WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states continental

  1. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  2. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  3. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  4. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  5. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  6. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    standards. 3. Work with the privatized housing partner to ensure that fire protection inspection and maintenance plans are achieved. Deputy Assistant...Secretary stated that Hunt Military Communities and Patrick AFB civil engineers were working to correct all of the other fire protection system...create a plan for the performance of ongoing inspection and maintenance of all housing units to applicable electrical codes and standards. 3. Work

  7. Geoelectric hazard maps for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Jonas, Seth; Kelbert, Anna; Rigler, E. Joshua; Finn, Carol A.; Balch, Christopher C.; Rutledge, Robert; Waggel, Richard M.; Sabata, Andrew T.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Black, Carrie E.

    2016-09-01

    In support of a multiagency project for assessing induction hazards, we present maps of extreme-value geoelectric amplitudes over about half of the continental United States. These maps are constructed using a parameterization of induction: estimates of Earth surface impedance, obtained at discrete geographic sites from magnetotelluric survey data, are convolved with latitude-dependent statistical maps of extreme-value geomagnetic activity, obtained from decades of magnetic observatory data. Geoelectric amplitudes are estimated for geomagnetic waveforms having 240 s sinusoidal period and amplitudes over 10 min that exceed a once-per-century threshold. As a result of the combination of geographic differences in geomagnetic activity and Earth surface impedance, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes span more than 2 orders of magnitude and are an intricate function of location. For north-south induction, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes across large parts of the United States have a median value of 0.26 V/km; for east-west geomagnetic variation the median value is 0.23 V/km. At some locations, once-per-century geoelectric amplitudes exceed 3 V/km.

  8. Statistics of lower tropospheric inversions over the continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.H.; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Chen, Z.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The basic structure parameters of lower tropospheric inversions (LTIs) have been derived from 10 years (1998-2007) of high vertical resolution ({proportional_to}50 m) radiosonde observations over 56 United States stations. Seasonal and longitudinal variability of these parameters are presented and the formation mechanisms of LTI are also discussed. It is found that LTI seems to be a common feature over the continental United States. The LTI occurrence rates (defined as the fraction of measurements with LTI, which is calculated from the number of LTI cases divided by the number of measurements of the whole 10 years) at these 56 stations vary from 3.7% to 14.5%; the averaged base heights of LTI have a range of 3-5 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.); the averaged thicknesses and temperature jump ranges from 420-465m and 1.9-2.2 K, respectively. These parameters have an obvious seasonal variation. In winter, all the occurrence rates, thicknesses and temperature jumps of LTI have much larger values than those in summer. LTI occurrence rate shows an obvious west-east increasing trend in all 4 seasons. Detailed analyses reveal that dynamical instability induced by strong zonal wind shear is responsible for LTI in winter, spring and autumn; the frontal system tends to generate LTI in summer. Since the higher occurrence rate, larger temperature jump and larger thickness of LTI occur in winter, we believe strong zonal wind shear plays a more important role in the formation of LTI. (orig.)

  9. Statistics of lower tropospheric inversions over the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic structure parameters of lower tropospheric inversions (LTIs have been derived from 10 years (1998–2007 of high vertical resolution (~50 m radiosonde observations over 56 United States stations. Seasonal and longitudinal variability of these parameters are presented and the formation mechanisms of LTI are also discussed. It is found that LTI seems to be a common feature over the continental United States. The LTI occurrence rates (defined as the fraction of measurements with LTI, which is calculated from the number of LTI cases divided by the number of measurements of the whole 10 years at these 56 stations vary from 3.7% to 14.5%; the averaged base heights of LTI have a range of 3–5 km above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.; the averaged thicknesses and temperature jump ranges from 420–465 m and 1.9–2.2 K, respectively. These parameters have an obvious seasonal variation. In winter, all the occurrence rates, thicknesses and temperature jumps of LTI have much larger values than those in summer. LTI occurrence rate shows an obvious west-east increasing trend in all 4 seasons. Detailed analyses reveal that dynamical instability induced by strong zonal wind shear is responsible for LTI in winter, spring and autumn; the frontal system tends to generate LTI in summer. Since the higher occurrence rate, larger temperature jump and larger thickness of LTI occur in winter, we believe strong zonal wind shear plays a more important role in the formation of LTI.

  10. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... the Continental United States'' and published in the Federal Register on April 16, 2012 (77 FR 22510... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States....

  11. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Mango, Mangifera indica L., from Australia into the Continental United States: A Pathway-initiated Risk... to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Mangoes from Australia. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be...

  12. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  13. Regional Lg attenuation for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Frankel, A.; Boore, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the Fourier amplitude spectra of Lg phases recorded at high frequency (0.5 to 14.0 Hz) by broadband seismic stations are used to determine regional attenuation relationships for southern California, the Basin and Range Province, the central United States, and the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Fourier spectral amplitudes were measured every quarter octave from Lg phases windowed between 3.0 and 3.7 km sec-1 and recorded in the distance range of 150 to 1000 km. Attenuation at each frequency is determined by assuming a geometrical spreading exponent of 0.5 and inverting for Q and source and receiver terms. Both southern California and the Basin and Range Province are well described by low Lg Q and frequency-dependent attenuation. Lg spectral amplitudes in southern California are fit at low frequencies (0.625 to 0.875 Hz) by a constant Lg Q of 224 and by a frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 187-7+7 f0.55(??0.03) in the frequency band 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. The Basin and Range Province is characterized by a constant Lg Q of 192 for frequencies of 0.5 to 0.875 Hz and by the frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 235-11+11 f0.56(??0.04) in the frequency band 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. A change in frequency dependence above 5.0 Hz is possible due to contamination of the Lg window by Pn and Sn phases. Lg spectral amplitudes in the central United States are fit by a mean frequency-independent Lg Q of 1291 for frequencies of 1.5 to 7.0 Hz, while a frequency-dependent Lg Q of Q = 1052-83+91(f/1.5)0.22(??0.06) fits the Lg spectral amplitudes for the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada over the passband 1.5 to 14.0 Hz. Attenuation measurements for these areas were restricted to frequencies >1.5 Hz due to larger microseismic noise levels at the lower frequencies.

  14. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  15. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-&t...

  16. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-&t...

  17. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Fallon, Battle Motutain, Francis Peak, and Cedar City. Other COR non-participating ertities to be linked to COR Central to promote cooperation in...qualities worth retain’ng: friendliness, and toleration of privacy. "So it is a valid fear that some of thebe valued traditions will be lost with the...by sheep during the winter months from November 1 to April 30. (;razing units In the Battle Mountain Grazing district of the BL, in the northern part

  18. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  19. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  20. Variability of tornado occurrence over the continental United States since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Kaicun; Bluestein, Howard B.

    2016-06-01

    The United States experiences the most tornadoes of any country in the world. Given the catastrophic impact of tornadoes, concern has arisen regarding the variation in climatology of U.S. tornadoes under the changing climate. A recent study claimed that the temporal variability of tornado occurrence over the continental U.S. has increased since the 1970s. However, that study ignored the highly regionalized climatology of U.S. tornadoes. To address this issue, we examined the long-term trend of tornado temporal variability in each continental U.S. state. Based on the 64 year tornado records (1950-2013), we found that the trends in tornado temporal variability varied across the U.S., with only one third of the continental area or three out of 10 contiguous states (mostly from the Great Plains and Southeast, but where the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is greater) displaying a significantly increasing trend. The other two-thirds area, where 60% of the U.S. tornadoes were reported (but the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is less), however, showed a decreasing or a near-zero trend in tornado temporal variability. Furthermore, unlike the temporal variability alone, the combined spatial-temporal variability of U.S. tornado occurrence has remained nearly constant since 1950. Such detailed information on the climatological variability of U.S. tornadoes refines the claim of previous study and can be helpful for local mitigation efforts toward future tornado risks.

  1. Accidental introductions are an important source of invasive plants in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehan, Nora E; Murphy, Julia R; Thorburn, Lukas P; Bradley, Bethany A

    2013-07-01

    Preventing new plant invasions is critical for reducing large-scale ecological change. Most studies have focused on the deliberate introduction of nonnatives via the ornamental plant trade. However, accidental introduction may be an important source of nonnative, invasive plants. Using Web and literature searches, we compiled pathways of introduction to the United States for 1112 nonnative plants identified as invasive in the continental United States. We assessed how the proportion of accidentally and deliberately introduced invasive plants varies over time and space and by growth habit across the lower 48 states. Deliberate introductions of ornamentals are the primary source of invasive plants in the United States, but accidental introductions through seed contaminants are an important secondary source. Invasive forbs and grasses are the most likely to have arrived accidentally through seed contaminants, while almost all nonnative, invasive trees were introduced deliberately. Nonnative plants invading eastern states primarily arrived deliberately as ornamentals, while a high proportion of invasive plants in western states arrived accidentally as seed contaminants. Accidental introductions may be increasing in importance through time. Before 1850, 10 of 89 (11%) of invasive plants arrived accidentally. After 1900, 20 of 65 (31%) arrived accidentally. Recently enacted screening protocols and weed risk assessments aim to reduce the number of potentially invasive species arriving to the United States via deliberate introduction pathways. Increasing proportions of accidentally introduced invasive plants, particularly associated with contaminated seed imports across the western states, suggest that accidental introduction pathways also need to be considered in future regulatory decisions.

  2. Management and Climate Controls on Fire Trends in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; McCarty, J. L.; Wang, D.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by forest fires in both scale and in the resources invested for management. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of satellite observations of active fires as a function of management type in the continental U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity Database (MTBS) to identify the location of large wildland fires and the MODIS Land Cover Type Product (MCD12Q1) to identify agricultural burning in croplands. A third class of fires, defined as prescribed or other fires included all residual fires not attributed to wildland or cropland fire types. Wildland fires dominated the interannual variation for U.S. active fires; however, there were no significant trends by region over the last decade. Agricultural and other/prescribed fires were responsible for 70% of total active fires, 50% of which were in the south and southeastern United States where contributions from wildland fires was relatively small. In the west, agricultural fires had a decreasing trend at a rate of 6% per year, mainly during the harvest season of October. Except for the west, prescribed fires were in-phase with agricultural fires on both seasonal and interannual timescales, possibly reflecting the similar management strategies. We also performed correlation analysis between fires and potential evapotranspiration (PE) to examine how climate controls varied by fire type. While climate is the dominant factor for wildland fires, agricultural and other non-wildland fires show no direct relationship to PE. Our result suggests that by targeting agricultural and prescribed fire management, there is potential to significantly reduce landscape fire emissions within the U.S., despite expected changes in climate over the next several decades. The trends (p < 0.01) in annual active fire detections across the

  3. Seismic refraction study of the continental edge off the eastern united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R.E.; Grow, J.A.; Behrendt, John C.; Bayer, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    Three long, strike-parallel, seismic-refraction profiles were made on the continental shelf edge, slope and upper rise off New Jersey during 1975. The shelf edge line lies along the axis of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA), while the continental rise line lies 80 km seaward of the shelf edge. Below the unconsolidated sediments (1.7-3.6 km/sec), high-velocity sedimentary rocks (4.2-6.2 km/sec) were found at depths of 2.6-8.2 km and are inferred to be cemented carbonates. Although multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and magnetic depth-to-source data predicted the top of oceanic basement at 6-8 km beneath the shelf edge and 10-11 km beneath the rise, no refracted events occurred as first arrivals from either oceanic basement (layer 2, approximately 5.5 km/ sec) or the upper oceanic crust (layer 3A, approximately 6.8 km/sec). Second arrivals from 10.5 km depth beneath the shelf edge are interpreted as events from a 5.9 km/sec refractor within igneous basement. Other refracted events from either layers 2 or 3A could not be resolved within the complex second arrivals. A well-defined crustal layer with a compressional velocity of 7.1-7.2 km/sec, which can be interpreted as oceanic layer 3B, occurred at 15.8 km depth beneath the shelf and 12.9 km beneath the upper rise. A well-reversed mantle velocity of 8.3 km/sec was measured at 18-22 km depth beneath the upper continental rise. Comparison with other deep-crustal profiles along the continental edge of the Atlantic margin off the United States, specifically in the inner magnetically quiet zone, indicates that the compressional wave velocities and layer depths determined on the U.S.G.S. profiles are very similar to those of nearby profiles. This suggests that the layers are continuous and that the interpretation of the oceanic layer 3B under the shelf edge east of New Jersey implies progradation of the shelf outward over the oceanic crust in that area. This agrees with magnetic anomaly evidence which shows the

  4. Assessing PM2.5 Exposures with High Spatiotemporal Resolution across the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Qian; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-05-01

    A number of models have been developed to estimate PM2.5 exposure, including satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) models, land-use regression, or chemical transport model simulation, all with both strengths and weaknesses. Variables like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface reflectance, absorbing aerosol index, and meteoroidal fields are also informative about PM2.5 concentrations. Our objective is to establish a hybrid model which incorporates multiple approaches and input variables to improve model performance. To account for complex atmospheric mechanisms, we used a neural network for its capacity to model nonlinearity and interactions. We used convolutional layers, which aggregate neighboring information, into a neural network to account for spatial and temporal autocorrelation. We trained the neural network for the continental United States from 2000 to 2012 and tested it with left out monitors. Ten-fold cross-validation revealed a good model performance with a total R(2) of 0.84 on the left out monitors. Regional R(2) could be even higher for the Eastern and Central United States. Model performance was still good at low PM2.5 concentrations. Then, we used the trained neural network to make daily predictions of PM2.5 at 1 km × 1 km grid cells. This model allows epidemiologists to access PM2.5 exposure in both the short-term and the long-term.

  5. Enhanced stratospheric water vapor over the summertime continental United States and the role of overshooting convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robert L.; Ray, Eric A.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Read, William G.; Troy, Robert F.; Chin, Keith; Christensen, Lance E.; Fu, Dejian; Stachnik, Robert A.; Bui, T. Paul; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.

    2017-05-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the lower stratosphere over North America during the field mission for the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). This study reports observations of convectively influenced air parcels with enhanced water vapor in the overworld stratosphere over the summertime continental United States and investigates three case studies in detail. Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, which is much higher than the background 4 to 6 ppmv of the overworld stratosphere, were measured by the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) at altitudes between 16.0 and 17.5 km (potential temperatures of approximately 380 to 410 K). Overshooting cloud tops (OTs) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Through trajectory analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and OT. Back trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. A regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  6. Continental Margin Mapping Program (CONMAP) sediments grainsize distribution for the United States East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAPSG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sediments off the eastern United States vary markedly in texture - the size, shape, and arrangement of their grains. However, for descriptive purposes, it is...

  7. Continental Margin Mapping Program (CONMAP) sediments grainsize distribution for the United States East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAPSG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sediments off the eastern United States vary markedly in texture - the size, shape, and arrangement of their grains. However, for descriptive purposes, it is...

  8. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other... document (CIED) that evaluates the phytosanitary measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and several other countries. Currently, garlic may...

  9. Outside the Continental United States International Travel and Contagion Impact Quick Look Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Lancaster, Mary J.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Kunkel, Brenda M.; Muller, George; McKenzie, Taylor K.

