WorldWideScience

Sample records for united nations climate

  1. United Nations Climate Change Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The journal has printed a collection of five articles published just before the July 1996 second Conference of the Parties (COP-2) where some 160 countries were to meet to work on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Raul Estrado-Oyuela discusses the progress of the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) now half-way through its two-year task of preparing a protocol or other legal instrument to further the goals of the Convention and recommends directions for further effort. Vitaly Matsarki reviews national efforts to implement the Convention. Dr. Angela Merkel, presents her views on the lines that ministers should take at COP-2.

  2. United Nations negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is a global environmental issue which is the subject of intergovernmental negotiations in the United Nations system. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) recommended to the UN General Assembly a four-track strategy relating to climate change: improved monitoring and assessment; increased research; development of internationally agreed policies to reduce greenhouse gases; and adoption of strategies to minimize impacts of climate change. The UN hosted a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 to attempt to find a common basis for action to protect the Earth's future and to secure a sustainable and equitable process of development. The focal point for UNCED efforts related to climate change is the Protection of the Atmosphere chapter of Agenda 21. Program A of this agenda contains responses to the WCED recommendations and Program B includes promotion of sustainable development in energy development, transportation, industry, and resource development. A framework convention on climate change was developed by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee established in 1990 and adopted by 130-140 countries. This convention includes general and specific obligations such as stabilization and control of greenhouse gas concentrations, development of emission inventories, and provision of financial resources to aid developing countries in responding to the climate change problem. 3 refs

  3. United Nations Climate Change Conference. Nairobi 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP 2), in conjunction with the twelfth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP 12), in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. The conference also included, from 6 to 14 November, the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 25), the twenty-fifth session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 25), and the second session of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG 2) including an in-session workshop. The site contains many of the reports and documents relevant to the conference

  4. Sweden's third national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Sweden's national communication to the UN Convention on Climate Change describes everything about the emission and absorption of greenhouse gases, the motives and forces behind emissions, and official Swedish climate policies. Every five years, Sweden submits a communication on practical climate efforts in Sweden to the UN Convention on Climate Change. The Swedish Environmental Protection Board has coordinated the work of producing the basic documentation for the communication, which also describes the measures already taken and those planned for the future. In addition, scenarios have been adopted for developments in Swedish greenhouse gas emissions, Sweden's vulnerability and Swedish research into the climate and climate change

  5. Denmark's forth national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Kingdom of Denmark comprises Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been ratified on behalf of all three parts. This report is Denmark's Fourth Climate Communication under the Climate Convention. Since Denmark's ratification covers the entire Realm, the report includes information on Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The report is organised in accordance with the guidelines for national communications adopted by the parties to the Climate Convention. (BA)

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.; Rasmussen, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  7. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy.

  8. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy. (letter)

  9. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  10. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  11. Canada's national report on climate change: Actions to meet commitments under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries must adopt measures to mitigate climate change, adapt to its possible effects, increase public awareness and scientific understanding of climate change and possible responses, and work together in all of these areas. A review is provided of action being currently taken by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments. Projections indicate that climate change could result in significant changes to many of Canada's natural ecosystems, with equally significant economic and social consequences. Canadian demand for energy is the chief cause of Canada's man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. As a first step in meeting its commitment, Canada is developing and implementing measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions, mainly in the area of energy efficiency, energy conservation, and switching to energy sources that are less carbon-intensive. Progress in limiting such emissions will be assessed via emissions inventories, examination of climatic change indicators, forecasting future energy-related emissions of the three primary greenhouse gases, and use of case studies to assess the effectiveness of emissions control measures. Other components of Canadian activities include increasing public awareness of climate change, sponsoring research on the subject, reviewing environmental policies, and international cooperation. 59 refs., 36 figs., 23 tabs

  12. Denmark's forth national communication on climate change. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Kingdom of Denmark comprises Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has been ratified on behalf of all three parts. This report is Denmark's Fourth Climate Communication under the Climate Convention. Since Denmark's ratification covers the entire Realm, the report includes information on Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. The report is organised in accordance with the guidelines for national communications adopted by the parties to the Climate Convention. (BA)

  13. Denmark's second national communication on climate change. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, L.; Torp, U.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-09-01

    At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 more than 150 countries signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to decisions taken under article 12 of the Convention each developed country Party shall communicate to the Convention secretariat its second national report presenting inter-alia inventories of emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse related gases. This report represents the Danish programmes and measures taken to observe the commitments under the Climate Convention. The revised 1996 IPCC guidelines have been applied to N 2 O from agriculture and the pollutants not earlier included (SO 2 , HFCs, CFCs and SF 6 ). Background material and data underlying the calculations in the report are available upon request to the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. A very comprehensive and thorough description is given of the programmes and plans for the energy sector with additional information presented in Annexes F and I. The twofold purpose is to give a detailed documentation of how Denmark will meet the ambitious target to reduce the emission of CO 2 by 20% by the year 2005 compared to 1988 and to inspire other Parties to the Convention in efforts to control their present as well as their future emissions of the most important greenhouse gases. (EG) 16 refs

  14. Adapting to climate change in United States national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. M. Blate; L. A. Joyce; J. S. Littell; S. G. McNulty; C. I. Millar; S. C. Moser; R. P. Neilson; K. O’Halloran; D. L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is already affecting forests and other ecosystems, and additional, potentially more severe impacts are expected (IPCC, 2007; CCSP, 2008a, 2008b). As a result, forest managers are seeking practical guidance on how to adapt their current practices and, if necessary, their goals. Adaptations of forest ecosystems, which in this context refer to adjustments...

  15. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O......, CO, NMVOC, SO2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  16. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 . (au)

  17. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . (au)

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2008 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2006. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M [and others

    2008-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2006 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  19. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  20. France's fifth national communication submitted under the United Nations framework on Climate Change. November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of France's national context (institutions, demography, geography, climate, economy), this document proposes information related to greenhouse gas emission inventory, a description of policy and measures aimed notably at meeting Kyoto's protocol requirements, a discussion of projections and of an assessment of the total effect of these policy and measures, a discussion of vulnerability assessment, climate change impacts and adaptation measures, a presentation of financial resources and technology transfer actions, a presentation of research actions and systematic observations, and a presentation of actions in the fields of education, training and public participation

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2005 - submitted under the United Nations frameword convention on climate change. 1990-2003. Emission Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    This report is Denmkark's National Inventory Report (NIR) due by 15 April 2005 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 2003. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines on reporting and review and the report includes detailed information on the inventories for all years from the base year to the year of the current annual inventory submission, in order to ensure the transparency of the inventory. (au)

  2. Climate change and agriculture under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and related documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Angelo, Mary Jane; du Plessis, Anél

    Agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Agriculture is also among the sectors that will suffer the largest negative impacts of climate change, for which, consequently, huge adaptation efforts are needed. At the same time this sector faces the challenge of feeding a

  3. Mid­west. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third national climate assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara C. Pryor; Donald Scavia; Charles Downer; Marc Gaden; Louis Iverson; Rolf Nordstrom; Jonathan Patz; G. Phillip. Robertson

    2014-01-01

    In the next few decades, longer growing seasons and rising carbon dioxide levels will increase yields of some crops, though those benefits will be progressively offset by extreme weather events. Though adaptation options can reduce some of the detrimental effects, in the long term, the combined stresses associated with climate change are expected to decrease...

  4. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  5. The second Swedish national report on climate changes. Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish policy and measures for mitigating the climatic change and an inventory of Swedish greenhouse gas emissions are reported. 80% of these emission are carbon dioxide, and the transport sector is responsible for 33% of the emissions. Emissions from the energy sector and industry have been reduced, while the emissions from transports are increasing. The Swedish forests are a carbon sink, with a net accumulation of about 30 M tons/year, which roughly corresponds to half the emission of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels

  6. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  7. RINGOs. Research and Independent Non-governmental Organisations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    RINGOs are organizations engaged in independent research and analysis aimed at developing sound strategies to address both the causes and consequences of global climate change. They form a constituency in their own right to contribute to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in a parallel way to ENGOs (Environment), BINGOs (Business and Industry), LGMAs (Local governments and municipal authorities) and the IPOs (Indigenous peoples organizations). During the COP and SB meetings of the UNFCCC the RINGOs organize meetings to discuss the developments of the negotiations. RINGOs have also been represented at workshops organized by the UNFCCC Secretariat. RINGO activities are co-ordinated by a steering committee

  8. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2006-08-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  9. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (au)

  10. Denmark's national inventory report 2007 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2005. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2007-10-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2005 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  11. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  12. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning and Climate Change: Analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. Objectives: We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. Methods: We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001–2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results: Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5–3.5°C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200–400%. Conclusions: Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change. Citation: Gingold DB, Strickland MJ, Hess JJ. 2014. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center data in the United States, 2001–2011. Environ Health Perspect 122:580–586; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307196 PMID:24618280

  13. Canada's national report on actions to meet commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Current actions by Canadian governments, non-governmental organizations, communities, and the private sector to meet domestic and international climate change commitments are reviewed. The possible impacts of climate change on Canada are discussed and Canadian greenhouse gas emissions are assessed in terms of factors such as climate, geography, land use, economic structure, and energy production and consumption. Canada's draft National Action Strategy on Global Warming provides a framework for actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Measures already taken include those aimed at increasing energy efficiency and energy conservation or encouraging a switch to less carbon-intensive energy sources. Other measures include information and education initiatives, regulation, research and development, and economic instruments. Actions have already been taken in the transportation, electricity generation, residential/commercial, resource/manufacturing industry, and waste management sectors. Canada is also involved in international studies and agreements to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. Four tools are used to assess progress in limiting emissions: emission inventories, climate change indicators, an emissions outlook, and case studies. The emissions outlook presented shows that energy-related greenhouse gas emissions will increase 10.6% from 1990 to 2000, reaching the equivalent of 538.2 megatonnes of CO 2 . A case study shows that current and planned measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions associated with space heating requirements in new single-family homes will reduce emissions in this area 18% from what they would otherwise be in the year 2000. 58 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs

  14. International cooperative initiatives and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key ...... efforts under the UNFCCC is uncertain, but believed to be quite large. •The UNFCCC is arguably ill suited to coordinate and strengthen the accountability of international cooperative initiatives.......International cooperative initiatives (ICIs) are multi-country, multi-actor non-state actions that have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The article summarizes the literature on estimates of emission reduction potentials attributed to ICIs. This summary highlights three key...... transparent performance monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The article concludes with two considerations. Firstly, it advocates for the United Nations Environment Programme as one entity that could bring much-needed coordination among ICIs, and between ICIs and national government-led efforts to mitigate...

  15. Denmark's national inventory report 2005 - submitted under the United Nations frameword convention on climate change. 1990-2003. Emission Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.

    2005-12-20

    This report is Denmkark's National Inventory Report (NIR) due by 15 April 2005 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 2003. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines on reporting and review and the report includes detailed information on the inventories for all years from the base year to the year of the current annual inventory submission, in order to ensure the transparency of the inventory. (au)

  16. Denmark's national inventory report 2008 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2006. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2006 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFC{sub s}, PFC{sub s} and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning and climate change: analysis of National Poison Center Data in the United States, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel B; Strickland, Matthew J; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-06-01

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are positively related to incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Increased severe storm frequency may create more habitat for ciguatoxic organisms. Although climate change could expand the endemic range of CFP, the relationship between CFP incidence and specific environmental conditions is unknown. We estimated associations between monthly CFP incidence in the contiguous United States and SST and storm frequency in the Caribbean basin. We obtained information on 1,102 CFP-related calls to U.S. poison control centers during 2001-2011 from the National Poison Data System. We performed a time-series analysis using Poisson regression to relate monthly CFP call incidence to SST and tropical storms. We investigated associations across a range of plausible lag structures. Results showed associations between monthly CFP calls and both warmer SSTs and increased tropical storm frequency. The SST variable with the strongest association linked current monthly CFP calls to the peak August SST of the previous year. The lag period with the strongest association for storms was 18 months. If climate change increases SST in the Caribbean 2.5-3.5 °C over the coming century as projected, this model implies that CFP incidence in the United States is likely to increase 200-400%. Using CFP calls as a marker of CFP incidence, these results clarify associations between climate variability and CFP incidence and suggest that, all other things equal, climate change could increase the burden of CFP. These findings have implications for disease prediction, surveillance, and public health preparedness for climate change.

