WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states ranks

  1. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy......BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of parents and offspring. Using a novel estimator of educational rank, I compare patterns of mobility...

  2. Measuring and Ranking Efficiency of Major Airports in the United States Using Data Envelopmentanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myunghyun

    2004-01-01

    An airport is an important piece of infrastructure in air transportation system. This project focuses on measuring and ranking the efficiency of airports in the United States using the basic DEA, Ranking DEA, Goal programming and DEA and TOPSIS. In general, airport authorities of relatively inefficient airports are trying to benchmark the operational strategies of efficient airports. This project focuses on evaluating hub airports in the United States. ATL, LAX, and MEM airports are ...

  3. Behind international rankings of infant mortality: how the United States compares with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Mathews, T J

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the United States ranked 30th in the world in infant mortality. Infant mortality rates for preterm (infants are lower in the United States than in most European countries; however, infant mortality rates for infants born at 37 or more weeks of gestation are higher in the United States than in most European countries. One in 8 births in the United States were preterm in 2005, compared with 1 in 18 births in Ireland and Finland, and 1 in 16 in France and Sweden. If the United States had Sweden's distribution of births by gestational age, nearly 8,000 infant deaths in the United States would be averted each year, and the U.S. infant mortality rate would be one-third lower. The main cause of the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with Europe is the very high percentage of preterm births in the United States, the period when infant mortality is greatest.

  4. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States:Differences by Race and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of pare...

  5. An Evaluation and Ranking of Children's Hospital Websites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Ford, Eric W

    2016-08-22

    Children's hospitals are faced with the rising need for technological innovation. Their prospective health care consumers, who increasingly depend on the Web and social media for communication and consumer engagement, drive this need. As patients and family members navigate the Web presence of hospitals, it is important for these specialized organizations to present themselves and their services efficiently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the website content of children's hospitals in order to identify opportunities to improve website design and create benchmarks to judge improvement. All websites associated with a children's hospital were identified using a census list of all children's hospitals in the United States. In March of 2014, each website and its social media were evaluated using a Web crawler that provided a 5-dimensional assessment that included website accessibility, marketing, content, technology, and usability. The 5-dimensional assessment was scored on a scale ranging from 0 to 10 with positive findings rated higher on the scale. Websites were ranked by individual dimensions as well as according to their average ranking across all dimensions. Mean scores of 153 websites ranged from 5.05 to 8.23 across all 5 dimensions. Results revealed that no website scored a perfect 10 on any dimension and that room exists for meaningful improvement. Study findings allow for the establishment of baseline benchmarks for tracking future website and social media improvements and display the need for enhanced Web-based consumer engagement for children's hospitals.

  6. Hospital Website Rankings in the United States: Expanding Benchmarks and Standards for Effective Consumer Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-01-01

    .19) and 6.49 (SD 0.96). Based on these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. Conclusions This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector’s use of websites and social media. PMID:24568892

  7. Hospital website rankings in the United States: expanding benchmarks and standards for effective consumer engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-02-25

    these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector's use of websites and social media.

  8. A Study of the Effects of Rank and Gender on Officers' Club Membership and Club Usage at U.S. Air Force Bases in the Continental United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, C

    1999-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between both officer rank and officer gender and both club membership and member usage at Air Force officers' clubs in the Continental United States (CONUS...

  9. Ranking Baltic States Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the h-index and the total number of citations, the best 10 Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian researchers from several disciplines are ranked. The list may be formed based on the h-index and the total number of citations, given in Web of Science, Scopus, Publish or Perish Program and Google Scholar database. Data for the first 10 researchers are presented. Google Scholar is the most complete. Therefore, to define a single indicator, h-index calculated by Google Scholar may be a good and simple one. The author chooses the Google Scholar database as it is the broadest one.

  10. Sex Differences in Faculty Rank Among Academic Surgeons in the United States in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Daniel M; Bergmark, Regan W; Raol, Nikhila; Bohnen, Jordan D; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Gray, Stacey T

    2018-01-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in full professorship among a comprehensive, contemporary cohort of US academic surgeons. Previous work demonstrates that women are less likely than men to be full professors in academic medicine, and in certain surgical subspecialties. Whether sex differences in academic rank exist across all surgical fields, and after adjustment for confounders, is not known. A comprehensive list of surgeons with faculty appointments at US medical schools in 2014 was obtained from Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) faculty roster and linked to a comprehensive physician database from Doximity, an online physician networking website, which contained the following data for all physicians: sex, age, years since residency, publication number (total and first/last author), clinical trials participation, National Institutes of Health grants, and surgical subspecialty. A 20% sample of 2013 Medicare payments for care was added to this dataset. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate sex differences in full professorship, adjusting for these variables and medical school-specific fixed effects. Among 11,549 surgeon faculty at US medical schools in 2014, 1692 (14.7%) were women. Women comprised 19.4% of assistant professors (1072/5538), 13.8% of associate professors (404/2931), and 7.0% of full professors (216/3080). After multivariable analysis, women were less likely to be full professors than men (adjusted odds ratio: 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.9). Among surgical faculty at US medical schools in 2014, women were less likely than men to be full professors after adjustment for multiple factors known to impact faculty rank.

  11. What Predicts Performance? A Multicenter Study Examining the Association Between Resident Performance, Rank List Position, and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan G; Schneberk, Todd; Zobrist, Marissa; Hern, H Gene; Jordan, Jamie; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Menchine, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Each application cycle, emergency medicine (EM) residency programs attempt to predict which applicants will be most successful in residency and rank them accordingly on their program's Rank Order List (ROL). Determine if ROL position, participation in a medical student rotation at their respective program, or United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 rank within a class is predictive of residency performance. All full-time EM faculty at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC + USC), Harbor-UCLA (Harbor), Alameda Health System-Highland (Highland), and the University of California-Irvine (UCI) ranked each resident in the classes of 2013 and 2014 at time of graduation. From these anonymous surveys, a graduation ROL was created, and using Spearman's rho, was compared with the program's adjusted ROL, USMLE Step 1 rank, and whether the resident participated in a medical student rotation. A total of 93 residents were evaluated. Graduation ROL position did not correlate with adjusted ROL position (Rho = 0.14, p = 0.19) or USMLE Step 1 rank (Rho = 0.15, p = 0.14). Interestingly, among the subgroup of residents who rotated as medical students, adjusted ROL position demonstrated significant correlation with final ranking on graduation ROL (Rho = 0.31, p = 0.03). USMLE Step 1 score rank and adjusted ROL position did not predict resident performance at time of graduation. However, adjusted ROL position was predictive of future residency success in the subgroup of residents who had completed a sub-internship at their respective programs. These findings should guide the future selection of EM residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical...

  13. State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony; Jayasundera, Tamara; Repnikov, Dmitri; Gulish, Artem

    2015-01-01

    "State Online College Job Market: Ranking the States" analyzes the online college labor market on a state-by-state basis. We examine the geographic distribution of online job ads for college graduates within industries and occupational clusters, and compare the relative strength of the online college labor market across states. We…

  14. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  15. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend vegetables (p for trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Michael B; Hoffmann, Sandra; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the relative public health impact of major microbiological hazards across the food supply is critical for a risk-based national food safety system. This study was conducted to estimate the U.S. health burden of 14 major pathogens in 12 broad categories of food and to then rank the resulting 168 pathogen-food combinations. These pathogens examined were Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, Salmonella enterica, Toxoplasma gondii, and all other FoodNet pathogens. The health burden associated with each pathogen was measured using new estimates of the cost of illness and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from acute and chronic illness and mortality. A new method for attributing illness to foods was developed that relies on both outbreak data and expert elicitation. This method assumes that empirical data are generally preferable to expert judgment; thus, outbreak data were used for attribution except where evidence suggests that these data are considered not representative of food attribution. Based on evaluation of outbreak data, expert elicitation, and published scientific literature, outbreak-based attribution estimates for Campylobacter, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Yersinia were determined not representative; therefore, expert-based attribution were included for these four pathogens. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of attribution data assumptions on rankings. Disease burden was concentrated among a relatively small number of pathogen-food combinations. The top 10 pairs were responsible for losses of over $8 billion and 36,000 QALYs, or more than 50 % of the total across all pairs. Across all 14 pathogens, poultry, pork, produce, and complex foods were responsible for nearly 60 % of the total cost of illness and loss of QALYs.

  17. A ranking efficiency unit by restrictions using DEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Alias, Suriana

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia was made, through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In this study, DEA is used to measure efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial performance. It is believed that only good financial performer will give a good return to the investors in the long run. The main objectives were to compute the relative efficiency scores of the shares in Bursa Malaysia and rank the shares based on Balance Index with regard to relative efficiency. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian's model were employed to this study; where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhode model (CCR) with assumption of constant return to scale (CRS) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by using Balance Index. From the result, the companies that were recommended for investors based on ranking were NATWIDE, YTL and MUDA. These companies were the top three efficient companies with good performance in 2011 whereas in 2012 the top three companies were NATWIDE, MUDA and BERNAS.

  18. Variation in Elderly Friendliness across the U.S. States: Operationalization, Rankings, and Selected Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Lockhart; Jean Giles-Sims

    2005-01-01

    The United States faces a rapidly growing population of elderly citizens. To learn more about their prospects, we engage in three tasks. First, we develop and operationalize a five-dimensional concept, “state elderly friendliness,” that facilitates assessing various political, economic, and social aspects of state environments that influence the well-being of elderly persons. Second, we rank states on the five dimensions of this concept. We find large differences both within states across var...

  19. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy conservation potential, on a savings percentage basis, of the building as determined in the energy... basis, several buildings may be ranked as a single building if the application proposes a single energy... State Plan; (3) The types of energy sources to which conversion is proposed, including renewable energy...

  20. A Hybrid Fuzzy DEA/AHP Methodology for Ranking Units in a Fuzzy Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng-Kai Hu; Fung-Bao Liu; Cheng-Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    .... It shows that the proposed approach generates a logical ranking of units that has perfect compatibility with fuzzy DEA ranking and there is no any form of subjective analysis engaged within the methodology...

  1. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  2. A full ranking for decision making units using ideal and anti-ideal points in DEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegarinegad, A; Jahanshahloo, G; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure for ranking decision making units in data envelopment analysis, based on ideal and anti-ideal points in the production possibility set. Moreover, a model has been introduced to compute the performance of a decision making unit for these two points through using common set of weights. One of the best privileges of this method is that we can make ranking for all decision making units by solving only three programs, and also solving these programs is not related to numbers of decision making units. One of the other advantages of this procedure is to rank all the extreme and nonextreme efficient decision making units. In other words, the suggested ranking method tends to seek a set of common weights for all units to make them fully ranked. Finally, it was applied for different sets holding real data, and then it can be compared with other procedures.

  3. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  4. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  5. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  6. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  7. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  8. Health Risk Ranking of Lead Contaminated Sites in Bagega Community, Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Olanreaju Clement

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The release of lead dust during the processing of lead-gold ore has become an environmental threat. Therefore the protection of miners’ health and their environment required remediation which can be achieved by ranking the risk posed by lead in order to prioritize the allocation of resources during remediation. Methods: Soil and water samples were collected at BRC, BRG, BVC, BPA and BFA; BWE, BBH and BPO using stratified random and grab sampling methods. Lead concentrations in the samples were determined using AAS while health risk index (HRI via ingestion was estimated using USEPA equations. The ranking of HRI was done using Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment while the difference between the HRI and USEPA standard were determined using one sample t test. Results: The result showed that BRC/10, BRG/03, BVC/11, BPA/02 and BFA/08 were ranked highest in soil samples, while BWE/02, BBH/09 and BPO/04 were ranked highest in water samples as they posed elevated health risk effects to miners. One sample t test established that the BRC, BPA, BFA and BPO were significantly different from United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA standard. Conclusion: The study discovered that the users of both the lead contaminated soil and water were seriously exposed to potential health risk. It therefore suggested that decision makers should give priority in allocating resources to those sites with elevated lead concentrations during the remediation.

  9. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. Methods Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. Results Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99. Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. Conclusions

  10. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry... Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive Impact...

  11. Modeling Ranking, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scale Values for EQ-5D Health States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS). In this paper, we explore alternative models for estimating cardinal health state values from rank responses in a unique multi-country database. We highlight an estimation challenge pertaining to health states just below perfect health (the ‘non-optimal gap’) and propose an analytic solution to ameliorate this problem. Methods Using rank, a standardized protocol developed by the EuroQol Group, TTO and VAS responses were collected for 43 health states in eight countries: Slovenia, Argentina, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States, yielding a sample of 179,431 state responses from 11,483 subjects. States were described using the EQ-5D system, which allows for three different possible levels on five different dimensions of health. We estimated conditional logit and probit regression models for rank responses. The regressions included 17 health-state attribute variables reflecting specific levels on each dimension and counts of different levels across dimensions. This flexible specification accommodates previously published valuation models, such as models applied in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to fitting standard conditional logit and probit models, which assume equal variance across health states (homoskedasticity), we examined a heteroskedastic probit model that assumes no variance for the two points anchoring the scale (“optimal health” and “dead”) and relaxes the equal-variance assumption for all other states. Rank-based predictions for the 243 unique states defined by the EQ-5D system were compared to predictions from conventional linear models fitted to TTO and VAS responses. Results By construction, the TTO and VAS models

  12. A Multiobjective Programming Method for Ranking All Units Based on Compensatory DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rank all decision making units (DMUs on the same basis, this paper proposes a multiobjective programming (MOP model based on a compensatory data envelopment analysis (DEA model to derive a common set of weights that can be used for the full ranking of all DMUs. We first revisit a compensatory DEA model for ranking all units, point out the existing problem for solving the model, and present an improved algorithm for which an approximate global optimal solution of the model can be obtained by solving a sequence of linear programming. Then, we applied the key idea of the compensatory DEA model to develop the MOP model in which the objectives are to simultaneously maximize all common weights under constraints that the sum of efficiency values of all DMUs is equal to unity and the sum of all common weights is also equal to unity. In order to solve the MOP model, we transform it into a single objective programming (SOP model using a fuzzy programming method and solve the SOP model using the proposed approximation algorithm. To illustrate the ranking method using the proposed method, two numerical examples are solved.

  13. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  14. Phases with modular ground states for symmetry breaking by rank 3 and rank 2 antisymmetric tensor scalars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Adler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Working with explicit examples given by the 56 representation in SU(8, and the 10 representation in SU(5, we show that symmetry breaking of a group G⊃G1×G2 by a scalar in a rank three or two antisymmetric tensor representation leads to a number of distinct modular ground states. For these broken symmetry phases, the ground state is periodic in an integer divisor p of N, where N>0 is the absolute value of the nonzero U(1 generator of the scalar component Φ that is a singlet under the simple subgroups G1 and G2. Ground state expectations of fractional powers Φp/N provide order parameters that distinguish the different phases. For the case of period p=1, this reduces to the usual Higgs mechanism, but for divisors N≥p>1 of N it leads to a modular ground state with periodicity p, implementing a discrete Abelian symmetry group U(1/Zp. This observation may allow new approaches to grand unification and family unification.