    2012-11-09

    ABSTRACT This paper describes a tool that will allow public health analysts to estimate infectious disease risk at the country level as a function of different international transportation modes. The prototype focuses on a cholera epidemic originating within Latin America or the Caribbean, but it can be expanded to consider other pathogens as well. This effort leverages previous work in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop the International Travel to Community Impact (IT-CI) model, which analyzes and assesses potential international disease outbreaks then estimates the associated impacts to U.S. communities and the nation as a whole and orient it for use Outside the Continental United States (OCONUS). For brevity, we refer to this refined model as OIT-CI. First, we developed an operationalized meta-population spatial cholera model for Latin America and the Caribbean at the secondary administrative-level boundary. Secondly, we developed a robust function of human airline critical to approximating mixing patterns in the meta- population model. In the prototype version currently presented here, OIT-CI models a cholera epidemic originating in a Latin American or Caribbean country and spreading via airline transportation routes. Disease spread is modeled at the country level using a patch model with a connectivity function based on demographic, geospatial, and human transportation data. We have also identified data to estimate the water and health-related infrastructure capabilities of each country to include this potential impact on disease transmission.

  10. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.; Nash, M. S.; Barnes, C. A.

    2016-11-01

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-×-30 m) land cover change data and moderate resolution (~ 500 m-×-500 m) albedo data. The land cover change data spanned 10 years (2001 - 2011) and the albedo data included observations every eight days for 13 years (2001 - 2013). Empirical testing was based on autoregressive time series analysis of snow free albedo for verified locations of land cover change. Approximately one-third of the autoregressive analyses for woody to herbaceous or forest to shrub change classes were not significant, indicating that albedo did not change significantly as a result of land cover change at these locations. In addition, ~ 80% of mean differences in albedo arising from land cover change were less than ± 0.02, a nominal benchmark for precision of albedo measurements that is related to significant changes in radiative forcing. Under snow free conditions, we found that land cover change does not guarantee a significant albedo response, and that the differences in mean albedo response for the majority of land cover change locations were small.

  11. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  12. Assssment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Ravens, Thomas M. [University of Alaska Anchorage; Cunningham, Keith W. [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2012-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Electric Power Research Institute and its collaborative partners, University of Alaska ? Anchorage, University of Alaska ? Fairbanks, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, to provide an assessment of the riverine hydrokinetic resource in the continental United States. The assessment benefited from input obtained during two workshops attended by individuals with relevant expertise and from a National Research Council panel commissioned by DOE to provide guidance to this and other concurrent, DOE-funded assessments of water based renewable energy. These sources of expertise provided valuable advice regarding data sources and assessment methodology. The assessment of the hydrokinetic resource in the 48 contiguous states is derived from spatially-explicit data contained in NHDPlus ?a GIS-based database containing river segment-specific information on discharge characteristics and channel slope. 71,398 river segments with mean annual flow greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) mean discharge were included in the assessment. Segments with discharge less than 1,000 cfs were dropped from the assessment, as were river segments with hydroelectric dams. The results for the theoretical and technical resource in the 48 contiguous states were found to be relatively insensitive to the cutoff chosen. Raising the cutoff to 1,500 cfs had no effect on estimate of the technically recoverable resource, and the theoretical resource was reduced by 5.3%. The segment-specific theoretical resource was estimated from these data using the standard hydrological engineering equation that relates theoretical hydraulic power (Pth, Watts) to discharge (Q, m3 s-1) and hydraulic head or change in elevation (??, m) over the length of the segment, where ? is the specific weight of water (9800 N m-3): ??? = ? ? ?? For Alaska, which is not encompassed by NPDPlus, hydraulic head and discharge data were manually obtained from Idaho National

  13. Salinity variability along the eastern continental shelf of Canada and the United States, 1973-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagni, James J.

    2016-09-01

    Continental shelf waters located off the east coast of Canada and the United States are part of a long shelf current system that is partly comprised of colder, less-saline waters originating from high latitudes, including waters from the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre, along with ice-melt and freshwater input from local rivers. A 41-year analysis (1973-2013) of near-surface salinity (NSS) using three hydrographic datasets (Bedford Institute of Oceanography "Climate", NOAA/ESDIM, and Canadian Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)) allowed an examination of NSS variability within 11 continental shelf sub-regions, extending from the southern Newfoundland Shelf of eastern Canada to the DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf of the United States. Although the periods of record containing sufficient data vary between sub-regions, regional mean NSS values are lowest within the Gulf of St. Lawrence and highest on the DelMarVa/Hatteras shelf, with largest annual variability within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After removal of outliers, long-term linear trends computed from annual mean NSS were detected along the Newfoundland Shelf (+0.011 y-1), Western Scotian Shelf (-0.007 y-1), Gulf of Maine (-0.014 y-1), Georges Bank (-0.011 y-1), and DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf (+0.024 y-1). A long-term quadratic fit to annual mean NSS from the Eastern Scotian Shelf displays a salinity increase through 1992 of +0.026 y-1, decreasing thereafter until 2013 by -0.028 y-1. A quadratic fit for the Western Grand Banks displays a NSS increase through 2007 of +0.022 y-1, decreasing thereafter through 2013 by -0.006 y-1. Annual mean NSS from the Eastern Grand Banks, Tail of the Grand Banks, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Middle Atlantic Bight display no long-term trends. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of NSS residuals shows similar small mean squared error (mse) of 0.02-0.04 for the four northern-most sub-regions (Newfoundland Shelf, Eastern, Tail and Western Grand Banks) and are correlated at 0-year lag. IAV of NSS

  14. Decadal temperature predictions over the continental United States: Analysis and Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Kaustubh; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Ghosh, Subimal

    2017-02-01

    Increases in global temperature over recent decades and the projected acceleration in warming trends over the 21 century have resulted in a strong need to obtain information about future temperature conditions. Hence, skillful decadal temperature predictions (DTPs) can have profound societal and economic benefits through informed planning and response. However, skillful and actionable DTPs are extremely challenging to achieve. Even though general circulation models (GCMs) provide decadal predictions of different climate variables, the direct use of GCM data for regional-scale impacts assessment is not encouraged because of the limited skill they possibly exhibit and their coarse spatial resolution. Here, we focus on 14 GCMs and evaluate seasonally and regionally averaged skills in DTPs over the continental United States. Moreover, we address the limitations in skill and spatial resolution in the GCM outputs using two data-driven approaches: (1) quantile-based bias correction and (2) linear regression-based statistical downscaling. For both the approaches, statistical parameters/relationships, established over the calibration period (1961-1990) are applied to retrospective and near future decadal predictions by GCMs to obtain DTPs at `4 km' resolution. Predictions are assessed using different evaluation metrics, long-term statistical properties, and uncertainty in terms of the range of predictions. Both the approaches adopted here show improvements with respect to the raw GCM data, particularly in terms of the long-term statistical properties and uncertainty, irrespective of lead time. The outcome of the study is monthly DTPs from 14 GCMs with a spatial resolution of 4 km, which can be used as a key input for impacts assessments.

  15. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti in the continental United States: a vector at the cool margin of its geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Moore, Chester G

    2013-05-01

    After more than a half century without recognized local dengue outbreaks in the continental United States, there were recent outbreaks of autochthonous dengue in the southern parts of Texas (2004-2005) and Florida (2009-2011). This dengue reemergence has provoked interest in the extent of the future threat posed by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in urban settings, to human health in the continental United States. Ae. aegypti is an intriguing example of a vector species that not only occurs in the southernmost portions of the eastern United States today but also is incriminated as the likely primary vector in historical outbreaks of yellow fever as far north as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, from the 1690s to the 1820s. For vector species with geographic ranges limited, in part, by low temperature and cool range margins occurring in the southern part of the continental United States, as is currently the case for Ae. aegypti, it is tempting to speculate that climate warming may result in a northward range expansion (similar to that seen for Ixodes tick vectors of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in Scandinavia and southern Canada in recent decades). Although there is no doubt that climate conditions directly impact many aspects of the life history of Ae. aegypti, this mosquito also is closely linked to the human environment and directly influenced by the availability of water-holding containers for oviposition and larval development. Competition with other container-inhabiting mosquito species, particularly Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), also may impact the presence and local abundance of Ae. aegypti. Field-based studies that focus solely on the impact of weather or climate factors on the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, including assessments of the potential impact of climate warming on the mosquito's future range and abundance, do not consider the potential confounding

  16. Determinants of alternative fuel vehicle choice in the continental United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.

    1997-12-18

    This paper describes the ongoing investigation into the determinants of alternative fuel vehicle choice. A stated preference vehicle choice survey was conducted for the 47 of the continental U.S. states, excluding California. The national survey is based on and is an extension of previous studies on alternative fuel vehicle choice for the State of California conducted by the University of California's Institute of Transportation Studies (UC ITS). Researchers at UC ITS have used the stated-preference national survey to produce a series of estimates for new vehicle choice models. Three of these models are presented in this paper. The first two of the models were estimated using only the data from the national survey. The third model presented in this paper pools information from the national and California surveys to estimate a true national model for new vehicle choice.

  17. Assssment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T. [Electric Power Research Institute; Ravens, Thomas M. [University of Alaska Anchorage; Cunningham, Keith W. [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2012-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Electric Power Research Institute and its collaborative partners, University of Alaska ? Anchorage, University of Alaska ? Fairbanks, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, to provide an assessment of the riverine hydrokinetic resource in the continental United States. The assessment benefited from input obtained during two workshops attended by individuals with relevant expertise and from a National Research Council panel commissioned by DOE to provide guidance to this and other concurrent, DOE-funded assessments of water based renewable energy. These sources of expertise provided valuable advice regarding data sources and assessment methodology. The assessment of the hydrokinetic resource in the 48 contiguous states is derived from spatially-explicit data contained in NHDPlus ?a GIS-based database containing river segment-specific information on discharge characteristics and channel slope. 71,398 river segments with mean annual flow greater than 1,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) mean discharge were included in the assessment. Segments with discharge less than 1,000 cfs were dropped from the assessment, as were river segments with hydroelectric dams. The results for the theoretical and technical resource in the 48 contiguous states were found to be relatively insensitive to the cutoff chosen. Raising the cutoff to 1,500 cfs had no effect on estimate of the technically recoverable resource, and the theoretical resource was reduced by 5.3%. The segment-specific theoretical resource was estimated from these data using the standard hydrological engineering equation that relates theoretical hydraulic power (Pth, Watts) to discharge (Q, m3 s-1) and hydraulic head or change in elevation (??, m) over the length of the segment, where ? is the specific weight of water (9800 N m-3): ??? = ? ? ?? For Alaska, which is not encompassed by NPDPlus, hydraulic head and discharge data were manually obtained from Idaho National

  18. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of county-based human West Nile virus incidence in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGroote John P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne illness that can severely affect human health. After introduction on the East Coast in 1999, the virus quickly spread and became established across the continental United States. However, there have been significant variations in levels of human WNV incidence spatially and temporally. In order to quantify these variations, we used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and Anselin's Local Moran's I statistic to uncover spatial clustering of human WNV incidence at the county level in the continental United States from 2002–2008. These two methods were applied with varying analysis thresholds in order to evaluate sensitivity of clusters identified. Results The spatial scan and Local Moran's I statistics revealed several consistent, important clusters or hot-spots with significant year-to-year variation. In 2002, before the pathogen had spread throughout the country, there were significant regional clusters in the upper Midwest and in Louisiana and Mississippi. The largest and most consistent area of clustering throughout the study period was in the Northern Great Plains region including large portions of Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, and significant sections of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. In 2006, a very strong cluster centered in southwest Idaho was prominent. Both the spatial scan statistic and the Local Moran's I statistic were sensitive to the choice of input parameters. Conclusion Significant spatial clustering of human WNV incidence has been demonstrated in the continental United States from 2002–2008. The two techniques were not always consistent in the location and size of clusters identified. Although there was significant inter-annual variation, consistent areas of clustering, with the most persistent and evident being in the Northern Great Plains, were demonstrated. Given the wide variety of mosquito species responsible and the environmental conditions they

  19. Puerto Ricans in Continental United States: A Bibliography, Selected and Annotated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Rene

    This annotated bibliography contains approximately 900 citations of material written about Puerto Ricans residing in the mainland United States. Also included is a section listing published bibliographies that cover literature on Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Citations within each section are listed in alphabetical order by author or sponsoring…

  20. Puerto Ricans in Continental United States: A Bibliography, Selected and Annotated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Rene

    This annotated bibliography contains approximately 900 citations of material written about Puerto Ricans residing in the mainland United States. Also included is a section listing published bibliographies that cover literature on Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans. Citations within each section are listed in alphabetical order by author or sponsoring…

  1. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  2. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  3. Data file, Continental Margin Program, Atlantic Coast of the United States: vol. 2 sample collection and analytical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, John C.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the data file presented below is twofold: the first purpose is to make available in printed form the basic data relating to the samples collected as part of the joint U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution program of study of the Atlantic continental margin of the United States; the second purpose is to maintain these data in a form that is easily retrievable by modern computer methods. With the data in such form, repeate manual transcription for statistical or similar mathematical treatment becomes unnecessary. Manual plotting of information or derivatives from the information may also be eliminated. Not only is handling of data by the computer considerably faster than manual techniques, but a fruitful source of errors, transcription mistakes, is eliminated.

  4. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Sarah K; Zou, Li; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A degree-day (DD) model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates "compound risk" maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  5. A geographical information system-based web model of arbovirus transmission risk in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A degree-day (DD model of West Nile virus capable of forecasting real-time transmission risk in the continental United States of America up to one week in advance using a 50-km grid is available online at https://sites. google.com/site/arbovirusmap/. Daily averages of historical risk based on temperatures for 1994-2003 are available at 10- km resolution. Transmission risk maps can be downloaded from 2010 to the present. The model can be adapted to work with any arbovirus for which the temperature-related parameters are known, e.g. Rift Valley fever virus. To more effectively assess virus establishment and transmission, the model incorporates “compound risk” maps and forecasts, which includes livestock density as a parameter.

  6. Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions.

  7. Environmental geologic studies on the southeastern United States Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, 1977-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, Peter; Popenoe, Peter

    1981-01-01

    This report is a summary of the second year of marine environmental research activities by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the southeaster U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, in accordance with with Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) AA551-MU8-13 between the USGS and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The report covers studies whose fieldwork was conducted during the period from 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978. The results of the first year of study are reported in Popenoe (1978a and b) and as U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS report PB 300-820. The purpose of these investigations is to provide basic geologic and oceanographic data to the BLM Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Marine Environmental Studies Program in support of management decisions which relate to possible development of oil and gas resources of the continental shelf. The objectives of the USGS-BLM geologic research program for fiscal year 1978 (FY-78) were 1) to determine the sedimentation rates and processes on the upper slope and inner Blake Plateau; 2) to determine the distribution, areal extent, and vertical characteristics of geological features supportive of biological communities; 3) to monitor the transport of bottom sediment across the OCS, evaluate its possible effect on pollutant transfer along the seabed and the potential of sediment as a pollutant sink, determine the implications of erosion/deposition on pipeline emplacement, and aid the interpretation of chemical, biological, and physical data; 4) to determine the concentration levels of chosen trace metals and silica in three chemically defined fractions of the suspended particulate matter (seston); 5) to study the shelf edge and slope near areas of oil and gas interest, and the northern portion of the Blake Plateau for evidence of slope instability and other geologic hazards, and 6) to determine the depth and rate of sediment mixing caused by large storms and/or by benthic organisms and where possible to estimate the rate of

  8. Effects of Model Resolution and Subgrid-Scale Physics on the Simulation of Daily Precipitation in the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P B; Iorio, J P; Govindasamy, B; Thompson, S L; Khairoutdinov, M; Randall, D

    2004-07-28

    We analyze simulations of the global climate performed at a range of spatial resolutions to assess the effects of horizontal spatial resolution on the ability to simulate precipitation in the continental United States. The model investigated is the CCM3 general circulation model. We also preliminarily assess the effect of replacing cloud and convective parameterizations in a coarse-resolution (T42) model with an embedded cloud-system resolving model (CSRM). We examine both spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation and daily-timescale temporal variability of precipitation in the continental United States. For DJF and SON, high-resolution simulations produce spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation that agree more closely with observed precipitation patterns than do results from the same model (CCM3) at coarse resolution. However, in JJA and MAM, there is little improvement in spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation with increasing resolution, particularly in the Southeast. This is owed to the dominance of convective (i.e., parameterized) precipitation in these two seasons. We further find that higher-resolution simulations have more realistic daily precipitation statistics. In particular, the well-known tendency at coarse resolution to have too many days with weak precipitation and not enough intense precipitation is partially eliminated in higher-resolution simulations. However, even at the highest resolution examined here (T239), the simulated intensity of the mean and of high-percentile daily precipitation amounts is too low. This is especially true in the Southeast, where the most extreme events occur. A new GCM, in which a cloud-resolving model (CSRM) is embedded in each grid cell and replaces convective and stratiform cloud parameterizations, solves this problem, and actually produces too much precipitation in the form of extreme events. However, in contrast to high-resolution versions of CCM3, this model produces little improvement in

  9. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States in Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M G.; Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not easily observed, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA s Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons, and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation variations, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using ENSO34) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive correlations to ENSO34, and reanalyses agree with that, and

  10. An example of neotectonism in a continental interior — Thebes Gap, Midcontinent, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard W.; Hoffman, David; Vaughn, James D.; Palmer, James R.; Wiscombe, Christine L.; McGeehin, John P.; Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Forman, Steven L.