  18. Engage, discover, apply, learn, repeat: Implementing a Sustained National Climate Assessment within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of potential impacts and adaptations to global environmental change evaluate the continuously evolving state of science through the lens of relevance to challenges such as planning long-lived infrastructure and managing risks to property, ecosystems, public health, and other valued assets or objectives. These planning and decision contexts present varied challenges, including: multiple attributes at risk from interacting environmental and socioeconomic trends; uncertainties (scientific and otherwise); partial solutions with indefinite costs and benefits; and tradeoffs across stakeholder groups. Research and evaluation of assessments indicate they convey information that is more usable and relevant to decision makers if they are designed as sustained interactions of pertinent scientific and user communities and result in products beyond written reports. This talk will report on the work of a Federal Advisory Committee for the Sustained National Climate Assessment (SNCA) to develop recommendations to increase the SNCA's relevance and usability. The recommendations build on the conclusions of a 2013 report by the predecessor SNCA advisory committee and suggest next steps for (1) engagement, (2) provision of core scientific products, (3) tailoring of information and tools to provide insights under uncertainty, and (4) evaluation of products and outcomes. The recommended process focuses on providing insights relevant to consideration of risks and solutions. While resulting in a wide range of products and outcomes on an ongoing basis, aggregation and assessment of emerging insights and good practice for supporting decision making under uncertainty would recur over a four-year adaptive management cycle in the context of the preparation of the US national assessment report mandated under the Global Change Research Act. Uncertainty about the future role of Federal agencies in the assessment process and opportunities for increased engagement by non-Federal actors

  19. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L D Danny

    2007-01-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5-4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO 2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K; and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO 2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO 2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO 2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO 2 concentration to peak at 10-40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate

  20. The appeasement effect of a United Nations climate summit on the German public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Michael; de Silva-Schmidt, Fenja; Hoppe, Imke; Arlt, Dorothee; Schmitt, Josephine B.

    2017-11-01

    The annual UN climate summits receive intense global media coverage, and as such could engage local publics around the world, stimulate debate and knowledge about climate politics, and, ultimately, mobilize people to combat climate change. Here we show that, in contrast to these hopes, although the German public were exposed to news about the 2015 Paris summit, they did not engage with it in a more active way. Comparing knowledge and attitudes before, during and after the summit using a three-wave online panel survey (quota sample, N = 1,121), we find that respondents learnt a few basic facts about the conference but they continue to lack basic background knowledge about climate policy. Trust in global climate policy increased a little, but citizens were less inclined to support a leading role for Germany in climate politics. Moreover, they were not more likely to engage personally in climate protection. These results suggest that this global media event had a modest appeasing rather than mobilizing effect.

  1. NO global warming = YES nuclear energy. The International Nuclear Forum and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Emma

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry sits along side the renewable energy sector in its role as a non carbon emitting technology. But persuading international political leaders of this fact presents a challenge. Generating electricity from nuclear fuel avoids at least 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide every year through its 16% share of world wide electricity generation. Nuclear energy is essential to minimising greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation highlights the main issues resulting from the climate change negotiations that are highly relevant to the industry; explains the activities of the International Nuclear Forum and our interaction with the delegates to the process; outlines future activities. The International Nuclear Forum (INF) was formed to provide a collective voice lobbying for nuclear at the climate change negotiations. It's internationally representative of the industry and comprises of: the Uranium Institute; the Nuclear Energy Institute; the Japan Atomic Industry Forum; the Canadian Nuclear Association; the European Nuclear Society, and Foratom. All are accredited non governmental observers to the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  2. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  3. United Nations climate change bulletin. Issue 10, 1st quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Bulletin presents assessment reports on global climatic changes and emission of green house gases from various energy sources. It also recommends on role of developing countries and donor agencies in alleviating green house effects.

  4. Promising results of the first Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Charge (FCCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkus, H.

    1995-01-01

    The first Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), held from 28 March-7 April 1995 in Berlin, Germany, resulted in a positive outcome, despite gloomy prospects at the start of the conference. After two weeks of negotiations agreement was reached to start negotiating commitments after 2000. Also a decision was taken to set up a pilot phase for Joint Implementation. Furthermore, several institutional (a.o. FCCC secretariat will settle in Bonn) and organizational (a.o. budget) topics were solved. The challenge for negotiators now is to work out a concrete draft protocol for the conference in 1997 (Japan). In Berlin, Parties were prepared to compromise in the final (early morning) hours. The question remains whether the same willingness exists when definite choices have to be made on measures, targets and timetables

  5. New Zealand's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Including the Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The New Zealand Government is committed to playing its part in the global response to climate change. This Fourth National Communication provides a snapshot of New Zealand's progress with implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This document covers the period from the submission of the Third National Communication in January 2002 through to the end of December 2005. This document also contains New Zealand's Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol. New Zealand's response to climate change has evolved substantially since the Third National Communication was submitted. On 19 December 2002, New Zealand became the 101st nation to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In 2002, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Climate Change Response Act. This Act established a New Zealand climate change registry and corresponding institutional arrangements in accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements. Other achievements are detailed throughout this Fourth National Communication. When the Government introduced its climate change policy package in 2002, it anticipated there would be three reviews of the package not later than 2005, 2007 and 2010. The reviews would be necessary to monitor progress with emissions reductions, assess the effectiveness of policies, and confirm that New Zealand was positioned to meet its commitments. The first of these reviews was commissioned by the Government in mid-2005 and completed by November 2005. The review concluded that some elements of the Government's 2002 climate change policy package should be modified to better position New Zealand to respond to the longer-term challenges of climate change. A key outcome of the policy review was the announcement by the newly elected Government in December 2005 that the previously announced carbon tax would not proceed. In addition, a suite of future work programmes would be required to inform Government

  6. Declining Temporal Effectiveness of Carbon Sequestration. Implications for Compliance with the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, L. D.D. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3 (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly being promoted as a potential response to the risks of unrestrained emissions of CO2, either in place of or as a complement to reductions in the use of fossil fuels. However, the potential role of carbon sequestration as an (at-least partial) substitute for reductions in fossil fuel use can be properly evaluated only in the context of a long-term acceptable limit (or range of limits) to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, taking into account the response of the entire carbon cycle to artificial sequestration. Under highly stringent emission-reduction scenarios for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, 450 ppmv CO2 is the equivalent, in terms of radiative forcing of climate, to a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. It is argued in this paper that compliance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (henceforth, the UNFCCC) implies that atmospheric CO2 concentration should be limited, or quickly returned to, a concentration somewhere below 450 ppmv. A quasi-one-dimensional coupled climate-carbon cycle model is used to assess the response of the carbon cycle to idealized carbon sequestration scenarios. The impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration of sequestering a given amount of CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, either in deep geological formations or in the deep ocean, rapidly decreases over time. This occurs as a result of a reduction in the rate of absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the natural carbon sinks (the terrestrial biosphere and oceans) in response to the slower buildup of atmospheric CO2 resulting from carbon sequestration. For 100 years of continuous carbon sequestration, the sequestration fraction (defined as the reduction in atmospheric CO2 divided by the cumulative sequestration) decreases to 14% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in geological formations with no leakage, and to 6% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in the deep oceans

  7. Declining Temporal Effectiveness of Carbon Sequestration. Implications for Compliance with the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L. D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon sequestration is increasingly being promoted as a potential response to the risks of unrestrained emissions of CO2, either in place of or as a complement to reductions in the use of fossil fuels. However, the potential role of carbon sequestration as an (at-least partial) substitute for reductions in fossil fuel use can be properly evaluated only in the context of a long-term acceptable limit (or range of limits) to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, taking into account the response of the entire carbon cycle to artificial sequestration. Under highly stringent emission-reduction scenarios for non-CO2 greenhouse gases, 450 ppmv CO2 is the equivalent, in terms of radiative forcing of climate, to a doubling of the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. It is argued in this paper that compliance with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (henceforth, the UNFCCC) implies that atmospheric CO2 concentration should be limited, or quickly returned to, a concentration somewhere below 450 ppmv. A quasi-one-dimensional coupled climate-carbon cycle model is used to assess the response of the carbon cycle to idealized carbon sequestration scenarios. The impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration of sequestering a given amount of CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, either in deep geological formations or in the deep ocean, rapidly decreases over time. This occurs as a result of a reduction in the rate of absorption of atmospheric CO2 by the natural carbon sinks (the terrestrial biosphere and oceans) in response to the slower buildup of atmospheric CO2 resulting from carbon sequestration. For 100 years of continuous carbon sequestration, the sequestration fraction (defined as the reduction in atmospheric CO2 divided by the cumulative sequestration) decreases to 14% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in geological formations with no leakage, and to 6% 1000 years after the beginning of sequestration in the deep oceans

  8. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. National inventory report of greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada 1990-2004 : submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzert, F.; Collas, P.; Matin, A.; Jaques, A. (comps.) [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Greenhouse Gas Division

    2006-04-15

    As a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Canada must submit an annual national inventory of anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouses gases (GHGs) not included in the Montreal Protocol. Climate change refers to changes in long-term weather patterns caused by natural phenomena and human activities that alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the build up of GHGs that trap heat and reflect it back to the Earth's surface. Canada has been submitting a complete inventory annually for more than a decade, continuously improving the quality of GHG inventory and updating previous estimates to provide a consistent and comparable trend in emissions and removals of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. The changes for 2004 include studies in upstream oil and oil refining industries; updates in Statistics Canada's underlying energy data; adoption of improved, country-specific methodologies and factors for agricultural soils nitrous oxide emissions; and, major revision of the estimation model for emissions from landfills. The general impact of these changes is that emission growth over the reporting period, previously reported to be 24.2 per cent, is now estimated to be 25.9 per cent. In terms of GHG emission trends in 2004, the total GHG emissions in Canada, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) were 758 Mt which represents a 0.6 per cent increase over the 2003 total and a 26.6 per cent increase over the 1990 total, and 34.6 per cent above the Kyoto target. The increase from 2003 to 2004 was small because of a reduced demand for heating fuel due to warmer weather, and greater emissions reductions from electricity production on the basis of increased nuclear availability and reduced coal generation. In 2004, emissions from most sectors such as industrial process, solvent, agriculture and waste were increased, but emissions from

  10. National action to mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Over 170 participants from 60 countries met for three days in Copenhagen from 7 to 9 June 1994 to discuss howe the aims of the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change can be translated into practical action. The Conference was organised by the UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE), with financial support from the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. The main objective of the conference was to identify common approaches to national mitigation analysis for countries to use in meeting their commitments under the FCCC, and in setting priorities for national actions. Although addressing a broader theme, the conference marked the completion and publication of the second phase on UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study. (au)

  11. Indicators of climate impacts for forests: recommendations for the US National Climate Assessment indicators system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Sarah M. Anderson; Marla R. Emery; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Jeremy Littell; Alan Lucier; Jeffrey G. Masek; David L. Peterson; Richard Pouyat; Kevin M. Potter; Guy Robertson; Jinelle Sperry; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Sarah Jovan; Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert Musselman; Bethany K. Schulz; Robert J. Smith; Susan I. Stewart

    2015-01-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) process for the United States focused in part on developing a system of indicators to communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness to inform decisionmakers and the public. Initially, 13 active teams were formed to recommend indicators in a range of categories, including...

  12. National parks, ecological integrity and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1990-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs

  13. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  14. Climate Prediction - NOAA's National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Models... MOS Prod GFS-LAMP Prod Climate Past Weather Predictions Weather Safety Weather Radio National Weather Service on FaceBook NWS on Facebook NWS Director Home > Climate > Predictions Climate Prediction Long range forecasts across the U.S. Climate Prediction Web Sites Climate Prediction

  15. Climate protection in Germany: National report of the Federal Government on the Federal Republic of Germany on anticipation of Article 12 of the framework agreement of the United Nations on climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive presentation by the Federal German Government on the subject greenhouse effect, its possible consequences and on the strategies and measures adopted for its containment. National, up-to-date inventories are made for greenhouse gases including a systematic survey of the direct greenhouse gases and an identification of the indirect greenhouse gases and taking into account the quantities yield up in reservoirs (forests). The report also gives the current stage in the implementation of the CO 2 abatement campaign, detailed data on framework conditions (economic development, population, land use), a description of those areas particularly endangered by the greenhouse effect, the current state of research, development and systematic climated observation and the current state of international cooperation in the areas of technology and finance. (KW) [de

  16. Spanish report to the framework convention of United Nations on the Climatic Change. Informe de Espana a la Convencion Marco de las Naciones UNidas sobre el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has the following chapters: 1.- Synthesis of national report: main aspect of Spanish report. 2.- Reference frame: Spanish situation, the factors of risk, Spanish contribution to the CO[sub 2] emissions. 3.- Estimations of future climate. 4.- International engagements assumed by Spain. 5.- Evaluation and control of greenhouse gases

  17. United Kingdom national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    Report of the United Kingdom deals with life extension granted to Calder Hall and Chapelcross reactors for further 10 years operation. The two well recognised life-limiting features of Magnox type reactors are graphite core ageing and materials properties of the reactor pressure circuit components. These features have been scrutinised particularly closely and the conclusion has been reached that there are no safety factors which will necessarily limit the plant life to less than 50 years. Two other life-limiting factors are hear exchanger tubes and the heat exchanger tube failures internal to boiler shells and the integrity of the main engineering structures of the plant. It was concluded that appropriate routine ageing monitoring programs are in place in respect to these features to support continuing operation beyond 40 years

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M [and others

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  20. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  2. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  3. Denmark's national inventory report 2009. Emission inventories 1990-2007 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  4. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Hoffmann, L [and others

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  5. Denmark's national inventory report 2013. Emission inventories 1990-2011 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2011 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  6. United Nations and Multilateralism: Appraising USA's Unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    global peace and security, as well as the survival of the United Nations. This is because ... Key Words: United Nations, multilateralism, United States, unilateralism, national interest, UN Charter ..... Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, etc.

