WorldWideScience

Sample records for united nations speech

  1. Speech and swallow rehabilitation in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P; Radford, K; Coffey, M; Stewart, M

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. The disease itself and the treatment can have far reaching effects on speech and swallow function, which are consistently prioritised by survivors as an area of concern. This paper provides recommendations on the assessments and interventions for speech and swallow rehabilitation in this patient group. Recommendations • All multidisciplinary teams should have rehabilitation patient pathways covering all stages of the patient's journey including multidisciplinary and pre-treatment clinics. (G) • Clinicians treating head and neck cancer patients should consult the National Cancer Rehabilitation Pathway for head and neck cancers. (G) • All head and neck cancer patients should have a pre-treatment assessment of speech and swallowing. (G) • A programme of prophylactic exercises and the teaching of swallowing manoeuvres can reduce impairments, maintain function and enable a speedier recovery. (R) • Continued speech and language therapist input is important in maintaining voice and safe and effective swallow function following head and neck cancer treatment. (R) • Disease recurrence must be ruled out in the management of stricture and/or stenosis. (R) • Continuous radial expansion balloons offer a safe, effective dilation method with advantages over gum elastic bougies. (R) • Site, length and completeness of strictures as well as whether they are in the presence of the larynx or not, need to be assessed when establishing the likelihood of surgically improved outcome. (G) • Primary surgical voice restoration should be offered to all patients undergoing laryngectomy. (R) • Attention to surgical detail and long-term speech and language therapist input is required to optimise speech and swallowing after laryngectomy. (G) • Patients should commence wearing heat and moisture exchange devices as soon as possible after

  2. Join Cost for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vepa, Jithendra

    2004-01-01

    Undoubtedly, state-of-the-art unit selection-based concatenative speech systems produce very high quality synthetic speech. this is due to a large speech database containing many instances of each speech unit, with a varied and natural distribution of prosodic and spectral characteristics. the join cost, which measures how well two units can be joined together is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from this large speech database. The ideal join cost is one that measur...

  3. Linguistic Units and Speech Production Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeilage, Peter F.

    This paper examines the validity of the concept of linguistic units in a theory of speech production. Substantiating data are drawn from the study of the speech production process itself. Secondarily, an attempt is made to reconcile the postulation of linguistic units in speech production theory with their apparent absence in the speech signal.…

  4. Fishing for meaningful units in connected speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Peter Juel; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In many branches of spoken language analysis including ASR, the set of smallest meaningful units of speech is taken to coincide with the set of phones or phonemes. However, fishing for phones is difficult, error-prone, and computationally expensive. We present an experiment, based on machine...

  5. Fishing for meaningful units in connected speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Peter Juel; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    was far lower than for phonemic recognition. Our findings show that it is possible to automatically characterize a linguistic message, without detailed spectral information or presumptions about the target units. Further, fishing for simple meaningful cues and enhancing these selectively would potentially...... be a more effective way of achieving intelligibility transfer, which is the end goal for speech transducing technologies....

  6. Lexical and sublexical units in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Ibrahima; Rey, Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Saffran, Newport, and Aslin (1996a) found that human infants are sensitive to statistical regularities corresponding to lexical units when hearing an artificial spoken language. Two sorts of segmentation strategies have been proposed to account for this early word-segmentation ability: bracketing strategies, in which infants are assumed to insert boundaries into continuous speech, and clustering strategies, in which infants are assumed to group certain speech sequences together into units (Swingley, 2005). In the present study, we test the predictions of two computational models instantiating each of these strategies i.e., Serial Recurrent Networks: Elman, 1990; and Parser: Perruchet & Vinter, 1998 in an experiment where we compare the lexical and sublexical recognition performance of adults after hearing 2 or 10 min of an artificial spoken language. The results are consistent with Parser's predictions and the clustering approach, showing that performance on words is better than performance on part-words only after 10 min. This result suggests that word segmentation abilities are not merely due to stronger associations between sublexical units but to the emergence of stronger lexical representations during the development of speech perception processes. Copyright © 2009, Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Dynamic Action Units Slip in Speech Production Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Louis; Pouplier, Marianne; Chen, Larissa; Saltzman, Elliot; Byrd, Dani

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the nature of the compositional units proposed for spoken language has largely diverged from the types of control units pursued in the domains of other skilled motor tasks. A classic source of evidence as to the units structuring speech has been patterns observed in speech errors--"slips of the tongue". The present study reports, for…

  8. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  9. Trainable unit selection speech synthesis under statistical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG RenHua; DAI LiRong; LING ZhenHua; HU Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a trainable unit selection speech synthesis method based on statistical modeling framework. At training stage, acoustic features are extracted from the training database and statistical models are estimated for each feature. During synthesis, the optimal candidate unit sequence is searched out from the database following the maximum likelihood criterion derived from the trained models. Finally, the waveforms of the optimal candidate units are concatenated to produce synthetic speech. Experiment results show that this method can improve the automation of system construction and naturalness of synthetic speech effectively compared with the conventional unit selection synthe-sis method. Furthermore, this paper presents a minimum unit selection error model training criterion according to the characteristics of unit selection speech synthesis and adopts discriminative training for model parameter estimation. This criterion can finally achieve the full automation of system con-struction and improve the naturalness of synthetic speech further.

  10. Symbolic Communication as Speech in United States Supreme Court Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Machaj

    2011-01-01

    The First Amendment to the United States Constitution forbids government to pass any law which abridges freedom of speech. Notwithstanding the absolute tenor of the clause, this guarantee is clearly not limitless; its boundaries are established mainly in the course of Constitutional adjudication. The United States Supreme Court has extended free speech guarantees to so-called symbolic speech, i.e. to nonverbal expression of ideas, views or emotions. The article analyzes basic criteria and lim...

  11. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be…

  12. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal…

  13. The Role of Supralexical Prosodic Units in Speech Production: Evidence from the Distribution of Speech Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Wook Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The current dissertation represents one of the first systematic studies of the distribution of speech errors within supralexical prosodic units. Four experiments were conducted to gain insight into the specific role of these units in speech planning and production. The first experiment focused on errors in adult English. These were found to be…

  14. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  15. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  16. Symbolic Communication as Speech in United States Supreme Court Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Machaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The First Amendment to the United States Constitution forbids government to pass any law which abridges freedom of speech. Notwithstanding the absolute tenor of the clause, this guarantee is clearly not limitless; its boundaries are established mainly in the course of Constitutional adjudication. The United States Supreme Court has extended free speech guarantees to so-called symbolic speech, i.e. to nonverbal expression of ideas, views or emotions. The article analyzes basic criteria and limits of First Amendment protection with respect to such instances of (alleged symbolic communication as flying a red flag, refusing to salute the U.S. flag, wearing a black armband, silently protesting segregation rules, burning a crucifix, burning a draft card, sleeping in a park and nude dancing. In some cases the level of protection given to symbolic speech is deemed analogous to that accorded to written or oral expression; in other cases the Supreme Court applies the so-called O’Brien standard, which is an instrument designed specifically for judging laws relevant to this mode of communication.

  17. Analysis of United Nations Millennium Summit Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Are we to believe that all humanity is one? Inaction speaks louder than words. Kiribati, a small island State made up of narrow strips of coral ...146 San Marino Her Excellency Maria Domenica Michelotti, His Excellency Gian Marco Marcucci, The Most Excellent Captains Regent of the Republic of...San Marino 147 Sao Tome and Principe H.E. Miguel Dos Anjos Da Cunha Lisboa Trovoa-Da, President of the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

  18. 78 FR 64385 - United Nations Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... October 28, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9045--United Nations Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9045 of October 23, 2013 United Nations Day..., 68 years after the adoption of the United Nations Charter, we mark United Nations Day by...

  19. ARTICLE 106 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodore M Cooperstein

    2007-01-01

    Toward that end, Articles 42 and 43 of the United Nations Charter posit that member nations would train and dedicate armed forces to be placed at the disposal of the United Nations security Council...

  20. 76 FR 66845 - United Nations Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... October 27, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8740--United Nations Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Nations Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1945, 51 nations in a world shaken by war signed the Charter of the United Nations. Determined to move beyond an era...

  1. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  2. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  3. 77 FR 65459 - United Nations Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8893 of October 24, 2012 United Nations Day, 2012 By the President of the... shadows of war, the 51 founding member states of the United Nations came together to take up the new test of forging a lasting peace. In a decade scarred by genocide, the United Nations chose the hope...

  4. 75 FR 65561 - United Nations Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8589 of October 22, 2010 United Nations Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Sixty-five years ago, 51 nations... peace, justice, and progress. The founders of the United Nations vowed to work together to ensure...

  5. Speech Language Assessments in Te Reo in a Primary School Maori Immersion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kershni

    2012-01-01

    This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…

  6. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in...

  7. Multiword Lexical Units and Their Relationship to Impromptu Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2007-01-01

    Public speaking can be very threatening to any native speakers of English, not to mention non-native EFL learners. Impromptu speech, perhaps the most challenging form of public speaking, is however being promoted in every city of the EFL countries. The case in Taiwan is no exceptional. Every year, dozens of impromptu speech contexts are held…

  8. Implementation of Phonetic Context Variable Length Unit Selection Module for Malay Text to Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Swee Tan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main problem with current Malay Text-To-Speech (MTTS synthesis system is the poor quality of the generated speech sound due to the inability of traditional TTS system to provide multiple choices of unit for generating more accurate synthesized speech. Approach: This study proposes a phonetic context variable length unit selection MTTS system that is capable of providing more natural and accurate unit selection for synthesized speech. It implemented a phonetic context algorithm for unit selection for MTTS. The unit selection method (without phonetic context may encounter the problem of selecting the speech unit from different sources and affect the quality of concatenation. This study proposes the design of speech corpus and unit selection method according to phonetic context so that it can select a string of continuous phoneme from same source instead of individual phoneme from different sources. This can further reduce the concatenation point and increase the quality of concatenation. The speech corpus was transcribed according to phonetic context to preserve the phonetic information. This method utilizes word base concatenation method. Firstly it will search through the speech corpus for the target word, if the target is found; it will be used for concatenation. If the word does not exist, then it will construct the words from phoneme sequence. Results: This system had been tested with 40 participants in Mean Opinion Score (MOS listening test with the average rates for naturalness, pronunciation and intelligibility are 3.9, 4.1 and 3.9. Conclusion/Recommendation: Through this study, a very first version of Corpus-based MTTS has been designed; it has improved the naturalness, pronunciation and intelligibility of synthetic speech. But it still has some lacking that need to be perfected such as the prosody module to support the phrasing analysis and intonation of input text to match with the waveform modifier.

  9. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2009: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a wide, detailed survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech, freedom of…

  10. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2010: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and resulting report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…

  11. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2011: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Each year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducts a rigorous survey of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities. The survey and accompanying report explore the extent to which schools are meeting their legal and moral obligations to uphold students' and faculty members' rights to freedom of speech,…

  12. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  13. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Tilsen; Pascal Spincemaille; Bo Xu; Peter Doerschuk; Wen-Ming Luh; Elana Feldman; Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or ...

  14. China National United Oil Corporation in Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Dongmei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Approved by the State Council and jointly established by China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and China National Chemicals Import and Export Corp.(Sinochem), China National United Oil Corporation (Chinaoil) is an enterprise integrating trade and industrial production. It established itself on January 8,1993.

  15. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with

  16. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with cit

  17. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekipelova Irina Mikhaylovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.

  18. United Nations and Other International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaard, Chere; Van Fossen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 124 items published by the United Nations and 12 other international organizations in 1992-93. Themes addressed include agriculture, development, poverty eradication, trade, privatization, peace, conflict resolution, women's equality, and health issues. (LRW)

  19. US Forest Service National Grassland Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Grassland units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture and permanently held by the Department of Agriculture under...

  20. The United Nations Peacekeeping Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu P Spirin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of strengthening structures, potential and resources of the United Nations Secretariat forces, realizing peacekeeping activities of the Organization. The special attention is given to the «Brakhimi Group» as well as to the activities of the United Nations Security Council in the context of the search for effective peacekeeping activity of the Organization.

  1. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted an expansive study of just how pervasive and how onerous restrictions on speech are at America's colleges and universities. Between September 2005 and September 2006, FIRE surveyed over 330 schools and found that an overwhelming majority of them explicitly prohibit…

  2. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  3. International boundary experiences by the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the United Nations (UN) has been approached by Security Council and Member States on international boundary issues. The United Nations regards the adequate delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries as a very important element for the maintenance of peace and security in fragile post-conflict situations, establishment of friendly relationships and cross-border cooperation between States. This paper will present the main principles and framework the United Nations applies to support the process of international boundary delimitation and demarcation activities. The United Nations is involved in international boundary issues following the principle of impartiality and neutrality and its role as mediator. Since international boundary issues are multi-faceted, a range of expertise is required and the United Nations Secretariat is in a good position to provide diverse expertise within the multiple departments. Expertise in different departments ranging from legal, political, technical, administrative and logistical are mobilised in different ways to provide support to Member States depending on their specific needs. This presentation aims to highlight some of the international boundary projects that the United Nations Cartographic Section has been involved in order to provide the technical support to different boundary requirements as each international boundary issue requires specific focus and attention whether it be in preparation, delimitation, demarcation or management. Increasingly, the United Nations is leveraging geospatial technology to facilitate boundary delimitation and demarcation process between Member States. Through the presentation of the various case studies ranging from Iraq - Kuwait, Israel - Lebanon (Blue Line), Eritrea - Ethiopia, Cyprus (Green Line), Cameroon - Nigeria, Sudan - South Sudan, it will illustrate how geospatial technology is increasingly used to carry out the support. In having applied a range

  4. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Tilsen

    Full Text Available Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response. In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  5. Anticipatory Posturing of the Vocal Tract Reveals Dissociation of Speech Movement Plans from Linguistic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsen, Sam; Spincemaille, Pascal; Xu, Bo; Doerschuk, Peter; Luh, Wen-Ming; Feldman, Elana; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Models of speech production typically assume that control over the timing of speech movements is governed by the selection of higher-level linguistic units, such as segments or syllables. This study used real-time magnetic resonance imaging of the vocal tract to investigate the anticipatory movements speakers make prior to producing a vocal response. Two factors were varied: preparation (whether or not speakers had foreknowledge of the target response) and pre-response constraint (whether or not speakers were required to maintain a specific vocal tract posture prior to the response). In prepared responses, many speakers were observed to produce pre-response anticipatory movements with a variety of articulators, showing that that speech movements can be readily dissociated from higher-level linguistic units. Substantial variation was observed across speakers with regard to the articulators used for anticipatory posturing and the contexts in which anticipatory movements occurred. The findings of this study have important consequences for models of speech production and for our understanding of the normal range of variation in anticipatory speech behaviors.

  6. United Nations Illiteracy in America: Thoughts on Integrating the United Nations into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, John

    2003-01-01

    To provide an international perspective, and to get American students focused on the United Nations (UN) as a legitimate scientific institution, the United Nations and its role in addressing global environmental concerns should be taught in the American science classroom. The target audience for this paper is high school teachers. The United…

  7. The theta-syllable: a unit of speech information defined by cortical function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eGhitza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent commentary (Oscillators and syllables: a cautionary note. Cummins, 2012 questions the validity of a class of speech perception models inspired by the possible role of neuronal oscillations in decoding speech (e.g., Ghitza 2011, Giraud & Poeppel 2012. In arguing against the approach, Cummins raises a cautionary flag from a phonetician’s point of view. Here we respond to his arguments from an auditory processing viewpoint, referring to a phenomenological model of Ghitza (2011 taken as a representative of the criticized approach. We shall conclude by proposing the theta-syllable as an information unit defined by cortical function – an alternative to the conventional, ambiguously defined syllable. In the large context, the resulting discussion debate should be viewed as a subtext of acoustic and auditory phonetics vs. articulatory and motor theories of speech reception.