    1999-05-01

    Some of the most intense neotectonic activity known in the continental interior of North America has been recently discovered on a fault zone in the Thebes Gap area, Missouri and Illinois. This faulting almost assuredly was accompanied by large earthquakes. The zone is located approximately 30 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone and consists of complex north-northeast- to northeast-striking, steeply dipping faults that have had a long-lived history of reactivation throughout most of the Phanerozoic. Geophysical studies by others suggest that the faults are rooted in the deeply buried Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Reelfoot rift system. Quaternary deposits are cut by at least four episodes of faulting, two of which occurred during the Holocene. The overall style of neotectonic deformation is interpreted as right-lateral strike-slip faulting. At many locations, however, near-surface displacements have stepped from one fault strand to another and produced normal and oblique-slip faults in areas of transtension and high-angle reverse faults, thrust faults, and folds in areas of transpression. There is evidence of reactivation of some near-surface fault segments during the great 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Quaternary faulting at Thebes Gap demonstrates that there are additional seismic-source zones in the Midcontinent, U.S., other than New Madrid, and that even in the absence of plate-margin orogenesis, intense neotectonic activity does occur over long time periods along crustal weaknesses in continental interiors.

  11. An example of neotectonism in a continental interior - Thebes Gap, Midcontinent, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R.W.; Hoffman, D.; Vaughn, J.D.; Palmer, J.R.; Wiscombe, C.L.; McGeehin, J.P.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.; Forman, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Some of the most intense neotectonic activity known in the continental interior of North America has been recently discovered on a fault zone in the Thebes Gap area, Missouri and Illinois. This faulting almost assuredly was accompanied by large earthquakes. The zone is located approximately 30 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone and consists of complex north-northeast- to northeast-striking, steeply dipping faults that have had a long-lived history of reactivation throughout most of the Phanerozoic. Geophysical studies by others suggest that the faults are rooted in the deeply buried Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Reelfoot rift system. Quaternary deposits are cut by at least four episodes of faulting, two of which occurred during the Holocene. The overall style of neotectonic deformation is interpreted as right-lateral strike-slip faulting. At many locations, however, near-surface displacements have stepped from one fault strand to another and produced normal and oblique-slip faults in areas of transtension and high-angle reverse faults, thrust faults, and folds in areas of transpression. There is evidence of reactivation of some near-surface fault segments during the great 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Quaternary faulting at Thebes Gap demonstrates that there are additional seismic-source zones in the Midcontinent, U.S., other than New Madrid, and that even in the absence of plate-margin orogenesis, intense neotectonic activity does occur over long time periods along crustal weakenesses in continental interiors.

  12. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  13. Synchrony and Divergence in Stream Metabolism across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, A.; Read, J. S.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Stets, E.; Stanley, E. H.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Heffernan, J. B.; Arroita, M.; Griffiths, N.; Harvey, J. W.; Lorenz, D. L.; Winslow, L.; Yackulic, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    River and stream ecosystems experience highly variable inputs of water, nutrients, organic matter, heat, and light over the scales of hours to storms to seasons. Despite the unstable physical and chemical environments of such ecosystems, benthic and pelagic communities persist and even thrive. Whole-stream metabolism estimates allow us to quantify the overall activity of these diverse and responsive communities. They also provide a holistic way to assess how the temporal patterns of that activity are structured by streams' dynamic hydrology and resource availability. We synthesized continental-scale datasets of high-frequency dissolved oxygen, discharge, water temperature, and light to estimate metabolism in over 200 streams to answer the question, "What are the drivers of synchrony and divergence in the temporal patterns of metabolism among streams of North America?" We find that short-term disturbances in the form of storms and cloudy days have strong proximate, dampening effects on whole-ecosystem metabolism; however, despite these strong proximate effects, streams with similar resource and discharge regimes are largely synchronous in their overall seasonal patterns. The median date of peak gross primary productivity is close to the summer solstice in June, while ecosystem respiration has two most-common annual peaks, one in early spring and another in mid fall. These differences in peak timing point to systematic differences at the continental scale in the timing of light versus organic matter availability, with consequent seasonality in net ecosystem productivity.

  14. Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United States but estimates of broad-scale economic impacts associated with these species are largely unavailable. We developed a novel modeling approach that maximizes the use of available data, accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty, and provides cost estimates for three major feeding guilds of non-native forest insects. For each guild, we calculated the economic damages for five cost categories and we estimated the probability of future introductions of damaging pests. We found that costs are largely borne by homeowners and municipal governments. Wood- and phloem-boring insects are anticipated to cause the largest economic impacts by annually inducing nearly $1.7 billion in local government expenditures and approximately $830 million in lost residential property values. Given observations of new species, there is a 32% chance that another highly destructive borer species will invade the U.S. in the next 10 years. Our damage estimates provide a crucial but previously missing component of cost-benefit analyses to evaluate policies and management options intended to reduce species introductions. The modeling approach we developed is highly flexible and could be similarly employed to estimate damages in other countries or natural resource sectors.

  15. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. County-Scale Distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Beard, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as causative agents of anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Its close relative in the far western United States, the western blacklegged tick Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, is the primary vector to humans in that region of the Lyme disease and anaplasmosis agents. Since 1991, when standardized surveillance and reporting began, Lyme disease case counts have increased steadily in number and in geographical distribution in the eastern United States. Similar trends have been observed for anaplasmosis and babesiosis. To better understand the changing landscape of risk of human exposure to disease agents transmitted by I. scapularis and I. pacificus, and to document changes in their recorded distribution over the past two decades, we updated the distribution of these species from a map published in 1998. The presence of I. scapularis has now been documented from 1,420 (45.7%) of the 3,110 continental United States counties, as compared with 111 (3.6%) counties for I. pacificus. Combined, these vectors of B. burgdorferi and other disease agents now have been identified in a total of 1,531 (49.2%) counties spread across 43 states. This marks a 44.7% increase in the number of counties that have recorded the presence of these ticks since the previous map was presented in 1998, when 1,058 counties in 41 states reported the ticks to be present. Notably, the number of counties in which I. scapularis is considered established (six or more individuals or one or more life stages identified in a single year) has more than doubled since the previous national distribution map was published nearly two decades ago. The majority of county status changes occurred in the North-Central and Northeastern states, whereas the distribution in the South remained fairly stable. Two previously distinct foci for I. scapularis in the

  17. Great earthquakes along the Western United States continental margin: implications for hazards, stratigraphy and turbidite lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Nelson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the importance of great earthquakes (Mw ≳ 8 for hazards, stratigraphy of basin floors, and turbidite lithology along the active tectonic continental margins of the Cascadia subduction zone and the northern San Andreas Transform Fault by utilizing studies of swath bathymetry visual core descriptions, grain size analysis, X-ray radiographs and physical properties. Recurrence times of Holocene turbidites as proxies for earthquakes on the Cascadia and northern California margins are analyzed using two methods: (1 radiometric dating (14C method, and (2 relative dating, using hemipelagic sediment thickness and sedimentation rates (H method. The H method provides (1 the best estimate of minimum recurrence times, which are the most important for seismic hazards risk analysis, and (2 the most complete dataset of recurrence times, which shows a normal distribution pattern for paleoseismic turbidite frequencies. We observe that, on these tectonically active continental margins, during the sea-level highstand of Holocene time, triggering of turbidity currents is controlled dominantly by earthquakes, and paleoseismic turbidites have an average recurrence time of ~550 yr in northern Cascadia Basin and ~200 yr along northern California margin. The minimum recurrence times for great earthquakes are approximately 300 yr for the Cascadia subduction zone and 130 yr for the northern San Andreas Fault, which indicates both fault systems are in (Cascadia or very close (San Andreas to the early window for another great earthquake.

    On active tectonic margins with great earthquakes, the volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs are limited on basin floors along the margins. The maximum run-out distances of MTD sheets across abyssal-basin floors along active margins are an order of magnitude less (~100 km than on passive margins (~1000 km. The great earthquakes along the Cascadia and northern California margins

  18. Detection of Historical and Future Precipitation Variations and Extremes Over the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce T. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Problem: The overall goal of this proposal is to detect observed seasonal-mean precipitation variations and extreme event occurrences over the United States. Detection, e.g. the process of demonstrating that an observed change in climate is unusual, first requires some means of estimating the range of internal variability absent any external drivers. Ideally, the internal variability would be derived from the observations themselves, however generally the observed variability is a confluence of both internal variability and variability in response to external drivers. Further, numerical climate models—the standard tool for detection studies—have their own estimates of intrinsic variability, which may differ substantially from that found in the observed system as well as other model systems. These problems are further compounded for weather and climate extremes, which as singular events are particularly ill-suited for detection studies because of their infrequent occurrence, limited spatial range, and underestimation within global and even regional numerical models. Rationale: As a basis for this research we will show how stochastic daily-precipitation models—models in which the simulated interannual-to-multidecadal precipitation variance is purely the result of the random evolution of daily precipitation events within a given time period—can be used to address many of these issues simultaneously. Through the novel application of these well-established models, we can first estimate the changes/trends in various means and extremes that can occur even with fixed daily-precipitation characteristics, e.g. that can occur simply as a result of the stochastic evolution of daily weather events within a given climate. Detection of a change in the observed climate—either naturally or anthropogenically forced—can then be defined as any change relative to this stochastic variability, e.g. as changes/trends in the means and extremes that could only have occurred

  19. Effects of cumulus parameterization closures on simulations of summer precipitation over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fengxue; Liang, Xin-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the effects of five cumulus closure assumptions on simulations of summer precipitation in the continental U.S. by utilizing an ensemble cumulus parameterization (ECP) that incorporates multiple alternate closure schemes into a single cloud model formulation. Results demonstrate that closure algorithms significantly affect the summer mean, daily frequency and intensity, and diurnal variation of precipitation, with strong regional dependence. Overall, the vertical velocity (W) closure produces the smallest summer mean biases, while the moisture convergence (MC) closure most realistically reproduces daily variability. Both closures have advantages over others in simulating U.S. daily rainfall frequency distribution, though both slightly overestimate intense rain events. The MC closure is superior at capturing summer rainfall amount, daily variability, and heavy rainfall frequency over the Central U.S., but systematically produces wet biases over the North American Monsoon (NAM) region and Southeast U.S., which can be reduced by using the W closure. The instability tendency (TD) and the total instability adjustment (KF) closures are better at capturing observed diurnal signals over the Central U.S. and the NAM, respectively. The results reasonably explain the systematic behaviors of several major cumulus parameterizations. A preliminary experiment combining two optimal closures (averaged moisture convergence and vertical velocity) in the ECP scheme significantly reduced the wet (dry) biases over the Southeast U.S. in the summer of 1993 (2003), and greatly improved daily rainfall correlations over the NAM. Further improved model simulation skills may be achieved in the future if optimal closures and their appropriate weights can be derived at different time scales based on specific climate regimes.

  20. Effects of cumulus parameterization closures on simulations of summer precipitation over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fengxue; Liang, Xin-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the effects of five cumulus closure assumptions on simulations of summer precipitation in the continental U.S. by utilizing an ensemble cumulus parameterization (ECP) that incorporates multiple alternate closure schemes into a single cloud model formulation. Results demonstrate that closure algorithms significantly affect the summer mean, daily frequency and intensity, and diurnal variation of precipitation, with strong regional dependence. Overall, the vertical velocity (W) closure produces the smallest summer mean biases, while the moisture convergence (MC) closure most realistically reproduces daily variability. Both closures have advantages over others in simulating U.S. daily rainfall frequency distribution, though both slightly overestimate intense rain events. The MC closure is superior at capturing summer rainfall amount, daily variability, and heavy rainfall frequency over the Central U.S., but systematically produces wet biases over the North American Monsoon (NAM) region and Southeast U.S., which can be reduced by using the W closure. The instability tendency (TD) and the total instability adjustment (KF) closures are better at capturing observed diurnal signals over the Central U.S. and the NAM, respectively. The results reasonably explain the systematic behaviors of several major cumulus parameterizations. A preliminary experiment combining two optimal closures (averaged moisture convergence and vertical velocity) in the ECP scheme significantly reduced the wet (dry) biases over the Southeast U.S. in the summer of 1993 (2003), and greatly improved daily rainfall correlations over the NAM. Further improved model simulation skills may be achieved in the future if optimal closures and their appropriate weights can be derived at different time scales based on specific climate regimes.

  1. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  2. Final Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Corporation developed and released a Concept Formulation Package/Technical Development Plan for the CONUS OTH-B Radar System. Various alterna - tives and...Force to consider all corrients made by the State. d. In May 1972, Governor Carti of Maine in a le.tt r to the Air Force expressed his appreciation

  3. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  4. Evaluating an Enhanced Vegetation Condition Index (VCI Based on VIUPD for Drought Monitoring in the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex hazard, and it has an impact on agricultural, ecological, and socio-economic systems. The vegetation condition index (VCI, which is derived from remote-sensing data, has been widely used for drought monitoring. However, VCI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI does not perform well in certain circumstances. In this study, we examined the utility of the vegetation index based on the universal pattern decomposition method (VIUPD based VCI for drought monitoring in various climate divisions across the continental United States (CONUS. We compared the VIUPD-derived VCI with the NDVI-derived VCI in various climate divisions and during different sub-periods of the growing season. It was also compared with other remote-sensing-based drought indices, such as the temperature condition index (TCI, precipitation condition index (PCI and the soil moisture condition index (SMCI. The VIUPD-derived VCI had stronger correlations with long-term in situ drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the standardized precipitation index (SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, and SPI-12 than did the NDVI-derived VCI, and other indices, such as TCI, PCI and SMCI. The VIUPD has considerable potential for drought monitoring. As VIUPD can make use of the information from all the observation bands, the VIUPD-derived VCI can be regarded as an enhanced VCI.

  5. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jelena S; Weisberg, Peter J; Pillai, Rekha; Ericksen, Jody A; Kuiken, Todd; Lindberg, Steve E; Zhang, Hong; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S

    2009-07-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impacted by geologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg.

