of this technology is being actively pursued in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Similar gamma treatment has also proved effective in ridding food commodities of destructive insects. This paper discusses program research and engineering history related to sludge irradiation, current activities and future plans for sludge irradiation and plans regarding food irradiation

  4. Fusion utilization projections in the United States energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    The following topics are discussed in some detail in this report: (1) applications of fusion energy, (2) fusion implementation in the US energy system, (3) reactor performance requirements, (4) technology for electric applications, and (5) technology for synthetic fuel/chemical applications

  5. Changing Perceptions of Nuclear Power in The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, John

    1989-01-01

    Although many new nuclear power plants have been brought on line in that time, resulting in a capacity of 110 plants with operating permits and another twelve in the last stages of completion, all of these plants were authorized before 1978. The fundamental reason for this moratorium in new orders was the precipitous reduction in electricity demand, arising from the OPEC embargo and Iran revolution, which created excess electric capacity throughout the United States. In fact, many nuclear and coal plants were cancelled to minimize the over capacity problem and no large base load generating units have been ordered of any kind in the past decade. So the 'moratorium' is not really unique to nuclear power. Progress, coupled with increased awareness that nuclear power is one of the keys to solving atmospheric environmental problems, will swing political and public acceptance back to being favorable. Successful progress in these matters will be of benefit to public acceptance around the world and, conversely, serious technical difficulties, particularly entailing any major incident with a nuclear power plants anywhere in the world, will adversely affect the improvement in political and public acceptance in the United States. It is vitally important, therefore, that we continue to further enhance international cooperation in nuclear power. We are pleased the Korea Electric power Corporation and the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute are participating in EPRI development programs, and hope that cooperation will increase in the future. We're most encouraged by the formation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators, which will be initiated in Moscow next month. The nuclear electric utilities and their governments around the world, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD should be commended for their initiative in international cooperation

  6. Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feikert, Clare; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations...

  7. Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Vital and Health Statistics Annual Reports Health Survey Research Methods Conference Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization ... dementia special care units, or in a more traditional setting where these residents are integrated with residents ...

  8. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  9. United States: refrigeration industry blows hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the Kyoto convention on global warming, the american refrigeration industries have undertaken several organizations and contacts with governments and agencies in order to explain the real issues concerning the effects of refrigerant utilization in refrigerating machines on the greenhouse effect, taking into consideration the commercial impact that a ban on certain refrigerants could have on the industry's business. They argue that HFC utilization in this industry is fundamentally non-emissive and that important improvements have been realized concerning tightness and energy consumption

  10. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  11. Diffusion of nuclear power generation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of nuclear power as an innovation diffusing through the utility industry in the United States. Chapter 1 notes that the industry studied, the innovation and the diffusion process have several characteristics not typical of the classical diffusion of innovations literature in economics. Uncertainty about the true characteristics of the innovation persists well into the diffusion process. The characteristics of the innovation appear to change over time. Thus the classic S-shaped transition path from the old, pre-innovation equilibrium to a new post-diffusion equilibrium is not found for this innovation and this industry. A generalized diffusion model is developed in Chapter 1 which allows these peculiarities of the utility industry and of nuclear power to be taken into account. Chapter 2 traces the development of the innovation, the consequences of the demonstration plant program, and the history of the diffusion process from 1963 to the present. Chapter 3 analyses the structure and sources and consequences of regulation of the industry. Chapter 4 develops a logit discrete choice model of the adoption decision. Chapter 5 investigates the determinants of the proportion of industry output provided by nuclear plants using a modified version of the Baughman--Joskow Regional Electricity Model. Salient aspects of uncertainty shift the expected average cost of nuclear plant output in the modified model

  12. Constraints on nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear option appears, at this time, to be disappearing. Determinants of energy supply seem to be changing from engineering and economic factors to other considerations. Regulatory and financial constraints now appear to be dominating the guidelines for electrical energy expansion. American electric utilities, for the most part, have not been able to obtain sufficient revenues to cover their costs of production. What price increases that they are being allowed to charge their customers come too late to keep up with inflation. They require increasing quantities of outside funding in the form of debt and equity capital. This they can only obtain at record high rates, if at all. Most utilities are not even earning what their regulators have determined are fair returns. Financial problems and regulatory tangles severely affect nuclear power, despite its proven technology and environmental and economic benefits. If the United States loses the nuclear alternative, the economic consequences of limiting fuels for electric base load generation to coal only will be severe; analogous to a monopoly situation in fuel supply. It is doubtful, despite the huge resources of coal, that the coal industry can satisfy even a reduced future demand. The question then becomes whether the technological leader of the world may in the future be faced with blackouts and rationing of electricity

  13. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year`s report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities.

  14. Electric trade in the United States 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This publication, Electric Trade in the US 1992 (ELECTRA), is the fourth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1992. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. Information on the physical transmission system are being included for the first time in this publication. Transmission data covering investor-owned electric utilities were shifted from the Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities to the ELECTRA publication. Some of the prominent features of this year's report include information and data not published before on transmission lines for publicly owned utilities and transmission lines added during 1992 by investor-owned electric utilities

  15. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  16. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  17. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  18. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  19. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  20. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...