  8. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  9. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  10. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  11. The Role of Music in Speech Intelligibility of Learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment in Selected Units in Lusaka District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katongo, Emily Mwamba; Ndhlovu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to establish the role of music in speech intelligibility of learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment (PLHI) and strategies teachers used to enhance speech intelligibility in learners with PLHI in selected special units for the deaf in Lusaka district. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative and quantitative…

  12. In Praise of Irrationality: Self, "East" and "West" in Greek Teachers' Speeches on National Day Commemorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative study of school discourse on national day commemorations, focus is on the "social creativity strategies" through which group members can improve their social identity. Discourse analysis was carried out on thirty-nine teachers' speeches delivered in Greek schools between 1998 and 2004. The speakers scorn rationality…

  13. Automatic transcription of continuous speech into syllable-like units for Indian languages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Lakshmi Sarada; A Lakshmi; Hema A Murthy; T Nagarajan

    2009-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to automatically segment and label continuous speech signal into syllable-like units for Indian languages. In this approach, the continuous speech signal is first automatically segmented into syllable-like units using group delay based algorithm. Similar syllable segments are then grouped together using an unsupervised and incremental training (UIT) technique. Isolated style HMM models are generated for each of the clusters during training. During testing, the speech signal is segmented into syllable-like units which are then tested against the HMMs obtained during training. This results in a syllable recognition performance of 42·6% and 39·94% for Tamil and Telugu. A new feature extraction technique that uses features extracted from multiple frame sizes and frame rates during both training and testing is explored for the syllable recognition task. This results in a recognition performance of 48·7% and 45·36%, for Tamil and Telugu respectively. The performance of segmentation followed by labelling is superior to that of a flat start syllable recogniser (27·8% and 28·8% for Tamil and Telugu respectively).

  14. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  15. Bayesian Population Projections for the United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E; Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations regularly publishes projections of the populations of all the world's countries broken down by age and sex. These projections are the de facto standard and are widely used by international organizations, governments and researchers. Like almost all other population projections, they are produced using the standard deterministic cohort-component projection method and do not yield statements of uncertainty. We describe a Bayesian method for producing probabilistic population projections for most countries that the United Nations could use. It has at its core Bayesian hierarchical models for the total fertility rate and life expectancy at birth. We illustrate the method and show how it can be extended to address concerns about the UN's current assumptions about the long-term distribution of fertility. The method is implemented in the R packages bayesTFR, bayesLife, bayesPop and bayesDem.

  16. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness  and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-50

  17. Why Do Speech and Language Therapists Stay in, Leave and (Sometimes) Return to the National Health Service (NHS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan-Clarke, John; Arnold, John; Coombs, Crispin; Bosley, Sara; Martin, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research into recruitment, retention and return of speech and language therapists in the National Health Service (NHS) is relatively limited, particularly in respect of understanding the factors that drive employment choice decisions. Aims: To identify what factors influence speech and language therapists working in the NHS to stay,…

  18. Speech teams of wrestling at the European Nations Cup 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Panov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the performance of national teams of wrestling at the European Nations Cup in 2015. Material and Methods: the analysis of 208 wrestlers highly. Results: determined that, among other factors, the advantage of the strongest wrestlers is successful and stable use of technical and tactical actions during the fight and the ability to impose his opponent style of fighting. Conclusions: it was found that in the competitive technology dominated the offensive, the fight is ongoing at a fast pace, techniques are performed after prior training and if the athlete is confident that the reception will be executed

  19. The Origin of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  20. Language Planning in a Trans-National Speech Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, Geneva

    Language revitalization efforts in Garifuna communities are complicated by their dispersion in Central America, St. Vincent, and the United States. Garifuna language and culture originated on the Caribbean island of St. Vincent, with the mixing of African and Arawakan languages. After the British conquered the island, they relocated thousands of…

  1. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  2. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner; Miyoshi, Takanori

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) in 2010 within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, based on relevant recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III). The activities of HSTI are characterized by the following "Three Pillars": International Cooperation, Outreach, and Capacity-building. For International Cooperation, OOSA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) jointly launched a new programme entitled "KiboCUBE". KiboCUBE aims to provide educational or research institutions located in developing countries with opportunities to deploy cube satellites of their own design and manufacture from Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The Announcement of Opportunity was released on 8 September 2015 and the selected institution is to be announced by 1 August 2016. OOSA is also collaborating with WHO and with the COPUOS Expert Group on Space and Global Health to promote space technologies and ground- and space-based research activities that can contribute to improving global health. For Outreach, OOSA and the government of Costa Rica are jointly organising the United Nations/Costa Rica Workshop on Human Space Technology from 7 to 11 March 2016. Participants will exchange information on achievements in human space programmes and discuss how to promote international cooperation by further facilitating the participation of developing countries in human space exploration-related activities. Also, it will address the role of space industries in human space exploration and its related activities, considering that they have become significant stakeholders in this field. For Capacity-building, OOSA has been carrying out two activities: the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project (ZGIP) and the Drop Tower Experiment Series (DropTES). In ZGIP, OOSA has annually distributed

  3. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  4. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  5. Model United Nations comes to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January pupils from international schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey came to CERN for three days of "UN-type" conferences.   The MUN organisers, who are all pupils at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire, worked tirelessly for weeks to make the event a real success. The members of the MUN/MFNU association at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire spent several months preparing for their first "Model United Nations" (MUN),  a simulation of a UN session at which young "diplomats" take on the role of delegates representing different nations to discuss a given topic. And as their chosen topic was science, it was only natural that they should hold the event at CERN. For three days, from 20 to 22 January, no fewer than 340 pupils from 12 international schools* in Switzerland, France and Turkey came together to deliberate, consult and debate on the importance of scientific progress fo...

  6. Segmenting into Adequate Units for Automatic Recognition of Emotion-Related Episodes: A Speech-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Batliner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the topic of segmenting emotion-related (emotional/affective episodes into adequate units for analysis and automatic processing/classification—a topic that has not been addressed adequately so far. We concentrate on speech and illustrate promising approaches by using a database with children's emotional speech. We argue in favour of the word as basic unit and map sequences of words on both syntactic and ‘‘emotionally consistent” chunks and report classification performances for an exhaustive modelling of our data by mapping word-based paralinguistic emotion labels onto three classes representing valence (positive, neutral, negative, and onto a fourth rest (garbage class.

  7. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  8. Cross Burning as Hate Speech Under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson R. Huhn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross burning is a particularly vicious form of “hate speech.”  Some American states and cities have enacted laws prohibiting cross burning, and in two cases (R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul (1992 and Virginia v. Black (2003 the United States Supreme Court has issued decisions regarding the constitutionality of those laws..  These cases establish the principle that under the First Amendment hate speech is not punishable as a crime unless the speaker intended to threaten another person or the speaker intended to incite an imminent act of violence.  Furthermore, the cases reinforce the principle that under the First Amendment a person may be convicted of a expressive crime only if the law under which the defendant was charged is narrowly drawn to prohibit only “unprotected” speech. 

  9. Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918

    OpenAIRE

    Radić, Stjepan

    2013-01-01

    Title: Govor na noćnoj sjednici Narodnog vijeća dana 24. studenoga 1918 (Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918). Originally published: Dom, on 25 and 31 March, 1920 Language: CroatianThe excerpts used are from Stjepan Radić, Politički spisi; autobiografije, članci, govori, rasprave, ed. by Zvonimir Kolundžić, (Zagreb: Znanje, 1971), pp. 323–327, 332–335. About the author Stjepan Radić [1871, Trebarjevo Desno (central Croatia) – 1928, Zagreb]: politician and...

  10. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  11. 78 FR 66813 - Visas: Regulatory Exception to Permit Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Agreement between the United States and the United Nations Regarding the Headquarters of the United...

  12. Evolution Dilemma of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt M. Yenigun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN, despite some successful stories, has largely failed to safeguard international peace and security, particularly in the Middle East since its establishment. The UN’s inability to effectively resolve international conflicts is due to the Security Council (UNSC’s decision making-process. The power to block any initiatives that do not fit the interest of any of the five permanent members (P5: US, UK, France, Russia, China have impeded the UN’s ability to take effectively take actions where it is needed in safeguarding security in the Middle East. The nature of the veto power no longer reflects the reality of the 21st century; the UN is frozen in the context of the post-Second World War era and has failed to evolve with the international community.  Double standards in the International Court of Justice's decrees and infirmity of purpose of the UNSC overshadow the legitimacy of the organization, jeopardizing its security mission, and clashes with the democratic values in world public opinion. The UN should change to earn legitimacy and efficiency of preserving international peace and security by amending decision making system in the UNSC or changing decision-making organ within the UN. The Secretary General’s diplomatic activism and attempts to fill the gap left by the P5 infightings could not succeed because of the resistance of the UNSC’s permanent members to change and lack of integrity among the other states. To ensure democratic transformation of the UN today, all states, NGOs and think tanks should work together. This study discusses the system's current shortcomings and suggests some alternative paths for the effective transformation of the UN as a supranational security institution.

  13. INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNITED NATIONS: A PARTNERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sall, English; Clayton, Ann-marie; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    Since the United Nations began in 1945, it has reached out to experts in many fields, and in many parts of the world, to cooperate in its global work. Our field of organizational psychology has an important role to play at the United Nations, but this has begun only recently, in the past few years. This report offers a concise picture of I-O psychology at the United Nations today, and ways that I-O psychologists in the USA and other nations may learn more details on this

  14. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…

  15. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  16. National Curriculum for Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghwan; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk," some scholars have argued that a national curriculum and national testing are necessary to hold school personnel accountable for student achievement and, ultimately, to raise educational standards. The idea of developing a nationwide curriculum has been widely debated in the United States,…

  17. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  18. Prevalence and Parental Risk Factors for Speech Disability Associated with Cleft Palate in Chinese Children-A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chunfeng; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-11-23

    Although the prevalence of oral clefts in China is among the highest worldwide, little is known about the prevalence of speech disability associated with cleft palate in Chinese children. The data for this study were collected from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and identification of speech disability associated with cleft palate was based on consensus manuals. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A weighted number of 112,070 disabled children affected by cleft palate were identified, yielding a prevalence of 3.45 per 10,000 children (95% CI: 3.19-3.71). A history of speech disability in the mother (OR = 20.266, 95% CI 5.788-70.959, p speech disability associated with cleft palate in the offspring. Our results showed that maternal speech disability, older paternal child-bearing age, and lower levels of parental education were independent risk factors for speech disability associated with cleft palate for children in China. These findings may have important implications for health disparities and prevention.

  19. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American...

  20. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American life....

  1. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  2. Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.

    1997-11-20

    The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

  3. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  4. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to .... During the leadership of Dag Hammarskjöld as UN Secretary-General, the ... and encourage the role of women in preventive diplomacy.

  5. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  6. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, W R

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, promotes the benefits of space-based solutions for sustainable economic and social development. The Programme assists Member States of the United Nations to establish indigenous capacities for the use of space technology and its applications. In the past the Programme has primarily been focusing on the use of space applications and on basic space science activities. However, in recent years there has been a strong interest in a growing number of space-using countries to build space technology capacities, for example, the ability to develop and operate small satellites. In reaction to this development, the United Nations in cooperation with the International Academy of Astronautics has been organizing annual workshops on small satellites in the service of developing countries. Space technology related issues have also been addressed as part of various other activities of the Programme on Space ...

  7. The United Nations University and Sustainable Mountain Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itaru Yasui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The United Nations University (UNU) is an international community of scholars engaged in research, postgraduate training and knowledge dissemination on the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are concerns of the United Nations, its peoples and member states. UNU works through a global network of its own research and training centers and programmes, and of associated and collaborating institutions and scholars.

  8. A qualitative analysis of hate speech reported to the Romanian National Council for Combating Discrimination (2003‑2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Iordache

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the specificities of Romanian hate speech over a period of twelve years through a qualitative analysis of 384 Decisions of the National Council for Combating Discrimination. The study employs a coding methodology which allows one to separate decisions according to the group that was the victim of hate speech. The article finds that stereotypes employed are similar to those encountered in the international literature. The main target of hate speech is the Roma, who are seen as „dirty“, „uncivilized“ and a threat to Romania’s image abroad. Other stereotypes encountered were that of the „disloyal“ Hungarian and of the sexually promiscuous woman. Moreover, women are seen as unfit for management positions. The article also discusses stereotypes about homosexuals, who are seen as „sick“ and about non-orthodox religions, portrayed as „sectarian“.

  9. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  10. Speech 7 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7 through 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Speech. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Following the foreward, philosophy and objectives, this guide presents a speech curriculum. The curriculum covers junior high and Speech I, II, III (senior high). Thirteen units of study are presented for junior high, each unit is divided into…

  11. 75 FR 52069 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    .... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous... Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous Goods... the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, and the United Nations Recommendations on the...

  12. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  13. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  14. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  15. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  16. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  17. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  18. Review of Labour Statistics for the United Nations Statistical Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Barham

    2008-01-01

    Describes the Review, whose recommendations will be taken forward by UN Statistical Division and the International Labour OrganisationEarly in 2007, the Office for National Statistics was asked by United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) to carry out a Review of Labour Statistics on behalf of the UK. The Review was carried out during 2007 and was presented at the annual UN Statistics Commission session in February 2008 in New York. The Review was very well received and recommendations in the...

  19. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002...

  20. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003...

  1. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004...

  2. Comparing government agendas: executive speeches in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortensen, P.B.; Green-Pedersen, C.; Breeman, G.E.; Chaqués Bonafont, L.; Jennings, W.; John, P.; Palau, A.; Timmermans, A.

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of each parliamentary session, almost all European governments give a speech in which they present the government’s policy priorities and legislative agenda for the year ahead. Despite the body of literature on governments in European parliamentary democracies, systematic research o

  3. Comparing government agendas: executive speeches in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortensen, P.B.; Green-Pedersen, C.; Breeman, G.E.; Chaqués Bonafont, L.; Jennings, W.; John, P.; Palau Roque, A.; Timmermans, A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each Parliamentary session, almost all European governments give a speech in which they present the government’s policy goals and legislative agenda for the year to come. Despite the enormous body of literature on governments in European parliamentary democracies, systematic work

  4. Therapy Progress Indicator (TPI): Combining speech parameters and the subjective unit of distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; van der Sluis, Frans; Dijkstra, Ton; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, M.

    2009-01-01

    A posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe handicap in daily life and its treatment is complex. To evaluate the success of treatments, an objective and unobtrusive expert system was envisioned: an therapy progress indicator (TPI). Speech was considered as an excellent candidate for providing

  5. 50 CFR 600.320 - National Standard 3-Management Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Wherever practicable, an FMP should seek to manage interrelated stocks of fish. (c) Unity of management... management exits or is planned for a separate geographic area or for a distinct use of the stocks, or if the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 3-Management Units....

  6. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their p

  7. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  8. The United Nations at 70: The Journey so Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftau, Rufai

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the United Nations in maintaining peace and harmonious relationship amongst its members is not in doubt, this being the primary functions as contained in its Charter of 1945. Since that time till date, it has recorded some tremendous achievements in this direction, though not without some challenges. These challenges among others…

  9. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  10. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...

  11. Understanding United Nations targeted sanctions: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    United Nations sanctions have undergone profound transformations in the past two decades. In 1990, the UN Security Council imposed a general, comprehensive embargo on Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait. In 2015, there are 16 Sanctions Committees managing regimes that have little in common with the on

  12. Trinta anos da United Nations International Force in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUFYAN DROUBI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco o “United Nations International Force in Lebanon”, uma das mais tradicionais missões de paz da ONU. Analisar-se-á seus objetivos, eficácia e desenvolvimento histórico.

  13. Malaysia’s Participation in a United Nations Standing Force: A Question of National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    future challenges so that Malaysia will continue to exist and sustain itself as a developed nation. As a multiracial nation, the Malaysian government...Amali bin Ahmad, Malaysian Army, 76 pages This thesis investigates whether Malaysia , as a small state, should participate in a United Nations (UN...many parties. In analyzing whether Malaysia should participate in a UN standing force, this paper explores the concept of comprehensive security to

  14. 76 FR 82163 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous... United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations (UN Model... and from the United States. In this document, PHMSA responds to administrative appeals,...