  7. The United Nations at 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The United Nations adopted a resolution expressing the hope that 1985 would mark the beginning of an era of durable and global peace and justice, social and economic development and progress and independence of all peoples. 1985 is the organization's 40th anniversary year - the United Nations Charter entered into force on 24 October 1945 - and the Assembly has chosen 'United Nations for a better world' as the anniversary theme. It also has decided to hold a brief commemorative session culminating on 24 October this year. Member States of the UN also have been urged to organize appropriate observance of the anniversary, with the widest possible participation, and to consider the creation of national committees to evaluate the contribution of the UN system over the past four decades, its continuing relevance in the current international situation, and ways in which it could be strengthened and made more effective. Among other things, the Assembly in its resolution appealed to the international mass media, both public and private, to contribute more effectively to dissemination of information on UN activities. During the commemorative session planned this October, a final document is expected to be adopted for which the Assembly has asked the Preparatory Committee for the Fortieth Anniversary of the United Nations to compose a suitable text. The Preparatory Committee had been established by the Assembly in 1983, and by December 1984, 98 countries had joined in its work, which relates to various activities

  8. The United Nations at 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    The United Nations adopted a resolution expressing the hope that 1985 would mark the beginning of an era of durable and global peace and justice, social and economic development and progress and independence of all peoples. 1985 is the organization's 40th anniversary year - the United Nations Charter entered into force on 24 October 1945 - and the Assembly has chosen 'United Nations for a better world' as the anniversary theme. It also has decided to hold a brief commemorative session culminating on 24 October this year. Member States of the UN also have been urged to organize appropriate observance of the anniversary, with the widest possible participation, and to consider the creation of national committees to evaluate the contribution of the UN system over the past four decades, its continuing relevance in the current international situation, and ways in which it could be strengthened and made more effective. Among other things, the Assembly in its resolution appealed to the international mass media, both public and private, to contribute more effectively to dissemination of information on UN activities. During the commemorative session planned this October, a final document is expected to be adopted for which the Assembly has asked the Preparatory Committee for the Fortieth Anniversary of the United Nations to compose a suitable text. The Preparatory Committee had been established by the Assembly in 1983, and by December 1984, 98 countries had joined in its work, which relates to various activities.

  9. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  10. Understanding National Models for Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, A.; Weingartner, K.

    2017-12-01

    National-level climate assessments have been produced or are underway in a number of countries. These efforts showcase a variety of approaches to mapping climate impacts onto human and natural systems, and involve a variety of development processes, organizational structures, and intended purposes. This presentation will provide a comparative overview of national `models' for climate assessments worldwide, drawing from a geographically diverse group of nations with varying capacities to conduct such assessments. Using an illustrative sampling of assessment models, the presentation will highlight the range of assessment mandates and requirements that drive this work, methodologies employed, focal areas, and the degree to which international dimensions are included for each nation's assessment. This not only allows the U.S. National Climate Assessment to be better understood within an international context, but provides the user with an entry point into other national climate assessments around the world, enabling a better understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities societies face.

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment (NCA) and as called for under the President’s Climate Action Plan. The authors of this assessment have compiled and assessed current research on human health impacts of climate change and summarized the current “state of the science” for a number of key impact areas. This assessment provides a comprehensive update to the most recent detailed technical assessment for the health impacts of climate change, 2008 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (CCSP 2008). It also updates and builds upon the health chapter of the third NCA (Melillo et al. 2014). The lead and coordinating Federal agencies for the USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Available at https://health2016.globalchange.gov/ The interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of their National C

  12. United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Marjorie A

    2008-01-01

    A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and the 110th Congress is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace in the changing world environment...

  13. United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Marjorie A

    2007-01-01

    A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and the 110th Congress is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace in the changing world environment...

  14. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  15. 75 FR 65561 - United Nations Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... A Proclamation Sixty-five years ago, 51 nations came together in the aftermath of one of history's... all peoples. The United Nations has made great advances since it first developed out of ruin and... of nations. The United Nations' humanitarian assistance lifts up countless lives, supporting nations...

  16. Climate Justice in Rural Southeastern United States: A Review of Climate Change Impacts and Effects on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Kristie S.; LePrevost, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate justice is a local, national, and global movement to protect at-risk populations who are disproportionately affected by climate change. The social context for this review is the Southeastern region of the United States, which is particularly susceptible to climate change because of the geography of the area and the vulnerabilities of the inhabiting populations. Negative human health effects on variable and vulnerable populations within the Southeast region due to changing climate are ...

  17. 76 FR 66845 - United Nations Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... become ever more intertwined, the leadership, staff, and member states of the United Nations continue to... a time of dramatic political transformation, the United Nations can embrace democratic movements and...

  18. The national adaptation plan to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galliot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is a necessity, as well as reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Since 2001, the National Observatory on the effects of global warming gathers and disseminates news on the effects of climate change and drive implementation of adaptation in France. A national strategy was adopted in 2006, followed by an analysis of the impacts of climate change and associated costs that could amount to several billion euros per year at the end of the century. Preceded by extensive consultation that involved stakeholders Grenelle Environment the National Adaptation Plan was published in mid-2011. It covers all sectors and many areas. He has more than 80 concrete actions that will commit France to adapt to the new climate. (author)

  19. Activities implemented jointly: First report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accomplishments and descriptions of projects accepted under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the US view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively--called joint implementation (JI)--holds significant potential both for combating the threat of global warming and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the US launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) in October 1993, and designed the program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate climate change. The USIJI provides a mechanism for investments by US entities in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and has developed a set of criteria for evaluating proposed projects for their potential to reduce net GHG emissions.

  20. U.S. National forests adapt to climate change through science-management partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Constance I. Millar; Kathy A. O' Halloran

    2011-01-01

    Developing appropriate management options for adapting to climate change is a new challenge for land managers, and integration of climate change concepts into operational management and planning on United States national forests is just starting. We established science-management partnerships on the Olympic National Forest (Washington) and Tahoe National Forest (...

  1. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  2. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - National Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  3. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - National Tornadoes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  4. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - National Wildfires

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  5. State of the Climate Monthly Overview - National Snow and Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  6. International law and United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Matej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with centuries-lasting open military pretensions of world superpowers, modern diplomacy has developed, as beginning a war, as well as coming to peace demanded political activity which resulted, first in signing, and then coming into effect of international documents, on the basis of which, a foundation for the modern international order has been cast. Further on, by the formation of international organizations, codification has been allowed, as well as a progressive development of international law. Additionally, in the sense of preserving international peace and security, first the League of Nations was formed, and following the ending of World War II, the UN. Generally, the functioning of the United Nation's organs, has been regulated by legal rules, however political goals, tendencies, and mechanisms which the member states are using determine greatly the activity above all of the Security Council, but furthermore of the General Assembly, as a plenary organ. Nevertheless, the achieved results of the Commission for International Law in the meaning of creation of international conventions, as well as state adhering to the same, present unassailable achievements in the sense of development of international law. On the other hand, tendencies of motion of international relationships are aimed at establishing a multi-polar system in the international community. Today, the political scene is assuming a new appearance, by which the nearly built international system is already awaiting further progressive development.

  7. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur... the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur to support the airlift of equipment for...

  8. School Climate and the National School Climate Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Patricia A.; Freibeg, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, more and more areas of educational practice are being guided by sets of national standards for content, leadership, professional ethics, family-school partnerships, and school accreditation, among others. Similarly, there is growing appreciation that standards are needed to effectively measure improvement in school climate. The…

  9. Third national climate change conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The international issue of climate change was discussed at this AREA (Alliance for Responsible Environmental Alternatives) conference. AREA, a coalition of industry, labour and municipalities from across Canada, was created to reflect the views and represent the interest of Canadians in the Climate Change debate. The role that Canada should play to optimize Canada's response to the Global Climate Change Challenge at the Kyoto Conference was the principal topic of discussion. Specific topics for panel discussions included the economic impacts of climate change, the effectiveness of voluntary mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gases versus government-mandated actions for achieving climate change targets, the issue of how a differentiated system for emission reduction targets and timetables might be implemented, the economic imperatives and the effect of those imperatives on negotiating positions at Kyoto, and various national agendas and the likely outcomes at Kyoto. tabs., figs

  10. Climate Change and National Self-Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change is often described as a tragedy of the commons. According to this theoretical framework, it is collectively rational for present-generation countries to mitigate climate change, but not individually rational to do so. It is rather in national self-interest to ‘free-ride’ on the mitigation actions of other countries. In this paper, I discuss two arguments criticizing this view. According to these arguments, it is in most cases individually rational for present-gene...

  11. United Nations and multilateralism: appraising USA's unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilateralism as symbolized by the United Nations Organization, seems to have come under threat today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the United States-United Nations relations particularly in the area of military interventions around the world. The aim of this paper is to appraise the practice of the principle of ...

  12. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Linda A; Blate, Geoffrey M; McNulty, Steven G; Millar, Constance I; Moser, Susanne; Neilson, Ronald P; Peterson, David L

    2009-12-01

    This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning and management that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach. Resource assessments are opportunities to develop strategic information that could be used to identify and link adaptation strategies across planning levels. Within a National Forest, planning must incorporate the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities to climate change as well as incorporate approaches that allow management adjustments as the effects of climate change become apparent. The nature of environmental variability, the inevitability of novelty and surprise, and the range of management objectives and situations across the National Forest System implies that no single approach will fit all situations. A toolbox of management options would include practices focused on forestalling climate change effects by building resistance and resilience into current ecosystems, and on managing for change by enabling plants, animals, and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Better and more widespread implementation of already known practices that reduce the impact of existing stressors represents an important "no regrets" strategy. These management opportunities will require agency consideration of its adaptive capacity, and ways to overcome potential barriers to these adaptation options.

  13. Climate change. Important findings from the 4. fact finding report of the intergovernmental commission on climate change of the United Nations (IPCC); Klimaaenderung. Wichtige Erkentnisse aus dem 4. Sachstandsbericht des Zwischenstaatlichen Ausschusses fuer Klimaaenderungen der Vereinten Nationen (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, Claudia

    2009-12-19

    The Report covers the following topics: 1. anthropogenic climate change - since when do we know about it? 2. IPCC - the intergovernmental commission for climate change. 3. Assignable causes for climate change: changes of incoming solar radiation, changes of the reflected solar radiation, change of the heat radiation lost into space, aerosols, internal variability of the climate system. 4. Historical climate changes in long periods. 5. Development of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 6. Observed climate changes. 7. Projections of future climate changes. 8. Consequences of climate change: consequences of the actual temperature increase, possible future consequences, freshwater resources and their management, ecosystems, agricultural production, coastal regions and low lying areas.

  14. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month precipitation outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month precipitation outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  16. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month temperature outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  17. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month temperature outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  18. China's national climate change programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The National Climate Change Program identifies China's basic stand, current achievements and challenges as well as its goals, principles and key areas of efforts in the coming years on the issue of climate change. Contents of the document are: climate change and corresponding efforts in China; Impacts and challenges of climate change on China; Guidelines, principles and objectives of China to address climate change; China's policies and measures to address climate change; and China's position on key climate change issues and needs for international cooperation. Measures to mitigate greenhouse gases include: to expedite the constitution and amendment of laws and regulations that are favourable to greenhouse gas mitigation (including amending the Law on the Coal Industry and Electric Power of the People's Republic of China); to prepare or improve national energy programmes and programmes for coal, electricity etc.; to develop 600 MW or above supercritical units and large combined-cycle units and other with efficient and clean power generation technologies; to develop heat and power cogeneration; to develop coal-bed methane and coal-mine methane industry; to develop technologies for the clean and efficient development and utilisation of coal. Emphasis will be on the research and development of highly-efficient coal mining technologies, efficient power generation technologies such as heavy-duty gas turbines, integrated gasification combined cycle, high-pressure, high-temperature ultra supercritical unit and large-scale supercritical circulation fluid bed boilers; vigorously develop coal liquefaction, gasification and coal-chemistry and other technologies for coal conversion, coal gasification based multi-generation systems technology, and carbon dioxide capture, utilization and storage technologies. In the iron and steel industry many technological improvements are recommended to be made.