  15. Keep it simple: ranking health states yields values similar to cardinal measurement approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Craig (Benjamin); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.A. Salomon (Joshua)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between ordinal and cardinal valuation of health states. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We analyzed rank, visual analog scale (VAS), and time trade-off (TTO) responses for 52 health states defined using the EQ-5D classification system

  16. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  17. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  18. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  19. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., designs, trade dress, and trade secrets; computer software, databases, and related documentation; know-how... Columbia for defendants Amcor and Rio Tinto under 28 U.S.C. 1391(d). IV. Trade and Commerce A. Background 1... Federal Trade Commission. See id. United States District Court for the District of Columbia United States...

  20. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  1. Productivity Assessment and Improvement Measurement of Decision Making Units--An Application for Ranking Cities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yossi; Keren, Baruch; Ben-Yair, Avner

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how productivity and improvement rate of urban organizational units (called also Decision Making Units--DMUs) may be assessed when measured along several time periods. The assessment and subsequent ranking of cities is achieved by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to determine DMU's…

  2. Some Health States Are Better Than Others: Using Health State Rank Order to Improve Probabilistic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Jalal, Hawre J

    2016-11-01

    Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) may lead policy makers to take nonoptimal actions due to misestimates of decision uncertainty caused by ignoring correlations. We developed a method to establish joint uncertainty distributions of quality-of-life (QoL) weights exploiting ordinal preferences over health states. Our method takes as inputs independent, univariate marginal distributions for each QoL weight and a preference ordering. It establishes a correlation matrix between QoL weights intended to preserve the ordering. It samples QoL weight values from their distributions, ordering them with the correlation matrix. It calculates the proportion of samples violating the ordering, iteratively adjusting the correlation matrix until this proportion is below an arbitrarily small threshold. We compare our method with the uncorrelated method and other methods for preserving rank ordering in terms of violation proportions and fidelity to the specified marginal distributions along with PSA and expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) estimates, using 2 models: 1) a decision tree with 2 decision alternatives and 2) a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Markov model with 3 alternatives. All methods make tradeoffs between violating preference orderings and altering marginal distributions. For both models, our method simultaneously performed best, with largest performance advantages when distributions reflected wider uncertainty. For PSA, larger changes to the marginal distributions induced by existing methods resulted in differing conclusions about which strategy was most likely optimal. For EVPPI, both preference order violations and altered marginal distributions caused existing methods to misestimate the maximum value of seeking additional information, sometimes concluding that there was no value. Analysts can characterize the joint uncertainty in QoL weights to improve PSA and value-of-information estimates using Open Source implementations of our method.

  3. Accreditation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public…

  4. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  5. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  6. Modeling ranking, time trade-off, and visual analog scale values for EQ-5D health states: a review and comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M; Busschbach, Jan J V; Salomon, Joshua A

    2009-06-01

    There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS). In this article, we explore alternative models for estimating cardinal health state values from rank responses in a unique multicountry database. We highlight an estimation challenge pertaining to health states just below perfect health (the "nonoptimal gap") and propose an analytic solution to ameliorate this problem. Using a standardized protocol developed by the EuroQol Group, rank, VAS, and TTO responses were collected for 43 health states in 8 countries: Slovenia, Argentina, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States, yielding a sample of 179,431 state responses from 11,483 subjects. States were described using the EQ-5D system, which allows for 3 different possible levels on 5 different dimensions of health. We estimated conditional logit and probit regression models for rank responses. The regressions included 17 health state attribute variables reflecting specific levels on each dimension and counts of different levels across dimensions. This flexible specification accommodates previously published valuation models, such as models applied in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to fitting standard conditional logit and probit models, which assume equal variance across health states (homoscedasticity), we examined a heteroscedastic probit model that assumes no variance for the 2 points anchoring the scale ("optimal health" and "dead") and relaxes the equal-variance assumption for all other states. Rank-based predictions for the 243 unique states defined by the EQ-5D system were compared with predictions from conventional linear models fitted to TTO and VAS responses. By construction, the TTO and VAS models assume no variance around the anchoring states of

  7. Input and state estimation for linear systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haokun; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Zuhua; Shao, Zhijiang

    2015-07-01

    The problem of joint input and state estimation for linear stochastic systems with a rank-deficient direct feedthrough matrix is discussed in this paper. Results from previous studies only solve the state estimation problem; globally optimal estimation of the unknown input is not provided. Based on linear minimum-variance unbiased estimation, a five-step recursive filter with global optimality is proposed to estimate both the unknown input and the state. The relationship between the proposed filter and the existing results is addressed. We show that the unbiased input estimation does not require any new information or additional constraints. Both the state and the unknown input can be estimated under the same unbiasedness condition. Global optimalities of both the state estimator and the unknown input estimator are proven in the minimum-variance unbiased sense. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  9. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  10. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  11. Sterilization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  12. Low-rank Kalman filtering for efficient state estimation of subsurface advective contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2012-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the movement of contaminants in porous media is essential to track their trajectory and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is implemented and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of different sources of uncertainties, this coupled model might not be able to accurately track the contaminant state. Incorporating observations through the process of data assimilation can guide the model toward the true trajectory of the system. The Kalman filter (KF), or its nonlinear invariants, can be used to tackle this problem. To overcome the prohibitive computational cost of the KF, the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular fixed Kalman filter (SFKF) are used, which are variants of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. Experimental results suggest that under perfect and imperfect model setups, the low-rank filters can provide estimates as accurate as the full KF but at much lower computational effort. Low-rank filters are demonstrated to significantly reduce the computational effort of the KF to almost 3%. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  13. Comparing percentages and ranks of adolescent weight-related outcomes among U.S. states: Implications for intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Liu, Benmei; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Understanding statistical differences in states' percentages and ranks of adolescents meeting health behavior guidelines can guide policymaking. Data came from 531,777 adolescents (grades 9-12) who completed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey in 2011, 2013, or 2015. We measured the percentage of adolescents in each state that met guidelines for physical activity, fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, and healthy weight status. Then we ranked states and calculated the ranks' 95% CI's using a Monte Carlo method with 100,000 simulations. We repeated these analyses stratified by sex (female or male) or race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic/Latino, or other). Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients examined consistency in the percentages and ranks (respectively) across behaviors and subgroups. Meeting the physical activity and F&V consumption guidelines was relatively rare among adolescents (25.8% [95% CI=25.2%-26.4%] and 8.0% [95% CI=7.6%-8.3%], respectively), while meeting the healthy weight guideline was common (71.5% [95% CI=70.7%-72.3%]). At the state level, percentages of adolescents meeting these guidelines were statistically similar; states' ranks had wide CI's, resulting in considerable overlap (i.e., statistical equivalence). For each behavior, states' percentages and ranks were moderately to highly correlated across adolescent subgroups (Pearson's r=0.33-0.96; Spearman's r=0.42-0.96), but across behaviors, only F&V consumption and healthy weight were correlated (Pearson's r=0.34; Spearman's r=0.37). Adolescents in all states could benefit from initiatives to support cancer prevention behaviors, especially physical activity and F&V consumption. Programs in states that ranked highly on all assessed health behaviors could be adapted for dissemination in lower-performing states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Shawn P

    2007-01-01

    The United States, its industries, livelihood, and economy depend on oil. The United States is the world's largest consumer of oil, with daily usage of approximately 20 million barrels. Approximately...

  15. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  18. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  19. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  20. Neurocysticercosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100 000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population. PMID:23265549

  1. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  2. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  3. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  4. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Final Judgment relates to a qui tam action arising from common facts, and settlements with the United... proposed Final Judgment is to settle the qui tam lawsuit. GEC Cmts at 1-2. IV. THE DEPARTMENT'S RESPONSE TO...

  5. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  6. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  7. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  8. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Negras Brewery''), which is located in Mexico near the Texas border, and the assets and companies... States's ``prediction as to the effect of proposed remedies, its perception of the market structure, and...

  9. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  10. Tree planting in the United States - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Moulton; G. Hernandez

    2000-01-01

    This annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement, and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. As far as we know, it...

  11. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  12. The geography of private forests that support at-risk species in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos D. Robles; Curtis H. Flather; Susan M. Stein; Mark D. Nelson; Andrew Cutko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present a coarse-scale, first approximation of the geographic areas where privately owned forests support at-risk species in the conterminous United States. At-risk species are defined as those species listed under the US Endangered Species Act or with a global conservation status rank of critically imperiled, imperiled, or vulnerable. Our results...

  13. Risk maps for targeting exotic plant pest detection programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Magarey; D.M. Borchert; J.S. Engle; M Garcia-Colunga; Frank H. Koch; et al

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, pest risk maps are used by the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey for spatial and temporal targeting of exotic plant pest detection programs. Methods are described to create standardized host distribution, climate and pathway risk maps for the top nationally ranked exotic pest targets. Two examples are provided to illustrate the risk mapping...

  14. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belote, R. Travis; Dietz, Matthew S.; McRae, Brad H.; Theobald, David M.; McClure, Meredith L.; Irwin, G. Hugh; McKinley, Peter S.; Gage, Josh A.; Aplet, Gregory H.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most “natural” (i.e., least human-modified) corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1) among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2) among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs) or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs). Corridor values varied substantially among classes of “unprotected” non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas. PMID:27104683

  15. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  16. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  17. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  18. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  19. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  20. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  1. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  2. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  3. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  4. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. United States Security Policy in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Scott R; Wiarda, Howard J

    1993-01-01

    The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter...

  6. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  7. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  8. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  9. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  11. Bibliographic Databases Outside of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Thomas P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles describe the development, content, and structure of databases outside of the United States. Features discussed include library involvement, authority control, shared cataloging services, union catalogs, thesauri, abstracts, and distribution methods. Countries and areas represented are Latin America, Australia, the United Kingdom,…

  12. FRAGMENTATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITES STATES FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2....

  13. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  14. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  15. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  16. Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Elena; Wallace, Steven P.; Berumen, Salvador; Castaneda, Xotichl; al., et

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of "Mexico-United States Migration: Health issues" is to present a general overview of the conditions faced by Mexican residents in the United States concerning their health care. Good health constitutes an essential asset for the integral development of an immigrant's capacities for performing labor and for social participation. Enjoying good health not only benefits the immigrants themselves and their descendents, both Mexican and American, but also has larger social...

  17. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farr, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    ... world. The People's Republic of China and Singapore are the focus of this thesis in order to determine what if any homeland security policies developed by their governments could be used to better protect citizens of the United States. Several policies such as legislation, education and internal security measures were evaluated for the United States to institute. Each chosen policy is followed by a brief description of how these laws might come into being within the U.S. governmental system.

  18. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  19. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  20. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Portuguese forces in Angola in 1972 and that of President Stroessner of Paraguay in 1974. Other appearances include those at state fune- rals and when foreign ambassadors present their credentials to the State President. All the occasions at which the Unit performs, especially the annual official Opening of Parlia-.

  1. Probabilistic low-rank factorization accelerates tensor network simulations of critical quantum many-body ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Lucas; Tschirsich, Ferdinand; Keck, Maximilian; Plenio, Martin B.; Tamascelli, Dario; Montangero, Simone

    2018-01-01

    We provide evidence that randomized low-rank factorization is a powerful tool for the determination of the ground-state properties of low-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians through tensor network techniques. In particular, we show that randomized matrix factorization outperforms truncated singular value decomposition based on state-of-the-art deterministic routines in time-evolving block decimation (TEBD)- and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG)-style simulations, even when the system under study gets close to a phase transition: We report linear speedups in the bond or local dimension of up to 24 times in quasi-two-dimensional cylindrical systems.

  2. Tensor Rank

    OpenAIRE

    Erdtman, Elias; Jönsson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses numerical methods of computing the typical ranks of tensors over the real numbers and explores some properties of tensors over finite fields. We present three numerical methods to compute typical tensor rank. Two of these have already been published and can be used to calculate the lowest typical ranks of tensors and an approximate percentage of how many tensors have the lowest typical ranks (for some tensor formats), respectively. The third method was developed...

  3. Sparse structure regularized ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-04-17

    Learning ranking scores is critical for the multimedia database retrieval problem. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking score learning algorithm by exploring the sparse structure and using it to regularize ranking scores. To explore the sparse structure, we assume that each multimedia object could be represented as a sparse linear combination of all other objects, and combination coefficients are regarded as a similarity measure between objects and used to regularize their ranking scores. Moreover, we propose to learn the sparse combination coefficients and the ranking scores simultaneously. A unified objective function is constructed with regard to both the combination coefficients and the ranking scores, and is optimized by an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two multimedia database retrieval data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of the propose algorithm over state-of-the-art ranking score learning algorithms.

  4. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  5. Improving Ranking Using Quantum Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that ranking information units by quantum probability differs from ranking them by classical probability provided the same data used for parameter estimation. As probability of detection (also known as recall or power) and probability of false alarm (also known as fallout or size) measure the quality of ranking, we point out and show that ranking by quantum probability yields higher probability of detection than ranking by classical probability provided a given probability of ...

  6. Rank Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it

  7. Orphan drug product regulation--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, M E

    2002-02-01

    The legislative history of the United States Orphan Drug Act began with rare, unanimous approval by the United States Congress. The Act, mid consequently the Regulations, have evolved since then. The two-stage process of Orphan Drug designation and approval is outlined, as well as the incentives that are offered to commercial companies for their implementation. Orphan Drugs are likely to be over-represented among drugs used under "Treatment" INDs. For patent- and "drug-difference" reasons, the benefits under the Orphan Drug Act are especially valuable to those who develop biologics. By any measure, this legislation, which requires only voluntary participation, has been a success; because the human genome is likely to lead to more biologicals than orthodox drugs, this success is likely to continue into the future. But even so, the 18-year experience with Orphan Drugs in the United States has led to some 225 Orphan Product approvals that benefit many millions of patients.

  8. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  9. Children facing economic hardships in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper helps document significant improvements in the child low-income rate as well as the significant decrease in the proportion of children who relied on public assistance in the United States during the 1990s. Many disadvantaged groups of children were less likely to live in poor or low-income families in the late 1990s than such children a decade earlier. The improvement in the child low-income rates of these disadvantaged groups was accompanied by a substantial increase in parental employment. However, parental employment appears to do less to protect children from economic hardship than it did a decade earlier. This paper shows that working families' children in many disadvantaged social groups, especially groups in medium risk ranks--children in families with parents between ages 25 to 29, with parents who only had a high-school diploma, and in father-only families--suffered the largest increase in economic hardship. Our results indicate that the increased odds of falling below low-income lines among children in working families facing multiple disadvantaged characteristics and the increased proportion of these children in various subgroups of working families in the 1990s can help explain the increased economic hardship among subgroups in the medium risk ranks listed above. Finally, the paper also notes that the official measure of poverty tends to underestimate low-income rates.