  15. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  16. CERN’s new seat at the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    At the end of December, the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York granted CERN Observer status. As the only science organisation to acquire this prestigious status in the Assembly, CERN hopes to be able to raise awareness about the importance of fundamental science for society more effectively.   “Both CERN and the United Nations are committed to promoting science as a driving element for society. Both organisations promote dialogue between different cultures and can propose concrete models for peaceful cooperation towards objectives that benefit society as a whole,” says Maurizio Bona, CERN's officer in charge of relations with international organisations. Although the basic motivations are clear, obtaining the prestigious status from the UN was a long process that required negotiations and diplomatic work. Following some preliminary contacts with Switzerland starting in spring 2012, the resolution to grant observer status to CERN was jointly submitted...

  17. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  18. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  19. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is not only a rationalization, it primarily needs a vision that gives it purpose and meaning. This article proposes that its primary goals should be anticipation and prevention – it should be the advanced guard and the conscience of the world. In this context, the United Nations is an indispensable and priceless instrument in international relations.

  20. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  1. Environmental Securitization within the United Nations: A Political Ecology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    If empirical evidences show that environmental security is on the United Nations agenda, very few studies try to understand the agenda-setting process of this issue. My thesis research intends to fill this gap by analyzing the process of environmental securitization within the organization. Securitization theories and critical security studies propose a first useful set of theoretical tools. Nonetheless, this communication argues that they are not the only ones, and that Political Ecology cou...

  2. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  3. United nations Supported principles for Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godemann, Jasmin; Moon, Jeremy; Haertle, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    and various ecological system crises. The United Nations supported Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative is an important catalyst for the transformation of management education and a global initiative to change and reform management education in order to meet the increasing......The expectation that management education institutions should be leading thought and action on issues related to corporate responsibility and sustainability has been reinforced in the light of their association with business leaders' failings, including corporate corruption, the financial crisis...

  4. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  5. Suicides in national parks--United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    In 2007, the year for which the most recent national data on fatalities are available, 34,598 suicides occurred in the United States (rate: 11.3 per 100,000 population); 79% were among males. In 2009, an estimated 374,486 visits to hospital emergency departments occurred for self-inflicted injury, of which approximately 262,000 (70%) could be attributed to suicidal behavior. The majority (58%) were among females. Most suicides (77%) occur in the home, but many occur in public places, including national parks. In addition to the loss of life, suicides consume park resources and staff time and can traumatize witnesses. To describe the characteristics of and trends in suicides in national parks, CDC and the National Park Service (NPS) analyzed reports of suicide events (suicides and attempted suicides) occurring in the parks during 2003-2009. During this 7-year span, 84 national parks reported 286 suicide events, an average of 41 events per year. Of the 286 events, 68% were fatal. The two most commonly used methods were firearms and falls. Consistent with national patterns, 83% of suicides were among males. A comprehensive, multicomponent approach is recommended to prevent suicide events, including enhanced training for park employees, site-specific barriers, and collaboration with communities.

  6. Evidence-Based Speech-Language Pathology Practices in Schools: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Method: Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP…

  7. A survey of head and neck cancer curriculum in United States speech language pathology masters programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Fallis, Michelle; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed speech language pathology (SLP) programs for head and neck cancer (HNC) training. Program directors of 242 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association accredited masters programs for SLP were contacted regarding curricular HNC material. Directors (n = 120) responded online: six included a required course in HNC, and all but two programs with no required HNC course included HNC topics in other required courses. Thirty-two programs were affiliated with a medical center and/or a teaching hospital. Programs that offered either a required course in HNC or elective courses on HNC were more likely to be affiliated with a medical center and/or a teaching hospital than programs that did not offer a required course in HNC (P = 0.043) or elective courses on HNC (P = 0.007), respectively. Few programs offer a required HNC course but most programs integrate HNC content into the required coursework. Potential strategies to incorporate HNC exposure into formal SLP programs are identified.

  8. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  9. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  10. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children With Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence From Three Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2017-10-05

    To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National Survey of Children's Health, the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 iterations of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, and the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.8% to 5.0%, with data from two of the three surveys preliminarily indicating increased prevalence in recent years. The largest health care challenge was in accessing care coordination, with 49%-56% of children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties lacking full access. Children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties were more likely than peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties to live in households experiencing each measured material hardship and participating in each measured public benefit program (e.g., 20%-22% experiencing food insecurity, compared to 11%-14% of their peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties). We found mixed preliminary evidence to suggest that the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties among children may be rising. These children face heightened levels of material hardship and barriers in accessing health care.

  11. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Society of America Huntington's Disease Youth Organization Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech and Language Child Speech and Language Swallowing ...

  12. The United Nations: the embarrassment of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Denis J

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations should be working towards an international community living in peace under the aegis of international law. Although progress was made in its early years, notably in decolonization, with its membership increased from 50 to 189, major inequalities remain between its nations and their peoples. The Security Council, and in particular its five permanent members (P5), has been guilty of double standards in enforcing international law. Investment should create prosperity and not increase demand for arms. Independent oversight of the UN, and particularly the Security Council, by civil society is needed. If the legitimacy of the UN is to be restored, the Security Council should become more representative, the power of the General Assembly should be restored and the role of the International Court of Justice should be increased. All members of the UN, especially the PS, must respect international law as enshrined in the UN Charter and Conventions.

  13. Availability of Pre-Admission Information to Prospective Graduate Students in Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekieli Koay, Mary Ellen; Lass, Norman J.; Parrill, Madaline; Naeser, Danielle; Babin, Kelly; Bayer, Olivia; Cook, Megan; Elmore, Madeline; Frye, Rachel; Kerwood, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    An extensive Internet search was conducted to obtain pre-admission information and acceptance statistics from 260 graduate programmes in speech-language pathology accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in the United States. ASHA is the national professional, scientific and credentialing association for members and…

  14. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  15. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  16. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  17. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-01-01

    In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is no...

  18. Longitudinal Comparison of the Speech and Language Performance of United States-Born and Internationally Adopted Toddlers With Cleft Lip and Palate: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Baker, Shauna; Kaiser, Ann; Frey, Jennifer R

    2016-10-10

      This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States.   Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age.   This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months.   Children's speech-language skills were analyzed using standardized tests, parent surveys, language samples, and single-word phonological assessments to determine differences between the groups.   The mean scores for the children in the internationally adopted group were lower than the group born in the United States at all three time points for expressive language and speech sound production measures. Examination of matched pairs demonstrated observable differences for two of the four pairs. No differences were observed in cognitive performance and receptive language measures.   The results suggest a cumulative effect of later palate repair and/or a variety of health and environmental factors associated with their early circumstances that persist to age 3 years. Early intervention to address the trajectory of speech and language is warranted. Given the findings from this small pilot study, a larger study of the long-term speech and language development of children who are internationally adopted and have cleft palate with or without cleft lip is recommended.

  19. Data resource profile: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children's rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF's wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF's flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General's Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses.

  20. Data Resource Profile: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children’s rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF’s wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF’s flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General’s Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses. PMID:23211414

  1. The Effect of Kana Literacy Acquisition on the Speech Segmentation Unit Used by Japanese Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo; Otake, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether Japanese children's segmentation units would change as they learned to read "kana" letters, which represent "morae" or Japanese subsyllabic rhythmic units. Results indicated that children's conscious segmentation of words, except for those having a geminate stop consonant, progressed from being a mixture of…

  2. 78 FR 1101 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... 178 RIN 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the... Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations... a Department of Transportation (DOT) or United Nations (UN) standard packaging. Most...

  3. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement United Nations... conforming changes in the EAR related to the termination of the United Nations embargo on ``arms and...

  4. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  5. ROTARY DAY AT THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE IN GENEVA

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    We have been informed about the Rotary day at the United Nations office in Geneva. Join us on November 10th & 11th, 2017 at the United Nations office Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Geneva, Switzerland   PEACE: MAKING A DIFFERENCE! Conflict and violence displace millions of people each year. Half of those killed in conflict are children, and 90 percent are civilians. We, Rotarians, refuse conflict as a way of life. But how can we contribute to Peace? And what about you? Are you keen on meeting exceptional individuals and exchanging ideas to move forward? Would you like to network and collaborate with Rotarians, Government Representatives, International Civil Servants, Representatives of Nongovernmental Organizations and Liberal Professions, Businessmen/women, and Students to make a difference in Peace? In November 2017, come to Geneva, get involved, and formulate recommendations to the international community. Together, we’ll celebrate Rotary&a...

  6. The Emergence of a Phoneme-sized Unit of Speech Planning in Japanese-English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko eNakayama; Sachiko eKinoshita; Rinus G. Verdonschot

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (typically a CV cluster such as ka or ki). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs f...

  7. The Emergence of a Phoneme-sized Unit of Speech Planning in Japanese-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eNakayama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (typically a CV cluster such as ka or ki. The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH. Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Montana Thrust Belt Province (027) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwestern Wyoming Province (037) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wyoming Thrust Belt Province (036) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Western Oregon-Washington Province (004) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Unconventional Assessment Units from 2000 to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cherokee Platform Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province, Mancos Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uteland Butte Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cotton Valley Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act AGENCIES: Federal Aviation Administration, Transportation; National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: List of...

  13. The National Security Strategy Under the United Nations and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    a result of that war." This was addressed in 1951 by Hans Kelsen in a legal analysis of fundamental problems with the UN Charter. He concluded that...www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm>; Internet; accessed 31 January 2004. 36 Charter of the United Nations, Article 107. 37 Kearly, 27–28. 38 Hans Kelsen ...the framers introduced ambiguity reveals exactly what the framers intended. Kearly cites Hans Kelsen’s authoritative research of the charter of the

  14. On identifying basic discourse units in speech: theoretical and empirical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Simon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its crucial role in discourse segmentation and discourse interpretation, there is no consensus in the literature on what a discourse unit is and how it should be identified. Working with spoken data, we claim that the basic discourse unit (BDU is a multi-dimensional unit that should be defined in terms of two linguistic criteria: prosody and syntax. In this paper, we explain which criteria are used to perform the prosodic and syntactic segmentation, and how these levels are mapped onto one another. We discuss three types BDUs (one-to-one, syntax-bound, prosody-bound and open up a number of theoretical issues with respect to their function in discourse interpretation.Définir ce qu’est une unité de base du discours et comment l’identifier joue un rôle crucial pour l’interprétation des discours. Pourtant, l’unité de base du discours ne fait l’objet d’aucun consensus dans les modèles existants. À partir de nos recherches sur le français parlé, nous soutenons que l’unité de base du discours (BDU est multi-dimensionnelle et doit être définie sur la base de critères linguistiques observables relevant de la syntaxe et de la prosodie. Dans cet article, nous expliquons quels critères sont utilisés pour opérer une segmentation syntaxique et une segmentation prosodique de textes oraux, et comment ces niveaux d’annotation sont combinés. Nous présentons et discutons trois types de BDU (congruentes, groupées par la syntaxe, groupées par la prosodie et soulevons un nombre de problèmes théoriques en rapport avec leur fonction dans l’interprétation des discours.

  15. The United Nations Standing Force a Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Council, has done .ch community...But, as much as the United Nations has done, it can do much more." Chaiaiing Times As the Bob Dylan song goes, "The...to our nation’s defense well into the twenty-first century. When Bob Dylan’s song was popular, it was also relevant. At that time, the United States

  16. History and literature, complementary disciplines and instruments of the political speech. The case of the serbian nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fernández Riquelme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The gradual juridical-political and territorial process of disintegration of the former socialist and federal Republic of Yugoslavia, generator of new states of ethnic base, had as protagonist leading to the Serbian nationalism. The historical study of itself, as in this article it set, it can be tacked from a dimension not always notice: the interrelationship between history and literature. But this documentary and hermeneutic complementarity refer to a double dimension: of one side its supposes the role of both disciplines in the legitimization and transmission of the political speech with intedentitary movements of community base before transnational processes of European integration or world globalization; one other side it shows us as the utilization of the same ones of a complementary way, can be an essential instrument for the historical reconstruction, global and particular, of the original roots and the strategic projection of a few persistent movements at the beginnings of the 21st century.

  17. The United Nations and Energy Management. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (15th, Woodstock, Vermont, June 15-20, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The conference described in this report convened to provide a forum for exchanging ideas and opinions on the role of the United Nations in global energy management. The conference was one in a series of international meetings (14 have been held to date) to consider how to increase the effectiveness of the United Nations during the 1980s. The…

  18. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  19. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  20. National attitudes concerning gun carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D; Miller, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine public attitudes in the United States concerning gun carrying. In the past 15 years, many state legislatures have passed laws making it easier for United States citizens to carry concealed firearms, not only on the street but into various locations, including churches and government buildings. National random digit dial telephone surveys conducted in 1996 and 1999 asked questions concerning the public's feelings of safety as more people in their community carry firearms, and whether, in the language of the question, respondents believe "regular" citizens should be allowed to carry guns into public or government buildings. Americans feel less safe rather than more safe as more people in their community begin to carry guns. By margins of at least nine to one, Americans do not believe that "regular" citizens should be allowed to bring their guns into restaurants, college campuses, sports stadiums, bars, hospitals, or government buildings. The public believes that increased gun carrying by others reduces rather than increases their safety. Overwhelmingly, the public believes that in many venues gun carrying should be prohibited.

  1. [Health in the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Gallo, Edmundo; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates health as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, between 2012 and 2014. Health was part of the debate since the Millennium Summit and the MDGs (2000), and it also appears in the documents discussing the Post-2015 Agenda, from the Rio+20 to the Open Working Group (OWG), whose report was submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) 2014-2015, and in the Global Consultation on Health and the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons reports. The Authors concluded that the treatment of health in all these documents is uniform. They point out that the scope of the health-related SDG is very comprehensive, but its targets are conceptually fragmented and reduced. They advocate their change as to include not only the idea of social determinants of health, but also targets in the field of public health, which were not included in the proposal of the OWG. They also warn that the global and national governance systems need to be reformed and advocate more participation of the civil society, which can influence diplomacy, which, in turn, will be responsible for the agreement signed at the UNGA in 2015.

  2. Supreme Court Update: The Free Speech Rights of Students in the United States Post "Morse v. Frederick"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Enshrined in the First Amendment as part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the then 4 year old US Constitution in 1791, it should be no surprise that freedom of speech may be perhaps the most cherished right of Americans. If anything, freedom of speech, which is properly treated as a fundamental human right for children, certainly stands out…

  3. Supreme Court Update: The Free Speech Rights of Students in the United States Post "Morse v. Frederick"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Enshrined in the First Amendment as part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the then 4 year old US Constitution in 1791, it should be no surprise that freedom of speech may be perhaps the most cherished right of Americans. If anything, freedom of speech, which is properly treated as a fundamental human right for children, certainly stands out…

  4. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United Nations and the Organization of American States. 148.88 Section 148.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and their personal... United Nations member nation as the principal resident representative to the United Nations of...

  5. New Nordic Exceptionalism: Jeuno JE Kim and Ewa Einhorn's The United Nations of Norden and other realist utopias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Danbolt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden”: A Nordic union that would gather the nations and restore Norden's role as the “moral superpower of the world.” Sigurdardottir's presentation generated such a heated debate that the organizers had to intervene and reveal that the speech was a performance made by the artists Jeuno JE Kim and Ewa Einhorn. This article takes Kim and Einhorn's intervention as a starting point for a critical discussion of the history and politics of Nordic image-building. The article suggests that the reason Kim and Einhorn's speech passed as a serious proposal was due to its meticulous mimicking of two discursive formations that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn's United Nations of Norden (UNN-performance, the article examines the historical development and ideological underpinnings of the image of Nordic unity at play in the discourses of Nordic exceptionalism and the New Nordic. By focusing on how the UNN-project puts pressure on the role of utopian imaginaries in the construction of Nordic self-images, the article describes the emergence of a discursive framework of New Nordic Exceptionalism.