  19. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  20. National plan on climate change - NPCC - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This document becomes a relevant milestone for the integration of public policies, following the the general directives of the National Policy addressed this year for approval of the Brazilian National Congress. The objectives established in this document are extremely important considering the contribution potential for the reduction of the greenhouse emissions, and takes into consideration the following aspects: the brazilian emissions and the process of inventory improvements; the brazilian commitments in multilateral instruments; national plan on climate changes; mitigation opportunities; impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation; research and development; education, capacitation and communication; instruments for the action implementations

  1. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on the bill project adopted by the Senate, after initiation of the accelerated procedure, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol about the twenty first session of the Conference Of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the eleventh session of the Conference Of the Parties acting as a gathering of parties to the Kyoto protocol and organ sessions. National Assembly Nr 2943, 3062, Senate Nr 587, 512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgn', Pierre-Yves; Larcher, Gerard; Grand, Jean-Pierre; Valls, Manuel; Fabius, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    As France is about to host the twenty first Conference of Parties (COP 21), this report presents this conference on climate changes as an historical step. It describes the context by recalling the content of international negotiations on climate since 1992, and by commenting the preparation of the Paris conference. It addresses the various and important organisational aspects: means, non-budgetary means, security aspects. The second part discusses the content of the agreement between the French government and the Secretary of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): provisions related to the material organisation of the conference, provisions related to privileges and immunities, and other arrangements (related to security, financial, responsibility and conflict resolution). The text of the bill project and the discussion of the commission are reported

  2. The role of Canada's national parks in a changed climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1991-01-01

    There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs

  3. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...

  4. The United Nations and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Bhaskar P.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the development of the United Nations. Identifies achievements of the United Nations in the promotion of human rights, the translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into binding international covenants, and the establishment of monitoring mechanisms to ensure the protection of human rights. (KO)

  5. National policy response to climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response...

  6. Regional climate change and national responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko

    2016-03-01

    Global warming over the past several decades is now large enough that regional climate change is emerging above the noise of natural variability, especially in the summer at middle latitudes and year-round at low latitudes. Despite the small magnitude of warming relative to weather fluctuations, effects of the warming already have notable social and economic impacts. Global warming of 2 °C relative to preindustrial would shift the ‘bell curve’ defining temperature anomalies a factor of three larger than observed changes since the middle of the 20th century, with highly deleterious consequences. There is striking incongruity between the global distribution of nations principally responsible for fossil fuel CO2 emissions, known to be the main cause of climate change, and the regions suffering the greatest consequences from the warming, a fact with substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.

  7. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brad; Scott, J. Michael; Adamcik, Robert S.; Ashe, Daniel; Czech, Brian; Fischman, Robert; Gonzalez, Patrick; Lawler, Joshua J.; McGuire, A. David; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species, pollution, and competition for water have stressed refuges for decades, but the interaction of climate change with these stressors presents the most recent, pervasive, and complex conservation challenge to the NWRS. Geographic isolation and small unit size compound the challenges of climate change, but a combined emphasis on species that refuges were established to conserve and on maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health provides the NWRS with substantial latitude to respond. Individual symptoms of climate change can be addressed at the refuge level, but the strategic response requires system-wide planning. A dynamic vision of the NWRS in a changing climate, an explicit national strategic plan to implement that vision, and an assessment of representation, redundancy, size, and total number of units in relation to conservation targets are the first steps toward adaptation. This adaptation must begin immediately and be built on more closely integrated research and management. Rigorous projections of possible futures are required to facilitate adaptation to change. Furthermore, the effective conservation footprint of the NWRS must be increased through land acquisition, creative partnerships, and educational programs in order for the NWRS to meet its legal mandate to maintain the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the system and the species and ecosystems that it supports.

  8. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  9. Climate Change and Risks to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titley, D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts national security in three ways: through changes in the operating environments of the military; by increasing risks to security infrastructure, specifically bases and training ranges; and by exacerbating and accelerating the risks of state collapse and conflict in regions that are already fragile and unstable. Additionally there will be unique security challenges in the Arctic as sea-ice melts out and human activities increase across multiple dimensions. Military forces will also likely see increased demand for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief resulting from a combination of increased human population, rising sea-level, and potentially stronger and wetter storms. The talk will explore some of the lesser known aspects of these changes, examine selected climate-driven 'wild cards' that have the potential to disrupt regional and global security, and explore how migration in the face of a changing climate may heighten security issues. I will assess the positions U.S. executive and legislative branches with respect to climate & security, and how those positions have evolved since the November 2016 election, sometimes in counter-intuitive ways. The talk will close with some recommended courses of action the security enterprise can take to manage this climate risk.

  10. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    for discussing how a multi objective policy paradigm can contribute to future climate change mitigation. The paper includes country case studies from Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, South Korea and the United States covering renewable energy options......, industry, transportation, the residential sector and cross-sectoral policies. These countries and regions together contribute more than two thirds of global GHG emissions. The paper finds that policies that are nationally driven and that have multiple objectives, including climate-change mitigation, have...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  11. Do Leadership Style, Unit Climate, and Safety Climate Contribute to Safe Medication Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amany; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Anthony, Mary K; Burant, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at: examining if leadership style and unit climate predict safety climate; and testing the direct, indirect, and total effect of leadership style, unit climate, and safety climate on nurses' safe medication practices. The Institute of Medicine and nursing scholars propose that safety climate is a prerequisite to safety practices. However, there is limited empirical evidence about factors contributing to the development of safety climate and about the association with nurses' safe medication practices. This cross-sectional study used survey data from 246 RNs working in a Magnet® hospital. Leadership style and unit climate predicted 20% to 50% of variance on all safety climate dimensions. Model testing revealed the indirect impact of leadership style and unit climate on nurses' safe medication practices. Our hypothesized model explained small amount of the variance on nurses' safe medication practices. This finding suggests that nurses' safe medication practices are influenced by multiple contextual and personal factors that should be further examined.

  12. The Congo crisis, the United Nations, and Zimbabwean nationalism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations moved swiftly in response to Lumumba's immediate request for assistance .... of apathy towards the white man in Africa and a strong desire to rid .... such actions would legitimatise the intervention of the Congo government in.

  13. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO 2 emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO 2 emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO 2 emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO 2 non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate

  14. 78 FR 64385 - United Nations Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... A Proclamation In 1945, after two world wars that showed the horrific lethality of modern conflict.... We celebrate the organization's challenging and often unheralded work of forging a world in which... children and grandchildren from the ravages of war, the members of the United Nations committed ``to unite...

  15. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  16. Incorporating Fundamentals of Climate Monitoring into Climate Indicators at the National Climatic Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, much attention has been dedicated to the development, testing and implementation of climate indicators. Several Federal agencies and academic groups have commissioned suites of indicators drawing upon and aggregating information available across the spectrum of climate data stewards and providers. As a long-time participant in the applied climatology discipline, NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has generated climate indicators for several decades. Traditionally, these indicators were developed for sectors with long-standing relationships with, and needs of, the applied climatology field. These have recently been adopted and adapted to meet the needs of sectors who have newfound sensitivities to climate and needs for climate data. Information and indices from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center have been prominent components of these indicator suites, and in some cases have been drafted in toto by these aggregators, often with improvements to the communicability and aesthetics of the indicators themselves. Across this history of supporting needs for indicators, NCDC climatologists developed a handful of practical approaches and philosophies that inform a successful climate monitoring product. This manuscript and presentation will demonstrate the utility this set of practical applications that translate raw data into useful information.

  17. The United Nations University and Information Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaskovic, Ines Wesley

    1994-01-01

    Describes the role of the United Nations University (UNU) in promoting the effective use of new information technologies in support of science and technology for development. The UNU Information and Decision Systems (INDES) project examines the constraints preventing developing nations from using advances in informatics and from integrating their…

  18. International boundary experiences by the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the United Nations (UN) has been approached by Security Council and Member States on international boundary issues. The United Nations regards the adequate delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries as a very important element for the maintenance of peace and security in fragile post-conflict situations, establishment of friendly relationships and cross-border cooperation between States. This paper will present the main principles and framework the United Nations applies to support the process of international boundary delimitation and demarcation activities. The United Nations is involved in international boundary issues following the principle of impartiality and neutrality and its role as mediator. Since international boundary issues are multi-faceted, a range of expertise is required and the United Nations Secretariat is in a good position to provide diverse expertise within the multiple departments. Expertise in different departments ranging from legal, political, technical, administrative and logistical are mobilised in different ways to provide support to Member States depending on their specific needs. This presentation aims to highlight some of the international boundary projects that the United Nations Cartographic Section has been involved in order to provide the technical support to different boundary requirements as each international boundary issue requires specific focus and attention whether it be in preparation, delimitation, demarcation or management. Increasingly, the United Nations is leveraging geospatial technology to facilitate boundary delimitation and demarcation process between Member States. Through the presentation of the various case studies ranging from Iraq - Kuwait, Israel - Lebanon (Blue Line), Eritrea - Ethiopia, Cyprus (Green Line), Cameroon - Nigeria, Sudan - South Sudan, it will illustrate how geospatial technology is increasingly used to carry out the support. In having applied a range

  19. Climate, trees, pests, and weeds: Change, uncertainty, and biotic stressors in eastern US national park forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas A. Fisichelli; Scott R. Abella; Matthew Peters; Frank J. Krist

    2014-01-01

    The US National Park Service (NPS) manages over 8900 km2 of forest area in the eastern United States where climate change and nonnative species are altering forest structure, composition, and processes. Understanding potential forest change in response to climate, differences in habitat projections among models (uncertainty), and nonnative biotic...

  20. National policy response to climate change in South Africa | Garland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.

  1. National stakeholder workshops on climate change - 2002 : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This summary report is based on 14 reports prepared following a series of 1 day climate change workshops held in 14 cities across Canada during the period of June 7 to 24, 2002. The input has been grouped into important themes that were highlighted during the workshops. The key messages focused on analysis and modelling, an overall approach to the Kyoto Protocol, targeted measures, domestic emissions trading, purchases of international emissions permits, preferred approach to the Kyoto Protocol, risks, and impacts and adaptations. The workshops were designed to provide participants with a better understanding of ways to respond to climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. They were also designed to obtain the views of the participants and options contained in the Federal Discussion Paper on Canada's Contribution to Addressing Climate Change, as well as the National Climate Change Process, and the national analysis conducted by the Analysis and Modelling Group (AMG). While many participants agreed that climate change is a real problem requiring attention, there were widely divergent views regarding the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Industry participants suggested alternative approaches that include a longer time frame, less restrictive targets and greater harmonization with the United States approach. The Alberta Plan gained some interest because it contained some of these characteristics, however, some argued that the Alberta Action Plan must meet the Kyoto target. There was good support for Targeted Measures, a mix of support and some concerns for Domestic Emissions Trading (DET), and opposition to the international purchases under the Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation. There was little support for Canada's request for Clean Energy Export Credits. The western provinces and Quebec were in favour of negotiated covenants with a regulatory backstop as an alternative to DET. 1 tab

  2. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  3. Climate | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to Content Enter Search Terms Weather Climate Oceans & Coasts Fisheries Satellites your local weather Enter your ZIP code GO Enter Search Terms Content OUR WORK Climate From to help people understand and prepare for climate variability and change. Climate. NOAA From

  4. An Update from the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    On September 8, 9, and 10, the United Nations (UN) Department of Information (DPI) partnered with the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to sponsor the 57th Annual DPI/NGO Conference in New York City. In his welcoming remarks, Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the UN, highlighted the theme of the conference, "Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):…

  5. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  6. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  7. Climate: negotiations are lacking ambitions. Returns on the sixteenth Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), from the 29 November to the 10 December 2010, Cancun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blavier, Sebastien; Mazounie, Alix; Cheron, Marie; Gautier, Celia; Chetaille, Anne; Giraud, Adeline; Angerand, Sylvain; Burger, Patrice; Fauveaud, Swan; Frignet, Jerome; Kaloga, Alpha; Vielajus, Jean-Louis; Mathy, Sandrine