  10. Necessary and Sufficient Product Criteria for Quantum States via the Rank of Realignment Matrix of Density Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-11-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient product criterion for bipartite quantum states based on the rank of realignment matrix of density matrix. Then, this approach is generalized to multipartite systems. We first introduce the concept of semiproduct in a similar manner to the semiseparable and prove that semiproduct is equivalent to fully product. Therefore, a quantum state is bipartite product with respect to all possible partitions implies fully product which is different from the case of separability. For pure states, it can easily be seen that several necessary and sufficient separability criteria for multipartite systems are derived as a special case of our results. Several specific examples illustrate that our criteria are convenient and operational.

  11. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  12. Sheltered Workshops: United States v. Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Prince, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Federal legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504, and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, mandates that individuals with disabilities be integrated in all aspects of life from education to employment to independent living. A recent development involves a settlement reached between the United States and the…

  13. Pulp capacity in the United States, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett R. Smith; Robert W. Rice; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    Production capacities of all woodpulp mills in the United States are identified by location, ownership, and process type. For each mill, production capacity is reported for the year 2000 by process type; total mill capacities are also reported for 1961, 1965, 1979, 1974, and 1983. In addition, the report summarizes the recent history and current status of woodpulp...

  14. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Relations, ed. Robert O. Freedman (Boulder: Westview Press, 2012), 22. 47 radicals such as Gamal Abdel Nasser to become more defiant. The United...States backed Egypt in the 1956 Suez War, taking on Britain, France, and Israel, but received no credit from Nasser . The aftermath of the Israeli

  15. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  16. Black Studies and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptheker, Herbert

    1971-01-01

    A consciously anti-racist historiography is urgently needed by the historical profession. The movement for what is called Black Studies would contribute decisively towards making the educational process real and wholesome, and help exalt the historical profession in the United States. (Author)

  17. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  18. Nonstandard Employment in the Nonmetropolitan United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of nonstandard employment in the nonmetropolitan United States using the Current Population Survey Supplement on Contingent Work (1999 and 2001). We find that nonstandard work is more prevalent in nonmetropolitan than in central city or suburban areas. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic and work…

  19. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  1. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  2. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...analyzed, risks can be mitigated as they occur. Partner activities can and will have a significant impact on national security, and the application of

  3. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  4. Forestry Schools in the United States, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This 24-page booklet compiled by the U.S. Forest Service lists 49 colleges and universities in the United States which offer forestry curriculums leading to an undergraduate and/or graduate degree in forestry or related areas. Brief descriptions of each program are included. Schools accredited by the Society of American Foresters are indicated…

  5. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  6. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health issues… CHIP Marketplaces Waivers menu KFF.org Facebook Twitter Email Twitter Facebook Email HIV/AIDS Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... in the United States Published: Jun 23, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Key Facts HIV testing ...

  7. Crafts-Artists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, J. George; And Others

    Following a preliminary study of crafts membership organizations in the United States, a survey was conducted of members of these organizations in order to determine their number, kind, media of work, personal characteristics, and geographic location. A sample of 5,146 craftspersons who were members of these organizations was mailed a…

  8. United States Department of Education Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author provides updates on the various programs of the United States Department of Education. Among others, the Office of Correctional Education is sponsoring training sessions dealing with the utilization of post release outcome data to evaluate institutionally based educational services. Also, a few weeks after the upcoming…

  9. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    Arguably, the US – Nigerian relations before the events on 25th of December, 2009 was a healthy one. However, the attempted suicide ... Consequently, the. United States of America put Nigeria on a watch list of potential terrorist countries. This did not only ... forward by Adeniran, who postulates thus: When statesmen and ...

  10. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  11. Southeast Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews the history, initial problems, and economic adjustment of Southeast Asian refugees residing in the United States today. Provides some figures on yearly arrivals from 1975 to 198l, national origin of the U.S. Southeast Asians, their current level of English proficiency, labor force participation, and percent of households on public…

  12. AED in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) work in the United States includes programs with many of the nation's major foundations on issues of education reform, parental involvement in the schools, youth development and bridging the distance between school, work, and successful university education. The projects described here cover a wide…

  13. Mexico-United States labor migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1997-01-01

    "International migration from Mexico to the United Sates is viewed very differently depending on from which side of the border this phenomenon is observed and evaluated....[It is] imperative to begin a process of ¿demythifying' migration as a necessary and sufficient condition that would allow both countries to come together within the context of bilateral relations and find ways to act jointly to address the impacts of the issue. Such a demythifying effort must begin with scientific research which can help develop a diagnosis of the costs and benefits that labor migration from Mexico to the United States brings to the two countries." excerpt

  14. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First...

  15. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the grounds...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  17. United States Trade Flows for Selected Categories of Specialty Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Garfield G.; Davis, Carlton George; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Nationally, Florida ranked second in farm cash receipt from all crops and second, based on value, in vegetable production (USDA, 2003). It also ranked fourteenth out of all the states with respect to agricultural exports with its top exports, fruits and vegetables, falling within the category of specialty crops. According to the USDA (2003), Florida's agricultural exports helped to boost farm prices and income and supported approximately 17,000 jobs both on and off farm in 2001. As such, its ...

  18. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    fuel lines to modify cars to run with methanol as a gasoline additive. China is already blending 15% methanol in their fuel . The problem with this...was described by the following: higher fuel standards that will double how far a car can go by the middle of the next decade, creation of thousands...electric cars more affordable. The United States needs to divert subsidies from less useful fuels like solar and wind and invest in the electrical

  19. Nursing in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Vickie A.

    2001-01-01

    Nursing in the United States of America is a diverse and challenging profession. A number of educational programs exist that allow the nurse to obtain not only a basic education in nursing, but also advanced degrees in nursing at both the master's and doctoral level of preparation. Practice sites for nurses are numerous and varied, as are the areas of specialization. The annual salary a nurse earns is determined by the nurse's level of educational preparation, job title and responsibilities, ...

  20. Future Energy and United States Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-13

    from plant and animal matter. Currently, distillers in the United States pro- cess ethanol from cornstarch, local waste, cheese whey , wheat and wood...have a major impact on US energy consumption in the next ten years. The second, the power tower is the leading recipient of research for the central...the methods become more famil- 55iar. For most of the next decade, solar heating will make its principal impact in the form of active systems

  1. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    sub-index measures society’s basic attitudes toward entrepreneurship through education and social stability. The activity sub- index measures what...career choice or in terms of social status. In the institutional variable, the United States scores very well among all countries studied but somewhat...Coduras and J. Levie 2009, GEM Executive Report 2008, Babson College, Universidad del Desarrollo , and Global Entrepreneurship Research Consortium

  2. Iranian Diaspora in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Havlů, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explore the social reality of Iranians living in the United States. The main objective is to find out how Iranians (Iranian Americans) maintain, construct and perceive their Iranian identity and to identify factors that could intervene in this process. Another aim is to examine intra-diasporic social relations, social interactions with American society and stance towards Iran. To fulfill the purpose of this dissertation, a qualitative research method was applied. Th...

  3. Race and Rickettsiae: A United States Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Moonesinghe, Ramal; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    US surveillance programs for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis collect demographic data on patients, including race and ethnicity. Reporting of these diseases among race groups is not uniform across the United States. Because a laboratory confirmation is required to meet the national surveillance case definition, reporting may be influenced by a patient's access to healthcare. Determining the association between race and ethnicity with incidence of rickettsia...

  4. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dockery, Jr, Leon W

    2006-01-01

    ... became available in Afghanistan. The primary methodology of this thesis centers on case studies of the military presence of the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan...

  5. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, Robin J; Barrett, Marilyn L; Barnes, Joanne; Chavez, Mary L; Gardiner, Paula; Ko, Richard; Mahady, Gail B; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sarma, Nandakumara D; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sharaf, Maged; Griffiths, James

    2011-08-01

    The Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reviews the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for the purpose of determining whether they should be admitted as quality monographs into the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has enforcement authority to pursue a misbranding action in those instances where a dietary supplement product indicates that it conforms to USP standards but fails to so conform. Recently DSI-EC undertook a safety evaluation of spirulina, a widely used dietary ingredient. DSI-EC reviewed information from human clinical trials, animal studies, and regulatory and pharmacopeial sources and analyzed 31 adverse event reports regarding spirulina to assess potential health concerns. At the conclusion of this review, DSI-EC assigned a Class A safety rating for Spirulina maxima and S. platensis, thereby permitting the admission of quality monographs for these dietary supplement ingredients in USP-NF. DSI-EC continually monitors reports concerning the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for which USP dietary supplement monographs are developed. The DSI-EC may revisit the safety classification of spirulina as new information on this dietary ingredient becomes available.

  6. Mothers' Goals for Adolescents in the United States and China: Content and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping

    2016-03-01

    This research examined children's socialization toward culturally valued goals during adolescence in the United States and China. 223 mothers listed and ranked their 5 most important goals for their children (mean age = 12.85 years). Children ranked the importance of the goals listed by their mothers and explained why they were or were not important to them. American mothers placed heightened emphasis on their children maintaining feelings of worth and pursuing what they enjoy. Chinese mothers stressed their children achieving outcomes, as did African American mothers. European American children's rankings of importance were the least similar to those of their mothers, and they gave the fewest autonomous reasons for importance suggesting that their adoption of mothers' goals was weakest.

  7. Mothers’ Goals for Adolescents in the United States and China: Content and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    This research examined children’s socialization toward culturally valued goals during adolescence in the United States and China. 223 mothers listed and ranked their 5 most important goals for their children (mean age = 12.85 years). Children ranked the importance of the goals listed by their mothers and explained why they were or were not important to them. American mothers placed heightened emphasis on their children maintaining feelings of worth and pursuing what they enjoy. Chinese mothers stressed their children achieving outcomes, as did African American mothers. European American children’s rankings of importance were the least similar to those of their mothers, and they gave the fewest autonomous reasons for importance suggesting that their adoption of mothers’ goals was weakest. PMID:27019420

  8. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kellison, R. C.; Russ Lea; Paul Marsh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation t...

  9. United States Arms Transfers as a Consistent Element of United States Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Organization of American States (OAS) China , Rep. of ilngapore Indonesia Thailand United Nations (UN) and its agencies to in- Japan Vietna1m, lep of...West in terms of an innate antagonism. Comunist dogma had taught them that "the outside world was hostile and that it was their duty eventually to...John King. The United States and China ,. 2nd ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,- 1958. 15. Feige, Peter 2. "ASPR Changes Made to Assist

  10. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  11. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  12. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  13. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  14. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  15. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  16. Childhood Firearm Injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Gutierrez, Carmen; Bacon, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Examine fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries among children aged 0 to 17 in the United States, including intent, demographic characteristics, trends, state-level patterns, and circumstances. Fatal injuries were examined by using data from the National Vital Statistics System and nonfatal injuries by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Trends from 2002 to 2014 were tested using joinpoint regression analyses. Incident characteristics and circumstances were examined by using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Nearly 1300 children die and 5790 are treated for gunshot wounds each year. Boys, older children, and minorities are disproportionately affected. Although unintentional firearm deaths among children declined from 2002 to 2014 and firearm homicides declined from 2007 to 2014, firearm suicides decreased between 2002 and 2007 and then showed a significant upward trend from 2007 to 2014. Rates of firearm homicide among children are higher in many Southern states and parts of the Midwest relative to other parts of the country. Firearm suicides are more dispersed across the United States with some of the highest rates occurring in Western states. Firearm homicides of younger children often occurred in multivictim events and involved intimate partner or family conflict; older children more often died in the context of crime and violence. Firearm suicides were often precipitated by situational and relationship problems. The shooter playing with a gun was the most common circumstance surrounding unintentional firearm deaths of both younger and older children. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem, contributing substantially to premature death and disability of children. Understanding their nature and impact is a first step toward prevention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration o...

  18. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of webcams . Today there is a much greater chance that someone working in the corporate sector is working or keeping up to date with their office...all American adults had high-speed Internet connections at home in the United States. In March 2005, that number was only 30 percent.47 Many new...Project’s combined January-March tracking survey of 4,402 adults ; 1,265 were home broadband users. 2006 data comes from the Pew Internet Project’s February

  19. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  20. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  1. Reoccurring Financial Crises in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2011-01-01

    The economic history of the United States is riddled with financial crises and banking panics. During the nineteenth-century, eight major such episodes occurred. In the period following World War II, some believed that these crises would no longer happen, and that the U.S. had reached a time of everlasting financial stability and sustainable growth. The Savings and Loans Crisis of the 1980s, the 2001 dot-com bust and the 2007 housing bubble that led to the current global financial crises demo...

  2. Contraceptive failure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. PMID:21477680

  3. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  4. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  5. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  6. Gypsum karst in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is one of the most soluble of common rocks; it is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. The four basic requirements for gypsum karst to develop are: (1 a deposit of gypsum; (2 water, unsaturated with CaSO4 (3 an outlet for escape of dissolving water; and (4 energy to cause water to flow through the system. Gypsum deposits are present in 32 of the 48 conterminous United States, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area; they are reported in rocks of every geologic system from the Precambrian through the Quaternary. Gypsum karst is known at least locally (and sometimes quite extensively in almost all areas underlain by gypsum, and commonly extends down to depths of at least 30 m below the land surface. The most widespread and pronounced examples of gypsum karst are in the Permian basin of southwestern United States, but many other areas also are significant. Human activities may also cause, or accelerate, development of gypsum karst.

  7. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  8. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  9. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  10. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United States...

  11. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  12. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  13. United States Army Officer Personnel Reforms and the Decline of Rank Flexibility, 1890s-1920s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    armies.”97 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge praised the actions of American officers at the 1898 Battle of San Juan Hill, declaring “the flower of the...Henry Cabot Lodge, “The Spanish-American War,” Harpers New Monthly Magazine 98, no. 586 (May 1899): 848. 99 Carter, The American Army, 83-84. 100...Henry Cabot . “The Spanish-American War.” Harpers New Monthly Magazine 98, no. 586 (May 1899): 505-523. MacLean, Aaron. “We Don’t Reward Top Military

  14. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Benzodiazepine use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; King, Marissa; Schoenbaum, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although concern exists regarding the rate of benzodiazepine use, especially long-term use by older adults, little information is available concerning patterns of benzodiazepine use in the United States. To describe benzodiazepine prescription patterns in the United States focusing on patient age and duration of use. A retrospective descriptive analysis of benzodiazepine prescriptions was performed with the 2008 LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database (IMS Health Inc), which includes approximately 60% of all retail pharmacies in the United States. Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the US population. The percentage of adults filling 1 or more benzodiazepine prescriptions during the study year by sex and age group (18-35 years, 36-50 years, 51-64 years, and 65-80 years) and among individuals receiving benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentages with long-term (≥120 days) benzodiazepine use, prescription of a long-acting benzodiazepine, and benzodiazepine prescriptions from a psychiatrist. In 2008, approximately 5.2% of US adults aged 18 to 80 years used benzodiazepines. The percentage who used benzodiazepines increased with age from 2.6% (18-35 years) to 5.4% (36-50 years) to 7.4% (51-64 years) to 8.7% (65-80 years). Benzodiazepine use was nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. The proportion of benzodiazepine use that was long term increased with age from 14.7% (18-35 years) to 31.4% (65-80 years), while the proportion that received a benzodiazepine prescription from a psychiatrist decreased with age from 15.0% (18-35 years) to 5.7% (65-80 years). In all age groups, roughly one-quarter of individuals receiving benzodiazepine involved long-acting benzodiazepine use. Despite cautions concerning risks associated with long-term benzodiazepine use, especially in older patients, long-term benzodiazepine use remains common in this age group. More vigorous clinical interventions supporting judicious benzodiazepine use may be needed to

  16. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described in...