  6. A eletromiografia de superfície nos periódicos nacionais em fonoaudiologia Surface electromyography in national journals in speech, language and hearing sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Araújo Pernambuco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: eletromiografia de superfície nos periódicos nacionais em Fonoaudiologia. OBJETIVO: caracterizar a abordagem da eletromiografia de superfície nos periódicos nacionais em Fonoaudiologia. CONCLUSÃO: poucos estudos abordam a eletromiografia de superfície nos periódicos nacionais em Fonoaudiologia, com maior concentração nas áreas de motricidade orofacial e fluência revelando uma maior necessidade de aprofundar esse assunto e diversificar os temas de interesse fonoaudiológico.THEME: surface electromyography in national journals in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences. PURPOSE: to characterize the approach of surface electromyography in national journals in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences. CONCLUSIONS: there are few studies about the surface electromyography in national journals in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, but most pertain to the Orofacial Motricity and Fluency areas. There seems to be a need to develop this subject and to diversify the topics referring to Speech-Language Pathology interest.

  7. United States v. Caronia: The increasing strength of commercial free speech and potential new emphasis on classifying off-label promotion as "false and misleading".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheineson, Marc J; Cuevas, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    The authority of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prohibit off-label promotion of drug products suffered another serious setback in United States v. Caronia. Viewing a legal system where physicians can prescribe prescription pharmaceuticals for unapproved uses legally in their practice of medicine, the Federal appeals court affirmed the commercial free speech rights of manufacturers to use truthful, non-misleading speech about lawfully marketed products. As a result of this case, and others upon which the decision is based, FDA is likely to challenge manufacturer promotion more carefully, and only if it can demonstrate that claims are not truthful, but are false or misleading, or otherwise deprive the prescriber of adequate directions for use.

  8. 77 FR 31274 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport... Goods Regulations (TDG Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of... hazardous materials internationally, to, from, and within the United States. In this notice of...

  9. Broadening the units of analysis in communication: speech and nonverbal behaviours in pragmatic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S D

    2001-06-01

    Recently, much research has explored the role that nonverbal pointing behaviours play in children's early acquisition of language, for example during word learning. However, few researchers have considered the possibility that these behaviours may continue to play a role in language comprehension as children develop more sophisticated language skills. The present study investigates the role that eye gaze and pointing gestures play in three- to five-year-olds understanding of complex pragmatic communication. Experiment 1 demonstrates that children (N = 29) better understand videotapes of a mother making indirect requests to a child when the requests are accompanied by nonverbal pointing behaviours. Experiment 2 uses a different methodology in which children (N = 27) are actual participants rather than observers in order to generalize the findings to naturalistic, face-to-face interactions. The results from both experiments suggest that broader units of analysis beyond the verbal message may be needed in studying children's continuing understanding of pragmatic processes.

  10. The management of vocal fold nodules in children: a national survey of speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Monique E; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the management options and voice therapy techniques currently being used by practicing speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to treat vocal fold nodules (VFNs) in children. The sources used by SLPs to inform and guide their clinical decisions when managing VFNs in children were also explored. Sixty-two SLPs completed a 23-item web-based survey. Data was analysed using frequency counts, content analyses, and supplementary analyses. SLPs reported using a range of management options and voice therapy techniques to treat VFNs in children. Voice therapy was reportedly the most frequently used management option across all respondents, with the majority of SLPs using a combination of indirect and direct voice therapy techniques. When selecting voice therapy techniques, the majority of SLPs reported that they did not use the limited external evidence available to guide their clinical decisions. Additionally, the majority of SLPs reported that they frequently relied on lower levels of evidence or non-evidence-based sources to guide clinical practice both in the presence and absence of higher quality evidence. Further research needs to investigate strategies to remove the barriers that impede SLPs use of external evidence when managing VFNs in children.

  11. Classroom Simulation of United Nations Conference on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is widely recognized as the most important environmental problem today that requires complex, global solutions with international cooperation. Teaching the science of climate change is relatively simple compared to the challenges of determining solutions to this problem. It is important for students to learn that solutions do exist and that international negotiations are underway to achieve reductions. What are the (policy) solutions to this vexing problem, which countries should take responsibility, and specifically how can this be done? In the final week of an advanced undergraduate environmental science class: Global Environmental Change, students engage in a week-long classroom simulation of the annual United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (UNFCCC/COP). Small groups of students represent one nation that has a particular, and important, interest in the negotiations. Each group researches the positions their country has with respect to the negotiations, determines their possible allies, and who might have interests that are in conflict with their country. While NGOs such as environmental organizations and industry groups are not formally represented, I include some of these groups since they are influential and provide interesting insight into different interests. For simplicity, about 8-10 nations and NGOs are included. In preparation for the conference, students produce a background paper and draft resolution. At the end of the conference, they refine these documents to produce an updated position paper and resolution on how to mitigate global warming. Students are asked to focus on: 1. How much to change global greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade and over the next century; 2. How much of these emission reductions their country should be responsible for; 3. How will their country meet these goals? They must focus on whether and how to implement two mechanisms: a) Clean Development

  12. Public Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  13. Integrated Unit Deployments: Rethinking Air National Guard Fighter Mobilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    machine guns for strafing.12 A fifth unit also served, but mostly in obscurity. The 355th TFS was an active duty unit from South Carolina but...of the AEF while SORTS is unit-centric. Operationally, ART collects and collates unit-reported data to answer, in whole or in 62 part, the

  14. The United Nations and the promotion of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Despite the end of the cold war, many other conflicts persisted in the 1990s. The hope that a peace dividend would help to alleviate poverty was replaced by doubts regarding the effects of free market globalization and environmental constraints. Future concerns include the continuing aftermath of the cold war, the increased destructiveness of modern warfare, despite the increased sophistication of modern weaponry, the widening poverty gap between a wealthy elite and the majority of the world's population and developing global economic and environmental threats. The response to all this should be economic co-operation for sustainable development, including trade reform, and radical change in the environmental impact of the industrialized countries. Yet it appears that the response of the US, and to a lesser extent Europe, is to maintain the status quo in its own interests by military means, an attitude that seems to have been reinforced by the events of 11 September 2001. Nevertheless, these developments are opposed by citizen groups in the developed world and by analysts in the South. The United Nations and its agencies have been at the forefront of analysis and proposals for action in many of these fields. Its role is likely to increase in the next 30 years and it must be made as effective a global body as possible.

  15. Reform of the United Nations and Transformation of the International System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reform of the United Nations is closely related with the transformation of the International system. The United Nations has made great success since it started a comprehensive reform in 2005. Such a reform is necessary both for the transition of the largest international organization in the world and transformation of the international system. The United Nations still has a long way to go in the comprehensive reform because of many factors.

  16. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  17. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  18. USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries service from The National Map (TNM) represents major civil areas for the Nation, including States or Territories, counties (or...

  19. 75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  20. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  1. Annotating Speech Corpus for Prosody Modeling in Indian Language Text to Speech Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthiga S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spoken language system, it may either be a speech synthesis or a speech recognition system, starts with building a speech corpora. We give a detailed survey of issues and a methodology that selects the appropriate speech unit in building a speech corpus for Indian language Text to Speech systems. The paper ultimately aims to improve the intelligibility of the synthesized speech in Text to Speech synthesis systems. To begin with, an appropriate text file should be selected for building the speech corpus. Then a corresponding speech file is generated and stored. This speech file is the phonetic representation of the selected text file. The speech file is processed in different levels viz., paragraphs, sentences, phrases, words, syllables and phones. These are called the speech units of the file. Researches have been done taking these units as the basic unit for processing. This paper analyses the researches done using phones, diphones, triphones, syllables and polysyllables as their basic unit for speech synthesis. The paper also provides a recommended set of combinations for polysyllables. Concatenative speech synthesis involves the concatenation of these basic units to synthesize an intelligent, natural sounding speech. The speech units are annotated with relevant prosodic information about each unit, manually or automatically, based on an algorithm. The database consisting of the units along with their annotated information is called as the annotated speech corpus. A Clustering technique is used in the annotated speech corpus that provides way to select the appropriate unit for concatenation, based on the lowest total join cost of the speech unit.

  2. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  3. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  4. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  5. 76 FR 44751 - Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act... the United Nations Charter to carry out the decisions of the United Nations Security Council imposed... a United Nations Security Council resolution referenced in Annex A to this proclamation. (b)...

  6. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your treatment plan may include seeing a speech therapist , a person who is trained to treat speech disorders. How often you have to see the speech therapist will vary — you'll probably start out seeing ...

  7. Level 2 Foundation Units. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These foundation units are aimed at pupils working within Level 2 entry to Year 7. They are designed to remind pupils what they know and take them forward. The units also will teach phonics knowledge from consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words to long vowel phonemes. The writing units focus on developing the following skills: understanding what a…

  8. Salads, safety and speech under a national Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Rita Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains the processes for getting greens to market, and the safety issues they pose. The analysis explains marketing by large handlers of greens compared to smaller, local and organic producers. Part II analyzes the governmental safety net for leafy greens under the FDA's authority, juxtaposed against the USDA's governance of agricultural marketing agreements. Part III examines the proposed national Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement in detail. Part IV recommends an alternative to the USDA proposal in light of the foregoing analyses.

  9. Towards a national trauma registry for the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka Ezedin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE as well as worldwide. Trauma registries provide large longitudinal databases for analysis and policy improvement. We aim in this paper to report on the development and evolution of a national trauma registry using a staged approach by developing a single-center registry, a two-center registry, and then a multi-center registry. The three registries were established by developing suitable data collection forms, databases, and interfaces to these databases. The first two registries collected data for a finite period of time and the third is underway. The steps taken to establish these registries depend on whether the registry is intended as a single-center or multi-center registry. Findings Several issues arose and were resolved during the development of these registries such as the relational design of the database, whether to use a standalone database management system or a web-based system, and the usability and security of the system. The inclusion of preventive medicine data elements is important in a trauma registry and the focus on road traffic collision data elements is essential in a country such as the UAE. The first two registries provided valuable data which has been analyzed and published. Conclusions The main factors leading to the successful establishment of a multi-center trauma registry are the development of a concise data entry form, development of a user-friendly secure web-based database system, the availability of a computer and Internet connection in each data collection center, funded data entry personnel well trained in extracting medical data from the medical record and entering it into the computer, and experienced personnel in trauma injuries and data analysis to continuously maintain and analyze the registry.

  10. The United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history.” George Bernard Shaw 58 July 26th, 2007...nation more challenging.124 As Taylor and Snider explain, “With the global diffusion of power, national policy also becomes less fungible, less...124 William J. Taylor and Don M Snider, “U.S. National Security Agenda and U.S. National Security Policy: Realities and Dilemmas,” The

  11. Charter of the United Nations and statute of the International Court of Justice

    CERN Document Server

    United Nations. New York. Department of Public Information

    1993-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

  12. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  13. United Nations Literacy Decade in Asia and the Pacific: Progress to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In December 2001, The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), 2003-2012. The UNLD stresses "Literacy for All: A voice for all, learning for all." The publication records UNLD activities in the Asia and Pacific region during 2003 to 2004 and introduces organizations…

  14. Developing Global Public Participation (1) : Global Public Participation at The United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this first article, we will analyse the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should

  15. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  16. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  17. Factors that influence the inclusion of values in political speeches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waheed, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates what factors contribute to the inclusion of values in political speeches. Semi structured interviews were conducted on 13 current and former, full time and part time speechwriters at the United Nations Head Quarters in New York. Applying Schwartz’s concept of Basic Human Valu

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  19. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  20. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  1. Fatality trends in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1948-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Burnham, G M

    2000-08-02

    The rising number of deaths among United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces after the Cold War has made some troop-contributing countries hesitant to participate in peacekeeping operations. While the number and scale of missions have increased, no data have demonstrated a parallel increase in risks to peacekeepers. To determine the association of characteristics of UN peacekeeping operations with risks and mortality rates among UN peacekeeping forces in both the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Descriptive analysis of 1559 personnel deaths during 49 UN peacekeeping missions from 1948-1998 based on the casualty database maintained by Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Headquarters. Number and percentage of deaths by circumstance, total crude death rate, and crude death rate and relative risk of death by circumstance (hostile acts, unintentional violence, and illness or other causes) and time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War), geographic region, and nature of peacekeeping response; and regression analysis of mission variables (strength, duration, and humanitarian mandate) associated with total number of deaths. More deaths have occurred among UN peacekeeping forces in the past decade alone than in the previous 40 years of UN peacekeeping (807 vs 752), but crude death rates did not differ significantly by time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War, 21.8 vs 21. 2 deaths per 10,000 person-years; P =.58), level of peacekeeping response, or for geographic regions other than East Europe and Central America, where rates were lower (PCold War (relative risk [RR] 1. 51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.88), while rates for deaths caused by unintentional violence decreased (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0. 94) but remain high, particularly in the Middle East and Asia (RR, 1. 39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69). Regression analysis showed a significant association between number of deaths and the strength (PCold War rather than increased RR of death. Post-Cold War peacekeeping personnel

  2. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  3. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.

  4. 3 CFR 8441 - Proclamation 8441 of October 19, 2009. United Nations Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation The United Nations was created 64 years ago by men and women from every corner of the world. These... principle forum for all nations, large and small, to work in concert to meet the global challenges no nation... will and leadership to match the aspirations of all. Now is the time for all of us to assume our share...

  5. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan... of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in...

  6. 36 CFR 1235.10 - What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.10 Section 1235.10 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.10 What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies must transfer to the National Archives......

  7. Refuge Management Plan: Sandstone Unit Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this management plan for the Sandstone Unit of Rice Lake NWR summarizes background information on the location, history, environment, resources,...

  8. HOSPITAL SOUNDSCAPE: ACOUSTICS EVALUATION IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU ROOM OF A NATIONAL HOSPITAL IN JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARWONO R. Sugeng Joko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics comfort in a room is one of the most important building physics aspect that should be observed. in public spaces like hospital, especially in an intensive care unit such as NICU. Researches on the acoustic conditions of NICU in Indonesia are still limited. The acoustical study conducted in this research is using objective, subjective, and simulation methods based on soundscape concept with the concern on the nurse’s perception. This research was conducted at a national hospital in Jakarta. According to National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (SNI and World Health Organization (WHO, the suitable sound pressure level (SPL for noise in patient’s room is 35 dBA. From the study, it was found that the equivalent SPL value exceeded the standard. Soundscape in NICU can be improve with the addition of curtain on the incubator’s side, installation of glass partition, and ceiling absorber in the nurse station area. The result of simulation showed that the SPL in the room decreased with average value 8.9 dBA for sound source alarm ventilator and 8.2 dBA for sound source medical officer conversations. And the speech transmission index (STI increased from “bad” to “good” range became “fair” to “excellent” range.

  9. Alaska maritime national wildlife refuge - Bearing Sea unit contaminant assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Contaminant Assessment Process (CAP) is to compile and summarize known past, present, and potential contaminant issues on National Wildlife...

  10. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The perceptions that have been colored by history are sharpened by differences and dispari- ties separating the two nations. Octavio Paz , a...Stoessel, Jr., "Foreign Policy Priorities in Asia," Current Policy, No. 274, (April 24, 1981), p. 1. 14 Octavio Paz , Mexico and the U.S.: Positions and... Paz expressed it, "our countries are neighbors condemned to live alongside each other." The relationship began even before the two nations existed

  11. Future National Reference Frames for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in

  12. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  13. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  14. Unit: Indicating Acidity, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The introductory core activities in this trial unit, prepared for students in grades seven through nine of Australian schools, use indicators derived from flower pigments to provide a more convenient measure of acidity than taste. Students are offered choices among seven options after completion of the core: "How Acidic is That?"; "What Colour is…

  15. Recreation in the United States. National Historic Landmark Theme Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleton, James H.

    This report examines a number of outstanding and illustrative examples of a broad range of properties representing recreational activities that suggest themselves for possible National Historic Landmark recognition. The properties described in the study have been selected to represent places and activities that have had a major impact on American…

  16. National scale biomass estimators for United States tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of national-scale forest carbon (C) stocks and fluxes are typically based on allometric regression equations developed using dimensional analysis techniques. However, the literature is inconsistent and incomplete with respect to large-scale forest C estimation. We compiled all available diameter-based allometric regression equations for estimating total...

  17. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis; Tomaschek, Fabian; Sering, Konstantin; Lopez, Florence; Baayen, R Harald

    2017-01-01

    Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%), without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  19. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 13, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  1. M. Hartley Dodge Unit : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness area proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on the M. Hartley Dodge Unit of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and its suitability for wilderness designation. Topics...