    2011-03-01

    This report proposes an analysis of the COP16 (16. Conference of Parties) by French NGOs committed in international solidarity and in the protection of the environment. The first part addresses the negotiation process in Cancun in terms of transparency and of geopolitical issues, and outlines the lack of ambition of these negotiations as far as the agreement legal form and the objectives of greenhouse gas emission reduction are concerned. After having discussed the issue of financing, the second part discusses stakes, results and challenges regarding various sectors and aspects: adaptation to climate change, agriculture (which has not been addressed in Cancun), forests. The last part proposes and comments a set of recommendations regarding the future legal form of the agreement, financing and sources of financing, adaptation, agriculture, forests, and civil society mobilisation

  8. Senegal's national policy to combat climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dia Toure, F.

    2007-01-01

    Senegal's participation in the Earth Summit meeting in Rio in 1992 demonstrated its national political stand towards environmental causes. An initiative was taken to educate the population on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in relation to different sectors, including the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, forestry and waste management. Later, a group of negotiators followed the works of subsidiary bodies of the Kyoto Agreement. As a non-Annex 1 developing country, Senegal is not required to reduce GHG emissions as are Annex 1 countries. Therefore, Senegal has used judicial tools to benefit from the transfer of clean technologies. The implementation of Senegal's national adaptation action plan has involved global organizations, sectorial studies, public consultations, prioritization and project formulation. The action plan addresses concerns such as water resources, variation in precipitation, drought, agriculture and its vulnerability, and negative impacts due to climate change. The technical solutions include the promotion of agroforestry technologies; crop diversification; water conservation; community wood use; and, prevention of bush fires. Since several geographical regions within Senegal are also affected by global warming, policies are being formulated to protect humid zones and help in the fight against invasive species. Senegal imports much of its energy sources. Households rely on wood and coal for energy. New measures are being adapted and new sustainable technologies are being proposed for fireplaces, better recycling, and better landfill sites. 8 figs

  9. National security and the accelerating risk of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gunn

    2017-06-01

    national security community with the CNA Corporation (https://www.cna.org, he served for 35 years in the U.S. Navy. His last active duty assignment was Inspector General of the Department of the Navy where he was responsible for the Department’s overall inspection program and its assessments of readiness, training, and quality of service. Serving in the Surface Navy in a variety of theaters, Gunn rose through the cruiser/destroyer force to command the Frigate USS Barbey, then commanded the Navy’s anti-submarine warfare tactical and technical evaluation Destroyer squadron, DESRON 31. He later commanded Amphibious Group Three. As Commander of PHIBGRU THREE, he served as the Combined Naval Forces Commander and Deputy Task Force Commander of Combined Task Force United Shield, which conducted the withdrawal of U.N. peacekeeping forces from Somalia. Since retiring from active duty in the Navy, Gunn has been President of The Institute for Public Research at CNA Corporation. Gunn holds a Bachelor’s degree in Experimental and Physiological Psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles and a Master of Science in Operations Research from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. His commentary addresses why members of the national security community regard climate change as a clear threat to national security now, and a threat that will only increase if climate change continues unchecked.

  10. Towards a national adaptation strategy in view of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DOUKAKIS

    2004-06-01

    • The general national adaptation principles. The presentation analyses all the above concepts and proposes specific guidelines to formulate a Greek National Adaptation Strategy to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic climate changes.

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 8 to 14 Day Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues 8 to 14 day probabilistic precipitation outlooks for the United States. The 8-14 day Outlook gives the confidence that a...

  12. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 6 to 10 Day Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues 6 to 10 day probabilistic precipitation outlooks for the United States. The 6-10 day Outlook gives the confidence that a...

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) for Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) brightness temperature in "window channels". The data cover a time period from...

  14. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 6 to 10 Day Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues 6 to 10 day probabilistic temperature outlooks for the United States. The 6-10 day Outlook gives the confidence that a...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 8 to 14 Day Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues 8 to 14 day probabilistic temperature outlooks for the United States. The 8-14 day Outlook gives the confidence that a...

  16. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  17. Global climate change impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), a and integrates those results wit...

  18. Climate Justice in Rural Southeastern United States: A Review of Climate Change Impacts and Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kristie S; LePrevost, Catherine E

    2016-02-03

    Climate justice is a local, national, and global movement to protect at-risk populations who are disproportionately affected by climate change. The social context for this review is the Southeastern region of the United States, which is particularly susceptible to climate change because of the geography of the area and the vulnerabilities of the inhabiting populations. Negative human health effects on variable and vulnerable populations within the Southeast region due to changing climate are concerning, as health threats are not expected to produce parallel effects among all individuals. Vulnerable communities, such as communities of color, indigenous people, the geographically isolated, and those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and already experiencing poor environmental quality, are least able to respond and adapt to climate change. Focusing on vulnerable populations in the Southeastern United States, this review is a synthesis of the recent (2010 to 2015) literature-base on the health effects connected to climate change. This review also addresses local and regional mitigation and adaptation strategies for citizens and leaders to combat direct and indirect human health effects related to a changing climate.

  19. Climate change scenarios for Canada's national parks : a users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Wun, N.; Scott, D.; Barrow, E.

    2003-01-01

    A screening level impact assessment has shown that the implications of climate change for Canada's national parks are considerable. Climate change scenarios will be an important component in examining the potential climate change impacts and the implications of adaptation strategies. Most climate change scenarios are based on vulnerability, impact and adaptation research. This user's manual describes the development of 3 types of climate change scenarios including scenarios from global climate models (GCMs), bioclimate scenarios and daily scenarios for use by Parks Canada. The manual offers advice to first-time climate change scenario users in choosing and interpreting climate change, bioclimate and daily scenarios. It also addresses the theoretical and practical foundations of each climate scenario and shows how to access data regarding the various scenarios. Hands-on exercises are included as an interpretive aid. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs

  20. Human presence diminishes the importance of climate in driving fire activity across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Pfaff, Anne Hopkins; Ferschweiler, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity. We developed statistical models relating seasonal temperature and precipitation variables to historical annual fire activity for 37 different regions across the continental United States and asked whether and how fire-climate relationships vary geographically, and why climate is more important in some regions than in others. Climatic variation played a significant role in explaining annual fire activity in some regions, but the relative importance of seasonal temperature or precipitation, in addition to the overall importance of climate, varied substantially depending on geographical context. Human presence was the primary reason that climate explained less fire activity in some regions than in others. That is, where human presence was more prominent, climate was less important. This means that humans may not only influence fire regimes but their presence can actually override, or swamp out, the effect of climate. Thus, geographical context as well as human influence should be considered alongside climate in national wildfire policy and management.

  1. National climate goals. Hurdle and opportunity for a climate consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuege, Marc Oliver

    2018-01-01

    In the area of climate and energy policy, exploratory talks over the past few months have shown how important a common target architecture is as a compass for the coming legislative period. Three different levels can be distinguished: Paris (and thus Europe), Germany, sectors in Germany. Finding a balanced climate policy solution requires more exchange of views and less political dirigisme. In a dialogue between state and economy development paths could be spelled out together. [de

  2. Strengthening Climate Services Capabilities and Regional Engagement at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, E.

    2008-12-01

    The demand for sector-based climate information is rapidly expanding. In order to support this demand, it is crucial that climate information is managed in an effective, efficient, and user-conscious manner. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is working closely with numerous partners to develop a comprehensive interface that is authoritative, accessible, and responsive to a variety of sectors, stakeholders, and other users. This talk will explore these dynamics and activities, with additional perspectives on climate services derived from the regional and global experiences of the NOAA Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center in the Pacific. The author will explore the importance of engaging partners and customers in the development, implementation and emergence of a national climate service program. The presentation will draw on the author's experience in climate science and risk management programs in the Pacific, development of regional and national climate services programs and insights emerging from climate services development efforts in NCDC. In this context, the author will briefly discuss some of guiding principles for effective climate services and applications including: - Early and continuous dialogue, partnership and collaboration with users/customers; - Establishing and sustaining trust and credibility through a program of shared learning and joint problem- solving; - Understanding the societal context for climate risk management and using a problem-focused approach to the development of products and services; - Addressing information needs along a continuum of timescales from extreme events to long-term change; and - Embedding education, outreach and communications activities as critical program elements in effective climate services. By way of examples, the author will reference lessons learned from: early Pacific Island climate forecast applications and climate assessment activities; the implementation of the Pacific Climate

  3. In Search of a Trans-national Climate Change Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassus Saint-Genies, Geraud de

    2016-01-01

    Private entities engagement in the battle against climate change is a well-established fact, and a source of intense and diversified normative activity. A certain type of climate rules has thus arisen, with a private origin and an international scope, as they transcend the borders of existing territories. In this context, one could wonder about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law, as a relatively autonomous body of law, which would exist at the margins of international and national climate change law. Building on the discussions that have been conducted about the trans-national law in other areas of regulations, this study intends to provide answers about the possible existence of a trans-national climate change law

  4. Climate change politics in the United States from Rio to Johannesburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P.

    2002-06-01

    This document on the United States policy towards the climate change problem, presents in four chapters the historical aspects of the US policy in the international negotiations: the kyoto target accepted by the US is far more ambitious than other industrialized nation; after fierce debate a consensus might suggest that climate change represents a significant threat to the world well being and that human activity is responsible; the kyoto process would have been troubled even if G.W. bush had followed B. Clinton approach; whatever its flaws the Kyoto protocol is a building block for any comprehensive agreement on climate change. (A.L.B.)

  5. A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debra N; Hoffman, Leslie A; Sereika, Susan M; Lorenz, Holly L; Wolf, Gail A; Burns, Helen K; Minnier, Tamra E; Ramanujam, Rangaraj

    2011-11-01

    This study compared nursing staff perceptions of safety climate in clinical units characterized by high and low ratings of leader-member exchange (LMX) and explored characteristics that might account for differences. Frontline nursing leaders' actions are critical to ensure patient safety. Specific leadership behaviors to achieve this goal are underexamined. The LMX perspective has shown promise in nonhealthcare settings as a means to explain safety climate perceptions. Cross-sectional survey of staff (n = 711) and unit directors from 34 inpatient units in an academic medical center was conducted. Significant differences were found between high and low LMX scoring units on supervisor safety expectations, organizational learning-continuous improvement, total communication, feedback and communication about errors, and nonpunitive response to errors. The LMX perspective can be used to identify differences in perceptions of safety climate among nursing staff. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve staff safety attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  6. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  7. Global Climate Change: National Security Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pumphrey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    .... But this notion was generally scoffed at. Over the course of the 20th century, the scientific community gradually came to terms with this theory and began to regard climate change even rapid climate change as more than a distant possibility...

  8. The Origin of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  9. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, H. J.

    2006-08-01

    Pursuant to recommendations of the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) and deliberations of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS), annual UN/ European Space Agency workshops on basic space science have been held around the world since 1991. These workshops contribute to the development of astrophysics and space science, particularly in developing nations. Following a process of prioritization, the workshops identified the following elements as particularly important for international cooperation in the field: (i) operation of astronomical telescope facilities implementing TRIPOD, (ii) virtual observatories, (iii) astrophysical data systems, (iv) concurrent design capabilities for the development of international space missions, and (v) theoretical astrophysics such as applications of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Beginning in 2005, the workshops focus on preparations for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007). The workshops continue to facilitate the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities as pursued by Japan and the development of low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays as lead by the IHY secretariat. Wamsteker, W., Albrecht, R. and Haubold, H.J.: Developing Basic Space Science World-Wide: A Decade of UN/ESA Workshops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2004. http://ihy2007.org http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html http://www.cbpf.br/GrupPesq/StatisticalPhys/biblio.htm

  10. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  11. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-08-11

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  12. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: Implications for future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret; Douglas, Christine; Cole, K.L.; Winkler, Marge; Flaknes, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    We reconstruct Holocene climate history (last 10,000 years) for each of the U.S. National Park Service units in the western Great Lakes region in order to evaluate their sensitivity to global warming. Annual precipitation, annual temperature, and July and January temperatures were reconstructed by comparing fossil pollen in lake sediment with pollen in surface samples, assuming that ancient climates were similar to modern climate near analogous surface samples. In the early Holocene, most of the parks experienced colder winters, warmer summers, and lower precipitation than today. An exception is Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota where, by 8000 years ago, January temperatures were higher than today. The combination of high mean annual temperature and lower precipitation at Voyageurs resulted in a dry period between 8000 and 5000 years ago, similar to the Prairie Period in regions to the south and west. A mid-Holocene warm-dry period also occurred at other northern and central parks but was much less strongly developed. In southern parks there was no clear evidence of a mid-Holocene warm-dry period. These differences suggest that global model predictions of a warm, dry climate in the northern Great Plains under doubled atmospheric CO2 may be more applicable to Voyageurs than to the other parks. The contrast in reconstructed temperatures at Voyageurs and Isle Royale indicates that the ameliorating effect of the Great Lakes on temperatures has been in effect throughout the Holocene and presumably will continue in the future, thus reducing the potential for species loss caused by future temperature extremes. Increased numbers of mesic trees at all of the parks in the late Holocene reflect increasing annual precipitation. This trend toward more mesic conditions began 6000 years ago in the south and 4000 years ago in the north and increased sharply in recent millennia at parks located today in lake-effect snow belts. This suggests that lake-effect snowfall is

  13. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  14. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    are highly contested among UN procurement officers and member states. However, so far the debate has mostly been based on assumptions about how the implementation of SP might affect developing country stakeholders. In fact, very few academic studies have been made of the economic, social and environmental......This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  15. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Geoffrey M. Blate; Steven G. McNulty; Constance I. Millar; Susanne Moser; Ronald P. Neilson; David L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning andmanagement that theUnited States Forest Servicemight adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-...