  18. 77 FR 6774 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Agriculture (USDA), is soliciting comments on the proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades... current United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant will be available either through the address cited...

  19. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower... United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade... www.regulations.gov Web site. The current United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower will be...

  20. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule effective...

  1. 28 CFR 0.124 - United States Parole Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Parole Commission. 0.124 Section 0.124 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.124 United States Parole Commission. The U.S. Parole Commission is composed of nine Commissioners of whom one is...

  2. Nitrate in groundwater of the United States, 1991-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Rupert, Michael G.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States indicates that concentrations are highest in shallow, oxic groundwater beneath areas with high N inputs. During 1991-2003, 5101 wells were sampled in 51 study areas throughout the U.S. as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The well networks reflect the existing used resource represented by domestic wells in major aquifers (major aquifer studies), and recently recharged groundwater beneath dominant land-surface activities (land-use studies). Nitrate concentrations were highest in shallow groundwater beneath agricultural land use in areas with well-drained soils and oxic geochemical conditions. Nitrate concentrations were lowest in deep groundwater where groundwater is reduced, or where groundwater is older and hence concentrations reflect historically low N application rates. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the relative importance of N inputs, biogeochemical processes, and physical aquifer properties in explaining nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Factors ranked by reduction in sum of squares indicate that dissolved iron concentrations explained most of the variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, followed by manganese, calcium, farm N fertilizer inputs, percent well-drained soils, and dissolved oxygen. Overall, nitrate concentrations in groundwater are most significantly affected by redox conditions, followed by nonpoint-source N inputs. Other water-quality indicators and physical variables had a secondary influence on nitrate concentrations.

  3. Patterns of Asexuality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Poston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG to ascertain and analyze patterns of asexuality in the United States. We endeavor to extend the earlier work of Bogaert (2004 on this topic, which focused on patterns of asexuality in Great Britain. Using a social constructionist perspective to study asexuality, we conceptualize and measure the phenomenon in several ways, according to behavior, desire, and self-identification. We use the NSFG respondent sampling weights to produce several sets of unbiased estimates of the percentages of persons in the U.S. population, aged 15-44, who are asexual; each set is based on one or more of the various definitions of asexuality. Finally, we describe some of the characteristics of the asexual population using multinomial logistic regression.

  4. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  5. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  6. Norovirus Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Ben A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Patel, Manish M.; Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates for the United States. Norovirus causes an average of 570–800 deaths, 56,000–71,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 emergency department visits, 1.7–1.9 million outpatient visits, and 19–21 million total illnesses per year. Persons >65 years of age are at greatest risk for norovirus-associated death, and children norovirus-associated medical care visits. Endemic norovirus disease occurs year round but exhibits a pronounced winter peak and increases by ≤50% during years in which pandemic strains emerge. These findings support continued development and targeting of appropriate interventions, including vaccines, for norovirus disease. PMID:23876403

  7. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  8. Environmental process tomography in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Government is supporting development of new technology and transfer of existing technology from other disciplines to apply to the problem. Part of this effort is development of geophysical tools used for underground imaging. These tools are closely related to many of those used in industrial process tomography. Both seismic and electromagnetic methods are used for underground imaging. In either case, sensitivity and resolution are greatly improved by making measurements from boreholes instead of only from the surface. Seismic signals are usually more sensitive to subsurface structure such as lithologic boundaries, but recent work has also shown seismic tomography to be sensitive to the degree of saturation. Electrical methods can be useful for delineation of aquitards such as clay layers. Electrical tomography is shown to be particularly sensitive to movement of fluids such as steam. Examples of both seismic and electromagnetic process tomography will be discussed in relation to environmental remediation of soils and ground water in the United States.

  9. Mortality in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Xu, Jiaquan; Arias, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    This report presents 2013 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Information on mortality patterns is key to understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population (1). Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2013 final data with 2012 final data. In 2013, a total of 2,596,993 resident deaths were registered in the United States. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  11. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    minority in the south, which fears that the new nationalist Kyrgyz leadership may re-ignite ethnic tension in the hugely overpopulated and impoverished...global presence. With the terrorist threat based in some of the most remote locations on earth , the United States seeks to establish a military

  12. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Firearm injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Annest, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal firearm violence in the United States. Trends over two decades in homicide, assault, self-directed and unintentional firearm injuries are described along with current demographic characteristics of victimization and health impact. Fatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Nonfatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Trends were tested using Joinpoint regression analyses. CDC Cost of Injury modules were used to estimate costs associated with firearm deaths and injuries. More than 32,000 persons die and over 67,000 persons are injured by firearms each year. Case fatality rates are highest for self-harm related firearm injuries, followed by assault-related injuries. Males, racial/ethnic minority populations, and young Americans (with the exception of firearm suicide) are disproportionately affected. The severity of such injuries is distributed relatively evenly across outcomes from outpatient treatment to hospitalization to death. Firearm injuries result in over $48 billion in medical and work loss costs annually, particularly fatal firearm injuries. From 1993 to 1999, rates of firearm violence declined significantly. Declines were seen in both fatal and nonfatal firearm violence and across all types of intent. While unintentional firearm deaths continued to decline from 2000 to 2012, firearm suicides increased and nonfatal firearm assaults increased to their highest level since 1995. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem in the United States, contributing substantially each year to premature death, illness, and disability. Understanding the nature and impact of the problem is only a first step toward preventing firearm violence. A science-driven approach to understand risk and protective factors and identify effective solutions is key to achieving measurable reductions in firearm

  14. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  15. Surgical never events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtsun, Winta T; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Diener-West, Marie; Pronovost, Peter J; Makary, Martin A

    2013-04-01

    Surgical never events are being used increasingly as quality metrics in health care in the United States. However, little is known about their costs to the health care system, the outcomes of patients, or the characteristics of the providers involved. We designed a study to describe the number and magnitude of paid malpractice claims for surgical never events, as well as associated patient and provider characteristics. We used the National Practitioner Data Bank, a federal repository of medical malpractice claims, to identify malpractice settlements and judgments of surgical never events, including retained foreign bodies, wrong-site, wrong-patient, and wrong-procedure surgery. Payment amounts, patient outcomes, and provider characteristics were evaluated. We identified a total of 9,744 paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion. Mortality occurred in 6.6% of patients, permanent injury in 32.9%, and temporary injury in 59.2%. Based on literature rates of surgical adverse events resulting in paid malpractice claims, we estimated that 4,082 surgical never event claims occur each year in the United States. Increased payments were associated with severe patient outcomes and claims involving a physician with multiple malpractice reports. Of physicians named in a surgical never event claim, 12.4% were later named in at least 1 future surgical never event claim. Surgical never events are costly to the health care system and are associated with serious harm to patients. Patient and provider characteristics may help to guide prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaquan; Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Arias, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Life expectancy at birth for the U.S. population reached a record high of 78.8 years in 2012. The age-adjusted death rate for the United States decreased 1.1% from 2011 to 2012 to a record low of 732.8 per 100,000 standard population. The 10 leading causes of death in 2012 remained the same as in 2011. Age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly from 2011 to 2012 for 8 of the 10 leading causes and increased significantly for one leading cause (suicide). The infant mortality rate decreased 1.5% from 2011 to 2012 to a historic low of 597.8 infant deaths per 100,000 live births. The 10 leading causes of infant death in 2012 remained the same as in 2011. This report presents 2012 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among residents of the United States by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Information on mortality patterns is key to understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population (1). Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2012 final data with 2011 final data. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  17. Surficial materials in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1,000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. This map shows the sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to here as 'surficial materials.' Certain areas on this map include a significant number of rock outcrops, which cannot be shown at the scale of the map; this is noted in the 'Description of Map Units' section. Most daily human activities occur on or near the Earth's surface. Homeowners, communities, and governments can make improved decisions about hazard, resource, and environmental issues, when they understand the nature of surficial materials and how they vary from place to place. For example, are the surficial materials upon which a home is built stable enough to resist subsidence or lateral movement during an earthquake? Do these materials support a ground water resource adequate for new homes? Can they adequately filter contaminants and protect buried aquifers both in underlying sediments and in bedrock? Are they suitable for development of a new wetland? Where can we find materials suitable for aggregate? The USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) works with the State geological surveys to identify priority areas for mapping of surficial materials (for example, in areas of complex and poorly understood deposits of various sediment types, where metropolitan areas are experiencing rapid growth). To help establish these priorities, a modern, synoptic overview of the geology is needed. This map represents an overview of our current knowledge of the composition and distribution of surficial materials in

  18. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

    2012-06-08

    Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. September 2010-December 2011. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the 2011 national survey, 43 state surveys, and 21 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2011 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 32.8% of high school students nationwide had texted or e-mailed while driving, 38.7% had drunk alcohol, and 23.1% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 32.8% of students had been in a physical fight, 20.1% had ever been bullied on school property, and 7.8% had attempted suicide. Many high school students nationwide are engaged in sexual risk behaviors associated with unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. Nearly half (47.4%) of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 33.7% had had sexual

  19. Toll Roads Distribution in The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A toll road (or toll way, turnpike, pike, or toll highway is a roadway where drivers pay tolls (i.e. fees for the use. In addition to fuel tax or general tax funds, toll collection is an alternative source of revenue generation [1]. Decision makings of a toll road may depend on a lot of factors such as regional economics, local and national policies, and even population density. It is an interesting phenomenon that there are more toll roads in the eastern part of The United States than in the western part. However, there is no discussion and analysis about this unbalanced distribution, not to say to explore the reasons behind. This paper aims to find out if it is really true that there are more toll roads in the eastern part of the U.S. than in the western part, and the reasons for national toll roads distribution through different analytical angles. The result can help in the perfection of national and state roadway network and toll roads designs in U.S., which will also be beneficial to the development and improvement of toll roads and modern highway system in developing countries and other developed countries.

  20. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  1. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1329 - Suspension due to loss of United States residency, United States citizenship, or status as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residency, United States citizenship, or status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence or... citizenship, or status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise permanently residing... § 416.202(b) with respect to United States residency, United States citizenship, or status as an alien...

  3. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  4. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum Hollis, S. [Duane Morris LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  5. Barriers to conducting ambulatory and home blood pressure monitoring during hypertension screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronish, Ian M; Kent, Shia; Moise, Nathalie; Shimbo, Daichi; Safford, Monika M; Kynerd, Robert E; O'Beirne, Ronan; Sullivan, Alexandra; Muntner, Paul

    2017-09-01

    In 2015, the US Preventive Services Task Force updated their hypertension recommendations to advise that adults with elevated office blood pressure (BP) undergo out-of-office BP measurement to exclude white coat hypertension before diagnosis. Our goal was to determine the most important barriers to primary care providers' ordering ambulatory and home BP monitoring in the United States. We enrolled 63 primary care providers into nominal group panels in which participants iteratively listed and ranked barriers to ambulatory and home BP monitoring. Top-ranked barriers to ambulatory BP monitoring were challenges in accessing testing, costs of testing, concerns about the willingness or ability of patients to successfully complete tests, and concerns about the accuracy and benefits of testing. Top-ranked barriers to home BP monitoring were concerns about compliance with the correct test protocol, accuracy of tests results, out-of-pocket costs of home BP devices, and time needed to instruct patients on home BP monitoring protocol. Efforts to increase the use of ambulatory and home BP monitoring by primary care providers in the United States should prioritize increasing the financial and personnel resources available for testing and addressing provider concerns about patients' ability to conduct high-quality tests. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Ranking, Time Trade-Off and Visual Analogue Scale Values for EQ-5D Health States : A Review and Comparison of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Craig (Benjamin); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); J.A. Salomon (Joshua)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: There is rising interest in eliciting health state valuations using rankings. Due to their relative simplicity, ordinal measurement methods may offer an attractive practical alternative to cardinal methods, such as time trade-off (TTO) and visual analog scale (VAS).

  7. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  8. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin. United...

  9. 78 FR 283 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ...: 2012-31611] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. Number FV-11-0052] United... revising the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant. AMS has reviewed the fresh fruit and... United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant are available through the Specialty Crops Inspection...

  10. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  11. Helium resources of the United States, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard D.; Hamak, John E.

    The helium resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 894.6 Bcf as of January 1, 1989. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of the assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 282.4 Bcf; (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, estimated at 237.7 Bcf; (3) helium in possible natural gas resources, estimated to be 263.2 Bcf; and (4) helium in speculative natural gas resources, 111.4 Bcf. These helium resources are further divided into depleting and nondepleting, with the helium in storage being in a separate classification. The depleting resources are those associated with natural gasfields that are, or will be, produced for the natural gas they contain. Almost all of the helium in potential (probable, possible, and speculative) natural gas resources is included in this classification. These depleting resources are estimated to contain 775 Bcf of the total helium resource base.

  12. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  13. Outpatient oral rehydration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listernick, R; Zieserl, E; Davis, A T

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-nine dehydrated, well-nourished infants, who were 3 to 24 months of age and had acute gastroenteritis, were enrolled in a prospective randomized study that compared the safety, efficacy, and costs of oral vs intravenous rehydration. The study was designed to assess the use of a holding room in the emergency room for the outpatient rehydration of dehydrated infants. The oral solution that was used contained 60 mEq/L of sodium, 20 mEq/L of potassium, 50 mEq/L of chloride, 30 mEq/L of citrate, 20 g/L of glucose, and 5 g/L of fructose. Thirteen of 15 patients were successfully rehydrated orally as outpatients; two patients, who were subsequently discovered to have urinary tract infections, required hospitalization due to persistent vomiting. Orally rehydrated outpatients spent a mean of 10.7 hours in the holding room, as compared with intravenously rehydrated inpatients, who were hospitalized for a mean of 103.2 hours. Outpatient oral rehydration therapy was significantly less costly than inpatient intravenous therapy (+272.78 vs +2,299.50). Our results indicate that oral rehydration is a safe and cost-effective means of treating dehydrated children in an outpatient setting in the United States. The use of a holding room for observation in the emergency room can markedly decrease health care costs and unnecessary hospitalizations.