  6. Performance of SMAP, AMSR-E and LAI for weekly agricultural drought forecasting over continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Yu, Zhongbo; Yang, Chuanguo; Konapala, Goutam; Vu, Tue

    2017-10-01

    This study applied support vector machines (SVMs) and data assimilation (DA) methods to investigate the performance of in-situ and remotely sensed products (i.e., leaf area index (LAI), AMSR-E and SMAP soil moisture retrievals) for near-real time agricultural drought forecasting for in-situ stations located in continental United States (CONUS). The agricultural drought was quantified using soil water deficit index (SWDI) derived based on available soil moisture and basic soil water parameters. It is observed that SVMs or SVM-DA with limited meteorological variables as inputs able to forecast SWDI at most of the in-situ stations up to 1-2-week lead time. Addition of remotely sensed products (i.e., LAI, AMSR-E, SMAP) either individually or simultaneously as inputs to SVMs can able to improve SWDI forecast at most of the stations where the strong relationship exists between LAI (and/or AMSR-E, SMAP) with SWDI. Such improvement can persist up to 2-4-week lead time at some of the stations. But the efficiency tends to decrease with the increase in lead time. The addition of both LAI and SMAP (AMSR-E) performs better than the independent addition of LAI or SMAP (AMSR-E). Typically, the performance of drought prediction varies at local scales; therefore it is difficult to generalize our findings at regional scale.

  7. Multi-regional synthesis of temporal trends in biotic assemblages in streams and rivers of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Keenen, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic assemblages in aquatic ecosystems are excellent integrators and indicators of changing environmental conditions within a watershed. Therefore, temporal changes in abiotic environmental variables often can be inferred from temporal changes in biotic assemblages. Algae, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected from 91 sampling sites in 4 geographic regions (northeastern/north-central, southeastern, south-central, and western), collectively encompassing the continental United States, from 1993 to 2009 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report uses a multivariate approach to synthesize temporal trends in biotic assemblages and correlations with relevant abiotic parameters as a function of biotic assemblage, geographic region, and land use. Of the three groups of biota, algal assemblages had temporal trends at the greatest percentage of sites. Of the regions, a greater percentage of sites in the northeastern/north-central and western regions had temporal trends in biotic assemblages. In terms of land use, a greater percentage of watersheds draining agricultural, urban, and undeveloped areas had significant temporal changes in biota, as compared to watersheds with mixed use. Correlations between biotic assemblages and abiotic variables indicate that, in general, macroinvertebrate assemblages correlated with water quality and fish assemblages correlated with physical habitat. Taken together, results indicate that there are regional differences in how individual biotic assemblages (algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) respond to different abiotic drivers of change.

  8. Regional patterns of recession curves and their relationships with climate, soil, vegetation and topography across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Li, H.; Ali, M.; Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface runoff is an important component of water balance especially in steep forested areas. It has been shown that the subsurface runoff parameterization significantly affects the partitioning of water budget, and subsequently the simulations of energy budget, carbon cycle and atmospheric cycle in land surface models such as the Community Land Model (CLM). A robust parameterization of subsurface runoff within land surface models, however, remains a grand challenge. This work is a first major step towards developing empirical relationships between the parameters of a generalized power-law form of TOPMODEL and measurable data such as climate, soil, vegetation and topographic conditions. We analyzed the flow data from over 300 MOPEX catchments across the continental United States and extracted the values of the recession curve coefficient and exponent in the form of the slope-recession curve, i.e., - dQ/dt vs Q for each catchment. By improving the estimation of soil properties within MOPEX database such as the mean and variance of saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity based on the SSURGO dataset for 30 selected catchments across the continent covering a range of climate conditions, we examined the regional patterns of recession curve coefficient and exponent. Our results suggest that the recession curve exponent is higher in the eastern humid Appalachian forested catchments but relatively smaller in the central flat catchments. We further explored the possible linkages between the exponent and coefficient and climate and landscape properties through data analyses and numerical experiments. Results of this study will serve as the basis for improving subsurface representations in CLM.

  9. An investigation of predictability dynamics of temperature and precipitation in reanalysis datasets over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, C. T.; Villarini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Reanalysis datasets have been under critical scrutiny due to their widespread use in various climatic and hydrological modeling applications, in particular over many areas of the globe with limited or absent reliable observational data. Nevertheless, reanalysis products are in the process of continuous improvements reflecting the improved system knowledge, model physics and assimilation techniques. In addition, several internal model adjustments have also been adopted to minimize the bias in reanalysis datasets. Considering these factors, it is necessary to investigate the inherent chaotic dynamics of reanalyses and the possible discrepancies, if any, with respect to the observational data. Here we compare and contrast the chaotic dynamics of daily precipitation and daily mean surface temperature simulated by the reanalysis against observed data over the continental United States. Our focus is on four reanalysis products: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim, Japanese Meteorological Agency's Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research's Reanalysis I. The inherent chaotic dynamics measured in terms of three statistics (i.e., maximum predictability, predictive error and predictive instability) reveal the inconsistency among the four reanalysis products. ERA-Interim is capable of simulating the precipitation's chaotic dynamics over much of the study region, while MERRA is found to be superior in capturing the temperature's chaotic dynamics. Analyses on various aspects of daily precipitation and temperature indicate that the biases in precipitation's chaotic dynamics may be attributed to the inconsistencies in simulating the signal-to-noise ratio and non-rainy days, while biases in temperature's chaotic dynamics could be due to the

  10. Exploration of the canyon-incised continental margin of the northeastern United States reveals dynamic habitats and diverse communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea; Nizinski, Martha S.; Chaytor, Jason; Demopoulos, Amanda; Roark, E. Brendan; France, Scott; Moore, Jon A.; Heyl, Taylor P.; Auster, Peter J.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P.; Kennedy, Brian R.C.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichosand the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial

  11. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Quattrini

    Full Text Available The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa, demersal fish (69 taxa, and decapod crustacean (34 taxa assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While

  12. Exploration of the Canyon-Incised Continental Margin of the Northeastern United States Reveals Dynamic Habitats and Diverse Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M; Nizinski, Martha S; Chaytor, Jason D; Demopoulos, Amanda W J; Roark, E Brendan; France, Scott C; Moore, Jon A; Heyl, Taylor; Auster, Peter J; Kinlan, Brian; Ruppel, Carolyn; Elliott, Kelley P; Kennedy, Brian R C; Lobecker, Elizabeth; Skarke, Adam; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The continental margin off the northeastern United States (NEUS) contains numerous, topographically complex features that increase habitat heterogeneity across the region. However, the majority of these rugged features have never been surveyed, particularly using direct observations. During summer 2013, 31 Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives were conducted from 494 to 3271 m depth across a variety of seafloor features to document communities and to infer geological processes that produced such features. The ROV surveyed six broad-scale habitat features, consisting of shelf-breaching canyons, slope-sourced canyons, inter-canyon areas, open-slope/landslide-scar areas, hydrocarbon seeps, and Mytilus Seamount. Four previously unknown chemosynthetic communities dominated by Bathymodiolus mussels were documented. Seafloor methane hydrate was observed at two seep sites. Multivariate analyses indicated that depth and broad-scale habitat significantly influenced megafaunal coral (58 taxa), demersal fish (69 taxa), and decapod crustacean (34 taxa) assemblages. Species richness of fishes and crustaceans significantly declined with depth, while there was no relationship between coral richness and depth. Turnover in assemblage structure occurred on the middle to lower slope at the approximate boundaries of water masses found previously in the region. Coral species richness was also an important variable explaining variation in fish and crustacean assemblages. Coral diversity may serve as an indicator of habitat suitability and variation in available niche diversity for these taxonomic groups. Our surveys added 24 putative coral species and three fishes to the known regional fauna, including the black coral Telopathes magna, the octocoral Metallogorgia melanotrichos and the fishes Gaidropsarus argentatus, Guttigadus latifrons, and Lepidion guentheri. Marine litter was observed on 81% of the dives, with at least 12 coral colonies entangled in debris. While initial exploration

  13. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1980-01-01

    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMA...

  15. A review of the species of Geraeus Pascoe and Linogeraeus Casey found in the continental United States (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baridine weevils with a smooth inner mandibular face and unmodified antenna are reviewed for the continental U.S. Toxeres Germar 1829, a new synonym of Geraeus Pascoe 1889, is suppressed as nomen oblitum and Geraeus is conserved as nomen protectum. Pycnogeraeus Casey 1920 is a new synonym of G...

  16. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  17. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale as modified from BLM memorandum 3310 #42 (722) and referred to therein as the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 58,300 sq km of shelf beneath water depths of less than 200 m and lies chiefly within the Georges Bank basin. The oldest sediments drilled or dredged on the bordering Continental Slope are sandstone, clay, and silt of Upper Cretaceous age. In Upper Cretaceous exposures, on Marthas Vineyard and nearby New England islands, the predominant lithology appears to be clay. About 125 km northeast of the eastern tip of Georges Bank, the Shell B-93 well penetrated clays and silts of Upper and Lower Cretaceous age above dense Jurassic carbonate rocks which overlie a basement of lower Paleozoic slate, schist, quartzite, and granite. Structurally, the Georges Bank basin is a westerly trending trough which opens to the west-southwest. Post-Paleozoic sediments are more than 8 km thick in parts of the basin. Major structural features appear to be directly related to basement structures. Local anticlines, probably caused by differential compaction over basement flexures and horst blocks or by later uplift along basement faults are reflected principally in Lower Cretaceous and older sediments, though some of these features continue upward to within 0.7 of a second (about 650 m) of the seafloor. Tertiary deposits in the Georges Bank basin are probably up to a kilometre thick and are made up of poorly consolidated sand, silt, and clay. The Cretaceous section is inferred to be up to 3.5 km thick and to be mainly clastics -- shale, siltstone, calcareous shale, changing to limestone in the lowest part of the system. Jurassic rocks in the deepest part of the basin appear to be about 3.6 to 4.0 km thick and probably consist mainly of dense carbonates. Potential source rocks in the Georges Bank basin may include organic-rich Cretaceous shale and carbonaceous Jurassic limestone. By analogy with the

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksom, Karen A.; Walters, David M.; Jicha, Terri M.; Lazorchak, James M.; Angradi, Theodore R.; Bolgrien, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers) are valuable economic and cultural resources, yet until recently their ecological condition has not been well quantified. In 2004–2005, as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE), we measured legacy organochlorines (OCs) (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) and emerging compounds (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) in whole fish to estimate human and wildlife exposure risks from fish consumption. PCBs, PBDEs, chlordane, dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were detected in most samples across all rivers, and hexachlorobenzene was detected in most Ohio River samples. Concentrations were highest in the Ohio River, followed by the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, respectively. Dieldrin and PCBs posed the greatest risk to humans. Their concentrations exceeded human screening values for cancer risk in 27–54% and 16–98% of river km, respectively. Chlordane exceeded wildlife risk values for kingfisher in 11–96% of river km. PBDE concentrations were highest in large fish in the Missouri and Ohio Rivers (mean > 1000 ng g−1 lipid), with congener 47 most prevalent. OC and PBDE concentrations were positively related to fish size, lipid content, trophic guild, and proximity to urban areas. Contamination of fishes by OCs is widespread among great rivers, although exposure risks appear to be more localized and limited in scope. As an indicator of ecological condition, fish tissue contamination contributes to the overall assessment of great river ecosystems in the U.S.

  19. A Preliminary, Full Spectrum, Magnetic Anomaly Grid of the United States with Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Korhonen, Juha

    2010-05-01

    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U.S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2,500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with east-west flight lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km apart, north-south tie lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. The NURE surveys were processed using the Comprehensive Magnetic Field Model (Sabaka et al. 2004) to remove the core field for the epochs of the surveys. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. This NURE magnetic anomaly field is merged with the short-wavelengths from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (ca. 2002) to create a full spectrum database called NURE_NAMAM2008. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1258/

  20. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. DeepSAT: A Deep Learning Approach to Tree-Cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Basu, Saikat; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Michaelis, Andrew; Votava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    High resolution tree cover classification maps are needed to increase the accuracy of current land ecosystem and climate model outputs. Limited studies are in place that demonstrates the state-of-the-art in deriving very high resolution (VHR) tree cover products. In addition, most methods heavily rely on commercial softwares that are difficult to scale given the region of study (e.g. continents to globe). Complexities in present approaches relate to (a) scalability of the algorithm, (b) large image data processing (compute and memory intensive), (c) computational cost, (d) massively parallel architecture, and (e) machine learning automation. In addition, VHR satellite datasets are of the order of terabytes and features extracted from these datasets are of the order of petabytes. In our present study, we have acquired the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) dataset for the Continental United States at a spatial resolution of 1-m. This data comes as image tiles (a total of quarter million image scenes with 60 million pixels) and has a total size of 65 terabytes for a single acquisition. Features extracted from the entire dataset would amount to 8-10 petabytes. In our proposed approach, we have implemented a novel semi-automated machine learning algorithm rooted on the principles of "deep learning" to delineate the percentage of tree cover. Using the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) initiative, we have developed an end-to-end architecture by integrating a segmentation module based on Statistical Region Merging, a classification algorithm using Deep Belief Network and a structured prediction algorithm using Conditional Random Fields to integrate the results from the segmentation and classification modules to create per-pixel class labels. The training process is scaled up using the power of GPUs and the prediction is scaled to quarter million NAIP tiles spanning the whole of Continental United States using the NEX HPC supercomputing cluster. An initial pilot over the

  2. DeepSAT: A Deep Learning Approach to Tree-cover Delineation in 1-m NAIP Imagery for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Basu, S.; Nemani, R. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.

    2016-12-01

    High resolution tree cover classification maps are needed to increase the accuracy of current land ecosystem and climate model outputs. Limited studies are in place that demonstrates the state-of-the-art in deriving very high resolution (VHR) tree cover products. In addition, most methods heavily rely on commercial softwares that are difficult to scale given the region of study (e.g. continents to globe). Complexities in present approaches relate to (a) scalability of the algorithm, (b) large image data processing (compute and memory intensive), (c) computational cost, (d) massively parallel architecture, and (e) machine learning automation. In addition, VHR satellite datasets are of the order of terabytes and features extracted from these datasets are of the order of petabytes. In our present study, we have acquired the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) dataset for the Continental United States at a spatial resolution of 1-m. This data comes as image tiles (a total of quarter million image scenes with 60 million pixels) and has a total size of 65 terabytes for a single acquisition. Features extracted from the entire dataset would amount to 8-10 petabytes. In our proposed approach, we have implemented a novel semi-automated machine learning algorithm rooted on the principles of "deep learning" to delineate the percentage of tree cover. Using the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) initiative, we have developed an end-to-end architecture by integrating a segmentation module based on Statistical Region Merging, a classification algorithm using Deep Belief Network and a structured prediction algorithm using Conditional Random Fields to integrate the results from the segmentation and classification modules to create per-pixel class labels. The training process is scaled up using the power of GPUs and the prediction is scaled to quarter million NAIP tiles spanning the whole of Continental United States using the NEX HPC supercomputing cluster. An initial pilot over the

  3. A Preliminary Full Spectrum Magnetic Anomaly Database of the United States With Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Sabaka, T.; Elshayat, A.; Aref, A.; Elawadi, E.; Kucks, R.; Hill, P.; Phillips, J.; Finn, C.; Bouligand, C.; Blakely, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U. S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with E-W flight-lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km, N-S tie-lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. NURE surveys were originally processed with IGRF core-field models, which left behind non- uniform residual trends in the data and discontinuities at survey boundaries. In this study, in place of the IGRF/DGRF, we used a spatially and temporally continuous model of the magnetic field known as the Comprehensive Model (CM), which allowed us to avoid discontinuities at survey boundaries. The CM simultaneously models the core magnetic field and long-wavelength ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, along with their induced components in the earth. Because of the availability of base-stations for removing external fields, we removed only the core-derived geomagnetic field based on CM4 (spherical harmonic degree 13) for our compilation. The NURE data have short-wavelength (less than 30 km) noise due to cultural sources, base-station offsets, and residual external field effects. It is possible to reduce and even remove these defects by identifying and editing them and by applying leveling and micro-leveling. There are also many high resolution individual surveys over the U.S. which could be incorporated into the improved NURE database; however, this could take a few years. Therefore, we have created a preliminary full spectrum magnetic anomaly database by combining short-wavelength magnetic anomalies from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (NAMAM

  4. Evaluation of Aqua MODIS Collection 6 AOD Parameters for Air Quality Research over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Belle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD has become an important predictor of ground-level particulate matter (PM and greatly empowered air pollution research worldwide. We evaluated the AOD parameters included in the Collection 6 aerosol product of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for two key factors affecting their applications in air quality research—coverage and accuracy—over the continental US. For the high confidence retrievals (QAC 3, the 10 km DB-DT combined AOD has the best coverage nationwide (29.7% of the days in a year in any given 12 km grid cell. While the Eastern US generally had more successful AOD retrievals, the highest spatial coverage of AOD parameters were found in California (>55% and other vegetated parts of the Western US. If lower QAC retrievals were included, the coverage of the 10 km DB AOD was dramatically increased to 49.6%. In the Eastern US, the QAC 3 retrievals of all four AOD parameters are highly correlated with AERONET observations (correlation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.92. In the Western US, positive retrieval errors existed in all MODIS AOD parameters, resulting in lower correlations with AERONET. AOD retrieval errors showed significant dependence on flight geometry, land cover type, and weather conditions. To ensure appropriate use of these AOD values, air quality researchers should carefully balance the needs for coverage and accuracy, and develop additional data screening criteria based on their study design.