  16. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and Kyoto protocol 2010. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2008; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2010. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strogies, Michael; Gniffke, Patrick (comps.)

    2010-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. This leads to extensive obligations vis-a-vis the preparation, reporting and review of emissions inventories. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. Pursuant to Decision 3/CP.5, all The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its eighth National Inventory Report (NIR 2010), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2008. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2008), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, this chapter describes the basic principles and methods with which the emissions and sinks of the IPCC categories

  17. National Programme Adaptation of Space and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Several Ministries in the Netherlands initiated the title programme with the purpose to realize a climate durable spatial planning of the Netherlands. The main questions to be answered concern the current and to be expected effects of climatic change in different sectors, what will be the problems for the spatial planning, how can they be solved and what are the technical, economical, social and administrative dilemmas in solving those problems [nl

  18. Planning for climate change on the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Czech; S. Covington; T. M. Crimmins; J. A. Ericson; C. Flather; M. Gale; K. Gerst; M. Higgins; M. Kaib; E. Marino; T. Moran; J. Morton; N. Niemuth; H. Peckett; D. Savignano; L. Saperstein; S. Skorupa; E. Wagener; B. Wilen; B. Wolfe

    2014-01-01

    This document originated in 2008 as a collaborative project of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the University of Maryland's Graduate Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology. The original title was A Primer on Climate Change for the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Primer has evolved into Planning for Climate Change on the...

  19. Climate change scenario data for the national parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents daily scenario data obtained from monthly time scale climate change scenarios. The scenarios were applied to a stochastic weather generator, a statistical tool that simulates daily weather data for a range of climates at a particular location. The weather generators simulate weather that is statistically similar to observed climate data from climate stations. They can also generate daily scenario data for monthly time scales. This low cost computational method offers site-specific, multi-year climate change scenarios at a daily temporal level. The data is useful for situations that rely on climate thresholds such as forest fire season, drought conditions, or recreational season length. Data sets for temperature, precipitation and frost days was provided for 3 national parks for comparative evaluations. Daily scenarios for other parks can be derived using global climate model (GCM) output data through the Long Ashton Research Station (LARS) weather generator program. tabs

  20. A deeper look at climate change and national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Backus, George A.; Romig, Alton Dale, Jr.

    2010-03-01

    Climate change is a long-term process that will trigger a range of multi-dimensional demographic, economic, geopolitical, and national security issues with many unknowns and significant uncertainties. At first glance, climate-change-related national security dimensions seem far removed from today's major national security threats. Yet climate change has already set in motion forces that will require U.S. attention and preparedness. The extent and uncertainty associated with these situations necessitate a move away from conventional security practices, toward a small but flexible portfolio of assets to maintain U.S. interests. Thoughtful action is required now if we are to acquire the capabilities, tools, systems, and institutions needed to meet U.S. national security requirements as they evolve with the emerging stresses and shifts of climate change.

  1. 78 FR 17640 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce's Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration... the USGCRP.'' Dated: March 5, 2013. Jason Donaldson, Chief Financial Officer/Chief Administrative... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Cynthia J. Decker, Designated Federal Officer, National Climate Assessment and...

  2. The climate change: A teaching unit to Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarita González

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the planning of "Climate change" Secondary School the experience gained in its application Ninth Grade ESBU Tania the Guerilla of Pinar del Río.The subjects are presented in proposal for the simultaneous work of the subjectare:Geography, Chemistry Physicsand Biology with the support of Computing. Work on these subjects taxed at fulfillment of the objectiveof the unit.instruments are also presented for measuring development of knowledge, assessment and materials Discussesthe results of the application thereof.TeachingClimate Change Unit is one of the ways in which they can be realized in the classroom addressing issues of global interest

  3. Climate change, humidity, and mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of humidity and temperature on mortality rates in the United States (c. 1973–2002) in order to provide an insight into the potential health impacts of climate change. I find that humidity, like temperature, is an important determinant of mortality. Coupled with Hadley CM3 climate-change predictions, I project that mortality rates are likely to change little on the aggregate for the United States. However, distributional impacts matter: mortality rates are likely to decline in cold and dry areas, but increase in hot and humid areas. Further, accounting for humidity has important implications for evaluating these distributional effects. PMID:25328254

  4. The United Nations: It's More Than You Think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Juliana G.; Gardner, Janet

    This guide accompanies a 30-minute color video of the same name. Chapters include: (1) "History of the United States" including information on the League of Nations, the birth of the United Nations, and the home of the United Nations; (2) "Structure of the Organization" which discusses each of the sections--General Assembly,…

  5. Climate change law and politics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The United States has an extensive system of environmental law. Congress has passed numerous environmental statutes, but no major ones since 1990. While there was a general consensus on the need for environmental regulation during the 1970s and 1980s, it has broken down and the issue has become the subject of bitter partisan division. One consequence is that the U.S. has no comprehensive statute on climate change, and none appears imminent. A sweeping climate change bill passed the House of Representatives in 2009 but died in the Senate in 2010, and the political situation is such that it now appears that it will be at least several years before Congress enacts any serious climate change legislation. Meanwhile, the federal government is utilizing old statutes, especially the Clean Air Act of 1970, to cobble together a regulatory program. States and regional groupings of states, as well as cities, are also playing important roles in formulating climate change strategies.

  6. Global climate change and introduced species in United States forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simberloff, D. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, 37996 Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Introduced species already cause billions of dollars of damage annually in United States forests, plus massive ecological damage whose economic value has often not been estimated. The variety of impacts is staggering and includes herbivory, predation, disease, parasitism, competition, habitat destruction, hybridization, and changed disturbance regimes and nutrient cycles. How global climate change will affect these impacts has scarcely been assessed. Range changes of existing introduced species will be prominent, as many species' biogeographic ranges are set primarily by climate. Similarly, some species that might otherwise not have survived will be able to establish populations in a changed climate. It is more difficult to predict what the impacts of the introduced species will be. What is most needed are studies of the combined impacts of changing climate, CO{sub 2}, and nutrients. Certain aspects of the biology of introduced species, such as evolution and autonomous dispersal, greatly complicate the prediction of spread and impact of introduced species.

  7. Climate change law and politics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, Michael B. [Columbia Law School New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Change Law

    2014-07-01

    The United States has an extensive system of environmental law. Congress has passed numerous environmental statutes, but no major ones since 1990. While there was a general consensus on the need for environmental regulation during the 1970s and 1980s, it has broken down and the issue has become the subject of bitter partisan division. One consequence is that the U.S. has no comprehensive statute on climate change, and none appears imminent. A sweeping climate change bill passed the House of Representatives in 2009 but died in the Senate in 2010, and the political situation is such that it now appears that it will be at least several years before Congress enacts any serious climate change legislation. Meanwhile, the federal government is utilizing old statutes, especially the Clean Air Act of 1970, to cobble together a regulatory program. States and regional groupings of states, as well as cities, are also playing important roles in formulating climate change strategies.

  8. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following agreements and supplementary agreements between the Agency and the United Nations are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. A. Agreement Governing the Relationship Between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; B. Protocol Concerning the Entry into Force of the Agreement between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; II. Administrative Arrangement Concerning the Use of the United Nations Laissez-Passer by Officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and III. Agreement for the Admission of the International Atomic Energy Agency into the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund

  9. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-30

    The texts of the following agreements and supplementary agreements between the Agency and the United Nations are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. A. Agreement Governing the Relationship Between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; B. Protocol Concerning the Entry into Force of the Agreement between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; II. Administrative Arrangement Concerning the Use of the United Nations Laissez-Passer by Officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and III. Agreement for the Admission of the International Atomic Energy Agency into the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund.

  10. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following agreements and supplementary agreements between the Agency and the United Nations are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. A. Agreement Governing the Relationship Between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; B. Protocol Concerning the Entry into Force of the Agreement between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; II. Administrative Arrangement Concerning the Use of the United Nations Laissez-Passer by Officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and III. Agreement for the Admission of the International Atomic Energy Agency into the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund [ru

  11. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following agreements and supplementary agreements between the Agency and the United Nations are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. A. Agreement Governing the Relationship Between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; B. Protocol Concerning the Entry into Force of the Agreement between the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency; II. Administrative Arrangement Concerning the Use of the United Nations Laissez-Passer by Officials of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and III. Agreement for the Admission of the International Atomic Energy Agency into the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund [es

  12. The struggle against climate change in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference

  13. Model United Nations comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January pupils from international schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey came to CERN for three days of "UN-type" conferences.   The MUN organisers, who are all pupils at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire, worked tirelessly for weeks to make the event a real success. The members of the MUN/MFNU association at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire spent several months preparing for their first "Model United Nations" (MUN),  a simulation of a UN session at which young "diplomats" take on the role of delegates representing different nations to discuss a given topic. And as their chosen topic was science, it was only natural that they should hold the event at CERN. For three days, from 20 to 22 January, no fewer than 340 pupils from 12 international schools* in Switzerland, France and Turkey came together to deliberate, consult and debate on the importance of scientific progress fo...

  14. The Climate Science Special Report: Arctic Changes and their Effect on Alaska and the Rest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid and visible climate change is happening across the Arctic, outpacing global change. Annual average near-surface air temperatures across the Arctic are increasing at more than twice the rate of global average surface temperature. In addition to surface temperature, all components of the Arctic climate system are responding in kind, including sea ice, mountain glaciers and the Greenland Ice sheet, snow cover, and permafrost. Many of these changes with a discernable anthropogenic imprint. While Arctic climate change may seem physically remote to those living in other regions of the planet, Arctic climate change can affect the global climate influencing sea level, the carbon cycle, and potentially atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. As an Arctic nation, United States' adaptation, mitigation, and policy decisions depend on projections of future Alaskan and Arctic climate. This chapter of the Climate Science Special Report documents significant scientific progress and knowledge about how the Alaskan and Arctic climate has changed and will continue to change.

  15. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin. National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Lange, R.; Moerck Jensen, K.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand when and how climate change becomes a political priority for the governments of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and for transboundary cooperation. Uneven distribution of climate hazards and vulnerabilities create different national risk perceptions and commitment to climate action. Donor funding and national development strategies are also strong drivers of climate action and inaction. Climate change is sometimes used as a scapegoat for domestic policy failures and as a tool to acquire donor funding. We recommend prioritizing climate action in the context of immediate development challenges and 'no regrets' interventions that are likely to enhance adaptive capacity and governments' commitment. (Author)

  16. Deforestation and the Paris climate agreement: An assessment of REDD + in the national climate action plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Jonas; Guarin, Alejandro; Frommé, Ezra; Pauw, W.P.

    2018-01-01

    More than ten years after REDD + (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) entered the UN climate negotiations, its current state and future direction are a matter of contention. This paper analyses 162 INDCs (Intended National Determined Contributions), or climate action plans,

  17. United Nations: preparing to examine energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radka, Mark [United Nations Environment Programme, Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    This article examines the progress on sustainable development at the international level, and discusses the forthcoming meeting of the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD-9) and the review of the progress of the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. Details are given of the anticipated Third Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which is expected to increase pressure to reduce emissions of greenhouses gases, the link between policies of sustainable development and renewable energy, the challenge of the growing demand for energy in the developing countries and the need to mitigate against environmental damage, and the setting up of the Sustainable Energy Advisory Facility (SEAF) by the United Nations Environment Programme to aid developing countries to participate in the CSD-9 process.

  18. United Nations: preparing to examine energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radka, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the progress on sustainable development at the international level, and discusses the forthcoming meeting of the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD-9) and the review of the progress of the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. Details are given of the anticipated Third Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change which is expected to increase pressure to reduce emissions of greenhouses gases, the link between policies of sustainable development and renewable energy, the challenge of the growing demand for energy in the developing countries and the need to mitigate against environmental damage, and the setting up of the Sustainable Energy Advisory Facility (SEAF) by the United Nations Environment Programme to aid developing countries to participate in the CSD-9 process

  19. Risk assessment of climate systems for national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick; Brown, Theresa Jean; Cai, Ximing; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Constantine, Paul G; Dalbey, Keith R.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Fields, Richard; Hart, David Blaine; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Kerstein, Alan R.; Levy, Michael; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Najm, Habib N.; Overfelt, James Robert; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Peplinski, William J.; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Taylor, Mark A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Villa, Daniel L.