  2. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  3. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berdal Aral

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC) has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  5. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1987 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  6. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1986 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  8. Narrative report Seneca Unit Erie National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seneca Unit of the Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 12, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  11. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  12. Stroke units: research and reality. Results from the National Sentinel Audit of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use data from the 2001–2 National Stroke Audit to describe the organisation of stroke units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and to see if key characteristics deemed effective from the research literature were present.

  13. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1987. The report begins with...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment : Livestock Grazing Management Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit : Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final environmental assessment for the grazing management within the Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in relation to...

  3. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then Administrator Jackson signed the first Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) during the 26th Session of the UNEP Governing Council Meeting/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in 2011.

  4. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1989. The report begins with...

  5. Population-resources-environment-development interrelationships in the United Nations: in search of an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosovic, B

    1984-08-01

    The relationships among population, resources, the environment, and development are reviewed, with the focus on how such questions are dealt with in the United Nations system. Emphasis is on the complexities of the issues raised rather than on their resolution.

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  11. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  13. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  16. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1985 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1984 water management program for Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  19. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  20. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Dysfunction Junction: Intelligence, Peacekeeping, and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    government’s formulating and implementing policy to further its national security interests and to deal with threats to those interests from actual or...their internal affairs to be the focus of a UN collection effort.68 Martha Finnemore documented a shift in the consideration of international...Chesterman, 154. 69 Martha Finnemore , “Changing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention,” in The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force

  2. The Future of the United Nations: Implications for Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-05

    first tier nation is if we think one or more of them might revert from market democracy. War between market democracies, he stressed, is practically ...the organization as useless at best and, at worst, an outright threat pushing toward world government. This position was most common on the right side...p.12. 34 ’Peacekeeper to Peacemaker: U.N. Confronting New Roles.’ New York rimes, January 25,1993, p. A10. Lewis, William H., ed. Miday Implcations

  3. The new national energy story : analysis of Hydro-Quebec's promotional speeches from 1964 to 1997; Le nouveau roman de l'energie nationale : analyse des discours promotionnels d'Hydro-Quebec de 1964 a 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, D.

    2006-07-01

    This book examined the relationship between nationalist speeches in Quebec and the creation of the Crown corporation of Hydro-Quebec. According to the author, Hydro-Quebec has emerged as a cultural phenomenon and as a national identity of the residents of Quebec. The utility enjoys a cultural status that is unique in Canada. Television archives have revealed that public slogans and inaugural speeches empowered the utility to exploit hydroelectricity through a collective political orientation. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. 36 CFR 1235.12 - When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.12 Section 1235.12 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.12 When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Permanent records must be transferred to...

  5. 36 CFR 1235.18 - How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.18 Section 1235.18 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.18 How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies transfer records by submitting a signed...

  6. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed... Columbia in United States of America, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. and Live Nation, Inc... Nation, Inc. would substantially lessen competition in primary ticketing in the United States and...

  7. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No....

  8. Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The speech-language pathologist should consistently assess your child’s speech and language development, as well as screen for hearing problems (with ... and caregivers play a vital role in a child’s speech and language development. It is important that you talk to your ...

  9. Beyond counting cases: Public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, D.; Elliott, E.J.; Zurynski, Y.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Preece, M.; Lynn, R.; Kries, R. von; Zimmermann, H.; Dickson, N.P.; Virella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1

  10. The United Nations contribution towards an international agreement on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, M.

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations of the Legal Subcommittee of the United Nations committee for the Peaceful Uses of Space concerning satellite remote sensing are considered. Detailed studies of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of this committee are discussed with emphasis on three draft proposals submitted to it on remote sensing by (1) France and the USSR, (2) Latin American countries, and (3) the United States.

  11. Flora of the Zuurberg National Park. 1. Characterization of major vegetation units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B-E. van Wyk

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of major vegetation units or veld types in the Zuurberg National Park, situated on the eastern limits of the Fynbos Biome, is presented. Structural and floristic criteria are used to describe and map five basic units, namely Afromontane Forest, Subtropical Thicket, Mountain Fynbos, Grassy Fynbos and Grassland.

  12. United Nations Day (联合国成立纪念日)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚萍

    2002-01-01

    As World War Ⅱ raged on with no end in sight, the United Nations was conceived as a way to help prevent future world wars. As early as 1943, government officials from the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed to meet to discuss plans for an international peacekeeping organization.

  13. Science, Technology and Innovation for Achieving United Nations Millennium Development Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 nations intotal,committed themselves by year 2015 to roduce significantly global poverty and the related problems of illiteracy,hunger,discrimination against women, unsafe drinking water,and degraded environments and ecosystems,through the United Nations Millennium Declaration[A/RES/55/2].

  14. The United Kingdom National Healthy School Standard: A Framework for Strengthening the School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklander, Molly K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the school nursing role within the National Healthy School Standard (NHSS) in the United Kingdom with a view toward clarifying and strengthening the role of school nurses globally. Within the National Healthy School Standard framework, school nurses serve an integral role in linking health and education…

  15. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Neogene System Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Haynesville Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Bossier Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province (067) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Upper Cretaceous Taylor and Navarro Group Assessment Units, Western Gulf Province (047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. National Survey of Interscholastic Sport Sponsorship in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PIERCE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to cuts in educational funding in the United States, interscholastic athletic administrators have turned to corporate sponsorship to fund athletic departments. While the academic literature in sport management has extensively covered corporate sponsorship at the intercollegiate and professional level, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence, nature, and importance of sponsorship to high school athletics in the United States. This paper identified factors that predicted the use of sponsorship, the amount of revenue generated from sponsorship, who is responsible for selling sponsorship, motivators behind not soliciting sponsorship, and the extent to which fundraising and participation fees are utilized to supplement athletic department budgets. The most common form of alternative revenue generation is fund raising (87% of schools followed by, sponsorship (57% and participation fees (34%. One-third of schools reported using sponsorship in response to budget cuts, and over one-fourth solicited sponsorship to prevent charging participation fees. Results also indicated that while the majority of high school athletic departments solicited corporate sponsorship, administrators were cautious in the so-licitation of sponsorship as evidenced by the small dollar amounts involved and overall impact on the budget, reliance on game program advertisements and facility signage to activate sponsorships, and a lack of outsourcing to sport marketing firms to sell the sponsorships. There is clearly room for growth in the interscholastic sport sponsorship market.

  9. What is the Risk for Exposure to Vector-Borne Pathogens in United States National Parks?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; SHELUS, VICTORIA; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    United States national parks attract >275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organisma...

  10. Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2000-01-01

    Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

  11. Snatch technique of United States national level weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul N; Schilling, Brian K; Stone, Michael H; Kilgore, J Lon; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2014-03-01

    This study analyzed the top 3 successful snatch attempts by individual lifters in each weight class at a U.S. National Championship weightlifting meet. Two-dimensional (2-D) body position and characteristics of the lifts were compared via 2D video analysis in groups of lifters who displaced forward, showed no displacement, or displaced backward to receive the bar. No significant group differences (p > 0.05) were noted for body mass, bar mass, or hip angle. The rearward displacement group had a significantly greater horizontal distance between the shoulder and heel at the end of the pull (determined as the point where the bar ceases to accelerate vertically). Hip angles for the no displacement group had a small-to-moderate effect size (0.50) in comparison to the forward displacement group, but they only showed a small effect size (0.17) when compared with the rearward displacement group. The forward displacement group showed a small-to-moderate effect size compared with both the no displacement group (0.51) and the rearward displacement group (0.55) concerning the horizontal distance from the shoulder to the heel. These data seem to suggest that rearward displacement in the drop-under phase in the snatch is not detrimental to performance and actually seems to be a preferred technique in U.S. national level lifters. In addition to evidence that rearward displacement is exhibited in elite lifters and is coached globally, it seems this is the preferred technique in international competitions. This technique may be considered a viable variation of the snatch by coaches and athletes of all levels.

  12. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery.

  13. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test.

  14. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  15. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...

  16. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  17. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  18. Factors of Politeness and Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Polite principle is influenced deeply by a nation's history,culture,custom and so on,therefor different countries have different understandings and expressions of politeness and indirect speech acts.This paper shows some main factors influencing a polite speech.Through this article,readers can comprehensively know about politeness and indirect speech acts.

  19. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  20. BUT IS IT SPEECH? MAKING CRITICAL SENSE OF THE DOMINANT CONSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE ON PORNOGRAPHY, MORALITY AND HARM UNDER THE PERVASIVE INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES FIRST AMENDMENT JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letetia van der Poll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the pervasive influence of United States First Amendment jurisprudence, adult gender-specific sexually explicit (or “pornographic” material is conceptualized, and thus protected in the “marketplace of ideas”, as a particular mode of expression; to be viewed as part of the fabric of an open, free and democratic society. The values which free expression are seen to promote centre upon the advancement of political debate and promotion of personal self-fulfilment and autonomy. Attempts to conceptualise sexually explicit material within a gender-specific human rights framework present distinct challenges which, in a patriarchal legal and political design, appear to be near insurmountable. These challenges seem to be related to the enduring impact of the common law conception of obscenity (with its strong moralistic overtones on the jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court, coupled with a subjective libertarian-inspired test, and the Supreme Court’s general reluctance (also echoed by the South African Constitutional Court to consider a gender-specific conception of harm emanating from feminist arguments premised upon women’s constitutional interests in human dignity, equality and bodily integrity. The social revolution of the 1960s, coupled with the women’s liberation movement, called for a distinct departure from the traditional conception of sexually explicit material as a mode of constitutionally defendable free speech and expression, a conception which unavoidably calls for a moralistic approach, separating acceptable forms of expression from those not deemed worthy of (constitutional protection (termed “obscenity”, specifically created to satisfy the “prurient interest”. The Supreme Court’s obscenity jurisprudence is characterised by two key features. First, the court subscribes to an abstract concept of free speech, which proceeds from the assumption that all speech is of equal value, and thereby surmises

  1. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  2. 36 CFR 1235.30 - How may records in the National Archives of the United States be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Archives of the United States be used? 1235.30 Section 1235.30 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES Administration of Transferred Records § 1235.30 How may records in the National Archives of the United States be used? (a) NARA will enforce restrictions that are consistent...

  3. From the universal to the particular through intercultural united nations crime prevention law and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redo Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some legal and criminological counter aspects of the functionalist approach to public international law, by taking as the example United Nations crime prevention law. On this basis, the article’s author analyses the theoretical and practical meaning of cross-disciplinary concepts of the Universal and the Particular, known also in law and criminology as the General and the Specific. He emphasizes the coexistence of both concepts and their mutual reinforcement through the intercultural United Nations policy and action.

  4. Brundtland's World Health Organization: a test case for United Nations reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, A

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform.

  5. Brundtland's World Health Organization: A Test Case for United Nations Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169

  6. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty.

  7. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  8. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R. A.; D. J. Jacob; M. P. Sulprizio; Zhang, L.; C. D. Holmes; Schichtel, B. A.; Blett, T.; Porter, E.; Pardo, L. H.; Lynch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture) may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL). We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050) conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport ...

  9. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  10. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  11. Advanced Persuasive Speaking, English, Speech: 5114.112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed as a high school quinmester unit on persuasive speaking, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course which analyzes speeches from "Vital Speeches of the Day," political speeches, TV commercials, and other types of speeches. Practical use of persuasive methods for school, community, county, state, and…

  12. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese–English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Rinus G. Verdonschot

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as “ka” or “ki”). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs f...

  13. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as "ka" or "ki"). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  14. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese–English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as “ka” or “ki”). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese–English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese–English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production. PMID:26941669

  15. Children's Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2003-09-01

    Disparities and inequities characterize the health and social well-being of children in the United States and the United Kingdom. Children's rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are among the most powerful tools available to respond to and increase the relevance of pediatrics to contemporary disparities and determinants of child health outcomes. The articles of the convention establish the framework for a redefinition of what constitutes child health. The convention establishes a template for child advocacy, a matrix for establishing new approaches to health services, a curriculum for professional education, and a set of challenges for future child health outcomes and health systems research.

  16. Swiss Neutrality and Collective Security: The League of Nations and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Sergio Stupan, Comment la Suisse a adhéré au Pacte de la Société des Nations (Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, 1943), 77ff. 40 In accepting these...resulted in a successful referendum.153 Active pacifist movements were established during World War I. According to Sergio Stupan, these movements...may be categorized into two groups. The first group, the Franco -Swiss Freemasons, the Swiss Peace Society, and the Socialists, had an “international

  17. Advising Host Nations and Host Nation Security Forces: The United States Military Advisory Efforts through 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    List MNC-I Multinational Corps-Iraq MNSTC-I Multi-National Security Transition Command-Iraq MOD Minister of Defense MoDA Minister of Defense...positive note, DOD implemented the Ministry of Defense Advisor ( MoDA ) program in 2010 to overcome the advisor shortcoming, for both the Minister of...Defense (MOD) and Minister of Interior (MOI). The DOD developed the MoDA program as a result of operational requirements in Afghanistan and Iraq. MOD

  18. Speech Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, R.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Blanken, H.M.; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the automatic extraction of information from the speech in multimedia documents. This approach is often referred to as speech indexing and it can be regarded as a subfield of audio indexing that also incorporates for example the analysis of music and sounds. If the objecti

  19. Plowing Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-01-01

    This file contains a plowing speech and a discussion about the speech This collection presents forty-nine audio files including: several folk song genres; folktales and; local history from the Sman shad Valley of Sde dge county World Oral Literature Project

  20. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  1. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  2. The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Olivero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.

  3. Discourse, Statement and Speech Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Александровна Красина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a component of socio-cultural interaction discourse constitutes a sophisticated cohesion of language form, meaning and performance, i.e. communicative event or act. Cohesion with event and performance let us treat discourse as a certain lifeform, appealing both to communicative interaction and pragmatic environment using the methodology of studies of E. Benveniste, M. Foucault, I. Kecskes, J.R. Searle et al. In linguistics and other fields of humanitarian knowledge the notion of discourse facilitates the integration of studies in humanities. Principles of integration, incorporation into broad humanitarian context reveal some topics of discourse-speech act-utterance interaction which leads to substantive solutions of a number of linguistic topics, in particular, that of an utterance. Logicians determine utterance through proposition; linguists - through sentence, while speech act theory does it by means of illocutionary act. Integrated in a discourse or its part, utterance makes up their integral constituents although not unique ones. In relation to speech acts, utterance happens to be the unique definitional domain synchronically modelling and denoting speech act by means of propositional content. The goal of the research is to show the conditions of interaction and correlation of discourse, speech act and utterance as linguistic constructions, reveal some similarities and differences of their characteristics and prove the importance of the constructive role of utterance as a minimal unit of speech production. Discourse-speech act-utterance correlation supports the utterance role of a discrete unit within syntactic continuum, facing both language and speech: still, it belongs exclusively neither to language nor speech, but specifies their interaction in course of speech activity exposing simultaneously its nature of an ‘atom of discourse’ and creating the definitional domain of a speech act.

  4. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  5. Squaring the circle? Collective and distributive effects of United Nations Security Council reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hosli (Esther); R.F.I. Moody (Rebecca); B. O'Donovan (Bryan); S. Kaniovski (Serguei); A.C.H. Little (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChanging the composition and voting system of the Security Council, in an effort to increase the institution's global legitimacy, is proving to be one of the most difficult hurdles to overcome for the global community of states represented in the United Nations (UN). This paper demonstra

  6. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  7. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  8. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  9. Citizenship Education under Discourses of Nationalism, Globalization, and Cosmopolitanism: Illustrations from China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camicia, Steven P.; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    The authors, one from China and one from the United States, present a theoretical framework for understanding the discursive fields of citizenship education as composed, in large part, of the discourses of nationalism, globalization, and cosmopolitanism. The framework is illustrated by examples from citizenship education in China and the United…

  10. League of Our Own: Creating a Model United Nations Scrimmage Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brian; Carter, Neal; Grove, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    Model United Nations (MUN) provides a great forum for students to learn about global issues and political processes, while also practicing communication and negotiation skills that will serve them well for a lifetime. Intercollegiate MUN conferences can be problematic, however, in terms of logistics, budgets, and student participation. In order to…

  11. Moral and Human Rights Education: The Contribution of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Print, Murray; Ugarte, Carolina; Naval, Concepcion; Mihr, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Moral education can take many forms. With the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (UNDHRE) (1995-2004), we critically review developments in human rights education (HRE) during those ten years in the context of moral education. We argue that, despite some modest successes, the decade lacked direction and a major impact and…

  12. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  13. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  14. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030.