  5. The use of Seabees to perform maintenance and repair on Naval facilities in the continental United States

    OpenAIRE

    LeNoir, Walter M.

    1996-01-01

    A masters report on the use of Seabees to supplement the other facility management assets that Navy Public Works Officers and Staff Civil Engineers have at their disposal. Every tool possible must be utilized to effectively manage and maintain the Navy's facility assets totaling 171 billion dollars. The paper will discuss Naval Mobile Construction Battalions, Construction Battalion Units, and individual Seabees assigned to shore installations. Chapter 1 of this report provides an introduction...

  6. Comparison of Weekly Cycle of NO2 Satellite Retrievals and NO(x) Emission Inventories for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Sioris, C. E.; Russell, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially resolved weekly NO2 variations are obtained from 2003 to 2005 Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) tropospheric NO2 columns for three different types of regions: urban, rural, and rural-point (rural with significant electricity generation unit (EGU) emissions). Regions are compared for magnitudes and weekly profiles. Rural regions do not show any weekly pattern, whereas urban areas show a distinct decrease on the weekends. Rural regions with EGUs show a slight decrease on Sundays. When compared with estimated mobile and stationary nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from the year 2004 for seven cities, the satellite data have greater variation during weekdays (Monday-Friday). Overall comparisons show that SCIAMACHY derived NO2 correlate well with estimated NO(x) emissions for urban and rural but less for rural-point regions.

  7. The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy; Hockman-Wert, David

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamentally important driver of ecosystem processes in streams. Recent warming of terrestrial climates around the globe has motivated concern about consequent increases in stream temperature. More specifically, observed trends of increasing air temperature and declining stream flow are widely believed to result in corresponding increases in stream temperature. Here, we examined the evidence for this using long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-impacted sites located across the Pacific continental United States. Based on hypothesized climate impacts, we predicted that we should find warming trends in the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures, as well as increasing variability over time. These predictions were not fully realized. Warming trends were most prevalent in a small subset of locations with longer time series beginning in the 1950s. More recent series of observations (1987-2009) exhibited fewer warming trends and more cooling trends in both minimally and highly human-influenced systems. Trends in variability were much less evident, regardless of the length of time series. Based on these findings, we conclude that our perspective of climate impacts on stream temperatures is clouded considerably by a lack of long-termdata on minimally impacted streams, and biased spatio-temporal representation of existing time series. Overall our results highlight the need to develop more mechanistic, process-based understanding of linkages between climate change, other human impacts and stream temperature, and to deploy sensor networks that will provide better information on trends in stream temperatures in the future.

  8. Assessing the Effect of Temporal Interval Length on the Blending of Landsat-MODIS Surface Reflectance for Different Land Cover Types in Southwestern Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Fu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is a key issue for many remote-sensing based applications. Consequently, several image-blending algorithms that can simulate the surface reflectance with high spatial-temporal resolution have been developed recently. However, the performance of the algorithm against the effect of temporal interval length between the base and simulation dates has not been reported. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of different temporal interval lengths on the accuracy using the widely used blending algorithm, Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, based on Landsat, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images and National Land Cover Database (NLCD. Taking the southwestern continental United States as the study area, a series of experiments was conducted using two schemes, which were the assessment of STARFM with (i a fixed base date and varied simulation date and (ii varied base date and specific simulation date, respectively. The result showed that the coefficient of determination (R2, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE varied, and overall trend of R2 decreased along with the increasing temporal interval between the base and simulation dates for six land cover types. The mean R2 value of cropland was lowest, whereas shrub had the highest value for two schemes. The result may facilitate selection of an appropriate temporal interval when using STARFM.

  9. Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Susan L; Russell, Kate; Hennessey, Morgan; Williams, Charnetta; Oster, Alexandra M; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul

    2016-03-04

    Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus. Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23. During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women. Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

  10. Sensitivity of future continental United States water deficit projections to general circulation models, the evapotranspiration estimation method, and the greenhouse gas emission scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seungwoo; Graham, Wendy D.; Hwang, Syewoon; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Projecting water deficit under various possible future climate scenarios depends on the choice of general circulation model (GCM), reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimation method, and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) trajectory. The relative contribution of each of these factors must be evaluated in order to choose an appropriate ensemble of future scenarios for water resources planning. In this study variance-based global sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo filtering were used to evaluate the relative sensitivity of projected changes in precipitation (P), ET0, and water deficit (defined here as P-ET0) to choice of GCM, ET0 estimation method, and RCP trajectory over the continental United States (US) for two distinct future periods: 2030-2060 (future period 1) and 2070-2100 (future period 2). A total of 9 GCMs, 10 ET0 methods, and 3 RCP trajectories were used to quantify the range of future projections and estimate the relative sensitivity of future projections to each of these factors. In general, for all regions of the continental US, changes in future precipitation are most sensitive to the choice of GCM, while changes in future ET0 are most sensitive to the choice of ET0 estimation method. For changes in future water deficit, the choice of GCM is the most influential factor in the cool season (December-March), and the choice of ET0 estimation method is most important in the warm season (May-October) for all regions except the Southeast US, where GCMs and ET0 have approximately equal influence throughout most of the year. Although the choice of RCP trajectory is generally less important than the choice of GCM or ET0 method, the impact of RCP trajectory increases in future period 2 over future period 1 for all factors. Monte Carlo filtering results indicate that particular GCMs and ET0 methods drive the projection of wetter or drier future conditions much more than RCP trajectory; however, the set of GCMs and ET0 methods that produce wetter or

  11. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  12. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA unified WRF (NU-WRF model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land–atmosphere (L–A interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL evolution, and precipitation through soil moisture–evapotranspiration coupling. In turn it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L–A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L–A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets, i.e. from the US Geological Survey (USGS and University of Maryland (UMD that are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g. stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  13. Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The land surface plays a crucial role in regulating water and energy fluxes at the land–atmosphere (L–A interface and controls many processes and feedbacks in the climate system. Land cover and vegetation type remains one key determinant of soil moisture content that impacts air temperature, planetary boundary layer (PBL evolution, and precipitation through soil-moisture–evapotranspiration coupling. In turn, it will affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. This paper presents the results of a modeling study of the effect of land cover on some key L–A processes with a focus on air quality. The newly developed NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF modeling system couples NASA's Land Information System (LIS with the community WRF model and allows users to explore the L–A processes and feedbacks. Three commonly used satellite-derived land cover datasets – i.e., from the US Geological Survey (USGS and University of Maryland (UMD, which are based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS – bear large differences in agriculture, forest, grassland, and urban spatial distributions in the continental United States, and thus provide an excellent case to investigate how land cover change would impact atmospheric processes and air quality. The weeklong simulations demonstrate the noticeable differences in soil moisture/temperature, latent/sensible heat flux, PBL height, wind, NO2/ozone, and PM2.5 air quality. These discrepancies can be traced to associate with the land cover properties, e.g., stomatal resistance, albedo and emissivity, and roughness characteristics. It also implies that the rapid urban growth may have complex air quality implications with reductions in peak ozone but more frequent high ozone events.

  14. A model–data intercomparison of simulated runoff in the contiguous United States: results from the North America Carbon Regional and Continental Interim-Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Schwalm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the water cycle are expected under current global environmental change. Robust assessment of these changes at global scales is confounded by shortcomings in the observed record. Modeled assessments yield conflicting results which are linked to differences in model structure and simulation protocol. Here we compare simulated runoff from six terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs, five reanalysis products, and one gridded surface station product with observations from a network of stream gauges in the contiguous United States (CONUS from 2001 to 2005. We evaluate the consistency of simulated runoff with stream gauge data at the CONUS and water resource region scale, as well as examining similarity across TBMs and reanalysis products at the grid cell scale. Mean runoff across all simulated products and regions varies widely (range: 71–356 mm yr-1 relative to observed continental-scale runoff (209 mm yr-1. Across all 12 products only two are within 10% of the observed value and only four exhibit Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values in excess of 0.8. Region-level mismatch exhibits a weak pattern of overestimation in western and underestimation in eastern regions; although two products are systematically biased across all regions. In contrast, bias in a temporal sense, within region by water year, is highly consistent. Although gridded composite TBM and reanalysis runoff show some regional similarities for 2001–2005 with CONUS means, individual product values are highly variable. To further constrain simulated runoff and to link model-observation mismatch to model structural characteristics would require watershed-level simulation studies coupled with river routing schemes, standardized forcing data, and explicit consideration of water cycle management.

  15. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  16. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2011-12-27

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21(st) century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21(st) century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  17. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  18. 2010 Joint United States-Canadian Program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy--Cruise HLY1002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In August and September 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Beaufort Sea and eastern Arctic Ocean aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of a delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf in the Arctic Ocean, in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St-Laurent. The scientific parties on board the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the U.S. Geological Survey (Healy), and the Geological Survey of Canada and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew also included marine-mammal observers, Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. Despite interruptions necessitated by three medical emergencies, the joint survey proved largely successful. The Healy collected 7,201 trackline-kilometers of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (47,663 square kilometers) and CHIRP subbottom data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements, and expendable bathythermograph data. The Louis acquired 3,673 trackline-kilometers of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection data along 25 continuous profiles, as well as 34 sonobuoy refraction stations and 9,500 trackline-kilometers of single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection-profile data that were of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. The equipment-failure rate of the seismic equipment aboard the Louis was greatly reduced when the Healy led as the ice breaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led

  19. Estimation of Future PM2.5- and Ozone-related Mortality over the Continental United States in a Changing Climate: An application of High-resolution Dynamical Downscaling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jian; Fu, Joshua S.; Huang, Kan; Gao, Yang

    2015-04-14

    This paper evaluates the PM2.5- and ozone-related mortality at present (2000s) and in the future (2050s) over the continental United States by using the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP-CE). Atmospheric chemical fields are simulated by WRF/CMAQ (horizontal resolution: 12 × 12km), applying the dynamical downscaling technique from global climate-chemistry models under the Representative Concentration Pathways scenario (RCP 8.5). Future air quality results predict that the annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in continental US will decrease nationwide, especially in the eastern US and west coast. However, the ozone concentration is projected to decrease in the Eastern US but increase in the Western US. Future mortality is evaluated under two scenarios (1) holding future population and baseline incidence rate at the present level and (2) decreasing the future baseline incidence rate but increasing the future population. For PM2.5, the entire continental US presents a decreasing trend of PM2.5-related mortality by the 2050s in Scenario (1), primarily resulting from the emissions reduction. While in Scenario (2), almost half of the continental states show a rising tendency of PM2.5-related mortality, due to the dominant influence of population growth. In particular, the highest PM2.5-related deaths and the biggest discrepancy between present and future PM2.5-related deaths will both occur in California in 2050s. For the ozone-related premature mortality, the simulation shows nation-wide rising tendency in 2050s under both two scenarios, mainly due to the increase of ozone concentration and population in the future. Furthermore, the uncertainty analysis shows that the effect of the all causes mortality is much larger than for specific causes. This assessment is the result of the accumulated uncertainty of generating datasets. The uncertainty range of ozone-related all cause premature mortality is narrower than the PM2.5-related all cause mortality

  20. A Preliminary, Full Spectrum, Magnetic Anomaly Grid of the United States with Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics: A Website for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Finn, C.; Hill, P.; Kucks, R.; Phillips, J.; Blakely, R.; Bouligand, C.; Sabaka, T.; Elshayat, A.; Aref, A.; Elawadi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U.S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2,500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2 deg of longitude by 1 deg of latitude with east-west flight lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km apart, north-south tie lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations.

  1. A temperature-limited assessment of the risk of Rift Valley fever transmission and establishment in the continental United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of West Nile virus across North America after its introduction in 1999 highlights the potential for foreign arboviruses to become established in the United States of America. Of particular concern is Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which has been responsible for multiple African epidemics resulting in death of both humans and livestock, as well as major economic disruption due to livestock loss and trade restrictions. Modern globalization, travel, and commerce allow viruses to easily jump from one continent to another; and it is likely only a matter of time before RVFV reaches North American shores. We used a degree-day model in combination with livestock population data and a pathways analysis to identify regions and times where RVFV is most likely to enter and become established in the United States of America. Transmission risk of the disease varies across the country from 325 annual risk days in parts of Florida to zero risk days in the far North and in high mountain regions. Areas of particular concern are where there are a high number of possible transmission days, a large livestock population, and proximity to likely locations for the disease to enter the country via mosquito vector or human host. These areas should be monitored closely during transmission “risk seasons” so that if the virus does enter the country and begins to become established, it can be quickly controlled and eliminated before spreading further. Areas most at risk include the Baltimore and New York City metro areas as well as much of the region between these urban centers; most of Texas, especially around Houston; Florida; Atlanta; southwest Nebraska; southern California and Arizona; and the central valley of California.

  2. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  3. Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

  4. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhao TANG; Maosi CHEN; John DAVIS; Wei GAO

    2013-01-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales.The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD)monitoring satellite instrument,and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely.The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs,the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program,confirms the consistency between them.The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD,the AERONET AOD,and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products.The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased.However,the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°,while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals.The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.Research Program (UVMRP),Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET),Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS),validation,spatial-temporal approach

  5. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  6. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  7. Benthic Foraminiferal Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Presented Under Varying Population Densities on the Southeastern United States Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, J. K.; Hintz, C. J.; Chandler, G. T.; McCorkle, D. C.; Bernhard, J. M.; Shaw, T. J.; Etson, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Unraveling the inherent variabilities in benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca and other trace elements will help produce a more refined temperature proxy for benthic foraminiferal calcification temperature. To date, proxy signature variability in field samples has been attributed to microhabitat and poorly understood vital effects. Vital effects such as food supply, calcification rate, metabolic rate, may influence microhabitat chemistry or foraminiferal shell chemistry, but are difficult to measure. However, easily measurable benthic population densities and abundances are likely to be driven by food supply, and may also be controlled by foraminiferal calcification or metabolic rates. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca from live core-top benthic foraminfera were investigated to test whether vital effect factors, as reflected by faunal abundance and diversity, influence foraminiferal element/calcium ratios. Foraminiferal element/calcium ratios are presented along with corresponding abundances and species diversities of cores collected in 2001, 2005, and 2006 from the shallow-slope environ of the Charleston Bump (31° 55'N, 79° 11'W; ~220m water depth; temp range: 9.4-11.2° C; calcite saturation state: 2.29- 2.73). Overall total foraminiferal population densities increased by 6 fold in the more recent years (2001, n=350, 6.1 individuals/cm3; 2005, n>2300, 40 individuals/cm3; 2006, n>1900, 33.6 individuals/cm3). If a correlation exists between benthic foraminiferal population densities and element/calcium ratios, then this may suggest that biological processes can affect foraminiferal element/calcium shell chemistry. Funded by NSF OCE9911654, OCE0351029, and OCE 0437366.