    2012-10-01

    Climate change, through drought, flooding, storms, heat waves, and melting Arctic ice, affects the production and flow of resource within and among geographical regions. The interactions among governments, populations, and sectors of the economy require integrated assessment based on risk, through uncertainty quantification (UQ). This project evaluated the capabilities with Sandia National Laboratories to perform such integrated analyses, as they relate to (inter)national security. The combining of the UQ results from climate models with hydrological and economic/infrastructure impact modeling appears to offer the best capability for national security risk assessments.

  20. National plan for adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first explains the rationale for such a plan, and discusses the costs associated to climate change impacts. It presents two scenarios for climate change in France during the 21. century, highlights the weight of uncertainty for the results of these scenarios, and indicates some current consequences. Then, it presents the Plan content and gives an overview of the Plan governance and evaluation. It proposes a set of action sheets which contain the main adopted measures and briefly describe some implemented or projected actions. These sheets concern the different fields of application of the plan: cross-cutting actions, health, water resources, biodiversity, natural hazards, agriculture, forest, fishery and aquaculture, energy and industry, transport infrastructures and systems, urban planning and built environment, tourism, information, education and training, research, finance and insurance, coasts, mountains, European and international actions, governance

  1. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolving the US Climate Resilience Toolkit to Support a Climate-Smart Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Niepold, F., III; Fox, J. F.; Herring, D.; Dahlman, L. E.; Hall, N.; Gardiner, N.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, businesses, resource managers, and decision-makers at all levels of government need information to understand and ameliorate climate-related risks. Likewise, climate information can expose latent opportunities. Moving from climate science to social and economic decisions raises complex questions about how to communicate the causes and impacts of climate variability and change; how to characterize and quantify vulnerabilities, risks, and opportunities faced by communities and businesses; and how to make and implement "win-win" adaptation plans at local, regional, and national scales. A broad coalition of federal agencies launched the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (toolkit.climate.gov) in November 2014 to help our nation build resilience to climate-related extreme events. The site's primary audience is planners and decision makers in business, resource management, and government (at all levels) who seek science-based climate information and tools to help them in their near- and long-term planning. The Executive Office of the President assembled a task force of dozens of subject experts from across the 13 agencies of the U.S. Global Change Research Program to guide the site's development. The site's ongoing evolution is driven by feedback from the target audience. For example, based on feedback, climate projections will soon play a more prominent role in the site's "Climate Explorer" tool and case studies. The site's five-step adaptation planning process is being improved to better facilitate people getting started and to provide clear benchmarks for evaluating progress along the way. In this session, we will share lessons learned from a series of user engagements around the nation and evidence that the Toolkit couples climate information with actionable decision-making processes in ways that are helping Americans build resilience to climate-related stressors.

  3. Climate change adaptation for the US national wildlife refuge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Griffith; J. Michael Scott; Robert Adamcik; Daniel Ashe; Brian Czech; Robert Fischman; Patrick Gonzalez; Joshua Lawler; A. David McGuire; Anna. Pidgorna

    2009-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1903, the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) has grown to 635 units and 37 Wetland Management Districts in the United States and its territories. These units provide the seasonal habitats necessary for migratory waterfowl and other species to complete their annual life cycles. Habitat conversion and fragmentation, invasive species,...

  4. The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook. V. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Throughout 1991 the end of the cold war continued to have a positive impact on international relations. In the Minsk Declaration, proclaiming the establishment of the CIS, the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine undertook to discharge the international obligations incumbent on them under treaties and agreements entered into by the USSR and in the Alma Ata Declaration, this undertaking was accepted by all the eleven republics constituting the Commonwealth. In the course of 1991 several steps were taken which helped enhance the status of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. France and China had decided to accede. On 10 July, South Africa signed a safeguards agreement with IAEA. By the end of 1991, almost all the front-line States in southern Africa had also acceded to the Treaty. Argentina and Brazil concluded a joint safeguards agreement with IAEA and stated that they were taking measures to permit the full entry into force for them of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (treaty of Tlatelolco). The European Council adopted a Declaration on non-proliferation and arms exports with a view to strengthening the regime of nuclear non-proliferation and, in the light of the Persian Gulf War, further enhancing the effectiveness of ''regimes of non-proliferation''. The heads of State and Government of the seven major industrialized countries reaffirmed their readiness to work in favour of an equitable and stable non-proliferation regime based on balance between nuclear non-proliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to achieve a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system. The work carried out in Iraq by the Special Commission, established by the Security Council broke new ground for the United Nations in several respects, in particular, those of intrusive on-site inspection and destruction of weapons and mass destruction and associated facilities under

  5. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  6. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2011. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2009; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2011. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its ninth National Inventory Report (NIR 2011), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2009. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2009), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and, as far as possible, in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of development of

  7. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2011. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2009; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2011. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its ninth National Inventory Report (NIR 2011), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2009. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2009), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and, as far as possible, in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of

  8. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  9. Critical list: the 100 nations most vulnerable to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica [London School of Economics (United Kingdom); Huq, Saleemul

    2007-12-15

    Well over a billion people in 100 countries face a bleak future. In these, the nations most vulnerable to climate change, resilience has already been eroded by entrenched poverty, degraded or threatened environments and other problems. The harsher, more frequent natural disasters that are predicted could tip them over the edge into chronic famine or forced migration. Yet these are also the countries that have contributed least to climate change. It is vital that their voices and views be heard in the negotiations to determine the post-Kyoto climate regime. Equally importantly, the countries emitting the most greenhouse gases must redress the balance by establishing robust mitigation programmes and by supporting adaptation.

  10. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  11. The United Nations and disarmament since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the United Nations, the combined efforts of Governments at global, regional and bilateral levels have led to a body of important agreements, treaties and conventions committing their parties to various arms limitation and disarmament measures. The multilateral instruments concluded so far are as follows: The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Test in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (partial test-ban Treaty); The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (outer space Treaty); The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (non-proliferation Treaty); The Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (sea-bed Treaty); The Antarctic Treaty of 1959, for the demilitarization of Antarctica; The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco); The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga); The Vienna Document 1990 on confidence- and security-building measures, and a number of bilateral agreements, including: The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear-Weapon Tests; The Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes; The Agreement on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

  12. Solar Energy and the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    Some applications of solar power have an easy technology, and are a matter for the present or immediate future. The methods for the large-scale production of electricity, however, cannot mature before the end of the century, even if determined efforts are begun now. May it be recalled that some 30 years also elapsed between the discovery of nuclear fission and the start of the first economic nuclear power stations. Investments into R and D were thus needed for decades. In nuclear science, it was relatively easy to find the finance because the military was interested. But in view of its tremendous importance for the welfare of mankind it should be at least equally easy to bridge the gap in respect to solar power. May it be underlined that far more money has indeed been found, and is being found, for CERN in Geneva, which is of purely scientific-academic interest and cannot promise much valuable practical 'spin-off'. The United Nations, the countries of the First, Second and Third World, ought to shoulder their responsibility in respect to solar energy. Energetic steps towards the founding of the International Solar Power Institute should be taken right now. (author)

  13. A wall-free climate unit for acoustic levitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, M C; Wenzel, K-J; Sarfraz, A; Panne, U; Emmerling, F

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic levitation represents the physical background of trapping a sample in a standing acoustic wave with no contact to the wave generating device. For the last three decades, sample holders based on this effect have been commonly used for contact free handling of samples coupled with a number of analytical techniques. In this study, a wall-free climate unit is presented, which allows the control of the environmental conditions of suspended samples. The insulation is based on a continuous cold/hot gas flow around the sample and thus does not require any additional isolation material. This provides a direct access to the levitated sample and circumvents any influence of the climate unit material to the running analyses.

  14. The Intersection of National Security and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fankhauser, Jana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kurzrok, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sandusky, Jessica A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    On June 4, 2014, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory hosted a groundbreaking symposium in Seattle, Washington, that brought together 36 leaders from federal agencies, state and local governments, NGOs, business, and academia. The participants examined approaches and tools to help decision makers make informed choices about the climate and security risks they face. The following executive summary is based on the day’s discussions and examines the problem of climate change and its impact on national security, the responses to date, and future considerations.

  15. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Mallant, R.K.A.M.; Van der Wart, R.; Muradin-Szweykowska, M.

    1992-06-01

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO 2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  16. Evolution Dilemma of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt M. Yenigun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN, despite some successful stories, has largely failed to safeguard international peace and security, particularly in the Middle East since its establishment. The UN’s inability to effectively resolve international conflicts is due to the Security Council (UNSC’s decision making-process. The power to block any initiatives that do not fit the interest of any of the five permanent members (P5: US, UK, France, Russia, China have impeded the UN’s ability to take effectively take actions where it is needed in safeguarding security in the Middle East. The nature of the veto power no longer reflects the reality of the 21st century; the UN is frozen in the context of the post-Second World War era and has failed to evolve with the international community.  Double standards in the International Court of Justice's decrees and infirmity of purpose of the UNSC overshadow the legitimacy of the organization, jeopardizing its security mission, and clashes with the democratic values in world public opinion. The UN should change to earn legitimacy and efficiency of preserving international peace and security by amending decision making system in the UNSC or changing decision-making organ within the UN. The Secretary General’s diplomatic activism and attempts to fill the gap left by the P5 infightings could not succeed because of the resistance of the UNSC’s permanent members to change and lack of integrity among the other states. To ensure democratic transformation of the UN today, all states, NGOs and think tanks should work together. This study discusses the system's current shortcomings and suggests some alternative paths for the effective transformation of the UN as a supranational security institution.

  17. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  18. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  19. National Lexicography Units: Past, Present, Future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariëtta Alberts, Research Unit for Languages and Literature in SA Context,. Northwest ..... NLUs were also assisted with the marketing of the units and the obtaining .... each dictionary project, and developing an editorial style guide for each dic- .... The DSAE edited the South African Concise Oxford Dictionary that was.

  20. National, ready-to-use climate indicators calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2010-09-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to the other. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators (denominated SCIA) was developed. Along with the pieces of information provided by complete metadata, climate indicators consist of statistics (mean, extremes, date of occurrence, standard deviation) over ten-days, monthly and yearly time periods of meteorological variables, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, water balance, evapotranspitaton, degree-days, cloud cover, sea level pressure, solar radiation. In addition, normal values over thirty-year reference climatological periods and yearly anomalies are calculated and made available. All climate indicators, as well as their time series at a single location or spatial distribution at a selected time, are available through a dedicated web site (www.scia.sinanet.apat.it). In addition, secondary products like high resolution temperature maps obtained by kriging spatial interpolation, are made available. Over the last three years, about 40000 visitors accessed to the SCIA web site, with an average of 45 visitors per day. Most frequent visitors belong to categories like universities and research institutes; private companies and general public are present as well. Apart from research purposes, climate indicators disseminated through SCIA may be used in several socio-economic sectors like energy consumption, water management, agriculture, tourism and health. With regards to our activity, we base on these indicators for the estimation of

  1. Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Moore, S. M.; Sampson, K. M.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States where >90% of cases occur. The national average annual onset week of Lyme disease is projected to become 0.4-0.5 weeks earlier for 2025-2040 (pLyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, may alter the disease transmission cycle in unforeseen ways. The results suggest 21st century climate change will make environmental conditions suitable for earlier annual onset of Lyme disease cases in the United States with possible implications for the timing of public health interventions.

  2. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  3. Declaration of the National Forum on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-03

    The purpose of the National Forum on Climate Change was to raise public awareness of the climate change issue and to bring citizens` viewpoint to the debate. The Forum was a unique conference in that the principal attendees, while lay persons as far as climate change is concerned, were members of the Order of Canada. The Order of Canada is an honour bestowed upon upon a relatively small number of Canadian citizens from all walks of life who have made significant contributions to the betterment of their professions or communities or distinguished themselves nationally or internationally. It was the first time that recipients of this high honour were called upon collectively to address an issue of national policy. This declaration was issued at the conclusion of the round table discussions. It expresses their conclusions about climate change, what it is, what are its potential impacts, the scientific uncertainties surrounding the issue, and the actions that can and must be taken by governments and individual citizens to deal with the problem.

  4. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  5. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson

    2014-10-01

    The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

  6. 77 FR 65459 - United Nations Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... when the global community acts collectively. Dedicated to assuring ``the equal rights of men and women... better part of a century, we have seen what is possible when a strong and united international community...