  14. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  15. Profiles of rivers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1901-01-01

    The profiles here represented are derived from various sources and differ from one another greatly in accuracy. Many of them are drawn from the annual reports of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A., under which are included the reports of the Mississippi and Missouri River commissions. The heights thus obtained are those of the level of water in the rivers at certain stages, and may be regarded as of great accuracy. Others have been obtained from railroad profiles, being the level of the rivers at points where the railroads touch or cross them. Still others have been taken from the atlas sheets of the United States Geological Survey and from other maps. In most such cases the points at which the contours cross the rivers upon the maps have been taken. These again differ in point of accuracy with the means adopted for the location of the contours. Where the spirit level was used in locating contours it may be assumed that the determinations are fairly good, but where the barometer was used the probable error may be of considerable magnitude. Such elevations are, however, mainly in the mountainous parts of the country, where the fall of the streams is great, and where, therefore, errors of considerable magnitude may be tolerated, as affecting but little the form of the profile.

  16. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  17. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  18. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  19. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  20. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  1. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indebtedness became a problem for many countries. As a response to this, many jurisdictions have departed from their “merchant-oriented” bankruptcy law to include consumers giving them discharge and fresh start. Germany, United States, United ...

  2. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  3. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  4. 76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Memorandum of January 6, 2011--Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command #0; #0; #0... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my... States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the Secretary of Defense. I direct...

  5. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Final rule effective November 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru...

  6. International infant mortality rankings: A look behind the numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Korbin; Moon, Marilyn; Sulvetta, Margaret; Chawla, Juhi

    1992-01-01

    The very unfavorable infant mortality ranking of the United States in international comparisons is often used to question the quality of health care there. Infant mortality rates, however, implicitly capture a complicated story, measuring much more than differences in health care across countries. This article examines reasons behind international infant mortality rate rankings, including variations in the measurement of vital events, and differences in risk factors across countries. Its goal...

  7. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  8. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A; Shanklin, Shari L; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-06-10

    Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. September 2014-December 2015. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national survey, 37 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2015 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 41.5% of high school students nationwide among the 61.3% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 32.8% had drunk alcohol, and 21.7% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 15.5% had been electronically bullied, 20.2% had been bullied on school property, and 8.6% had attempted suicide. Many

  10. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  11. Relocate GTMO Detainees to Stand Trial in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    the 1998 terrorist bombings of the United States Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania. Expect...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t RELOCATE GTMO DETAINEES TO STAND TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL REX D. LYNNE...options for the disposition of Guantanamo detainees and others captured by the United States.2 On 20 May 2009, in a bi-partisan vote, Congress denied the

  12. The Prevalence of Apprenticeships in Germany and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaryan, Nika; Neelakantan, Urvi; Price, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The educational systems and labor markets of Germany and the United States take different approaches to preparing young people for the workforce. One feature of Germany's workforce development model that has been of interest to policymakers in the United States is the important role played by employer-financed apprenticeships. The United States instead relies mainly on comprehensive general education, with career training largely taking place in community colleges and other postsecondary inst...

  13. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions... resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any...

  14. Global Diversity and Academic Success of Foreign-Trained Academic Neurosurgeons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Akshitkumar M; Kumar, Nishant Ganesh; Reynolds, Rebecca A; Hale, Andrew T; Wellons, John C; Naftel, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the proportion of academic neurosurgeons practicing in the United States who acquired residency training outside of the United States and compare their training backgrounds and academic success with those who received their residency training in the United States. We identified 1338 clinically active academic neurosurgeons from 104 programs that participated in the neurosurgery residency match in the United States in January-February 2015. Their training backgrounds, current academic positions, and history of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant awards between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from publicly accessible sources. Eighty-four U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) received their residency training in 20 different countries outside of the United States/Puerto Rico, representing all major regions of the world. The majority trained in Canada (n = 48). We found no major differences between the foreign-trained and U.S.-trained neurosurgeons in male:female ratio, year of starting residency, proportion with positions in medical schools ranked in the top 15 by the U.S. News and World Report, general distribution of academic positions, and proportion with an NIH grant. Compared with U.S.-trained academic neurosurgeons, foreign-trained academic neurosurgeons had a significantly higher proportion of Ph.D. degrees (32.1% vs. 12.3%; P academic practices of the foreign-trained neurosurgeons were widely distributed throughout the United States. A small group of U.S. academic neurosurgeons (6.3%) have acquired residency training outside of the United States, representing all major regions of the world. Their general demographic data and academic accomplishments are comparable to those of U.S.-trained neurosurgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating habitat vulnerability to hazardous air pollutants in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, Megan; Tankersley, Roger; Miller, Latoya; Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Long term protection and maintenance of ecological communities and populations must consider the effect of atmospheric pollutants in addition to stressors that occur on the ground. We describe a technique for identifying species ranges and ecosystems across the landscape where there could be potential effects from air toxics releases. We modified the ranking equations for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the Chemical Scoring and Ranking Assessment Model (SCRAM) to come up with a weighted relative toxicity value. The model combines toxicity rankings from SCRAM, chemical ambient air concentration data from the Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model, and species richness data from the Southeast Gap Analysis Project. The final output was a 30-m pixel grid of potential vulnerability to HAP exposures. We found that the model, in general, resulted in a circular pattern around major urban areas with vulnerability decreasing with distance from the urban center. Those areas having high acreage of federal, state, and locally protected lands were also highlighted by the models added weight for species richness. Since the final toxicity maps were in a raster format the data can be aggregated into any number of assessment units for use by multiple levels of decision makers including federal and state entities who want to compare relative toxicity exposures across a region and local groups who want to evaluate the vulnerability of lands under their management.

  16. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  17. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance

  18. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  19. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  20. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks— United States, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted national surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks since 1971 in partnership with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)....

  1. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend ... Current Smoking Among Adults in 2016 (States) References Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease ...

  2. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  3. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  4. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  5. Opioid epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm, Standiford; Fellows, Bert; Janata, Jeffrey W; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Grider, Jay S; Boswell, Mark V

    2012-07-01

    responsible for more deaths than the number of deaths from both suicide and motor vehicle crashes, or deaths from cocaine and heroin combined. A significant relationship exists between sales of opioid pain relievers and deaths. The majority of deaths (60%) occur in patients when they are given prescriptions based on prescribing guidelines by medical boards, with 20% of deaths in low dose opioid therapy of 100 mg of morphine equivalent dose or less per day and 40% in those receiving morphine of over 100 mg per day. In comparison, 40% of deaths occur in individuals abusing the drugs obtained through multiple prescriptions, doctor shopping, and drug diversion. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to describe various aspects of crisis of opioid use in the United States. The obstacles that must be surmounted are primarily inappropriate prescribing patterns, which are largely based on a lack of knowledge, perceived safety, and inaccurate belief of undertreatment of pain.

  6. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    every morning in front of the home of the State. President while he is in residence and the guard is responsible for the daily hoisting and striking of the State President's Flag. Apart from the above-mentioned functions, the home guards also act as orderlies in the house- hold and office of the State President, such as receiving ...

  7. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  8. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  9. Mortality in the United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaquan; Murphy, Sherry L; Kochanek, Kenneth D; Arias, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality •Life expectancy for the U.S. population in 2015 was 78.8 years, a decrease of 0.1 year from 2014. •The age-adjusted death rate increased 1.2% from 724.6 deaths per 100,000 standard population in 2014 to 733.1 in 2015. •The 10 leading causes of death in 2015 remained the same as in 2014. Age-adjusted death rates increased for eight leading causes and decreased for one. •The infant mortality rate of 589.5 infant deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 was not significantly different from the 2014 rate. •The 10 leading causes of infant death in 2015 remained the same as in 2014, although two causes exchanged ranks. This report presents 2015 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by variables such as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2015 and 2014 final data (1). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  11. Recent drought conditions in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Droughts are common in virtually all U.S. forests, but their frequency and intensity vary widely both between and within forest ecosystems (Hanson and Weltzin 2000). Forests in the Western United States generally exhibit a pattern of annual seasonal droughts. Forests in the Eastern United States tend to exhibit one of two prevailing patterns: random occasional droughts...

  12. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  13. Why the United States Must Adopt Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    be augmented and not replaced by technology. The United States based this human focused approach on military theory , history, and traditions. General... disabilities . The United States Third Offset Strategy’s human-centered approach is unsustainable, because of the massive costs associated with...131 Frans Osinga, Science, Strategy, and War: The Strategic Theory of John Boyd (New

  14. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  15. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  16. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis was widespread throughout the United States. Cool temperatures and abundant rainfall in the southern Great Plains allowed stripe rust to become widely established and spread throughout the Great Plains and eastern United State...

  17. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  18. Cholera in United States Associated with Epidemic in Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Katherine E.; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti. PMID:22204035

  19. 38 CFR 3.1002 - Political subdivisions of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivisions of... Political subdivisions of United States. No part of any accrued benefits will be used to reimburse any political subdivision of the United States for expenses incurred in the last sickness or burial of any...

  20. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  1. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  2. Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice": Race, Class, and United States Imperialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gilbert G.

    2004-01-01

    Richard Kluger's monumental "Simple Justice" reaffirms the long-held liberal contention that any analysis of the complex social relations in the United States must acknowledge the centrality of racism. Racism historically contributed to shaping of the political culture, social interactions, and legal status of groups throughout the United States.…

  3. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...

  4. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  5. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired... SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship... citizenship shall be issued by the clerk of court to any person obtaining, or who has obtained citizenship...

  6. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  7. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  8. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  9. Cheerleading Injuries in United States High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Dustin W; Fields, Sarah K; Patterson, Michael J; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 000 students participate in US high school cheerleading annually, including 123,386 involved in competitive spirit squads. The degree of athleticism and the difficulty of cheerleading skills have increased in recent decades, renewing safety concerns. This study describes the epidemiology of high school cheerleading injuries and compares cheerleading injury rates and patterns relative to other sports. Data collected by the longitudinal, National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study from 2009/2010 through 2013/2014 were analyzed. Injury rates in cheerleading ranked 18th of 22 sports, with an overall injury rate of 0.71 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Competition (0.85) and practice (0.76) injury rates were similar, whereas performance rates were lower (0.49). Although 96.8% of injured cheerleaders were girls, the overall injury rate was higher in boys (1.33 vs 0.69, rate ratio [RR]: 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.88). Although concussions were the most common cheerleading injury (31.1% of injuries), concussion rates were significantly lower in cheerleading (2.21 per 10,000 athlete-exposures) than all other sports combined (3.78; RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.51-0.66) and all other girls' sports (2.70; RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). Over half of all injuries occurred during stunts (53.2%). Although safety remains a concern among cheerleaders, overall injury rates are lower than most other high school sports. Although overall injury rates are relatively low, cheerleading injuries may be more severe when they do occur. A detailed knowledge of cheerleading injury patterns relative to other sports is needed to drive targeted, evidence-based prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. An Historical Analysis of the United States Naval Academy Graduates in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, William E.

    The purpose of the study is to provide an analysis of the Naval Academy graduates who were commissioned in the Air Force upon graduation. Active duty personnel records were searched to determine retention, rank, professional military education, education level and career field assignments. Comparisons were made between this group and the regular…

  11. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas Older Population Poverty Preventive Care State Data White Population Women’s Health ... PDF - 299 KB] [XLS - 310 KB] Table 40 . Diabetes prevalence and glycemic control among adults aged 20 ...

  12. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  13. 77 FR 43573 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States Section of the United States-Turkey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... to offer a broad perspective on the business environment in Turkey, including cross-cutting issues... United States-Turkey Business Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In December 2009, the Governments of the United States and Turkey agreed to...

  14. Geothermal energy development in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Research on geothermal energy utilization is discussed. Topics include: developing a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis; establishing the marketability of geothermal energy; colocating users with resources; the transfer of technology; and establishing the beginnings of a geothermal industry infrastructure. Legal, institutional, and economic issues were addressed, as well as information exchange and assistance in state planning through the development of state prospectuses and scenarios.

  15. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  16. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  17. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    other family members. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at NS Mayport, a total of 962 family housing units...and their dependents. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at Fort Gordon, a total of 1,080 family housing...family housing12—and had received congressional approval to do so. However, at the time of our inspections, Balfour Beatty Communities disagreed

  18. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    provided a deterrence against it nuclear neighbors, Pakistan and China, and was seen as the entrance ticket into the club of the great powers. 37 On May...Washington Quarterly 31, no. 4 (2008). 31 possible racism towards the Asian societies following the war. 97 The United States’ focus in Asia...a country with nuclear weapons was welcomed into the nuclear club without India having to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). 106 Then

  19. A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Bray, George M; Caballero, Benjamin; Frei, Balz; Willett, Walter C

    2006-03-01

    The Beverage Guidance Panel was assembled to provide guidance on the relative health and nutritional benefits and risks of various beverage categories. The beverage panel was initiated by the first author. The Panel's purpose is to attempt to systematically review the literature on beverages and health and provide guidance to the consumer. An additional purpose of the Panel is to develop a deeper dialog among the scientific community on overall beverage consumption patterns in the United States and on the great potential to change this pattern as a way to improve health. Over the past several decades, levels of overweight and obesity have increased across all population groups in the United States. Concurrently, an increased daily intake of 150-300 kcal (for different age-sex groups) has occurred, with approximately 50% of the increased calories coming from the consumption of calorically sweetened beverages. The panel ranked beverages from the lowest to the highest value based on caloric and nutrient contents and related health benefits and risks. Drinking water was ranked as the preferred beverage to fulfill daily water needs and was followed in decreasing value by tea and coffee, low-fat (1.5% or 1%) and skim (nonfat) milk and soy beverages, noncalorically sweetened beverages, beverages with some nutritional benefits (fruit and vegetable juices, whole milk, alcohol, and sports drinks), and calorically sweetened, nutrient-poor beverages. The Panel recommends that the consumption of beverages with no or few calories should take precedence over the consumption of beverages with more calories.

  20. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  1. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  2. Visiting the United States Without Leaving Your Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which teachers can interest students about learning more about the United States are presented, focusing on a planned "pretend" visit to a particular state or region. Research topics include geography, history, population, climate, chief products, and background information. State tourism agencies are listed. (CB)

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  4. Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  5. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  6. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  7. Forest statistics of the United States, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Danlel D. Oswald; Douglas S. Powell

    1989-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 (88 Stat. 476 as amended) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a comprehensive assessment of all forest and range land resources on both public and private lands. Forest resource data collected from periodic surveys in each State and Forest Service Region were entered into a...