  8. Performance of Two Cloud-Radiation Parameterization Schemes in the Finite Volume General Circulation Model for Anomalously Wet May and June 2003 Over the Continental United States and Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.; Lin, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    An objective assessment of the impact of a new cloud scheme, called Microphysics of Clouds with Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert Scheme (McRAS) (together with its radiation modules), on the finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM) was made with a set of ensemble forecasts that invoke performance evaluation over both weather and climate timescales. The performance of McRAS (and its radiation modules) was compared with that of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM3) cloud scheme (with its NCAR physics radiation). We specifically chose the boreal summer months of May and June 2003, which were characterized by an anomalously wet eastern half of the continental United States as well as northern regions of Amazonia. The evaluation employed an ensemble of 70 daily 10-day forecasts covering the 61 days of the study period. Each forecast was started from the analyzed initial state of the atmosphere and spun-up soil moisture from the first-day forecasts with the model. Monthly statistics of these forecasts with up to 10-day lead time provided a robust estimate of the behavior of the simulated monthly rainfall anomalies. Patterns of simulated versus observed rainfall, 500-hPa heights, and top-of-the-atmosphere net radiation were recast into regional anomaly correlations. The correlations were compared among the simulations with each of the schemes. The results show that fvGCM with McRAS and its radiation package performed discernibly better than the original fvGCM with CCM3 cloud physics plus its radiation package. The McRAS cloud scheme also showed a reasonably positive response to the observed sea surface temperature on mean monthly rainfall fields at different time leads. This analysis represents a method for helpful systematic evaluation prior to selection of a new scheme in a global model.

  9. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  10. Structure of continental margin off Mid-Atlantic states (Baltimore Canyon Trough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, John Stevens; Behrendt, John Charles; Mattick, Robert E.; Taylor, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing interest in the Atlantic continental margin as a future petroleum province has resulted in several recent papers (Emmerich, 1974; Burk and Drake, 1974) that attempt to summarize the structure and stratigraphic framework of this area. Most papers tend to portray the margin as a wedge of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediment that thins at the edge of the shelf over a "basement ridge" and then thickens again under the continental rise. Off the northeastern United States, the sediment wedge under the shelf attains a thickness of 8-11 km in the Georges Bank basin (Schultz and Glover, 1974; Mattick and others, 1974; Sheridan, 1974b; Behrendt and others, 1974) and 12 km in thickness in the Baltimore Canyon trough off the middle Atlantic states of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and New Jersey (fig. 1). Seaward of the continental shelf and its sediment prism, Emery and Uchupi (1972, figs. 133-135) infer slump deposits (eroded in some areas) covering a buried ridge thought to extend from the Laurentian Channel to Cape Hatteras, where it splits in two. The lower slope and continental rise are inferred by Drake and later investigators to be a thick prism of deep sea sediment (turbidites, hemipelagic clays, slump deposits) overlying oceanic basement in a welt that parallels the continental edge and reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km (Emery and Uchupi, 1972, fig. 188).

  11. 77 FR 59391 - Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...] Delta Air Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines, Inc... Lines, Inc., Continental Airlines, Inc., JetBlue Airways Corporation, United Air Lines, Inc., and US...

  12. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  13. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continental Shelf areas. 1.638-1 Section 1.638-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Continental Shelf Areas § 1.638-1 Continental Shelf areas. (a) General rule. For.... The terms Continental Shelf of the United States and Continental Shelf of a possession of the United...

  14. Classification and Denomination of Flow Units for Clastic Reservoirs of Continental Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xue-jun; TANG Yue-gang; HAO Jian-ming; ZHANG Kai; ZHENG Jia-peng

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of other researchers' achievements and the authors' understanding of flow units, a proposal on classification and denomination of flow units for clastic reservoirs of continental deposit is put forward according to the practical need of oilfield development and relevant theories. The specific implications of development and geology are given to each type of flow units, which has provided a scientific basis for oil development.

  15. FINANCIAL MODERNIZATION LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES. BACKGROUND AND IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Modernization Act went into effect in the United States in1999. The Act establishes a new framework for affiliations among commercial banks, insurance companies and securities firms through "financial holding companies" and "financial subsidiaries", and establishes guidelines for entry into merchant banking. It moves financial institutions in the United States towards a system of conglomeration that has long existed in continental Europe and elsewhere in the w...

  16. Accident statistics for fixed offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funnemark, E. [Det Norske Veritas Industry AS, (Norway); Young, E. [Health and Safety Executive, (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Comprehensive statistics for the accidents and incidents on fixed units engaged in oil and gas exploration/exploitation on the UK continental shelf between 1980 and 2001 have been assembled from other databases. The data includes nature of the incident, type of unit involved, geographical area and time period. The results cover a total of 5,563 events which are described as accidents, hazardous situations or near misses.

  17. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Marie E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perlack, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Becker, Denny A. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slinsky, Stephen E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ray, Daryll E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  18. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  19. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    attributed to present transform motion and residual thermal and dynamic effects of Tertiary subduction along the western edge of the North American plate. Abrupt stress transitions around actively extending regions in the western United States probably reflect shallow sources of stress and anomalously thin lithosphere. Large areas characterized by a uniform stress field in the central and eastern United States suggest broad scale plate tectonic forces. In the midcontinent region, both ridge push and asthenospheric viscous drag resistance to lithospheric motion can explain the NE-SW compression in the cold, thick lithosphere of the craton, although drag-induced stress directions (resistance to absolute plate motion) correlate better with the data than do the ridge push directions. Asthenospheric counter-flow models do not apply in this region, as predicted stress orientations are about 90° off. A region of compression oriented approximately perpendicular to the continental margin and Appalachian fold belt is defined by the stress data along the Atlantic Coast. This NW-SE compression is in direct contrast with previous models predicting extension perpendicular to passive continental margins due to lateral density contrasts at the continental-oceanic crust interface. Ridge push forces, while capable of producing a component of compression across the coastal area, do not explain the observed orientation of the stress. Two speculative mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed orientations: (1) rotation of stress (or strain) due to anisotropic Appalachian basement structure and (2) flexural effects associated with erosion and isostatic rebound of the Appalachians.

  20. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  3. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  4. 2008 Joint United States-Canadian program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Healy--Cruise HLY0806

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Arctic Beaufort Sea aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter USCGC Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) in the Arctic Ocean in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St- Laurent. The science parties on the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the USGS (Healy), and the GSC and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew included marine mammal and Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. The joint survey proved an unqualified success. The Healy collected 5,528 km of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (38,806 km2) and CHIRP subbottom profile data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements. The Louis acquired 2,817 km of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection-profile data along 12 continuous lines, as well as 35 sonobuoy refraction stations and accompanying single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection profile data of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. Equipment failure rate of the seismic equipment gear aboard the Louis was greatly improved with the advantage of having a leading icebreaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led the Healy, resulting in much improved quality of the swath bathymetry and CHIRP sub-bottom data in comparison with data collected by the Healy in the lead or working alone. Ancillary science objectives, including ice observations, deployment

  5. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  6. No evidence for Hadean continental crust within Earth's oldest evolved rock unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimink, J. R.; Davies, J. H. F. L.; Chacko, T.; Stern, R. A.; Heaman, L. M.; Sarkar, C.; Schaltegger, U.; Creaser, R. A.; Pearson, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    Due to the acute scarcity of very ancient rocks, the composition of Earth's embryonic crust during the Hadean eon (>4.0 billion years ago) is a critical unknown in our search to understand how the earliest continents evolved. Whether the Hadean Earth was dominated by mafic-composition crust, similar to today's oceanic crust, or included significant amounts of continental crust remains an unsolved question that carries major implications for the earliest atmosphere, the origin of life, and the geochemical evolution of the crust-mantle system. Here we present new U-Pb and Hf isotope data on zircons from the only precisely dated Hadean rock unit on Earth--a 4,019.6 +/- 1.8 Myr tonalitic gneiss unit in the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Canada. Combined zircon and whole-rock geochemical data from this ancient unit shows no indication of derivation from, or interaction with, older Hadean continental crust. Instead, the data provide the first direct evidence that the oldest known evolved crust on Earth was generated from an older ultramafic or mafic reservoir that probably surfaced the early Earth.

  7. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  9. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  10. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  12. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  14. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  15. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  16. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  17. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  18. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  19. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  20. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  1. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  5. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  9. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  11. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  15. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  16. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  18. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  19. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  20. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  1. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  2. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  3. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  4. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  8. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic contact separating continental and oceanic units is preserved at outcrop in many locations within the Western Alps. The contact has experienced prolonged and progressive deformation during Oligocene collision and subsequent 'extrusive' contraction which is approximately westerly-directed (Dumont et al., 2012). Despite variable metamorphic grade, this tectonic contact displays a relative consistency of tectonostratigraphic and structural characteristics. Removal of the Oligocene and younger deformation is a critical requirement to allow assessment of the kinematic evolution during the Eocene continental subduction phase. The best preserved relationships are observed near the base of the Helminthoid Flysch nappes, in the footwall of the Penninic thrust, or in the external part of the Briançonnais zone. Here, the oceanic units are composed of detached Cretaceous sediments, but they are underlain locally by an olistostrome containing basaltic clasts. Further to the east, the internal boundary of the Briançonnais zone s.l. (including the 'Prepiedmont units'), is frequently marked by breccia or megabreccia, but is strongly affected by blueschist-facies metamorphism and by approximately easterly directed backfolding and backthrusting. At one locality, there is compelling evidence that the oceanic and continental units were already tectonically stacked and metamorphosed (together) 32Ma ago. Some megabreccias of mixed continental/oceanic provenance can be interpreted as a metamorphic equivalent of the external olistostrome, products of the initial pulses of tectonic stacking. The overlying units are composed dominantly of metasediments, containing distributed ophiolitic megaboudins (Tricart & Schwartz, 2006). Further east again, the tectonic contact separates the Dora-Maira continental basement from the Mt. Viso units which are predominantly composed of oceanic lithosphere. Both the Dora-Maira and Mt. Viso units are eclogitic, but the HP peak is apparently

  9. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  10. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  11. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Mapping plant invadedness in watersheds across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic aquatic plant invasions trigger a cascade of negative effects, resulting in altered structure and function of freshwater ecosystems, loss of native biodiversity, and reduction of valuable ecosystem services such as recreation and water quality. The problem of biological in...

  13. Seagrasses in the continental United States as of March 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aquatic vascular vegetation beds dominated by submerged, rooted, vascular species or submerged or rooted floating freshwater tidal vascular vegetation. This is NOT a...

  14. Assessing Satellite Column Observation of Formaldehyde over Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; White, A.; Khan, M. N.; McNider, R. T.

    2016-12-01

    The advent of satellite observation of trace gases has provided valuable information for better understanding of chemical atmosphere. One of these products, satellite observation of column formaldehyde, can be especially valuable in air quality studies. Since photochemical production of formaldehyde constitutes a large portion of summertime atmospheric concentration, satellite observations can be used to constraint the uncertainties in primary aldehyde emissions. In particular, isoprene as the major precursor of formaldehyde in most areas during summer, contributes 20-60% of total production. However, the magnitude of this contribution is spatially variable. Therefore, in comparing model column formaldehyde to that of the satellite, environmental factors affecting this variation must agree with observations. In this study, first we correct the radiation field used in the model for estimating emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Then by performing photochemical simulations for the summer of 2013, model formaldehyde field will be compared to that of satellite observed. WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system is being used for these simulations. The model simulations use satellite-based estimates of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in BVOC emission estimates produced by the latest version of biogenic emission inventory system (BEIS). The results for the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign) will be presented.

  15. Distribution of Mosquitoes in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ISa . DECLASSIFICATION DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17...smithii Anopheles crucians pufletipenflis quadrir7mcu~attus walkeri CoquiZ Zettidia pe rtu rhans pip iens restuans sactinarius territans iJ0 UJSAF

  16. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  17. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  18. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  5. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  6. Carbon export by rivers draining the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Material exports by rivers, particularly carbon exports, provide insight to basin geology, weathering, and ecological processes within the basin. Accurate accounting of those exports is valuable to understanding present, past, and projected basin-wide changes in those processes. We calculated lateral export of inorganic and organic carbon (IC and OC) from rivers draining the conterminous United States using stream gaging and water quality data from more than 100 rivers. Approximately 90% of land area and 80% of water export were included, which enabled a continental-scale estimate using minor extrapolation. Total carbon export was 41–49 Tg C yr−1. IC was >75% of export and exceeded OC export in every region except the southeastern Atlantic seaboard. The 10 largest rivers, by discharge, accounted for 66% of water export and carried 74 and 62% of IC and OC export, respectively. Watershed carbon yield for the conterminous United States was 4.2 and 1.3 g C m−2 yr−1 for IC and OC, respectively. The dominance of IC export was unexpected but is consistent with geologic models suggesting high weathering rates in the continental United States due to the prevalence of easily weathered sedimentary rock.

  7. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  8. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  9. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  10. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  11. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Veláquez, Ernesto; López-Vila, Jesús Manuel; Gómez-González, Adán Enrique; Romero-Berny, Emilio Ismael; Lievano-Trujillo, Jorge Luis; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico. PMID:27920608

  12. Checklist of the continental fishes of the state of Chiapas, Mexico, and their distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Velázquez-Velázquez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of the distribution of fishes that inhabit the continental waters of the Mexican state of Chiapas is presented. The state was compartmentalized into 12 hydrological regions for the purpose of understanding the distribution of fish fauna across a state with large physiographic variance. The ichthyofauna of Chiapas is represented by 311 species distributed in two classes, 26 orders, 73 families, and 182 genera, including 12 exotic species. The families with the highest number of species were Cichlidae, Poeciliidae, Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Ariidae, Gobiidae, and Haemulidae. This study attempts to close gaps in knowledge of the distribution of ichthyofauna in the diverse hydrological regions of Chiapas, Mexico.

  13. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  14. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  15. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  16. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  17. Predictions and Projections of Pine Productivity and Hydrology in Response to Climate Change Across the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank

    1998-01-01

    The southeastern United States is one of the most rapidly growing human population regions in continental United States, and as the population increases, the demand for commercial, industrial, and residential water will also increase (USWRC, 1978). Forest species type, stand age, and the climate all influence the amount of water use and yield from these areas (Swank et...