  15. The Case of Educational Peacebuilding inside the United Nations Universities: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines higher education for peace inside the United Nations (UN). It offers an overview and synthesis of core concepts, organizing frameworks and theoretical premises in the field of peace and conflict studies (PACS) higher education and in the UN universities in particular, as the field aspires toward transformative learning and…

  16. League of Our Own: Creating a Model United Nations Scrimmage Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brian; Carter, Neal; Grove, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    Model United Nations (MUN) provides a great forum for students to learn about global issues and political processes, while also practicing communication and negotiation skills that will serve them well for a lifetime. Intercollegiate MUN conferences can be problematic, however, in terms of logistics, budgets, and student participation. In order to…

  17. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  18. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  19. Squaring the circle? Collective and distributive effects of United Nations Security Council reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hosli (Esther); R.F.I. Moody (Rebecca); B. O'Donovan (Bryan); S. Kaniovski (Serguei); A.C.H. Little (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChanging the composition and voting system of the Security Council, in an effort to increase the institution's global legitimacy, is proving to be one of the most difficult hurdles to overcome for the global community of states represented in the United Nations (UN). This paper demonstra

  20. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  1. The Ark of Hope: Carrying the Earth Charter toward United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Thousands of people from 51 countries created the Earth Charter, which heralds humankind's respectful recognition of life's interdependence and our shared responsibility for the world's well-being. A Vermont group put it in an "Ark of Hope" and walked it through four states to the United Nations. Related art workshops held in Vermont schools and…

  2. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  3. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  4. Union des Comores - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Initial National Communication on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The studies made in the context of this Initial National Communication on Climate Change are based on the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1 study on impacts and adaptation of Indian Ocean small island states. Changes in climate to be anticipated in Comoros by year 2050 are estimated to be a raise in mean annual air temperature to an average of 28°C, a change that represents a 1°C increase compared to the current situation. A sea level increase o...

  5. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  6. Three speech sounds, one motor action: Evidence for speech-motor disparity from English flap production

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick, Donald; Stavness, Ian; Gick, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that units of speech production bear a one-to-one relationship to speech motor actions pervades otherwise widely varying theories of speech motor behavior. This speech production and simulation study demonstrates that commonly occurring flap sequences may violate this assumption. In the word “Saturday,” a sequence of three sounds may be produced using a single, cyclic motor action. Under this view, the initial upward tongue tip motion, starting with the first vowel and moving t...

  7. MEDICAL BRIGADES, GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE UNITED NATIONS: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Mark T; Martin, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, recommendations have been made that global health initiatives change their focus from disease specific intervention to bolstering health systems and general health care. The aim of this is to ultimately increase access to primary care, clean water, education, hygiene, and prevent malnutrition, among other goals. While many major global health initiatives have followed this trend, so have many smaller scale programs including short-term medical brigades. Despite a trending increase in the number of privately run short-term medical brigades, until recently, little research has been done on the potential positive and negative effects that can arise from such programs. Now, guidelines have been initiated to create well-structured programs. When followed, these smaller scale initiatives can be successful in helping increase access to healthcare, sustainably strengthening communities in terms of general health. While recent legislation in the United States has addressed domestic policy in the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the ACA should also consider some of the basic "sustainable" policies being implemented by international health care providers.

  8. Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Wheeler, Russell L.; Wesson, Robert L.; Zeng, Yuehua; Boyd, Oliver S.; Perkins, David M.; Luco, Nicolas; Field, Edward H.; Wills, Chris J.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps display earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across the United States and are applied in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and other public policy. This update of the maps incorporates new findings on earthquake ground shaking, faults, seismicity, and geodesy. The resulting maps are derived from seismic hazard curves calculated on a grid of sites across the United States that describe the frequency of exceeding a set of ground motions. The USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project developed these maps by incorporating information on potential earthquakes and associated ground shaking obtained from interaction in science and engineering workshops involving hundreds of participants, review by several science organizations and State surveys, and advice from two expert panels. The National Seismic Hazard Maps represent our assessment of the 'best available science' in earthquake hazards estimation for the United States (maps of Alaska and Hawaii as well as further information on hazard across the United States are available on our Web site at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/).

  9. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1999-12-21

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  10. Methods and apparatus for non-acoustic speech characterization and recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    By simultaneously recording EM wave reflections and acoustic speech information, the positions and velocities of the speech organs as speech is articulated can be defined for each acoustic speech unit. Well defined time frames and feature vectors describing the speech, to the degree required, can be formed. Such feature vectors can uniquely characterize the speech unit being articulated each time frame. The onset of speech, rejection of external noise, vocalized pitch periods, articulator conditions, accurate timing, the identification of the speaker, acoustic speech unit recognition, and organ mechanical parameters can be determined.

  11. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  12. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in National Parks: Values for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Huber, Christopher; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) provide a wide range of beneficial services to the American public. This study quantifies the ecosystem service value of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems within NPS units in the conterminous United States for which data were available. Combining annual net carbon balance data with spatially explicit NPS land unit boundaries and social cost of carbon estimates, this study calculates the net metric tons of carbon dioxide sequestered annually by park unit under baseline conditions, as well as the associated economic value to society. Results show that, in aggregate, NPS lands in the conterminous United States are a net carbon sink, sequestering more than 14.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually. The associated societal value of this service is estimated at approximately $582.5 million per year. While this analysis provides a broad overview of the annual value of carbon sequestration on NPS lands averaged over a five year baseline period, it should be noted that carbon fluxes fluctuate from year to year, and there can be considerable variation in net carbon balance and its associated value within a given park unit. Future research could look in-depth at the spatial heterogeneity of carbon flux within specific NPS land units.

  13. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  14. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  15. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

  16. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  17. Nutrition Education in the Context of the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition Activities and Publications, 1985-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesveen, Kaia; Shrimpton, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) is a forum where United Nations (UN) agencies, bilateral partners, and nongovernmental agencies meet to harmonize and coordinate nutrition policy and programs. This report reviews the positions taken regarding nutrition education throughout SCN publications, annual sessions, and…

  18. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  19. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  20. Are Regional Organizations the 'Parties' in the United Nations General Assembly? Comments on a Misconception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    In the field of international relations, regional organizations (ROs) are not only assumed to play an important role in the regional context, but also on the international level. A growing number of studies analyze ROs’ voting behavior in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in a similar way...... to the analyses of parties in national parliaments. In this paper, we reflect on the question whether ROs can be treated as ‘political party’-like entities. First, based on literature on political parties and legislative voting, we develop two criteria to evaluate ROs in the UNGA. Second, we analyze UNGA voting...

  1. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  2. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  3. Innovative, precise, and descriptive terms for group crisis support services: a United Nations initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Terminology borrowed from other disciplines for use in crisis intervention is inadvertently open to misinterpretation and misrepresentation. Misconceptions about terminology are most common when terms are transmitted across social, cultural, national, language, and attitudinal boundaries. Critical Incident Stress Management, which is a subset of crisis intervention, encountered that exact problem with three of its terms: demobilization, defusing, and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. Several flawed studies based on misinterpretations of the meaning of these terms have appeared in the literature. The studies may have stimulated some practitioners of crisis intervention to incorrectly conclude that those interventions were ineffective. Professionals within the Critical Incident Stress Management Unit of the Department of Safety and Security of the United Nations suggested alternative and augmented terminology to reduce the potential for further misinterpretations of Critical Incident Stress Management procedures.

  4. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  5. The United Nations and Disarmament. An analysis of the Spanish positions in the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Cano

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1953 the Franco regime, internationally isolated, signed the Defence and Economic Assistance Treaties with the USA which allowed it to have access to the organs of the United Nations system. Logically, the implicit subordination in defence aspects brought about a complete misunderstanding of the disarmament issues.The democratic transition, which in the foreign and defence fields lasted until 1988, meant a change in the sense of greater participation through progressive incorporation in various western structures : the EC, NATO, WEU...In this new context, this study analyses the Spanish positions with respect to disarmament in the field of the United Nations, from both its own perspective and that of its adequacy with relation to the conduct of its allies.

  6. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy work-up. ... units to make the diagnosis of bilateral posterior parietal polymicrogyria in a child with speech pathology. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBosch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants’ process towards lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian, partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  8. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  9. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language. PMID:23467921

  10. Briefing on meetings at & reports by the 65th & 66th United Nations General Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Gregorio, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Briefing on meetings at & reports by the 65th & 66th United Nations General Assembly No relevant differences are observed or identified after perusal of the space-related resolutions and documents issued by the UN System between 2010 and 2011. The most remarkable statements remain virtually unchanged in this time period. For instance, the UN GA recognizes the common interest of all mankind in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and reaffirms that these shall be ca...

  11. The 70th Anniversary of the Creation of the United Nations: Giving Peace a Chance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian Guillermet-Fernández; David Fernández Puyana

    2015-01-01

    .... Today, in the context of the 70th Anniversary of the creation of the United Nations, the Human Rights Council should raise the voice of victims to strongly condemn war and to openly reiterate our inalienable right to live in a context in which war and conflict are progressively eliminated on earth through the promotion of mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for human rights and peaceful relationships.

  12. Soil Patterns Associated with the Major Geological Units of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Venter

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The dominant soil types of the Kruger National Park and their interrelationships with parent material, topography and climate are discussed. The geogenetic and topogenetic nature of the soils are manifested in the strong correlations between recurrent soil patterns, major geological units and terrain morphology. The soils are categorised into seven major classes on the basis of the parent material from which they developed. General soil patterns within the major classes are discussed.

  13. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 1, Northwest United States: NLCD01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  14. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  15. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 3, Southwest United States: NLCD01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg).The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  16. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  17. National and Institutional Policies on Open Access in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Mestrovic Deyrup; Martha Fallahay Loesch

    2005-01-01

    National and institutional policies on open access are not yet fully established in the United States because of the manner in which the open access movement has evolved. In this report, the authors illustrate how the open access movement has evolved within each community libraries, universities, publishing companies, government agencies, the professoriate, public interest groups, and the U.S. Congress--and note what trends now are beginning to emerge.

  18. United Nations system efforts to support the response to AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Lin; HE; Joel; REHNSTROM

    2005-01-01

    In the last two years, we have seen a remarkable intensification in the response to AIDS in China. A number of organizations have joined and contributed to the efforts of the Chinese government in responding the AIDS epidemic in China. This article specifically describes the role of the United Nations in supporting and strengthening those responses.Achievements of the United Nations (UN) highlighted in the article include: strengthened leadership and political commitment to respond to AIDS; improved HIV/AIDS surveillance and information; expanded prevention efforts; improved treatment, care and support to people living with HIV and increased resources for AIDS programs. Additional roles of e., one national plan on AIDS; one national coordinating authority for AIDS; and one monitoring and evaluation system for AIDS. In addition, the UN system is expected to strengthen alignment and harmonization of activities of all international organizations and improved accountability and oversight. Remaining challenges identified include increasing awareness of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination; reducing vulnerability and risk behaviour among specific groups;providing improved treatment, care and support for people living with HIV; promoting stronger engagement by civil society, and; addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS.

  19. The present status of remote sensing in the United Nations, 8 April 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, E.

    1977-01-01

    Problems arising from remote sensing of the earth by satellites have been the subject of indepth research and analysis by the United Nations. Every aspect of this multidisciplinary subject has been explored in more than 100 reports and papers published as UN documents dealing with all the implications of remote sensing: scientific, technological, institutional, political, economic, cultural, and legal. National, regional and international situations have been analyzed, and the General Assembly has passed resolutions requesting that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space give a high priority to remote sensing. The identification and analysis of issues has been going on for several years, the objective being international agreement on general principles to guide nations in the conduct of their remote sensing activities.

  20. National Lexicography Units: Past, Present, Future Nasionale leksikografiese eenhede: Verlede, hede, toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the national dictionary offices of the previous bilingual dispensation, the eleven official national dictionary offices in the present multilingual dispensation, and the future prospects of these offices. It discusses the past dispensation in terms of the need and reasons for the establishment of national dictionary offices, i.e. national lexicography units (NLUs. Attention is given to the prescripts of the National Lexicography Units Bill (1996 for the establishment of NLUs, as well as the transfer of these units from the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology to the Pan South African Language Board. The restructuring of dictionary units that existed prior to the multilingual dispensation is considered, together with the establishment of new dictionary units for the official African languages. The present situation is dealt with by describing the status quo at the NLUs in terms of housing, administration, funding, management, training, computerisation, cooperation, production and the like. The article concludes with some questions and reservations about the future of the NLUs, followed by a number of apposite recommendations.Hierdie artikel handel oor die nasionale woordeboekkantore tydens die voormalige tweetalige bedeling, die huidige meertalige bedeling waarin kantore vir die elf amptelike nasionale woordeboeke funksioneer, en die toekoms van hierdie kantore. Aspekte van die vorige bedeling word bespreek ten opsigte van die behoefte aan en redes vir die stigting van nasionale woordeboekkantore oftewel nasionale leksikografiese eenhede (NLEe. Die soeklig val op voorskrifte van die wetsontwerp oor nasionale leksikografiese eenhede (1996 vir die stigting van sodanige eenhede, sowel as op hul oordrag van die Departement van Kuns, Kultuur, Wetenskap en Tegnologie na die Pan-Suid-Afrikaanse Taalraad. Verder fokus die artikel op die herstrukturering van daardie woordeboekeenhede wat voor die meertalige bedeling

  1. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to…

  2. Garmin GPS waypoints delineating low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GPS waypoints delineating the flight paths for low altitude transects from a Garmin GPS unit. Transects were conducted from small aircraft over the National Park...

  3. Exploring the role of brain oscillations in speech perception in noise: Intelligibility of isochronously retimed speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Aubanel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximise processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioural experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise.

  4. Amharic Speech Recognition for Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Michael; Besacier, Laurent; Meshesha, Million

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The state-of-the-art speech translation can be seen as a cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition, Statistical Machine Translation and Text-To-Speech synthesis. In this study an attempt is made to experiment on Amharic speech recognition for Amharic-English speech translation in tourism domain. Since there is no Amharic speech corpus, we developed a read-speech corpus of 7.43hr in tourism domain. The Amharic speech corpus has been recorded after translating standard Bas...