  8. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    specific sug- gestions that the Ambassador had made but that with regard to the larger issues brought up by the Ambassador. I felt sure that these...mediation, "should France propose it ." Secretary of State Frclinghuysen cables Young with " persona l" points for settlement with France. Chinese

  9. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    historical grounding. Prior to the Revolution, the defense of the colonies as a whole was left to the British crown , and the colonial militia handled...communication while preparing for and then executing the invasion of the continent. In the Pacific, it meant establishing airfields and naval bases and...perspectives that dominated at the time, a judgment was made that communist states acted more or less monolithically and that an armed response was needed

  10. Narcoterrorism - A Threat to the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-21

    hydrochloride (HCL). The capital of the nation is Bogota . There are five major cities in the country. Two of them, Medellin and Cali, are narcotrafficker...absentee rate. The Pinkerton Security Company states that 80 percent of the corporate theft investigated was drug related. 12 The symptoms (and impact) of...his drugs to survive and will do what he must to get those drugs. This may involve theft or even marketing the product. He or she is in a predicament

  11. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  12. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation The Federation of State Medical Boards Foundation undertakes educational and scientific research projects designed to expand public and medical professional knowledge and awareness of challenges impacting health care and health care regulation. Learn ...

  13. Irrigated Agricultural in the United States, State-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hanchar, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents previously unreported State-level data on the structure and characteristics of irrigated farms in Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, and the 17 Western States, which together account for 93 percent of all irrigated acres in the Nation. Irrigated farms produce about 30 percent of the sales of agricultural products from all U.S. farms. Data include distributions of irrigated farms, irrigated acres, and value of agricultural products sold from irrigated farms for a variety of far...

  14. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ayesha Siddiqa , Military Inc.: Inside Paki- stan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007; Nawaz, 2008b; Dennis Kux, The United...20060427181948ndybl ehs0.8380701.html Siddiqa , Ayesha , Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007. Siddiqui, Rehana, “The Pakistani...of the military and intelligence agencies. All of these options augur more instability inside and outside Pakistan and

  15. United States National Will: A Psychodynamic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    requires active preservation of the group which can be effected in three general ways: dependence, pairing, and fight or flight . At any time 1 7Ibid...these ways. A group in such a state as a basic assumption group is labeled "Ba" with a letter - "V" (dependent) or "P" (pairing) or "F" ( fight or flight ) appended...The BZAF ( fight or flight ) group makes decisions in an aura of the need to protect the group from outside threats. The decisions are in terms of

  16. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States Share: On This Page ... new findings on Americans' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The findings are from the 2007 National ...

  17. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  18. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  19. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  20. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  1. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  2. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  3. Aerosol from Organic Nitrogen in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a portion of ambient organic aerosol was attributed to isoprene oxidation and organic nitrogen from BVO...

  4. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  5. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  6. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  7. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  8. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  9. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  10. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  11. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  12. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  13. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest disturbance and recovery for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to det...

  14. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated land surface form classes for the contiguous United States. These land surface form classes were created as part of...

  15. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  16. Elevation in the Western United States (180 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  17. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  18. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  19. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated and mapped isobioclimate classes for the contiguous United States. These isobioclimate classes were created as part...

  20. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  1. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  2. Night Air Combat. A United States Military-Technical Revolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Merrick

    1997-01-01

    ... our apparent advantage over potential adversaries. Understanding how the United States reached the critical jump in military effectiveness through the application of night air combat technologies is critical to project future military revolutions...

  3. United States in Outer Space: Security Assurance and Preservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Richard V

    2007-01-01

    Free access to-and-use of space assets by all nations in today's highly interdependent globalize society has been the long-standing policy of the United States dating back to the Eisenhower Administration...

  4. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  5. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  6. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), prior to undertaking...

  7. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  8. Ozone injury across the Southern United States, 2002–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita K. Rose; John W. Coulston

    2009-01-01

    In the Eastern United States, hourly concentrations of ozone typically range from 30 to 50 parts per billion(ppb), with events that may exceed 100 ppb. Typical exposure levels can cause visible foliar injury to

  9. Gifted education in the United States: Perspectives of gender equity

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Melinda R.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of education for gifted and talented children and adolescents in the United States will be presented. Issues of gender equity will be discussed and suggestions for creating equal opportunities for all students will be outlined.

  10. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of nurses who lacked the additional training. Two hundred and seventy-nine United States Air Force Nurse Corps Captains with management experience completed Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI...

  11. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  12. Assessing real-time Zika risk in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren A Castro; Spencer J Fox; Xi Chen; Kai Liu; Steven E Bellan; Nedialko B Dimitrov; Alison P Galvani; Lauren Ancel Meyers

    2017-01-01

    Background Confirmed local transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) in Texas and Florida have heightened the need for early and accurate indicators of self-sustaining transmission in high risk areas across the southern United States. Given...

  13. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  14. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  15. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  16. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  17. Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001–2006 Recommend on ... deficiency, inadequacy In 2001–2006, what was the vitamin D status of the U.S. population based on ...

  18. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  19. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  20. Women doctors: productivity in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, M; Braslow, J

    1981-01-01

    There is a difference in the productivity of women doctors in Great Britain and the United States. Postulated reasons for this difference are discussed as well as the implications for medical education and meeting health manpower needs.

  1. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  4. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  5. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-1994. Parameter-elevation...

  6. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1995-1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1995-1999. Parameter-elevation...

  7. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  8. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  9. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  10. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  11. Occupational Adjustment of Refugees: The Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Barry N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the pattern of occupational adjustment of the Vietnamese refugees to the United States and compares their experiences with other recent refugee and immigrant groups. (Author)

  12. Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and Western Europe. Deposition data were acquired directly from...

  13. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  14. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty...

  15. The wildland-urban interface in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff; Roger B. Hammer

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a map of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in 2000 for the lower 48 States of the United States. The WUI was extensive, covering 9 percent of the land area in the lower 48 States and encompassing 38 percent of all homes. Major WUI areas are located along the west coast, the Colorado Front Range, southeast Texas, the Great Lakes States, and across...

  16. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  17. The United States and Colombia: Untying the Gordian Knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    and equipped paramilitary forces such as the 10 Campesino Self-Defense Force of C6rdoba and Urabd (ACCU) and United Self-Defense [groups] of Colombia...to the campesinos , and start the process of building a true democracy-none of which the United States ever forced on the Saigon regime. And the

  18. Immigrants to the United States and Adult Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes documented and undocumented immigrant populations in the United States. It discusses salient factors influencing their status as immigrants as well as adult education services available to them through publicly funded programs, social units, and community centers, especially churches and libraries.

  19. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  20. Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    will not result in w\\rongful appropriation. For example. a person who fails to return a borrowed boat at the time agreed upon because the boa ...practice. See. e.g., Estrada v. UnitedStates, 457 F2d 255 (7thCir.) cert. denied. 409 U.S. 858(0972); UnitedStates v.Mitchell, 427F.2d 12890(3dCi. 170

  1. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  2. Expeditionary Economics and Its Implications on the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    microfinance is ineffective in resolving conflicts in active war zones, it does play an important role in Phase IV operations. The importance of micro...Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy (Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development...and The Services Group, Inc. “Iraq Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy.” Washington, D.C.: United States

  3. The United States Space Force: Not If, But When

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of goods and services into and through space, to include providing space launch and electronic goods and services such as telecommunications...United States Coast Guard serves as a law enforcement arm at sea, performing duties anywhere from counter-drug operations to anti- piracy . The...United States Space Guard may have a similar function in countering the efforts of “space piracy ” which may take on the form of hijacking satellites

  4. "War on drugs" continues in United States under new leadership.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, D M

    1993-01-01

    Criticism of the "war on drugs" pursued under Republican administrations has grown in the United States. With the election of Bill Clinton many experts expected a shift from law enforcement policies to an approach favouring treatment and prevention. The budget announced in April, however, revealed no such shift in allocation of resources. Although the war on drugs has apparently failed to reduce the supply of cheap heroin and cocaine to the United States, the prevention strategy favoured by i...

  5. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-23

    Europe, Asia, Latin America, the Carribean , and North America. The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) Background The ...Order Code RL33388 The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) Updated July 23, 2007 James K. Jackson Specialist in... the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data

  6. Os rankings na educação superior brasileira: políticas de governo ou de estado? Los rankings en la educación superior brasileña: ¿políticas de gobierno de estado? The rankings in Brazilian higher education: policies of government or state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ignacio Calderón

    2011-12-01

    los grupos políticos que se alternaron en el poder.This article, of a theoretical approach, examines how the rankings work in the policies of Higher Education of Brazilian State, taking as a parameter four presidential terms: two mandates of the government Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002, marked by the implementation of neoliberal reforms, and the other two of the government Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, an alternative to the democratic left in Latin America in face of the neoliberal expansion. It is supported the hypothesis that after four terms and two different presidents that represent theoretically opposing political projects, the rankings, considered as strategies for stimulating competition to improve the quality of Higher Education gained technical consensus and legitimacy within the government, ceasing to be policies of specific governments to become long-term policies of the Brazilian State, above the interests of political groups that alternated in power.

  7. International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Matthews, T J; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2014-09-24

    This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality and preterm birth data are compared between the United States and European countries. The percent contribution of the two factors to infant mortality differences is computed using the Kitagawa method, with Sweden as the reference country. In 2010, the U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, and the United States ranked 26th in infant mortality among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. After excluding births at less than 24 weeks of gestation to ensure international comparability, the U.S. infant mortality rate was 4.2, still higher than for most European countries and about twice the rates for Finland, Sweden, and Denmark. U.S. infant mortality rates for very preterm infants (24-31 weeks of gestation) compared favorably with most European rates. However, the U.S. mortality rate for infants at 32-36 weeks was second-highest, and the rate for infants at 37 weeks of gestation or more was highest, among the countries studied. About 39% of the United States' higher infant mortality rate when compared with that of Sweden was due to a higher percentage of preterm births, while 47% was due to a higher infant mortality rate at 37 weeks of gestation or more. If the United States could reduce these two factors to Sweden's levels, the U.S. infant mortality rate would fall by 43%, with nearly 7,300 infant deaths averted annually. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  8. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

  10. An evaluation of 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States as simulated by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Rupp,

    2016-05-05

    The 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States and surrounding areas as simulated by global climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated. A suite of statistics that characterize various aspects of the regional climate was calculated from both model simulations and observation-based datasets. CMIP5 global climate models were ranked by their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Differences in the performance of the models between regions of the United States (the Southeastern and Northwestern United States) warrant a regional-scale assessment of CMIP5 models.

  11. Regional Per Capita Solar Electric Footprint for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this report, we quantify the state-by-state per-capita 'solar electric footprint' for the United States. We use state-level data on population, electricity consumption, economic activity and solar insolation, along with solar photovoltaic (PV) array packing density data to develop a range of estimates of the solar electric footprint. We find that the solar electric footprint, defined as the land area required to supply all end-use electricity from solar photovoltaics, is about 181 m2 per person in the United States. Two key factors that influence the magnitude of the state-level solar electric footprint include how industrial energy is allocated (based on location of use vs. where goods are consumed) and the assumed distribution of PV configurations (flat rooftop vs. fixed tilt vs. tracking). The solar electric footprint is about 0.6% of the total land area of the United States with state-level estimates ranging from less than 0.1% for Wyoming to about 9% for New Jersey. We also compare the solar electric footprint to a number of other land uses. For example, we find that the solar electric footprint is equal to less than 2% of the land dedicated to cropland and grazing in the United States.

  12. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  13. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  14. Sub state Unconventional Warfare: Expanding United States Military Political Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    de Colombia FID Foreign Internal Defense FM Field Manual GVN Government of South Vietnam ICP Indochinese Communist Party ISIL Islamic State of Iraq...abound throughout the world. Hezbollah, Hamas, ISIL, and the Taliban in the Middle East, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) in South...describing what UW consists of, and how it is applied, in FM 31-21 (1969). “Unconventional warfare consists of military, political, psychological , or

  15. Ebola Crisis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Raghunath Patwardhan M.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about readiness of the U.S. health care system to deal with crises. Using the Ebola crisis as a reference, first it examines the response to the current challenge. However, that is the smaller objective of the article. Lately, we are also being challenged to deal with other kinds of epidemics like obesity, mental health diseases, and violence. These crises are not dramatic like the Ebola crisis. However, these are no less insidious than Ebola. If we are not ready for them, then these crises have the potential to undermine the long-term health and prosperity of our society. In this context, and therefore mainly, this article is about two major long-standing systemic problems in the U.S. health care system that the unfolding of the Ebola crisis has bared. One is about how the inherent problem in the design of American federalist system regarding state autonomy on health matters is creating a dysfunctional health care system. The other is about the inertia of the research industry in the health care system in clinging to an archaic outdated inefficient mind-set and methodology that fails to generate the right information required for an appropriate decision making in matters of health care delivery, including crises. These problems are not small, nor their solutions easy. However, no matter how uncomfortable and tedious, facing them is necessary and inevitable. The discussions and arguments in this article are to outline their nature broadly and to make a call to further a dialogue.

  16. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  17. 78 FR 46686 - Privacy Act of 1974; Treasury/United States Mint .013-United States Mint National Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... System of Records to enhance the incident management capabilities of the United States Mint Police. The system will be a centrally managed electronic database and workflow system that will support the collection, management, and sharing of information regarding reported incidents on or related to United...

  18. International HIV and AIDS prevention: Japan/United States collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umenai, T; Narula, M; Onuki, D; Yamamoto, T; Igari, T

    1997-01-01

    As the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic shifts from Africa to Asia, Japan is becoming ever more aware of the importance of containing and preventing spread of the virus. International collaboration, particularly with the United States, is a logical approach because it allows utilization of expertise from countries in other stages of the pandemic, can prevent duplication of efforts, and complements efforts of the other countries. Further, both Japan and the United States can use their combined influence and prestige to encourage cooperation among all nations. In 1994, Japan established the Global Issues Initiative to extend cooperation to developing countries in the areas of population and AIDS control. It has disbursed more than $460 million (U.S.$) to promote active cooperation and stimulate international attention to the importance of addressing these health issues. Japan has established four main programs for international collaboration for control of HIV and AIDS, three operated by ministries and one by a Japanese nongovernmental organization. Japanese/United States collaboration is developing through the United States/Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, the Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective, the Paris Summit, and the United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS. It is critical that Japan and the United States, as the two largest donors to international development, demonstrate, through their collaboration, ways to maximize the use of limited resources, reduce duplication, and promote sustainable development programs in which HIV prevention and AIDS care programs are systemically integrated.

  19. Ranking library materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses ranking factors suitable for library materials and shows that ranking in general is a complex process and that ranking for library materials requires a variety of techniques. Design/methodology/approach: The relevant literature is reviewed to provide a systematic overview of suitable ranking factors. The discussion is based on an overview of ranking factors used in Web search engines. Findings: While there are a wide variety of ranking factors appl...