  18. River Outflow of the Conterminous United States, 1939-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetter, Alexandre K.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    1993-10-01

    A record of 50 years of daily outflows through the boundaries of the continental United States has been assembled based on observations recorded by U.S. Geological Survey streamflow stations. Only stations with continuous records from 1939 through 1988 were included. These stations (197 total) are near the outlets of rivers located at the vicinity of the Canadian, Mexican, Atlantic (including the Gulf of Mexico), and Pacific borders of the continental United States. The drainage area of the selected stations covers 77% of the conterminous United States, whereas the existing network of gauging stations covers 83% of the conterminous U.S. area. Station daily data were aggregated over the entire boundary of the United States and were integrated in monthly and annual totals. The 50-year average annual streamflow divergence normalized by the aggregated drainage area is 210.2 mm yr1, reaching a peak in April with 27.3 mm month1 and a minimum in September with 8.7 mm month1. The Mississippi-Missouri Basin comprises 50% of the gauged area and dominates the absolute value of the outflow discharge. Spectral analysis of the monthly outflow anomalies shows an 11-year dominant cycle. The 1939-1988 period contains four notable droughts. Two droughts are partially registered in the limits of the records characterized by the negative anomalies extending from 1939 to 1941 and by the 1987-1988 anomalies for the late 1980s drought. The middle 1950s and early 1960s droughts are fully included in the dataset. Periods of high outflows were registered in the middle 1940s, early 1970s, and early 1980s. Analysis of the spatial coherence of the annual anomalies shows large-scale features, whereas analysis of the monthly anomalies yields the frequency and persistence patterns of floods and droughts. An estimate of the climatological land-surface water budget for the continental United States was done based on recorded precipitation, panevaporation, and outflow. Eigenvector analysis of the

  19. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  20. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  1. The holocene sequence of the central continental shelf of the State of Bahia, Brazil; A sequencia holocenica da plataforma continental central do Estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes; Dominguez, Jose Maria Landim [PETROBRAS S.A., BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Exploracao e Producao da Bahia. Ativo de Exploracao Avaliacao e Acompanhamento Geologico]. E-mail: fernandofreire@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    Fifty cores were recovered from the sea bottom in the central portion of the continental shelf of the State of Bahia, between the Marau Peninsula and the city of Olivenca. Thirty six of these cores were collected by divers at up to 40 m deep waters. Fourteen cores were collected by piston cores in areas ranging from the continental shelf to the upper slope. All cores were described, photographed and sampled for grain size and bio stratigraphic analysis. These data were used to prepare textural and facies maps of the continental shelf. The piston cores were run parallel to sub-bottom profiling surveys. Results show that there is a strong reflector located 3 - 4 m below the sediment- water interface, which limited the penetration of the piston cores. This reflector represents a sequence boundary separating the holocene from the pleistocene sequences. A transgressive system tract has been deposited on the top of this surface along with the early stages of the high stand system tract, particularly on the inner shelf. Because of the starved character of this shelf, notably on its external portion, a detailed application of sequence stratigraphy concepts has not been possible. Only at the inner shelf/shore face there is evident pro gradation of siliciclastics over carbonates. Several submarine valleys dissect the outer shelf/upper slope, thus acting as channels that transport continental shelf sediments to the deeper portions of the basin. (author)

  2. Pragmatism and the Unlikely Influence of German Idealism on the Academy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Todd C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article I argue that the subject-object distinction, operative in Continental Europe during the late-1700s and early-1800s, led to the religion-secular distinction in higher education in the United States. Many scholars believe the origins of the shifting nature of the religion-secular distinction resided with some form of influence that…

  3. Pragmatism and the Unlikely Influence of German Idealism on the Academy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Todd C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article I argue that the subject-object distinction, operative in Continental Europe during the late-1700s and early-1800s, led to the religion-secular distinction in higher education in the United States. Many scholars believe the origins of the shifting nature of the religion-secular distinction resided with some form of influence that…

  4. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  5. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  6. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  7. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  8. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  9. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  10. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  11. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  12. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  13. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  14. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  15. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  16. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  17. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  18. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  19. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  20. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  1. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  2. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  4. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  6. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  7. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  8. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  9. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  10. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  11. A reservoir morphology database for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2017-09-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Reservoir Fisheries Habitat Partnership, combined multiple national databases to create one comprehensive national reservoir database and to calculate new morphological metrics for 3,828 reservoirs. These new metrics include, but are not limited to, shoreline development index, index of basin permanence, development of volume, and other descriptive metrics based on established morphometric formulas. The new database also contains modeled chemical and physical metrics. Because of the nature of the existing databases used to compile the Reservoir Morphology Database and the inherent missing data, some metrics were not populated. One comprehensive database will assist water-resource managers in their understanding of local reservoir morphology and water chemistry characteristics throughout the continental United States.

  12. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  13. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  14. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  15. {sup 137}Cs inventory in sedimentary columns from continental shelf of Sao Paulo state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Cordero, Luisa M.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Tessler, Moyses G., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Fisica, Quimica e Geologica; Cruz, Jacson L.S. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 137}Cs is an artificial radioactive isotope produced by {sup 235}U fission. This radionuclide has a high fission yield and a half-life of 30 years. It has been detected in the environment since 1945 and its principal contamination source has been nuclear tests in the atmosphere. There are other sources of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment, such as: release from nuclear and reprocessing plants, radioactive dumping and nuclear accidents (Chernobyl, for example). This paper presents an inventory of {sup 137}Cs on the Continental Shelf of Sao Paulo State, a region located between Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (Santa Catarina state) and Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro state). In this area, 9 cores were collected by the Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo University Institute of Oceanography). The cores were sliced at every 2 cm; sub-samples were lyophilized, grinded and stored in plastic containers. {sup 137}Cs was determined by 661 keV photopeak using a gamma spectrometry detector (Ge hyperpure). The analysis was performed by efficiency and background in different counting times. {sup 137}Cs concentration activities varied from 0.3 to 3.6 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 1.2+-0.6 Bq kg{sup -1}. The inventory of {sup 137}Cs in this area was 13+-7 Bq m-2. Values obtained are in agreement with the Southern Hemisphere, a region contaminated by atmospheric fallout due to past nuclear explosions. (author)

  16. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  17. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  18. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  19. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  20. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  1. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  2. Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Technical Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Margolis, Robert; Melius, Jennifer; Phillips, Caleb; Elmore, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How much energy could we generate if PV modules were installed on all of the suitable roof area in the nation? To answer this question, we first use GIS methods to process a lidar dataset and determine the amount of roof area that is suitable for PV deployment in 128 cities nationwide, containing 23% of U.S. buildings, and provide PV-generation results for a subset of those cities. We then extend the insights from that analysis to the entire continental United States. We develop two statistical models -- one for small buildings and one for medium and large buildings -- and populate them with geographic variables that correlate with rooftop's suitability for PV. We simulate the productivity of PV installed on the suitable roof area, and present the technical potential of PV on both small buildings and medium/large buildings for every state in the continental US. Within the 128 cities covered by lidar data, 83% of small buildings have a location suitable for a PV installation, but only 26% of the total rooftop area of small buildings is suitable for development. The sheer number of buildings in this class, however, gives small buildings the greatest technical potential. Small building rooftops could accommodate 731 GW of PV capacity and generate 926 TWh/year of PV energy, approximately 65% of rooftop PV's total technical potential. We conclude by summing the PV-generation results for all building sizes and therefore answering our original question, estimating that the total national technical potential of rooftop PV is 1,118 GW of installed capacity and 1,432 TWh of annual energy generation. This equates to 39% of total national electric-sector sales.

  3. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  4. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  5. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  6. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  7. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  8. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  9. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  10. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  11. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  12. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  13. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  14. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  15. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  16. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  17. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  18. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  19. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  20. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  1. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  2. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  3. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  4. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  5. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  6. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  7. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  8. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  9. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  10. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  11. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  12. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  13. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  14. Dengue in the United States of America: A Worsening Scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Añez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a febrile illness caused by any of the four dengue virus types (DENV-1 to -4, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. DENV can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Dengue has been historically present in the continental United States (US, in the state of Hawaii, and in the US insular territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. During the second half of the 20th century, most of the cases reported in the US were imported cases brought to the country by travelers. Since 2009, cases of autochthonous dengue have been recognized in the state of Florida after 75 years of absence, followed by intensification of transmission in endemic places including the US territories of US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, which experienced a large dengue epidemic in 2010. The widespread distribution of dengue mosquito vectors, deficient mosquito control measures and increased frequency of DENV-infected visitors to the US coming from dengue-endemic locations or places experiencing epidemics appear to be jointly responsible for the emergence and reemergence of dengue in the US and its territories.

  15. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  16. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  17. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is...

  19. 31 CFR 592.305 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... General Definitions § 592.305 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means the bringing of goods into the United States....

  20. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  1. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  2. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  3. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  4. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  5. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the...

  6. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  7. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  8. Status of correlation of Quaternary stratigraphic units in the western conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Crandell, D.R.; Richmond, G.M.

    1971-01-01

    Deposits of Quaternary age from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast in the western conterminous United States represent a great variety of environments. The deposits include those of continental and alpine glaciers, glacial meltwater streams, nonglacial streams, pluvial lakes, marine environments, eolian environments, and masswasting environments. On two charts we have attempted to correlate representative sequences of deposits of many of these environments, based on published sources and recent unpublished investigations. Evidence for correlation is based mainly on stratigraphic sequence, soil characteristics, the amount of subsequent erosion and interlayered volcanic ash beds identifiable as to source. Chronologic control is based on numerous radiocarbon dates, U-series dates on marine fossils, and K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks. The Bishop volcanic ash bed and one of the Pearlette-like volcanic ash beds appear to represent significant regional key horizons, respectively about 700,000 and 600,000 years old. Rock magnetism is shown to suggest the paleomagnetic polarity at the time of rock deposition. Assigned land-mammal ages of included fossils help to put limits on the age of some units. ?? 1971.

  9. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  10. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    incidence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) strains in the United States has created an emerging public health challenge. CDC...only 1,280 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were reported through NNDSS in 1993, data from recent prospective pneumonia studies suggest that between...surveillance data from 1992 indicated that the prevalence of pneumococcal strains that are highly resistant to penicillin increased 60-fold (from 0.02% to 1.3

  11. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  12. Energy Security in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    increase the domestic price of those 41. Coal gasification is a process that converts solid coal—through several energy-intensive steps—into gasoline and...for switching to other fuels or reducing consumption of transportation fuels . In con- trast, electricity can be produced from several sources of...the prices of those fuels in the United States. Although the global nature of the market for oil makes U.S. consumers vulnerable to price

  13. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  14. United States of Europe, Dream or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    center between the United States and the Soviet Union. The method chosen to examine this trend is to review three major politico-military problems...de France, pp. 3-7. ൫ Supra-nationalism must go! De Gaulle’s heir presumptive, Georges Pompidou , has given voice to de Gaulle’s thoughts on... Pompidou said: Certainly we do not believe in integration as a method of approach to European unity, precisely because we believe that there can be no

  15. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  18. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  19. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  20. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  1. Vital Signs: Preparing for Local Mosquito-Borne Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Widespread Zika virus transmission in the Region of the Americas since 2015 has heightened the urgency of preparing for the possibility of expansion of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus during the 2016 mosquito season. CDC and other U.S. government agencies have been working with state and local government partners on prevention and early detection of Zika virus infection and will increase these activities during April as part of their preparation for the anticipated emergence of mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States.

  2. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  3. Characterization of wind power resource in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Gunturu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been reconstructed and characterized using metrics that describe, apart from abundance, its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind profile at 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. The wind speeds at 80 m were quantitatively and qualitatively close to the NREL wind map. The possible reasons for overestimation by NREL have been discussed. For long tailed distributions like those of the WPD, the mean is an overestimation and median is suggested for summary representation of the wind resource.

    The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is an increase in intermittency in terms of level crossing rate in low resource regions.

  4. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest... importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  6. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  7. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  8. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    stage over the last 6 years.7 The DoD is on the cutting edge of partnering and there have been valuable lessons learned at the tactical and...global stage . “3D are the three pillars that provide the foundation for promoting and protecting U.S. national security interests abroad.”33 DoD, DoS...operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising

  9. Contraceptive failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2011-05-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

  10. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  11. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  12. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  13. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  14. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  15. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  16. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  17. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  18. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  19. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  20. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  1. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  2. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  3. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  4. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  5. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  6. 46 CFR 67.97 - United States built.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States built. 67.97 Section 67.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.97 United States built. To be considered built in the United States a vessel...

  7. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  8. 31 CFR 593.411 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.411 Importation into the United States. With respect to the prohibitions set forth in § 593.205, the term importation into the United States...

  9. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under...

  10. 31 CFR 545.304 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.304 Importation into the United States. (a) With respect to goods, software, or technology, the term importation into the United States means the bringing of any...

  11. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  12. 31 CFR 539.307 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.307 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means: (a) With respect to goods or technology, the bringing of any goods...

  13. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the...

  14. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: On November 25, 2013, the Department... 70275) soliciting applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  15. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  16. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  17. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  18. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning...

  19. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  20. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  1. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  2. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  3. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  4. Industry economics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Demand for medical equipment in the United States (US) is projected to grow by 8% between 2001 and 2006, to reach 105 billion dollars. In 2001,the market was valued at 71.4 billion dollars, based on an annual growth of 7.5% between 1996 and 2001, according to The Freedonia Group. Product innovation and the growing ageing population is driving the industry, despite health-care cost containment measures. Medical and surgical instruments continue to be the largest sector, which is expected to grow to 30.5 billion dollars in 2006. However, electromedical/electrotherapeutic apparatus will remain the fastest growing sector, with annual gains of 10.8% predicted for this period.

  5. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  6. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  7. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on US
    imports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  8. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  9. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  10. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  11. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  12. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  13. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  15. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  16. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency in the judicial branch of the United States..., and judicial branches of government, and other interested parties, to study the manner in which United... might be appropriate in light of the information obtained from that study. (12) Resolution of...

  17. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  18. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  19. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  20. Romantic Love in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. de Munck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80 and pile sorting (n = 39 to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.

  1. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  2. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  3. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  4. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  5. USEEIO: a New and Transparent United States ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    National-scope environmental life cycle models of goods and services may be used for many purposes, not limited to quantifying impacts of production and consumption of nations, assessing organization-wide impacts, identifying purchasing hot spots, analyzing environmental impacts of policies, and performing streamlined life cycle assessment. USEEIO is a new environmentally extended input-output model of the United States fit for such purposes and other sustainable materials management applications. USEEIO melds data on economic transactions between 389 industry sectors with environmental data for these sectors covering land, water, energy and mineral usage and emissions of greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants, nutrients and toxics, to build a life cycle model of 385 US goods and services. In comparison with existing US input-output models, USEEIO is more current with most data representing year 2013, more extensive in its coverage of resources and emissions, more deliberate and detailed in its interpretation and combination of data sources, and includes formal data quality evaluation and description. USEEIO was assembled with a new Python module called the IO Model Builder capable of assembling and calculating results of user-defined input-output models and exporting the models into LCA software. The model and data quality evaluation capabilities are demonstrated with an analysis of the environmental performance of an average hospital in the US. All USEEIO f

  6. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  7. United States orbital transfer vehicle programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    The United States will rely on five orbital transfer vehicles to carry spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Development of these vehicles have evolved through contrasting cultures of government and commercial management. The spectrum of their capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval and return to a space base; either the Shuttle or the Space Station Freedom. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are now nearing maturity. Their characteristics, flight record, costs, and projected future uses are defined. The TOS and OMV are currently in development with first uses scheduled in 1992 and 1993, respectively. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

  8. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  9. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  10. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  11. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  12. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  13. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  14. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the... is used in a geographical sense. The term “citizen of the United States” includes a citizen of the...

  15. Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berarducci, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.

  16. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  17. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  18. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  19. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  20. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set has been superseded by huc2m. This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii,...

  1. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  2. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J

    2012-11-23

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years

  3. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  4. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  5. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THE INFORMATION OFFICE OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On March 8, the Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China published a document entitled the Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006. Following is the full text.