  5. The national cost of asthma among school-aged children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick W; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Navaratnam, Prakash; Friedman, Howard S; Kavati, Abhishek; Ortiz, Benjamin; Lanier, Bob

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has quantified the national health care resource use (HCRU) and health care expenditure (HCE) burden associated with adult asthma; however, estimates specific to school-aged children are more than 2 decades old. To estimate the national HCRU and HCEs attributable to asthma among school-aged children in the United States. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of school-aged children (aged 6-17 years) in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. All-cause HCRU and HCEs of school-aged children with asthma were compared with school-aged children without asthma, controlling for sociodemographics and comorbidities. HCRU encounters included emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and prescriptions. Expenditures included total, medical, ED, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy. Negative binomial regression analyses were used for HCRU and Heckman selection with logarithmic transformation, and smearing retransformation was used for HCEs. There were 44,320 school-aged children of whom 5,890 had asthma. Children with asthma incurred a higher rate of all-cause annual ED visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.5; P children without asthma. They incurred US$847 (2015 dollars) more annually in all-cause expenditures (P asthma for school-aged children in the United States was US$5.92 billion (2015 dollars). Childhood asthma continues to represent a prevalent and significant clinical and economic burden in the United States. More aggressive treatment and asthma management programs are needed to address this national financial and resource burden. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hate speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Birgitta Nilsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The manifesto of the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik is based on the “Eurabia” conspiracy theory. This theory is a key starting point for hate speech amongst many right-wing extremists in Europe, but also has ramifications beyond these environments. In brief, proponents of the Eurabia theory claim that Muslims are occupying Europe and destroying Western culture, with the assistance of the EU and European governments. By contrast, members of Al-Qaeda and other extreme Islamists promote the conspiracy theory “the Crusade” in their hate speech directed against the West. Proponents of the latter theory argue that the West is leading a crusade to eradicate Islam and Muslims, a crusade that is similarly facilitated by their governments. This article presents analyses of texts written by right-wing extremists and Muslim extremists in an effort to shed light on how hate speech promulgates conspiracy theories in order to spread hatred and intolerance.The aim of the article is to contribute to a more thorough understanding of hate speech’s nature by applying rhetorical analysis. Rhetorical analysis is chosen because it offers a means of understanding the persuasive power of speech. It is thus a suitable tool to describe how hate speech works to convince and persuade. The concepts from rhetorical theory used in this article are ethos, logos and pathos. The concept of ethos is used to pinpoint factors that contributed to Osama bin Laden's impact, namely factors that lent credibility to his promotion of the conspiracy theory of the Crusade. In particular, Bin Laden projected common sense, good morals and good will towards his audience. He seemed to have coherent and relevant arguments; he appeared to possess moral credibility; and his use of language demonstrated that he wanted the best for his audience.The concept of pathos is used to define hate speech, since hate speech targets its audience's emotions. In hate speech it is the

  7. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  8. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  9. Design and development a children's speech database

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava

    2016-01-01

    The report presents the process of planning, designing and the development of a database of spoken children's speech whose native language is Bulgarian. The proposed model is designed for children between the age of 4 and 6 without speech disorders, and reflects their specific capabilities. At this age most children cannot read, there is no sustained concentration, they are emotional, etc. The aim is to unite all the media information accompanying the recording and processing of spoken speech...

  10. Discursive Elements in the (de)Banalisation of Nationalism. A Study of Speeches by Gordon Brown and Nicolas Sarkozy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sayegh, Pascal-Yan

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The paper offers a study of the contributions of Nicolas Sarkozy and Gordon Brown to a dominant culturalist discourse on identity in Europe. In recent years, issues about immigration and integration have been central across the European community, concurrent with a general feeling of cultural insecurity. In this paper, I argue that mainstream political discourse has shifted from common sense nationalism into an even more ambiguous discourse by also taking over aspects ...

  11. The Origin of the United Nations "Global Counter-Terrorism System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Messmer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  12. The incompatibility of the United Nations' goals and conventionalist ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2005-09-01

    The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights seeks to provide moral direction to nations and their citizens on a series of bioethical concerns. In articulating principles, it ranks respect for human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms ahead of respect for cultural diversity and pluralism. This ranking is controversial because it entails the rejection of the popular theory, conventionalist ethical relativism. If consistently defended, this theory also undercuts other United Nations activities that assume member states and people around the world can reach trans-cultural judgments having moral authority about health, pollution, aggression, rights, slavery, and so on. To illustrate problems with conventionalist ethical relativism and the importance of rejecting it for reasons of health, human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms, the widespread practice of female genital circumcision or cutting is discussed. These surgeries are virtually a test case for conventionalist ethical relativism since they are widely supported within these cultures as religious and health practices and widely condemned outside them, including by the United Nations.

  13. Dissemination of Units in Europe: Traceability and its Assurance in a National and Regional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, V.

    1995-01-01

    Recent international political developments have given rise to the formation of powerful free trade and economic areas. This situation has placed new demands on metrology. Starting from the objectives and tasks of the national metrology institutes, the traditional activities are realization, maintenance and dissemination of the units. For quality assurance in industry, the traceability of measurement and test equipment to national measurement standards and its assurance plays an important part. In individual countries, national calibration services and testing laboratories form an indispensable modern infrastructure for the distribution of metrological competence. The creation of a uniform single European market and the recent establishment of the European Economic Area (EEA) from 1 January 1994, have given metrology new impetus. The dissemination of the units in the intraregional European area - with the objective of mutually recognizing calibration certificates by removing technical barriers to trade - requires not only technical competence but also transparency through confidence-building measures. The traceability of measurements and their assurance by interlaboratory comparisons are of decisive importance and require that international cooperation should be extended. Moreover, countries outside the EEA have shown an increasing interest in the mutual recognition of certificates so an interregional assurance of traceability has to be guaranteed. As a result of this development, international organizations of long standing such as the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) are confronted with new tasks and new organizations such as the International Laboratory Accreditation Conference (ILAC) have been formed.

  14. Text To Speech System for Telugu Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siva Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telugu is one of the oldest languages in India. This paper describes the development of Telugu Text-to-Speech System (TTS.In Telugu TTS the input is Telugu text in Unicode. The voices are sampled from real recorded speech. The objective of a text to speech system is to convert an arbitrary text into its corresponding spoken waveform. Speech synthesis is a process of building machinery that can generate human-like speech from any text input to imitate human speakers. Text processing and speech generation are two main components of a text to speech system. To build a natural sounding speech synthesis system, it is essential that text processing component produce an appropriate sequence of phonemic units. Generation of sequence of phonetic units for a given standard word is referred to as letter to phoneme rule or text to phoneme rule. The complexity of these rules and their derivation depends upon the nature of the language. The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its closeness to the natural human voice and understandability. In this paper we described an approach to build a Telugu TTS system using concatenative synthesis method with syllable as a basic unit of concatenation.

  15. Speech of National Construction and National Policies of New Guangxi Junta%民族建设话语与新桂系的民族政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦福安

    2012-01-01

    The basic connotation of national construction is the identification of politics and national culture in a country. The New Guangxi Junta met the need of national construction to take national policies and sacrifice the equal rights of minorities.%民族建设的基本涵义是同一国家之内实现政治和民族文化的统一化。民国时期中国的民族建设话语是孙中山的“民族同化”思想和国民党的中央集权主义。广西新桂系势力迎合了这一民族建设诉求,实施了各项民族政策.取得一定的成就,同时也牺牲了少数民族的平等权利。但不管是民国时期的民族建设话语还是新桂系的民族政策.都必须“民族政策以民族平等团结、巩固和维系中华民族多元一体格局为基准,才能实现民族建设的目标。”

  16. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  17. Speech dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, L.C.W.

    2011-01-01

    In order for speech to be informative and communicative, segmental and suprasegmental variation is mandatory. Only this leads to meaningful words and sentences. The building blocks are no stable entities put next to each other (like beads on a string or like printed text), but there are gradual tran

  18. Use of propofol in pediatric intensive care units: a national survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruessell, Markus A; Udink ten Cate, Floris E A; Kraus, Anna-Julia; Roth, Bernhard; Trieschmann, Uwe

    2012-05-01

    Propofol is not licensed for sedation in pediatric intensive care medicine mainly due to the risk of propofol infusion syndrome. Nevertheless, it is applied by many pediatric intensive care units. The aim of this national survey was to asses the current use of propofol in pediatric intensive care units in Germany. We performed a nationwide survey. The questionnaire assessed the intensive care unit type, patient numbers, dosing, duration, age and time limits, indications, side effects, and institutional protocols for propofol usage. Pediatric intensive care units in Germany. Questionnaire about routine use of propofol sent to 214 pediatric departments. None. One hundred ninety-four questionnaires (90.7%) were returned, ten had to be censored. The final analysis comprised 184 questionnaires (134 pediatric/neonatal intensive care units, 28 pediatric intensive care units, 22 neonatal intensive care units). Seventy-nine percent of intensive care units (n = 145 of 184) used propofol in children under the age of 16 yrs. Of these, 98% were for bolus application (n = 142 of 145), 78% for infusion ≥3 hrs (n = 113 of 145), and 33% for infusion >3 hrs (n = 48 of 145). A lower age limit was applied by 52% (n = 75 of 145) and a dose limit by 51% (n = 74 of 145). The median dose limit was 4 mg/kg/hr; 48% (n = 70 of 145) used 3 mg/kg/hr or less. A time limit was applied by 98% (n = 46 of 47), 70% (n = 33 of 47) used it for ≤24 hrs, and 30% (n = 15 of 47) for >24 hrs. MAIN INDICATIONS FOR PROPOFOL APPLICATION WERE: difficult sedation (44%), postoperative ventilation (43%), and difficult extubation (30%). Seven cases of propofol infusion syndrome were reported by seven centers. This study shows that propofol is used off-license by many pediatric intensive care units in Ge. The majority of users has adopted tightly controlled regimens for propofol sedation, and limits the dose to ≤3-4 mg/kg/hr and the maximum application time to 24-48 hrs.

  19. Between local cultures and national styles: units of analysis in the history of electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2006-01-01

    The history of the discovery of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and the ensuing implementation of electroencephalography is characterized by striking national differences. The first publication on the EEG in 1929 by the German psychiatrist Hans Berger was met with skepticism. Substantial work in this area did not start before the public demonstration of the EEG by the British neurophysiologist Edgar Douglas Adrian in 1934. Soon afterwards, many groups specialized in the new method, particularly in the US, whereas interest remained more limited in France and Britain. A comparative analysis of the rise of electroencephalography has certainly to account for such national differences, but the trajectory of the implementation of this technology calls for an investigation of local research cultures in order to identify units of productivity and to understand the dynamics along this trajectory.

  20. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2011 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Gadimova, S; Danov, D; Georgieva, K; Maeda, G; Yumoto, K; Davila, J M; Gopalswami, N

    2011-01-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. One major recommendation that emanated from these workshops was the establishment of astronomical facilities in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level. Such workshops on BSS emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a worldwide basis. Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful ...

  1. Data on nation-wide activity in intensive cardiac care units in France in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Roubille

    2017-08-01

    A French nation-wide database on 277,845 admissions in 270 ICCUs”.(10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.04.002 (Roubille et al., 2017 [1]: the main characteristics of the pathologies managed in the intensive cardiac care units (ICCUs, the details on the interventions performed and the main differences between centers following the size of the centers and a figure presenting the monthly variations of admissions in the ICCUs in France in a total of 277,845 patients in 270 centers admitted at least one time in the ICCUs in 2014 (exhaustive data.

  2. Analysis Of Comparative Law, Arbitration Rules Of The United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (Uncitral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donoso Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a study of comparative law between the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL, specifically established in the Arbitration Rules, and the arbitration in Ecuadorian system. The paper first defines the concept of arbitration, international arbitration differentiating domestic arbitration. In a second time, there are a historical reference both as an institution and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Following, the author show a background study, Arbitration and Mediation Ecuadorian Law. Finally appears the comparation between the two systems, with the resulting conclusions.

  3. Architecture and “Indigenous” Heritage: National Museums in Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Francisco; profesor de tiempo completo del Departamento de Arquitectura Universidad de Puebla

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies the principal characteristics and meanings of the architecture in three important museums that exhibit pre-Columbian collections side by side with the present situation of native peoples in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The three analyzed museums are the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City, projected by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez (1964); the Canadian Museum of Civilization of Ottawa-Gatineau, build by Douglas Cardinal (1989), and the National Museum of the...

  4. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  5. The United Nations Probabilistic Population Projections: An Introduction to Demographic Forecasting with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick; Raftery, Adrian; Wilmoth, John

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations publishes projections of populations around the world and breaks these down by age and sex. Traditionally, they are produced with standard demographic methods based on assumptions about future fertility rates, survival probabilities, and migration counts. Such projections, however, were not accompanied by formal statements of uncertainty expressed in probabilistic terms. In July 2014 the UN for the first time issued official probabilistic population projections for all countries to 2100. These projections quantify uncertainty associated with future fertility and mortality trends worldwide. This review article summarizes the probabilistic population projection methods and presents forecasts for population growth over the rest of this century.

  6. United Nations principles on remote sensing - Report on developments, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Fuqua, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) to reach a consensus on legal principles governing the international use of remote sensing of the earth from space. The proceedings of the Working Group from 1971 to 1974 and the Legal Subcommittee from 1973 to 1980 are presented. Though the Committee has reached agreement on certain points, some key questions remain unresolved relative to dissemination of data and to the need for or method of classifying remote sensing data based on spatial resolution. An appendix of texts and draft principles worked out by COPUOS is also presented.

  7. Architecture and “Indigenous” Heritage: National Museums in Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Francisco; profesor de tiempo completo del Departamento de Arquitectura Universidad de Puebla

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies the principal characteristics and meanings of the architecture in three important museums that exhibit pre-Columbian collections side by side with the present situation of native peoples in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The three analyzed museums are the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City, projected by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez (1964); the Canadian Museum of Civilization of Ottawa-Gatineau, build by Douglas Cardinal (1989), and the National Museum of the...

  8. Conceptual salt marsh units for wetland synthesis: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The salt marsh complex of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay (New Jersey, USA), was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location is used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit while the surface slope is used to automatically assign each unit a drainage point, where water is expected to drain through. Through scientific efforts associated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started to expand national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study.Recent research shows that sediment budgets of microtidal marsh complexes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States consistently scale with areal unvegetated/vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) despite differences in sea-level rise, tidal range, elevation, vegetation, and stressors. This highlights UVVR as a broadly applicable indicator of microtidal marsh stability. It is also relatively quicker and less labor intensive compared to quantifying integrative sediment budgets and the associated transport mechanisms that requires extended tidal-timescale observations of sediment transport. UVVR indicates the link between open-water conversion processes and sediment transport, providing consistent results across a geomorphic and climatic spectrum of microtidal marshes, hence can be an independent measure of marsh health. Potentially, tracking future changes to UVVR may allow for widespread

  9. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  10. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  11. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was...

  13. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  15. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  16. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  18. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  19. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  20. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was...

  5. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  6. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  7. Recent Trends in Free Speech Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    This syllabus of a convention workshop course on free speech theory consists of descriptions of several United States Supreme Court decisions related to free speech. Some specific areas in which decisions are discussed are: obscene and indecent communication, the definition of a public figure for purposes of libel action, the press versus official…

  8. Pronunciation Modeling for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The large pronunciation variability of words in conversational speech is one of the major causes of low accuracy in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Many pronunciation modeling approaches have been developed to address this problem. Some explicitly manipulate the pronunciation dictionary as well as the set of the units used to define the…

  9. Childhood Apraxia of Speech Family Start Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is right for every child with apraxia of speech. Commercial products, programs, apps or kits can be […] Read More What To Look for In an SLP for Your Child In the United States, speech-language pathologists (SLP) are certified by the American ...

  10. William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy: Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- T R- 14 -2 9 William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy Nomination to the National...client/default. ERDC/CERL TR-14-29 October 2014 William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy Nomination to the National...object. This document contains the nomination form and all supporting docu- mentation for listing the William Barstow Mansion property, located at

  11. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  12. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  13. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.46 Section 1235.46... TRANSFER OF RECORDS TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES Transfer Specifications and Standards... to the National Archives of the United States. (See 36 CFR 1236.28 for the requirements governing...

  14. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  15. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  16. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  17. 78 FR 30393 - Preparations for the 43rd Session of the United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Administration Preparations for the 43rd Session of the United Nations Sub- Committee of Experts on the Transport... preparation for United Nations meetings being held in Geneva, Switzerland, this summer. PHMSA is hosting the... portion of the meeting to discuss proposals in preparation for the 25th session of the United Nations...

  18. Reduced cognitive function in children with toxocariasis in a nationally representative sample of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2012-12-01

    Toxocariasis has recently been recognised as a potentially important neglected infection in developed countries, particularly those that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. Given a relatively high prevalence of infection, an association between Toxocara infection and cognitive function may elucidate an important mechanism by which toxocariasis could contribute significantly to morbidity while still remaining hidden and, thus, neglected. To assess the potential relationship between toxocariasis and cognitive function, this investigation measured differences in components of both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) in children seropositive and in children seronegative for Toxocara antibodies in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large, nationally-representative survey of the United States population. Seropositive children scored significantly lower on the WISC-R and WRAT-R compared with the seronegative children. Moreover, this relationship was independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, rural residence, cytomegalovirus infection and blood lead levels. These results identify an important association that may reflect morbidity attributable to a genuine neglected infection. Nevertheless, longitudinal data are required to confirm an etiological connection between toxocariasis and cognitive function, as well as the true population attributable risk for toxocariasis and its chronic sequelae.

  19. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life Insurance...