  20. The United States Congress Can Tax Interest on State Bonds: "South Carolina v. Baker".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Terrence M.; Sparkman, William E.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court has made it clear that Congress can tax state bonds. All public purpose bonds issued by school districts must be issued in a registered format in order to continue their tax-exempt status. (MLF)

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - State Boundaries of the United States 200506 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  2. 1:2,000,000-scale state boundaries of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage is of the state boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the 1:2,000,000-scale...

  3. Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    "Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States, 2011" is the ninth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group. Data collection is conducted in partnership with the College Board. This year's study, like those for…

  4. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  5. Supporting Young English Learners in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman-Pithers, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What's the best way to teach English to young children who aren't native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different…

  6. Characterizing the sustainable forestry issue network in thc United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabethann O' Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Issue network analysis techniques were applied to the issue sustainable forestry in the United States to identify potential public and private outcomes for the issue. A quantitative approach based on work by Laumann and Knoke [(The Organizational State (1987)] was utilized in conjunction with the Delphi method. Results suggest that the parity in the distribution of...

  7. China and the United States: What Next? Headline Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Allen S.

    This resource booklet discusses U.S. foreign policy with China and contains questions to help secondary teachers stimulate classroom discussion. The author, who was consultant to Secretary of State Kissinger on China policy 1969-1973, argues that Washington's failure to establish full diplomatic relations with Peking is damaging United States-Sino…

  8. Counselor Preparation in Nigeria and the United States of America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrast counsellor-training programs in two institutions from different cultures. The University of Ilorin, Nigeria and The Pennsylvania State University. While the United States is. an industrialized western nation, Nigeria is a developing African nation. A comparative inquiry of this nature is likely to ...

  9. Resettlement of Khmer Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Barry N.

    Because of the lack of research on the Khmer people in the United States, and because the Khmer have arrived here so recently, this paper describes itself as "less a state of the art analysis of Khmer resettlement and more of a speculation on their condition calling for more research." After an introductory section, the paper describes the two…

  10. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(A)-1 - Remuneration for services performed outside the United States by citizens of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United States by citizens of the United States. 31.3401(a)(8)(A)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(8)(A)-1 Internal... Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(8)(A)-1 Remuneration for services performed outside the United States by citizens of the United States. (a) Remuneration excluded from gross income under section 911. (1) (i...

  11. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dyett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p < 0.001 for all analyzed nutrients except calcium. Estimates, ranks, trends and higher-level participant percentile placements for Vitamin B12 were similar with both methods. Questionnaire intakes were higher than recalls for most other nutrients. Both methods demonstrated similar trends in DRI adequacy assessment (e.g., significantly inadequate vitamin D intake among vegans. This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities.

  12. Promoting "Academic Entrepreneurship" in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.; Bagley, Constance E.

    2016-01-01

    States (“U.S.”). Our comparative analysis of the EU and U.S. approaches to translational medicine shows that there are lessons to be shared. The EU can apply the experiences from the U.S. Bayh-Dole Act and PPPPs in the United States, and the United States can emulate certain of the open innovation...... aspects of the European Innovative Medicines Initiative and the tighter patenting standards imposed by the European Patent Office. Thus, a secondary purpose of this article is suggesting amendments to the U.S. laws governing the patenting and licensing of government-funded technology to prevent undue...

  13. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  14. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  15. Market manipulation challenges and responses in the United Kingdom, European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2017-01-01

    As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...

  16. 31 CFR 560.510 - Transactions related to the resolution of disputes between the United States or United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses...) Importation into the United States of, or any transaction related to, goods and services of Iranian origin or... States Government and the granting of such a license by that agency would be prohibited by law; (3...

  17. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky M Oelze

    Full Text Available Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation. These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet and lactation (high energy diet, which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment.

  18. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  19. Testosterone Lab Testing and Initiation in the United Kingdom and the United States, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Meier, Christoph R.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Stürmer, Til; Jick, Susan S.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Context: New formulations, increased marketing, and wider recognition of declining testosterone levels in older age may have contributed to wider testosterone testing and supplementation in many countries. Objective: Our objective was to describe testosterone testing and testosterone treatment in men in the United Kingdom and United States. Design: This was a retrospective incident user cohort. Setting: We evaluated commercial and Medicare insurance claims from the United States and general practitioner healthcare records from the United Kingdom for the years 2000 through 2011. Participants: We identified 410 019 US men and 6858 UK men who initiated a testosterone formulation as well as 1 114 329 US men and 66 140 UK men with a new testosterone laboratory measurement. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included initiation of any injected testosterone, implanted testosterone pellets, or prescribed transdermal or oral testosterone formulation. Results: Testosterone testing and supplementation have increased pronouncedly in the United States. Increased testing in the United Kingdom has identified more men with low levels, yet US testing has increased among men with normal levels. Men in the United States tend to initiate at normal levels more often than in the United Kingdom, and many men initiate testosterone without recent testing. Gels have become the most common initial treatment in both countries. Conclusions: Testosterone testing and use has increased over the past decade, particularly in the United States, with dramatic shifts from injections to gels. Substantial use is seen in men without recent testing and in US men with normal levels. Given widening use despite safety and efficacy questions, prescribers must consider the medical necessity of testosterone before initiation. PMID:24423353

  20. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United ...

  1. JSTOR: Large Scale Digitization of Journals in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. Guthrie

    1999-01-01

    The JSTOR database now includes well over 2 million pages from 61 important journals in 13 academic disciplines. Additional journal content is being digitized at a rate of more than 100,000 pages per month. More than 320 libraries in the United States and Canada have become participating institutions, providing support for the creation, maintenance and growth of this database. Outside of North America, we have established a mirror site in the United Kingdom. Through a novel collaborative rela...

  2. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  3. United States' response to the Ethiopian food crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-08

    Ethiopia is currently suffering from a famine which is affecting an estimated 7.9 million people and requiring massive amounts of external food assistance. As early as 1982 the United States was aware that a potentially serious food shortage situation existed in the northern provinces of Ethiopia. The United States to date has provided more relief assistance to Ethiopia than any other government or international organization. However, the initial US response was delayed because of strained relations between the two governments and several policy and administrative concerns related to the provision of relief aid to Ethiopia. This report discusses the need for massive food aid in Ethiopia, policy concerns raised within the US government and among other members of the international donor community about providing emergency food aid to Ethiopia, and when and how the United States responded to this crisis.

  4. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  5. Benchmarking academic plastic surgery services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Elaine Horibe; Shirazian, Afshin; Binns, Brian; Fleming, Yuedi; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Rohrich, Rod J; Azari, Kodi

    2012-06-01

    Rising health care costs and increasingly demanding patients are only some of the challenges faced by academic plastic surgery services in their pursuit of excellence in education, research, and patient care. Benchmarking, when correctly applied, is a powerful tool that can help services learn from each other's experiences. This study aimed at creating the first benchmarking report summarizing performance indicators and management practices of some of the most complete academic plastic surgery units in the United States. Results provide an opportunity for plastic surgery leaders to benchmark against their own units, identify eventual gaps, and improve their performance as needed.

  6. Pathways to human experimentation, 1933-1945: Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Gerhard; Lederer, Susan E; Low, Morris; Schmaltz, Florian; Schwerin, Alexander V

    2005-01-01

    The history of human experimentation in the twelve years between Hitler's rise to power and the end of the Second World War is notorious in the annals of the twentieth century. The horrific experiments conducted at Dachau, Auschwitz, Ravensbrueck, Birkenau, and other National Socialist concentration camps reflected an extreme indifference to human life and human suffering. Unfortunately, they do not reflect the extent and complexity of the human experiments undertaken in the years between 1933 and 1945. Following the prosecution of twenty-three high-ranking National Socialist physicians and medical administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg Medical Trial (United States v. Karl Brandt et al.), scholars have rightly focused attention on the nightmarish researches conducted by a small group of investigators on concentration camp inmates. Less well known are alternative pathways that brought investigators to undertake human experimentation in other laboratories, settings, and nations.

  7. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  8. Use of geothermal energy in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddison, F. C.; Yu, K.

    1980-06-01

    This article discusses the location of potential geothermal resources in the eastern United States, where the only confirmed hydrothermal field is located on the edge of the Delmarva Peninsula. The manner and economics of the field's use to heat a high school in Crisfield, Md., the pros and cons of extending the use of the resource to community heating, and institutional considerations are also discussed. It is concluded that the use of hydrothermal resources with greater than normal thermal gradients in the eastern United States appears promising if system design is optimized and capital costs are minimized

  9. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-01-01

    Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings) in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b). Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration...

  10. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Italy, Japan, and the United States. 23Bill, 16. 24William O. Beeman, The “Great Satan ” vs. the “Mad Mullahs (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing...Shah.46 Khomeini returned from exile, seized power, and declared the U.S. the “Great Satan .” Iran descended into an era of death squads, score settling...convinced many moderates that the United States was the “Great Satan .”56 The eight-year, Iran-Iraq war led the country into economic decline and crisis

  11. Health sciences libraries in the United States: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Barbara A

    2017-12-01

    This article is the third in a series in this regular feature. The intention of the series is to look at important global developments in health science libraries. These articles will serve as a road map, describing the key changes in the field and exploring factors driving these changes. The present article by the current president of the Medical Library Association outlines two important developments in the United States. The topics chosen for consideration are national initiatives in the United States impacting health sciences libraries and librarians and enhanced roles for U.S. health sciences librarians in providing support for research. J.M. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Climate change, humidity, and mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of humidity and temperature on mortality rates in the United States (c. 1973–2002) in order to provide an insight into the potential health impacts of climate change. I find that humidity, like temperature, is an important determinant of mortality. Coupled with Hadley CM3 climate-change predictions, I project that mortality rates are likely to change little on the aggregate for the United States. However, distributional impacts matter: mortality rates are likely to decline in cold and dry areas, but increase in hot and humid areas. Further, accounting for humidity has important implications for evaluating these distributional effects. PMID:25328254

  13. Commentary: Mental Health and Immigrant Detainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius, Daniel; Martin, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary, we reflect on Korngold and colleagues' comprehensive review of the legal challenges encountered by mentally ill immigrant detainees in the United States. Specifically, we further review the competency question as it relates to detainees, as well as recent developments in the legal system. We expand the discussion to general treatment and care of mentally ill detainees in United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities. In addition, we provide an allegory to the juvenile justice system and discuss cultural considerations. We conclude by highlighting the significant implications changes in the immigration justice system may have for forensic examiners and competency evaluations. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  14. The impact of emergency department observation units on United States emergency department admission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capp, Roberta; Sun, Benjamin; Boatright, Dowin; Gross, Cary

    2015-11-01

    Prior studies suggesting that the presence of emergency department (ED) observation units decrease overall ED hospital admissions have been either single-center studies or based on model simulations. The objective of this preliminary national study is to determine if the presence of ED observation units is associated with hospitals having lower ED admission rates. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using the 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey and estimated ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates (RSHAR) for each center. The following were excluded from the study: ages unit status were also excluded. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between ED RSHAR and presence of observation units. There were 24,232 ED visits in 315 hospitals in the United States. Of these, 82 (20.6%) hospitals had an ED observation unit. The average ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates for hospitals with observation units and without hospital observation units were 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.3-16.0) and 16.0% (95% CI: 14.1-17.7), respectively. The difference of 2.3% was not statistically significant. In this preliminary study, we did not find an association between the presence of observation units and ED hospital admission rates. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be performed to further evaluate the impact of ED observation units on ED hospital admission rates. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  16. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  17. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  18. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results......The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  19. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sironi, Luke

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United Stat...

  20. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  1. Challenges Faced by Korean Transnational Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Adrian; Nam, Sang; Han, Shini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help parents, educators, and policymakers understand how to help transnational children adjust to their psychological challenges at school in the United States. A total of 109 Korean transnational adolescents aged 11 to 19 participated in this study. They had been staying in the country alone or with one of their…

  2. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  3. Adoption of precision agriculture technology in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Southeast is diverse and differs from other regions of the United States (U.S.). Crops grown in the Southeast are specific to the region, such as cotton and peanuts. Corn farmers supply most of the grain produced to the poultry industry to support over 15 billion dolla...

  4. Investor perceptions of potential IFRS adoption in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, P.Y.E.; Joos, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the stock market reaction to 15 events relating to IFRS adoption in the United States. The goal is to assess whether investors perceive the switch to IFRS as beneficial or costly. Our findings suggest that investors' reaction to IFRS adoption is more positive in cases where IFRS

  5. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  6. Biomass boiler conversion potential in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Ray; Li Ma; Thomas Wilson; Daniel Wilson; Lew McCreery; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. is the world's leading consumer of primary energy. A large fraction of this energy is used in boiler installations to generate steam and hot water for heating applications. It is estimated there are total 163,000 industrial and commercial boilers in use in the United States of all sizes. This paper characterizes the commercial and industrial boilers in...

  7. Date palm status and perspective in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date industry in the United States is small in comparison with that of many other date-producing countries. The US does not have any indigenous date palm (Phoneix dactylifera L) germplasm, so the industry developed using imported varieties in the early years of the 20th century. Due to its speci...

  8. Contemporary prophetic preaching theory in the United States of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article two homileticians – one from the United States of America (USA) and one from South Africa (SA) − enter into a dialog regarding how the task of prophetic preaching today might be revived, reframed and redefined in light of the Reformation principle of the viva vox Evangelii [living voice of the gospel].

  9. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  10. 77 FR 59064 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain, Oman... importer fails to comply with any of the requirements under Subpart T, Part 10, CBP regulations. Export... of a person who completes and issues a certification for a good exported from the United States to...

  11. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ..., Chile, Morocco, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Bahrain... with any of the requirements under Subpart S, Part 10, CBP regulations. Export Requirements Section 10... who completes and issues a certification for a good exported from the United States to Panama...

  12. Could the United States Afford to Lose a Major Port?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    United States. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Bedford, Tim . and Roger Cooke. Probabilistic Risk Analysis: Foundations and Methods. Cambridge, UK...no. 3 (March 2006): 597-606. 65 Other Sources Burton , Mark L. and Michael Hicks. “Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial

  13. Factual states of affairs – uniting diverging philosophical orientations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factual states of affairs – uniting diverging philosophical orientations and setting them apart: illuminating the impact of a non-reductionist ontology. ... The dominant pattern of the paleontological record, namely stasis, poses empirical and theoretical limits to the definition of evolution as 'continuous change'. Apart from ...

  14. SOA from BVOCs in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic hydrocarbons contribute to organic aerosol in the southeast United States. In this work, we represent aerosol formation from the oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes in CMAQ and compare to data from the Southeast Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Sensitivity simulatio...

  15. Predicting SOA from organic nitrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic nitrates have been identified as an important component of ambient aerosol in the Southeast United States. In this work, we use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to explore the relationship between gas-phase production of organic nitrates and their subsequ...