  6. 1990 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 1990 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  7. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  8. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  9. 2000 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 2000 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  10. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  11. Principal thorium resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Olson, J.C.; Brownfield, I.K.; Brock, M.R.; Lemons, J.F.; Coppa, L.V.; Clingan, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Resources were assessed for thorium in the higher grade and better known deposits in the United States in: (1) veins, (2) massive carbonatites, (3) stream placers of North and South Carolina, and (4) disseminated deposits. Thorium resources for the first three categories were divided into reserves and probable potential resources. Each of these then were separated into the following cost categories: (1) the amount of ThO2 producible at less than $15 per pound, (2) the amount producible at between $15 and $30 per pound, and (3) the amount producible at more than $50 per pound. The type of mining and milling needed at each deposit determines the capital, operating, and fixed costs of both mining and milling. Costs start with the clearing of land and are carried through to the final product, which for all deposits is ThO2. Capital costs of mining are affected most by the type of mining and the size of the mine. Those of milling are affected most by the kind of mill, its size, and whether or not extra circuits are needed for the separation of rare earths or some other byproduct. Veins, massive carbonatites, and stream placers of North and South Carolina have reserves of 188,000 short tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 505,000 tons of ThO2. Approximately half of the reserves and probable potential resources can be produced at less than $30 per pound of ThO2. Veins are the highest grade source in the United States and have total reserves of 142,000 tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 343,000 tons. About 90 percent of the reserves and 91 percent of the probable potential resources can be produced at less than $15 per pound of ThO2. Seven vein districts were evaluated: (1) Lemhi Pass, Mont.-Idaho, (2) Wet Mountains, Colo., (3) Powderhorn, Colo., (4) Hall Mountain, Idaho, (5) Diamond Creek, Idaho, (6) Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyo. and (7) Mountain Pass, Calif. Eighty-seven percent of the total reserves and probable potential resources are in the

  12. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  13. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  14. 12 CFR 561.53 - United States Treasury General Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Treasury General Account. 561.53 Section 561.53 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.53 United States Treasury General Account. The...

  15. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... (IFLE): Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  16. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and...

  17. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  18. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  19. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  20. United States’ Interests in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    while Haile Selassie intended to ensure that the United States had a vested interest in the survival of his regime. "There was never an alliance between...company; and he sent troops to fight in Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie’s political manuevering achieved the establishment of a United States vested

  1. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin....

  2. Immigration to the United States: 1996 Update. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; Pemberton, Alissa

    Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a profound impact on the United States. The public policy implications of immigration include the impact on population growth, employment, wages, taxes, and social spending. In 1994, a net total of between 900,000 and 1.1 million immigrants were added to the foreign-born population of the United States.…

  3. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States depository institution. 560.319 Section 560.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... associations, credit unions, trust companies and United States bank holding companies)....

  4. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  5. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  6. The Organization of Paralympic Sport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joe; Mushett, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, Paralympic sport is governed by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), as set forth in the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act of 1998. The USOC formed a dedicated Paralympic Division in 2001 to manage this responsibility in close cooperation with other USOC divisions and many of the sport-specific national…

  7. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  8. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  9. 78 FR 26425 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ..., the simple movement of a stolen trade secret within a domestic multinational company (e.g., from a United States office to an overseas office of the same company) may not pose the same risks or harms. More generally, the Commission heard that foreign actors increasingly target United States companies...

  10. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  11. Simulating Land Surface Hydrology at a 30-meter Spatial Resolution over the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Pan, M.; Cai, X.; Chaney, N.

    2016-12-01

    Big data, high performance computing, and recent advances in hydrologic similarity present a unique opportunity for macroscale hydrology: the land surface hydrology can be modeled at field scales over continental extents while ensuring computational efficiency to enable robust ensemble frameworks. In this presentation we will illustrate this potential breakthrough in macroscale hydrology by discussing results from a 30-meter simulation over the contiguous United States using the HydroBlocks land surface model. HydroBlocks is a novel land surface model that represents field-scale spatial heterogeneity of land surface processes through interacting hydrologic response units (HRUs) [Chaney et al., 2016]. The model is a coupling between the Noah-MP land surface model and the Dynamic TOPMODEL hydrologic model. The HRUs are defined by clustering proxies of the drivers of spatial heterogeneity using hyperresolution land data. For the simulations over CONUS, HydroBlocks is run at every HUC10 catchment using 100 HRUs per catchment between 2004 and 2014. The simulations are forced with the 4 km Stage IV radar rainfall product and a spatially downscaled version of NLDAS-2. We will show how this approach to macroscale hydrology ensures computational efficiency while providing field-scale hydrologic information over continental extents. We will illustrate how this approach provides a novel approach in both the application and validation of macroscale land surface and hydrologic models. Finally, using these results, we will discuss the important role that big data and high performance computing can play in providing solutions to longstanding challenges to not only flood and drought monitoring systems but also to numerical weather prediction, seasonal forecasting, and climate prediction. References Chaney, N., P. Metcalfe, and E. F. Wood (2016), HydroBlocks: A Field-scale Resolving Land Surface Model for Application Over Continental Extents, Hydrological Processes, (in press.)

  12. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  13. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  14. Leveling of Tuberculosis Incidence - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Mindra, Godwin; Haddad, Maryam B; Pratt, Robert; Price, Sandy F; Langer, Adam J

    2016-03-25

    After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

  15. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  16. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; Scott A. Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Forest resource growth, harvests, and land use conversion can change inventories within States, among regions, and even among countries, and can significantly influence the future performance of resources. This could affect the State, regional, and national economies that depend on the affected resources, as well as the resource environments. Periodic surveys provide...

  17. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  18. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  20. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  1. Toxaphene in the United States: 1. Usage gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.

    2001-08-01

    Toxaphene, as a general-purpose insecticide, was widely used in the United States. The use of toxaphene in the United States can be divided into four different periods between 1947 and 1986, with total usage of about 490 kt, and total production around 720 kt. Inventories of gridded usage of toxaphene in the United States with 1/6° by 1/4° latitude/longitude resolution have been created by using different gridded cropland and cattle as surrogate data. The intensive use of toxaphene on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of the United States with the highest usage of 2 kt per grid cell. The results show that the state of Alabama was the largest user of toxaphene, reaching as much as 87 kt, followed by Mississippi at 60 kt. The total usage in the top 10 states is 410 kt, 84% of the national usage in the United States. The use in the first six states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and South Carolina, is 350 kt, 71% of the national usage in the United States.

  2. Building Salt Marshes Along the Coasts of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    shoreline which is periodically flooded by sact or brackish water. A number of species in the grass family (gramineae), sedge family ( cyperaceae ), and...47 d. North Pacific Coast ..... ................. ... 47 (1) Pickleweed ........ ................... 50 (2) Sedge ...64 (2) Plants ....... ..................... .64 d. Black Needle Rush ...... .................. ... 66 e. Sedge

  3. 77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... commercial consignments, monitoring of fruit flies to establish low- prevalence places of production... (Dymicoccus neobrevipes) Coffee root (Geococcus coffeae) Hibiscus (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) Coffee..., monitoring, and oversight of places of production; ] Trapping for the Bactrocera spp. fruit flies...

  4. NLCD - MODIS land cover- albedo dataset for the continental United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The NLCD-MODIS land cover-albedo database integrates high-quality MODIS albedo observations with areas of homogeneous land cover from NLCD. The spatial resolution...

  5. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model Monthly Climate Data for the Continental United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created using the PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) climate mapping system, developed by Dr. Christopher Daly,...

  6. 76 FR 65985 - Importation of Litchi and Longan Fruit From Vietnam Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... produced free of disease caused by P. litchii. Paragraph (b) of proposed Sec. 319.56-54 would set out... be in a situation to introduce the disease because free water is required for the spores to infect a... of disease caused by Phytophthora litchii. (b) Treatment. Litchi and longan fruit must be...

  7. Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Strickland: Does anyone else have any comments? Mr Schmelzer : Colonel, I’m Mike Schmelzer , 580 East 12th North, Mountain Home. I’m also President of the...negative, and I certainly can testify as to what Mr Schmelzer has said as President of the Apartment Association, because we have just such an outstanding

  8. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... and auditing implementation of the systems approach. (2) The NPPO of the exporting country must... subject to a systems approach that would include requirements for monitoring and oversight, establishment... Information: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at...

  9. Medical Administration: Patient Regulating To and Within the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-30

    surgical condi- tions of the forefoot . SCI Spinal Cord Injury See SURGERY /Neurosurgery. SSL Plastic Surgery Patients having, or suspected of having...Commanders notify Chief, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery , Attention: MED–33, Wash DC 20372–5120; and Air Force MTF commanders notify HQ US Air Force...or surgery date (if applicable), and approval authority number (if an exception to regulating policy has been granted by ASMRO). Information regarding

  10. Final Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the- Horizon Backscatter Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Integrated Grant Administration ( IGA ) (2) Unified Work Program (DOT 1130.2) (3) Environmental Protection - Consolidated Program Grants...the old Atmosphere had been Milk. The Mold acted as a kind of Rennet, and so. Instead of Milk, here remained only this hard Curd and the clear Whey

  11. Effective inundation of continental United States communities with 21st century sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Dahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.

  12. 78 FR 25620 - Importation of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... dorsalis (Chilli thrips), and one pest associated with both the female squash flower and squash fruit.... dorsalis are large external feeders that cause easily visible damage, they would likely be detected during.... dorsalis. This requirement would certify that the provisions of the regulations have been met. Executive...

  13. Omernik's Level III Ecoregions of the Continental United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Omernik's Level III ecoregions, derived from a 1:7,500,000 map created by J.M. Omernik in 1987 and from refinements of Omernik's framework that...

  14. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... amend the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of fresh jackfruit, pineapple, and... management document (RMD), titled ``Importation of Fresh Fruits of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus... Malaysia, and found free from P. averrhoae. The fruit in the sample would then have to be cut open...

  15. Organization and Functions: Major Army Commands in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-30

    analysis element ( TCAE ) t h a t p r o v i d e s S I G I N T t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t a n d p r o p o s e d m i s s i o n steerage to all TROJAN...Army Involvement in Recruiting TAQ Total Army Quality TAREX target exploitation TCAE technical control and analysis element TDA tables of distribution

  16. 77 FR 22465 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., Ceratitis capitata, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, and Planococcus minor. (a) Monitoring and oversight. (1) The... crop itself, must not shade the crop during the day. No C. capitata or A. ludens host plants may be.... capitata and A. ludens--(1) Pest- free places of production. (i) Beginning at least 1 year before harvest...

  17. 78 FR 79634 - Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... a combination of mitigation measures for two quarantine pests, Ceratitis capitata and Monilinia... importation of blueberries: Ceratitis capitata, the Meditterranean fruit fly, and Monilinia fructigena Honey...: Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the fungus Monilinia fructigena Honey ex Whetzel. (a...

  18. Army Materiel Requirements to Support the Continental United States Military Mobilization Base Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Level of Organization AMC ............... Army Materiel Command AMOPS ............. Army Mobilization and Operations Planning System AMPC ...Military Personnel Center ( AMPC ) uses an automated mobilization manpower (MOB MAN) requirements data manipulator system to prepare time- phased

  19. A Bayesian Multilevel Model for Microcystin Prediction in Lakes of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of cyanobacteria blooms in North American lakes is increasing. A major concern with rising cyanobacteria blooms is microcystin, a common cyanobacterial hepatotoxin. To explore the conditions that promote high microcystin concentrations, we analyzed the US EPA Nation...

  20. The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Choi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  1. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  2. Calibrating a Rainfall-Runoff and Routing Model for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowfsky, S.; Li, S.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Hilberts, A.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophe risk models are widely used in the insurance industry to estimate the cost of risk. The models consist of hazard models linked to vulnerability and financial loss models. In flood risk models, the hazard model generates inundation maps. In order to develop country wide inundation maps for different return periods a rainfall-runoff and routing model is run using stochastic rainfall data. The simulated discharge and runoff is then input to a two dimensional inundation model, which produces the flood maps. In order to get realistic flood maps, the rainfall-runoff and routing models have to be calibrated with observed discharge data. The rainfall-runoff model applied here is a semi-distributed model based on the Topmodel (Beven and Kirkby, 1979) approach which includes additional snowmelt and evapotranspiration models. The routing model is based on the Muskingum-Cunge (Cunge, 1969) approach and includes the simulation of lakes and reservoirs using the linear reservoir approach. Both models were calibrated using the multiobjective NSGA-II (Deb et al., 2002) genetic algorithm with NLDAS forcing data and around 4500 USGS discharge gauges for the period from 1979-2013. Additional gauges having no data after 1979 were calibrated using CPC rainfall data. The model performed well in wetter regions and shows the difficulty of simulating areas with sinks such as karstic areas or dry areas. Beven, K., Kirkby, M., 1979. A physically based, variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 24 (1), 43-69. Cunge, J.A., 1969. On the subject of a flood propagation computation method (Muskingum method), J. Hydr. Research, 7(2), 205-230. Deb, K., Pratap, A., Agarwal, S., Meyarivan, T., 2002. A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II, IEEE Transactions on evolutionary computation, 6(2), 182-197.

  3. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  4. Delineation of Magnesium-rich Ultramafic Rocks Available for Mineral Carbon Sequestration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral carbon sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester CO2. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made covering the entire United States detailing their geographical distribution and extent, or evaluating their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the continental United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. The focus of the national-scale map is entirely on suitable ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine and serpentine minerals. By combining the map with digital datasets that show non-mineable lands (such as urban areas and National Parks), estimates on potential depth of a surface mine, and the predicted reactivities of the mineral deposits, one can begin to estimate the capacity for CO2 mineral sequestration within the United States. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  6. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  8. Babesiosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, United States, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven A.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Kumar, Sanjai; Burwen, Dale R.; Gibbs, Jonathan; Kropp, Garner; Erten, Tugce; MaCurdy, Thomas E.; Worrall, Christopher M.; Kelman, Jeffrey A.; Walderhaug, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    We used administrative databases to assess babesiosis among elderly persons in the United States by year, sex, age, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months during 2006–2008. The highest babesiosis rates were in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts, and findings suggested babesiosis expansion to other states. PMID:22257500

  9. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  10. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  11. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  12. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  13. Forest Resources of the United States, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; John S. Vissage; David R. Darr; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2001-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 1987 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to 1997 to provide current information on the Nation`s forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data are analyzed and...

  14. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    influxes of Ethiopian Jews during and Soviet Jews after the Cold War. Loan guarantees have been 77...and Saudi Arabia .88 President Bill Clinton stated that America’s interests in the Middle East are: “pursuing a comprehensive breakthrough to Middle...been, at least to some extent, an asset to the Arab regimes, as a strategic counterweight to radicalism.”136 Saudi Arabia and the members of the Gulf

  15. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  16. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  17. 1:100,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States (AK, HI and Puerto Rico are available separately). The lines were extracted from U.S....

  18. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  19. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  20. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  1. Plant and Animal Phenology Data for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As of January 1, 2013, the dataset contains phenology data on 591 species of plants and animals, with 7,512 locations registered across the United States. Protocols...

  2. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  3. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  4. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  5. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  6. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  7. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  8. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  9. Indian Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. Only areas of 640 acres or more are included. Federally-administered lands within a reservation are included...

  10. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  11. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  12. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  13. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  14. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  15. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  16. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  17. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  18. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  19. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  20. Territorial Acquisitions of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major acquisitions of territory by the United States of America. Only areas in North America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii are included....

  1. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  2. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  3. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  4. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  5. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  6. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  7. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  8. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  9. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  10. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  11. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  12. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  13. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  14. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  15. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  16. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  17. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  18. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  19. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  20. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest disturbance and recovery for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to det...