  20. A Comparative Review of Music Education in Mainland China and the United States: From Nationalism to Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare interactions between social changes and the integration of nationalism and multiculturalism in the context of music education by focusing on the ways in which the governmental politics of mainland China and the United States have managed nationalism and diversity in school music education. This paper also explores…

  1. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge. This notice advises the public that we intend to gather...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas in Jurassis-Cretaceous Strata Gulf Coast, 2010 (Provinces 047, 048 and 049) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Paleogene System and Cretaceous-Tertiary Coalbed Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. Speech communications in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  6. A new national unit for invasive species detection, assessment and eradication planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. U. Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Even with no new introductions, the number of biological invasions in South Africa will increase as introduced species naturalise and become invasive. As of 2010 South Africa had ~8750 introduced plant taxa, 660 recorded as naturalised, 198 included in invasive species legislation, but only 64 subject to regular control (i.e. only widespread invaders are managed post-border. There is only one documented example of a successful eradication programme in continental South Africa against the Mediterranean snail (Otala punctata in Cape Town. Here we describe the establishment in 2008 of a unit funded by the Working for Water Programme as part of the South African National Biodiversity Institute's Invasive Species Programme (SANBI ISP designed to (1 detect and document new invasions, (2 provide reliable and transparent post-border risk assessments and (3 provide the cross-institutional coordination needed to successfully implement national eradication plans. As of the end of 2012, the ISP had an annual budget of R36 million, employed 33 staff working across all nine provinces, supported 10 postgraduate students, hosted 35 interns (including those as part of a drive to collect DNA barcodes for all invasive taxa and created over 50 000 days of work as part of government poverty alleviation programmes. The unit has worked towards full risk assessments for 39 plant taxa and has developed eradication plans for seven species; the unit is now helping implement these plans. By focusing on science-based management and policy, we argue that SANBI ISP can play a leading role in preventing introduced species from becoming widespread invaders.

  7. National trends in the ambulatory treatment of hypertension in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijia Zhou

    Full Text Available Hypertension is common and costly. Over the past decade, new antihypertensive therapies have been developed, several have lost patent protection and additional evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these agents has accrued.To examine trends in the use of antihypertensive therapies in the United States between 1997 and 2012.We used nationally representative audit data from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index to examine the ambulatory pharmacologic treatment of hypertension.Our primary unit of analysis was a visit where hypertension was a reported diagnosis and treated with a pharmacotherapy (treatment visit. We restricted analyses to the use of six therapeutic classes of antihypertensive medications among individuals 18 years or older.Annual hypertension treatment visits increased from 56.9 million treatment visits (95% confidence intervals [CI], 53.9-59.8 in 1997 to 83.3 million visits (CI 79.2-87.3 in 2008, then declined steadily to 70.9 million visits (CI 66.7-75.0 by 2012. Angiotensin receptor blocker utilization increased substantially from 3% of treatment visits in 1997 to 18% by 2012, whereas calcium channel blocker use decreased from 27% to 18% of visits. Rates of diuretic and beta-blocker use remained stable and represented 24%-30% and 14-16% of visits, respectively. Use of direct renin inhibitor accounted for fewer than 2% of annual visits. The proportion of visits treated using fixed-dose combination therapies increased from 28% to 37% of visits.Several important changes have occurred in the landscape of antihypertensive treatment in the United States during the past decade. Despite their novel mechanism of action, the adoption rate of direct renin inhibitors remains low.

  8. Monitoring Solar-terrestrial Interaction at the United Nations Office at Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, Sharafat; Haubold, Hans

    Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events. Stanford's Solar Center, Electrical Engineering Department developed inexpensive space weather monitors that scholars around the world can use to track changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Two versions of the monitors exist -a low-cost version named SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances) designed to detect solar flares; and a more sensitive version named AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) that provides both solar and nighttime research-quality data. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), such monitors have been deployed to high schools and universities in developing nations of the world for the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI, see http://www.stil.bas.bg/ISWI/). The monitors come preassem-bled, the hosts build their own antenna, and provide a computer to record the data and an internet connection to share their data with worldwide network of SIDs and AWESOMEs. These networks are advancing the understanding of the fundamental heliophysical processes that govern the Sun, Earth and heliosphere, particularly phenomena of space weather. Mon-itoring the fundamental processes responsible for solar-terrestrial coupling are vital to being able to understand the influence of the Sun on the near-Earth environment. A SID monitor is successfully operating at the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) and will be extended to an AWESOME shortly. This project will also be supported by the programme on global naviga-tion satellite systems (GNSS) applications, implemented through the International Committee on GNSS (ICG, see http://www.icgsecretariat.org).

  9. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  10. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  11. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1) discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols, and analytical

  12. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1 discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols

  13. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  14. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL. We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050 conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5–5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the different parks with the goal of protecting the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40–85% of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion. We then project future changes in N deposition using the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52–73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19–50% increases in US ammonia (NH3 emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17–25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14–18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 will require at least a 55% decrease in anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  15. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL. We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050 conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5–5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the different parks to protect the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40–85% of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion. We project future changes in N deposition using representative concentration pathway (RCP anthropogenic emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52–73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19–50% increases in US ammonia (NH3 emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17–25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14–18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 would require at least a 50% decrease in US anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  16. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Zhang, L.; Holmes, C. D.; Schichtel, B. A.; Blett, T.; Porter, E.; Pardo, L. H.; Lynch, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture) may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL). We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050) conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5-5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the different parks to protect the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40-85%) of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion). We project future changes in N deposition using representative concentration pathway (RCP) anthropogenic emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52-73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19-50% increases in US ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17-25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14-18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 would require at least a 50% decrease in US anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  17. Comparing Oral Health Care Utilization Estimates in the United States Across Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D; Manski, Richard J; Vargas, Clemencia M; Moeller, John

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare estimates of dental visits among adults using three national surveys. Data Sources/Study Design Cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and National Health Expenditure surveys (NMCES, NMES, MEPS). Study Design This secondary data analysis assessed whether overall estimates and stratum-specific trends are different across surveys. Data Collection Dental visit data are age standardized via the direct method to the 1990 population of the United States. Point estimates, standard errors, and test statistics are generated using SUDAAN. Principal Findings Sociodemographic, stratum-specific trends are generally consistent across surveys; however, overall estimates differ (NHANES III [364-day estimate] versus 1993 NHIS: –17.5 percent difference, Z=7.27, p value < 0.001; NHANES III [365-day estimate] vs. 1993 NHIS: 5.4 percent difference, Z=–2.50, p value=0.006; MEPS vs. 1993 NHIS: –29.8 percent difference, Z=16.71, p value < 0.001). MEPS is the least susceptible to intrusion, telescoping, and social desirability. Conclusions Possible explanations for discrepancies include different reference periods, lead-in statements, question format, and social desirability of responses. Choice of survey should depend on the hypothesis. If trends are necessary, choice of survey should not matter; however, if health status or expenditure associations are necessary, then surveys that contain these variables should be used, and if accurate overall estimates are necessary, then MEPS should be used. A validation study should be conducted to establish “true” utilization estimates. PMID:12036005

  18. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2006-08-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  20. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (au)

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2007 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2005. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2007-10-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2005 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  2. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    4. We talk about the managerial state because we want to locate managerialism as a cultural formation and a distinctive set of ideologies and...Tuesday of May. The Government presents the Budget Papers and budget-related documents. The Treasurer summarises the budget in his Budget Speech

  3. Phoneme vs Grapheme Based Automatic Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Magimai.-Doss, Mathew; Dines, John; Bourlard, Hervé; Hermansky, Hynek

    2004-01-01

    In recent literature, different approaches have been proposed to use graphemes as subword units with implicit source of phoneme information for automatic speech recognition. The major advantage of using graphemes as subword units is that the definition of lexicon is easy. In previous studies, results comparable to phoneme-based automatic speech recognition systems have been reported using context-independent graphemes or context-dependent graphemes with decision trees. In this paper, we study...

  4. After the Ainu Shinpō: The United Nations and the Indigenous People of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Porter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Government recognised the cultural importance of their minority Ainu population in 1997. They designed a law to help protect the dying culture of the people; however the government has been less forthcoming to acknowledge indigenous aspects of the Ainu. Ten years after the creation of this law, the United Nations brought forward the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, a declaration to strengthen not only cultural rights, but also land and self-determination rights. Japan voted in favour of this declaration even though Japanese representatives have made mostly negative comments on the declaration. This article explores the significance of indigenous rights in Japan and how the Japanese Government uses the guise of upholding individual rights to ignore indigenous rights in Japan.

  5. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  6. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdal Aral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history. It argues that, contrary to expectations, the SC has failed to confront all credible threats to regional or international peace in a consistent and convincing manner which has dramatically diminished the reliability of this powerful UN body. This paper argues that the problem lies in the problematical structure of, and decision-making in, the SC and in its instrumentalisation at the hands of a handful of states seeking hegemony, inter alia, through this body. The Darfur and East Timor cases, taken up by the SC after the Cold War through a series of resolutions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, are taken as test cases indicating the extent of politicisation in this organ.

  7. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdal Aral

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history. It argues that, contrary to expectations, the SC has failed to confront all credible threats to regional or international peace in a consistent and convincing manner which has dramatically diminished the reliability of this powerful UN body. This paper argues that the problem lies in the problematical structure of, and decision-making in, the SC and in its instrumentalisation at the hands of a handful of states seeking hegemony, inter alia, through this body. The Darfur and East Timor cases, taken up by the SC after the Cold War through a series of resolutions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, are taken as test cases indicating the extent of politicisation in this organ.

  8. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  9. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. © 2013 ACOTA.

  10. The 70th Anniversary of the Creation of the United Nations: Giving Peace a Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet-Fernández

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available War and peace perpetually alternate. Peace is always seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be realised in brotherhood by everyone all over the earth. During the last centuries, outstanding endeavours have been undertaken by the international community to create an international order free from wars through the strengthening of mechanisms aimed at promoting peaceful settlement of disputes. The UN Charter is the most solemn pact of peace in history, which lays down the necessary basic principles for an enduring peace, such as the full respect of fundamental rights. Today, in the context of the 70th Anniversary of the creation of the United Nations, the Human Rights Council should raise the voice of victims to strongly condemn war and to openly reiterate our inalienable right to live in a context in which war and conflict are progressively eliminated on earth through the promotion of mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for human rights and peaceful relationships.

  11. The role of Ethiopia's public universities in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has taken centre stage in facilitating the country's aim of equipping a new generation with the expertise needed to fuel the country's economic development. While impressive strides have been made over the last two decades, various development challenges threaten to derail this promising progress. This article examines three of the main challenges - urbanisation, climate change and food security - and the potential for universities to address them. Based on a study using key informant analysis research with 50 experts in Ethiopian education and development, the author concludes that the developing public university system offers promising capabilities to assist the country on its developmental path despite many inherent problems.

  12. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  13. The United Nations' humanitarian pillar: refocusing the UN's disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Randolph C

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the nature of humanitarian crises and in the ways that the international community responds to such crises demand a radically overhauled role for the United Nations system. At a time when the UN and its member states are pursuing reform of some of that institution's most fundamental peace and security functions, this paper suggests that reform, too, is required to meet humanitarian crises of the future. This paper proposes a new type of operational role for the UN, while at the same time arguing that the UN has to place itself in the vanguard of humanitarian assistance as "the standard-bearer". The article draws many of its conclusions and recommendations from a recently completed study, requested by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, concerning the effect for the UN system of changes in humanitarian financing.

  14. Affinity communities in United Nations voting: Implications for democracy, cooperation, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Scott D.; Cranmer, Skyler J.

    2017-10-01

    A network oriented examination of the co-voting network of the United Nations (UN) provides powerful insights into the international alignment of states, as well as normatively important processes such as democracy, defensive cooperation, and armed conflict. Here, we investigate the UN co-voting network using the tools of community detection and inductively identify ;affinity communities; in which states articulate similar policy preferences through their voting patterns. Analysis of these communities reveals that there is more information contained in UN voting and co-voting patterns than has previously been thought. Affinity communities have complex relationships with some of the most normatively important international outcomes: they reflect transitions to democracy, have a feedback loop with the formation of defensive alliances, and actively help states avoid armed conflict.

  15. Status Report on the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI)

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the UN Programme on Space Applications leads the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative by contributing to the international and regional development of astronomy and space science through annual UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA workshops on basic space science, International Heliophysical Year 2007, and the International Space Weather Initiative. Space weather is the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The programme also coordinates the development of IHY/ISWI low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays. To date, 14 world-wide instrument arrays comprising approximately 1000 instruments (GPS receivers, magnetometers, spectrometers, particle detectors) are operating in more than 71 countries. The most recent workshop was hosted by the Republic of Korea in 2009 for Asia and the Pacific. Annual workshops on ...

  16. Hello World, It's Me: Bringing the Basic Speech Communication Course into the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Jessica; Gutgold, Nichola D.; Manley, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, instructors of speech communication have been adapting the introductory speech course to keep up with the television age. Learning units in speech textbooks now teach how to speak well on television, as well as how to interpret speeches in the media. This article argues that the computer age invites adaptation of the…

  17. Hello World, It's Me: Bringing the Basic Speech Communication Course into the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Jessica; Gutgold, Nichola D.; Manley, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, instructors of speech communication have been adapting the introductory speech course to keep up with the television age. Learning units in speech textbooks now teach how to speak well on television, as well as how to interpret speeches in the media. This article argues that the computer age invites adaptation of the…

  18. Going to a Speech Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Going to a Speech Therapist KidsHealth > For Kids > Going to a Speech Therapist ... therapists (also called speech-language pathologists ). What Do Speech Therapists Help With? Speech therapists help people of all ...

  19. A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D E; Emmons, C A; Wallenstein, S; Quill, T; Morrison, R S; Cassel, C K

    1998-04-23

    Although there have been many studies of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States, national data are lacking. In 1996, we mailed questionnaires to a stratified probability sample of 3102 physicians in the 10 specialties in which doctors are most likely to receive requests from patients for assistance with suicide or euthanasia. We weighted the results to obtain nationally representative data. We received 1902 completed questionnaires (response rate, 61 percent). Eleven percent of the physicians said that under current legal constraints, there were circumstances in which they would be willing to hasten a patient's death by prescribing medication, and 7 percent said that they would provide a lethal injection; 36 percent and 24 percent, respectively, said that they would do so if it were legal. Since entering practice, 18.3 percent of the physicians (unweighted number, 320) reported having received a request from a patient for assistance with suicide and 11.1 percent (unweighted number, 196) had received a request for a lethal injection. Sixteen percent of the physicians receiving such requests (unweighted number, 42), or 3.3 percent of the entire sample, reported that they had written at least one prescription to be used to hasten death, and 4.7 percent (unweighted number, 59), said that they had administered at least one lethal injection. A substantial proportion of physicians in the United States report that they receive requests for physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and about 7 percent of those who responded to our survey have complied with such requests at least once.

  20. Community health worker training and certification programs in the United States: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; May, Marlynn Lee; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2007-01-01

    To analyze trends and various approaches to professional development in selected community health worker (CHW) training and certification programs in the United States. We examined the expected outcomes and goals of different training and certification programs related to individual CHWs as well as the community they serve. A national survey of CHW training and certification programs. Data collection was performed through personal interviews, phone interviews and focus groups. Data sources included public health officials, healthcare associations, CHW networks, community colleges, and service providers. Initial screening interviews resulted in in-depth interviews with participants in 19 states. We applied human capital theory concepts to the analysis of the rich qualitative data collected in each state. CHW programs in the U.S. seem to have been initiated mainly due to lack of access to healthcare services in culturally, economically, and geographically isolated communities. Three trends in CHW workforce development were identified from the results of the national survey: (1) schooling at the community college level - provides career advancement opportunities; (2) on-the-job training - improves standards of care, CHW income, and retention; and (3) certification at the state level - recognizes the work of CHWs, and facilitates Medicaid reimbursement for CHW services. Study findings present opportunities for CHW knowledge and skill improvement approaches that can be targeted at specific individual career, service agency, or community level goals. Trained and/or certified community health workers are a potential new and skilled healthcare workforce that could help improve healthcare access and utilization among underserved populations in the United States.