  16. A Review of Technical Communication Programs Outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines technical communication programs outside the United States and comments on such features as their location in the university structure, links with public relations, the inclusion of internships or practicums, the balance of theory and practice, and typical course offerings. Lists a dozen major programs in seven countries. Concludes that…

  17. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  18. Obesity, Health, and Physical Activity: Discourses from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G.; Veri, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the obesity, health, and physical activity discourses of the past 35 years in the context of the United States with particular reference to five social sectors: the biomedical domain; the popular media; nonprofit foundations, centers and agencies; various national and multinational corporations; and government at all levels.…

  19. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Petersen, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission.

  20. Living History: Pioneering Bandswomen of the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jeananne

    2015-01-01

    This narrative describes two United States Air Force bandswomen whose combined careers span the past sixty years. Cornetist Martha (Martye) Jean Awkerman joined the U.S. Women in the Air Force (WAF) Band in 1955. She served the WAF band as cornet soloist and principal trumpet until the band was disbanded in 1961. In 1983, tubist Jan Duga joined…

  1. International Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Seda

    2009-01-01

    International students constitute an important cohort in the United States (U.S.) colleges and universities. In order for the U.S. colleges and universities to better accommodate the significant number of international students and to recruit them in the future, it is critical to identify factors that influence these students' acculturation and…

  2. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  3. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) ...............................................................................................5 High Speed Rail In...conventional steel wheel on steel rail technology, or magnetic levitation (in which superconducting magnets levitate a train above a guide rail...transported.14 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Maglev train technology was developed in the United States in the 1960s. It uses electromagnets to suspend

  4. Immigrant-Responsive Multicultural Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    In this article, it is proposed that systematic attention to certain characteristics of newcomer immigrant students' identity construction could enhance the premises of the field of multicultural education in the United States, with immigrant-responsive insights. Elements from the scholarship in the sociology of migration, which attend to critical…

  5. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  6. History of College Zoology Textbooks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staud, Margaret Crespo

    Studied were the characteristics and changes of textbooks used in college zoology instruction in the United States and the relationship of these findings to the development of college zoology instruction. The authors' professional backgrounds, the textbook audience, and the status of zoology and college education at the time each book was written…

  7. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1985, the purebred cattle industry moved from National Sire Evalu- ation to National Cattle Evaluation. Current mixed model methodology used in the US beef industry. The following is a brief introduction to the National Cattle. Evaluation methodology used in the United States. The factors affecting weaning mass, which is ...

  8. Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

  9. The national forest inventory of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, is to conduct the national forest inventory of the United States of America for purposes of estimating the area of forest land; the volume, growth, and removal of forest resources; and the health of the forest. Users of FIA data, estimates, and related...

  10. Defense of the United States. Aerospace Education III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, V. V.

    This publication, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, deals with the background of the defense system of the United States. Description of different wars in which this country was involved includes the development of new military organizations and different weapons. One chapter is devoted in its entirity to the organizational structure…

  11. THE TEACHING OF SPANISH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAVITT, STURGIS E.

    AA SHORT HISTORY OF THE TEACHING OF SPANISH IN THE UNITED STATES WAS REPORTED. THE ACCOUNT BEGAN WITH EVENTS FOLLOWING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION TO THE PRESENT. THE SURVEY INCLUDED A DISCUSSION OF (1) SPANISH TEACHERS, (2) SPANISH READERS, (3) LATIN AMERICA, (4) ASSOCIATIONS, AND (5) STUDENTS AND TEACHERS. THIS STUDY ENDEAVORS TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL…

  12. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities and towns in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A city or town is a place with a recorded population,...

  13. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  14. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  15. The Beginnings of Communication Study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Wilbur

    The history of communication research in the United States is reviewed in this paper through an extensive look at the lives of four men who made significant contributions to the field: Harold Lasswell, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarsfeld, and Carl Hovland. The pattern of institute formation in the social sciences is briefly reviewed to explain the…

  16. The United States Enters the Korean Conflict. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    After World War II the United States centered its foreign policy on the containment of communism, at home and abroad. Although it was aimed primarily at containing the spread of communism in Europe, the policy also extended to Asia. Asia proved to be the site of the first major battle waged in the name of containment: the Korean War. Dividing…

  17. Chinese International Students' Academic Stressors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical research has focused on understanding the academic stress of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the most stressful aspects of their academic lives in the U.S., how they characterize their academic stress, and what conditions they believe tend to account for their academic stress.…

  18. Children's Behavior Problems in the United States and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Campbell, Lori Ann; Zhong, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child"…

  19. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  20. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  1. Ethnic Perspectives on Sibling Abuse in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoza, Kimberly A.; Cook, Kelley; Zaveri, Tanvi; Malley-Morrison, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Sibling abuse has been studied much less extensively than other forms of family violence in the United States; moreover, research on how sibling abuse is viewed in different ethnic-minority groups has been rare. Convenience samples of Native American (n = 25), Latino/Hispanic (n = 45), African American (n = 30), European American (n = 78), Asian…

  2. Fragmentation of Forest Communities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities and therefore the beta diversity of forestland in the eastern United States. We combined forest inventory data with land cover data to compare 70 forest communities in terms of the amount and ownership of int...

  3. 77 FR 25375 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat Correction PART 810 In proposed rule document 2012-9182... 4.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Total \\1\\ 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Wheat of other classes: \\2\\ Contrasting classes 1...

  4. Federal Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  5. The United States as a Power in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David C.

    1976-01-01

    Designed to correspond with the similar topic of the American Issues Forum, this article provides readings and discussion questions on the role of American economic power in the world. The readings focus on the impact of United States multinational corporations on the economy and culture of Mexico. (DE)

  6. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  7. PUBLIC PROVISION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEST, HARRY

    WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…

  8. Ecology of bottomland oaks in the southeastern United states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2001-01-01

    0aks (Querczrs spp.) are among the most ecologically and economically valued trees of the floodplain forests which occupy the river valleys that dissect the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains of the southeastem United States. In these floodplain forests, several species from the sections Quercus and Lobarae are commonly found distributed along a gradient of sites ranging...

  9. Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Jill S. Baron; Edith B. Allen; Heather M. Rueth; Koren R. Nydick; Linda Geiser; William D. Bowman; James O. Sickman; Thomas Meixner; Dale W. Johnson; Peter Neitlich

    2003-01-01

    In the western United States vast acreages of land are exposed to low levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, with interspersed hotspots of elevated N deposition downwind of large, expanding metropolitan centers or large agricultural operations. Biological response studies in western North America demonstrate that some aquatic and terrestrial plant and microbial...

  10. 78 FR 63158 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS...

  11. Guidelines for ground motion definition for the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; Aramayo, G.A.; Williams, R.T.

    1985-06-01

    Guidelines for the determination of earthquake ground motion definition for the eastern United States are established here. Both far-field and near-field guidelines are given. The guidelines were based on an extensive review of the current procedures for specifying ground motion in the United States. Both empirical and theoretical procedures were used in establishing the guidelines because of the low seismicity in the eastern United States. Only a few large- to great-sized earthquakes (M/sub s/ > 7.5) have occurred in this region, no evidence of tectonic surface ruptures related to historic or Holocene earthquakes has been found, and no currently active plate boundaries of any kind are known in this region. Very little instrumented data have been gathered in the East. Theoretical procedures are proposed so that in regions of almost no data, a reasonable level of seismic ground motion activity can be assumed. The guidelines are to be used to develop the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). A new procedure for establishing the operating basis earthquake (OBE) is proposed, in particular for the eastern United States. The OBE would be developed using a probabilistic assessment of the geological conditions and the recurrence of seismic events at a site. These guidelines should be useful in development of seismic design requirements for future reactors. 17 refs., figs., tabs.

  12. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all...

  13. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  14. The Condition of Work Readiness in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFebvre, Mary

    2013-01-01

    ACT has issued a series of reports concerning the role of skills in today's job market and the growing importance they play in predicting workplace success. This is the third report in the series. This report highlights the levels of work readiness for various subgroups of an estimated 4 million ACT WorkKeys® examinees in the United States and…

  15. Private lands and outdoor recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Paul Gentle

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor recreation on private land is influenced by myriad factors. To provide background and context on these factors, this chapter first overviews the private land situation in the United States and provides general information and discussion related to ownership and tenure, land-use patterns, legal restrictions, and economic conditions, including taxation issues....

  16. Classes of land-surface form in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset describes classes of land-surface form in the conterminous United States. The source of the data is the map of land-surface form in the 1970...

  17. The United States and Nigerian Relations: Diplomatic Row over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arguably, the US – Nigerian relations before the events on 25th of December, 2009 was a healthy one. However, the attempted suicide bomb on that day had serious ramifications to the extent that it threatened the, otherwise cordial relationship between the two countries. Consequently, the United States of America put ...

  18. Women and HIV/AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health issues… CHIP Marketplaces Waivers menu KFF.org Facebook Twitter Email Twitter Facebook Email HIV/AIDS Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... in the United States Published: Mar 06, 2014 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Women have been affected ...

  19. HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health issues… CHIP Marketplaces Waivers menu KFF.org Facebook Twitter Email Twitter Facebook Email HIV/AIDS Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... United States: The Basics Published: Dec 13, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Key Facts The first ...

  20. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef industry ... Generally, the theory of mixed linear models for genetic evaluation is finding .... animal model. In late 1984, the model was applied in the. Limousin and Brangus breeds. This technology has now been adopted by nearly all the major beef breeds ...

  1. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes in United States Government Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champney, Leonard; Edleman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study employs the Solomon Four-Group Design to measure student knowledge of the United States government and student knowledge of current events at the beginning of a U.S. government course and at the end. In both areas, knowledge improves significantly. Regarding knowledge of the U.S. government, both males and females improve at similar…

  2. Chinese Students' Motivations for Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chiang-nan; Hegarty, Niall; Angelidis, John; Lu, Victor F.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the presence of Chinese students in U.S., and attempts to explore the reasons why so many Chinese students choose to study abroad and why the United States is their preferred destination. This population is a vital component of university life at many colleges and a much needed source of financial revenue. The results indicate…

  3. Two Perspectives on Inclusion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Marling, Curt; Burns, Mary Bridget

    2014-01-01

    The history of schooling for students with disabilities in the United States is marked by exclusion and, until the passage of the "Education for All Children Act" in the 1970s, a substantial number of students with disabilities were denied free public education and many more were poorly served by public schools. The requirement that all…

  4. Wood used in industrial markets in the United States--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Gaston

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to gather information on the volume of wood products used by industrial manufacturers across the United States (U.S.). Specific objectives included the following: 1. To identify and categorize the main industrial manufacturing industries in the U.S. that are likely to use wood products (using the North American Industrial...

  5. Iranian-Venezuelan Relations and Impacts on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    STRUCTURE OF VENEZUELA BEFORE CHÁVEZ .............................................................17 1. From the Pact of Punto Fijo to the Late 1990s...35 G . CONCLUSION...160. 13 Pape, “Soft Balancing against the United States,” 16. 14 William C. Wohlforth, “U.S. Strategy in a Unipolar World” in G . John Ikenberry (eds

  6. Should the United States Maintain the Nuclear Triad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nuclear abolitionists are a number of varying opinions. Some—such as Richard Branson and Queen Noor of Jordan, who ascribe to global zero—support a...until the United States ultimately disarms.3 Some past and present members of the military leadership hold a view that supports the nuclear arsenal

  7. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  8. Chapter 16: Incentives and wildfire management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Thomas C. Brown; Lisa Dale

    2008-01-01

    A recent series of severe fire seasons in the United States has contributed to sharply rising wildfire suppression costs. These increasing costs have caught the attention of policy makers, but so far the responses have not focused clearly on the incentive structures that allow or encourage rising costs (National Academy of Public Administration 2002). We analyze the...

  9. Incentives and wildfire management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Thomas C. Brown; Lisa Dale

    2008-01-01

    A recent series of severe fire seasons in the United States has contributed to sharply rising wildfire suppression costs. These increasing costs have caught the attention of policymakers, but so far the responses have not focused clearly on the incentive structures that allow or encourage rising costs. We analyze the problem of rising suppression costs by examining the...

  10. National Curriculum for Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghwan; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk," some scholars have argued that a national curriculum and national testing are necessary to hold school personnel accountable for student achievement and, ultimately, to raise educational standards. The idea of developing a nationwide curriculum has been widely debated in the United States,…

  11. Comparing Special Education in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that China has a deep-rooted history of sympathetic attitudes toward individuals with disabilities, and has begun to serve individuals with disabilities in their public schools, Special Education in China today is much like it was in the United States prior to the implementation of the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of…

  12. The United States Copyright Law: A Guide for Music Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Schools of Music, Reston, VA.

    Music educators are informed of the applications of the 1976 revision of the United States copyright law to the use of sheet music, audiovisual recordings, and dramatic and choreographic works. Material is divided into five sections. Section 1 outlines the primary rights of copyright holders with regard to phonorecords, derivative works,…

  13. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  14. Characteristics of Effective Interpreter Education Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Lisa Ann Boegner

    2010-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to investigate effective practices of interpreting education programs in the United States as measured by the readiness to credential gap. The increasing demand for interpreters has created an environment with under-credentialed interpreters and this is compounded by the fact that the field of interpreter…

  15. Literacy Coaching in the United States: Implications for Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mei-lan

    2012-01-01

    Literacy coaching has become a popular professional development approach in the United States over the last decade. To date, there has been little research on the different lived experiences and challenges of literacy coaches working in different contexts. Furthermore, research findings regarding the effectiveness of literacy coaching are…

  16. The Emergy Basis for Formal Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The education system of the United States from 1870 to 2006 was evaluated using emergy methods. The system was partitioned into three subsystems, elementary, secondary, and college education and the emergy inputs required to support each subsystem were determined for each year o...

  17. Critical Education, Critical Pedagogies, Marxist Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jean Ann; Morris, Doug; Gounari, Panayota; Agostinone-Wilson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    As critical pedagogy becomes more mainstream on the educational landscape in the United States, it is important to revisit the original tenets of critical pedagogy and explore their current manifestations. Since the beginning of "criticalism" from the theoretical/foundational work of the Frankfurt School of Critical Social Theory,…

  18. Capitalism and Public Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The United States democratic system includes characteristics of capitalism as well as socialism. Perhaps the most socialistic endeavor of the US is its K-12 public school system; in fact, US public schools are necessary for democracy to thrive and to create an educated and well-informed populace. However, capitalism and socialism are strange…

  19. Oxygen production by urban trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane

    2007-01-01

    Urban forests in the coterminous United States are estimated to produce ≈61 million metric tons (67 million tons) of oxygen annually, enough oxygen to offset the annual oxygen consumption of approximately two-thirds of the U.S. opulation. Although oxygen production is often cited as a significant benefit of trees, this benefit is relatively insignificant and...

  20. Addressing the Urban Stream Syndrome in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeast has become one of the most urbanized regions in the United States, following a long history of watershed alteration and development. Much of the historical drainage infrastructure was designed to transport wastewater and stormwater to streams and rivers as quickly a...