  7. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States. [61 FR...

  8. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of

  9. National technology needs assessment for the preparation and implementation of climate change action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkel, C.W.M. van; Blonk, T.J.; Westra, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) it is recognised that developed countries have a responsibility in assisting developing countries and countries in economic transition in building a national capacity for the development, acquisition and transfer of Climate-related Technologies (CTs). Such assistance is most likely to be successful once it is tailored to the results of a sound assessment of the country`s development needs and once the results of this assessment have been endorsed by the most important stakeholders in the country. Recent insight in the opportunities and constraints for National (technology) Needs Assessments (NNAs) as planning tool for both capacity building and technology transfer regarding Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) is applied here to propose a participatory Climate Change Action Planning (CCAP) process. This participatory planning process is thought to serve the dual objective of defining a national Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) while at the same time contributing to the creation of a broad supportive basis for its acceptance and implementation among stakeholders in the developing country.

  10. United Nations opens gender coordinating unit for Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K

    1999-02-06

    The UN has created a gender coordinating unit for Afghanistan in an effort to combat some problems encountered by women and girls in the country. Reports continue to come in of women in Afghanistan being denied the right to work, to be educated, and to have access to medical care. The gap in education between men and women continues to widen as a result of edicts issued by Taliban authorities banning girls from attending formal schools and female teachers from working. The situation has grown worse since the UN and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) withdrew international workers last year due to security concerns. Although a UN mission will travel to the country this week to discuss the return of international staff, the gender coordinating unit will for now have to work out of Islamabad, Pakistan. The unit will create guidelines for gender mainstreaming, a strategy in which mainstream policies and resource allocations are changed to reflect the principle of gender equality. Other goals include setting realistic objectives for gender activities, working with partners on pilot projects, and establishing minimum standards for best practices. MERLIN, a NGO with a primary health care program run by local staff in the Taliban-controlled province of Farah, welcomes the move.

  11. Comparisons of allometric and climate-derived estimates of tree coarse root carbon stocks in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refined estimation of carbon (C) stocks within forest ecosystems is a critical component of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of projected climate change through forest C management. Specifically, belowground C stocks are currently estimated in the United States' national greenhouse gas inventory (US NGHGI) using...

  12. Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert S.; Maldonado, Julie; Quattrochi, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Responses: Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment workshop, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), was held on April 28-29, 2011 at The Madison Hotel in Washington, DC. A group of 56 experts (see list in Appendix B) convened to share their experiences. Participants brought to bear a wide range of disciplinary expertise in the social and natural sciences, sector experience, and knowledge about developing and implementing indicators for a range of purposes. Participants included representatives from federal and state government, non-governmental organizations, tribes, universities, and communities. The purpose of the workshop was to assist the NCA in developing a strategic framework for climate-related physical, ecological, and socioeconomic indicators that can be easily communicated with the U.S. population and that will support monitoring, assessment, prediction, evaluation, and decision-making. The NCA indicators are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The workshop participants were asked to provide input on a number of topics, including: (1) categories of societal indicators for the NCA; (2) alternative approaches to constructing indicators and the better approaches for NCA to consider; (3) specific requirements and criteria for implementing the indicators; and (4) sources of data for and creators of such indicators. Socioeconomic indicators could include demographic, cultural, behavioral, economic, public health, and policy components relevant to impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change as well as both proactive and reactive responses to climate change. Participants provided

  13. Climate change on the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming: a synthesis of past climate, climate projections, and ecosystem implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine Rice; Andrew Tredennick; Linda A. Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The Shoshone National Forest (Shoshone) covers 2.4 million acres of mountainous topography in northwest Wyoming and is a vital ecosystem that provides clean water, wildlife habitat, timber, grazing, recreational opportunities, and aesthetic value. The Shoshone has experienced and adapted to changes in climate for many millennia, and is currently experiencing a warming...

  14. Institutional Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in U.S. National Parks and Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley C. Jantarasami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly challenge ecosystem managers' ability to protect species diversity and maintain ecosystem function. In response, the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service have promoted climate change adaptation as a management strategy to increase ecosystem resilience to changing climatic conditions. However, very few examples of completed adaptation plans or projects exist. Here, we examine managers' perceptions of internal and external institutional barriers to implementing adaptation strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=32 with regional managers and agency staff in six park and forest units in Washington State. We found that internal barriers, including unclear mandates from superiors and bureaucratic rules and procedures, are perceived as greater constraints than external barriers related to existing federal environmental laws. Respondents perceived process-oriented environmental laws, such as the National Environmental Policy Act, as enablers of adaptation strategies, and prescriptive laws, such as the Endangered Species Act, as barriers. Our results suggest that climate change adaptation is more often discussed than pursued, and that institutional barriers within agencies limit what can be accomplished.

  15. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This technical input to the National Climate Assessment synthesizes our scientific understanding of the way climate change is affecting biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and what strategies might be employed to decrease current and future risks. Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The

  16. Estimating Climate Trends: Application to United States Plant Hardiness Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Department of Agriculture classifies plant hardiness zones based on mean annual minimum temperatures over some past period (currently 1976–2005. Since temperatures are changing, these values may benefit from updating. I outline a multistep methodology involving imputation of missing station values, geostatistical interpolation, and time series smoothing to update a climate variable’s expected value compared to a climatology period and apply it to estimating annual minimum temperature change over the coterminous United States. I show using hindcast experiments that trend estimation gives more accurate predictions of minimum temperatures 1-2 years in advance compared to the previous 30 years’ mean alone. I find that annual minimum temperature increased roughly 2.5 times faster than mean temperature (~2.0 K versus ~0.8 K since 1970, and is already an average of 1.2  0.5 K (regionally up to ~2 K above the 1976–2005 mean, so that much of the country belongs to warmer hardiness zones compared to the current map. The methods developed may also be applied to estimate changes in other climate variables and geographic regions.

  17. Developing a System of National Climate Assessment Indicators to Track Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janetos, A. C.; Kenney, M. A.; Chen, R. S.; Arndt, D.

    2012-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/). Part of the vision for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Atmospheric Composition Physical Climate Variability and Change Sectors and Resources of Concern Adaptation and Mitigation Responses This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at

  18. Developing a National Climate Indicators System to Track Climate Changes, Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.; Janetos, A. C.; Arndt, D.; Chen, R. S.; Pouyat, R.; Anderson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. Part of the vision, which is now under development, for the sustained National Climate Assessment (NCA) process is a system of physical, ecological, and societal indicators that communicate key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness for the purpose of informing both decision makers and the public with scientifically valid information that is useful to inform decision-making processes such as the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies in a particular sector or region. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. The indicators will be reviewed and updated so that the system adapts to new information. The NCA indicator system is not intended to serve as a vehicle for documenting rigorous cause and effect relationships. It is reasonable, however, for it to serve as a guide to those factors that affect the evolution of variability and change in the climate system, the resources and sectors of concern that are affected by it, and how society chooses to respond. Different components of the end-to-end climate issue serve as categories within which to organize an end-to-end system of indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, Atmospheric Composition, Physical Climate Variability and Change, Sectors and Resources of Concern, and Adaptation and Mitigation Responses. This framing has several advantages. It can be used to identify the different components of the end-to-end climate issue that both decision-makers and researchers are interested in. It is independent of scale, and therefore allows the indicators themselves to be described at spatial

  19. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  20. Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Himmelfarb; John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; KathErine Dunbar; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    Despite a global scientific consensus on the anthropogenic nature of climate change, the issue remains highly contentious in the United States, stifling public debate and action on the issue. Local perceptions of and attitudes toward climate change-how different groups of people outside of the professional climate science community make sense of changes in climate in...

  1. A Strategy for American Power: Energy, Climate and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    For example, Greg Mankiw , Harvard economist and former chair of President Bush’s Council of Economic Advisors, has proposed phasing in a $1 per...International Energy Barrier By Amy Myers Jaffe 77 Chapter V: Overcoming the Economic Barriers to Climate Change and Energy Security By Jason Furman (lead...Hamilton Project. He previously served in the Clinton administration and at the Council of Economic Advisers, the National Economic Council, and the World

  2. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    close the gap between aspiration and performance…makes the difference between civilisation and chaos” AND OPPORTUNITIES - Dag Hammarskjöld...ONUB) and left behind a democratic local and national structure. 10 UN also successfully completed the referendum in Sudan in 2011(UNMIS) which

  3. The national campaign for action against climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueret, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol adopted in 1997 lays down the principle of a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions for developed countries and the instigation of sanctions for those not adhering to their commitments. Each country has set up a national institute responsible for adapting the instigation of this protocol to its own particularities. The Inter-departmental Mission for Greenhouse Effects (MIES) in France was given this task, and in January 2000 it presented the national campaign for action against climatic changes. This article sets out the international measures, the commitments made by France, and presents the measures to be implemented as well as the aspects to be strengthened within the French plan. (author)

  4. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2012. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2010; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2012. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    All Parties listed in ANNEX I of the UNFCCC are required to prepare and submit annual National Inventory Reports (NIRs) containing detailed and complete information on the entire process of preparation of greenhouse gas inventories. The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. Pursuant to decision 15/CMP.1, as of 2010 all of the countries listed in ANNEX I of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that are also parties to the Kyoto Protocol must submit annual inventories in order to be able to make use of flexible mechanisms pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Together with the inventory tables, Germany submits a NIR, which refers to the period covered by the inventory tables and describes the methods and data sources on which the pertinent calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). The NIR contains a Part II, along with additional sub-chapters, that fulfill the expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant obligations at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse-gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. This section describes the National System pursuant to Article 5.1 of the Kyoto Protocol, which system is designed to aid and assure compliance with all reporting obligations with respect to atmospheric emissions and removals in sinks. In addition, this chapter describes the basic

  5. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto protocol 2012. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2010; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2012. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    All Parties listed in ANNEX I of the UNFCCC are required to prepare and submit annual National Inventory Reports (NIRs) containing detailed and complete information on the entire process of preparation of greenhouse gas inventories. The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. Pursuant to decision 15/CMP.1, as of 2010 all of the countries listed in ANNEX I of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that are also parties to the Kyoto Protocol must submit annual inventories in order to be able to make use of flexible mechanisms pursuant to Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Together with the inventory tables, Germany submits a NIR, which refers to the period covered by the inventory tables and describes the methods and data sources on which the pertinent calculations are based. The report and the report tables in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) have been prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC guideline on annual inventories (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9) and in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC-GPG, 2000) and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (IPCC-GPG LULUCF, 2003). The NIR contains a Part II, along with additional sub-chapters, that fulfill the expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant obligations at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse-gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse-gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. This section describes the National System pursuant to Article 5.1 of the Kyoto Protocol, which system is designed to aid and assure compliance with all reporting obligations with respect to atmospheric emissions and removals in sinks. In addition, this chapter describes the basic

  6. Carbon factors and models for forest carbon estimates for the 2005-2011 National Greenhouse Gas Inventories of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Coeli M. Hoover

    2013-01-01

    Most nations have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and are mandated to report National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, including the land use, land use change and forestry sector when it is significant. Participating countries commonly use data from national forest inventories as a basis for their forest-related emissions estimates. The...

  7. Soil Patterns Associated with the Major Geological Units of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Venter

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant soil types of the Kruger National Park and their interrelationships with parent material, topography and climate are discussed. The geogenetic and topogenetic nature of the soils are manifested in the strong correlations between recurrent soil patterns, major geological units and terrain morphology. The soils are categorised into seven major classes on the basis of the parent material from which they developed. General soil patterns within the major classes are discussed.

  8. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  9. United Nations programme for the assistance in Uruguay mining exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Uruguay government asked for the United Nations for the development of technical assistance programme in geological considerations of the Valentines iron deposits. This agreement was signed as Mining prospect ion assistance in Uruguay.

  10. Nigeria and the United States: An Analysis of National Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the continent of Africa has regained its importance to the United States and other developed nations, primarily due to its vast amounts of untapped resources...

  11. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C.

    2014-01-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species p...

  12. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 19: 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament taking place each year, together with a brief history of the major issues. The series began with the 1976 edition. The Yearbook makes no claim to present fully the views of Member States of the Organization. For further information on the official positions of States, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly and other sources. General Assembly resolutions and decisions are quoted in The Yearbook in the form in which they were adopted by the General Assembly. For the edited texts of these documents for 1994, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/49/49). For an overview of the work of the United Nations in the field of disarmament, one should consult The United Nations and Disarmament: A short History (UN, 1988). A more detailed account is included in The United Nations and Disarmament: 1945-1970; United Nations and Disarmament: 1970-1975, and previous volumes of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook

  13. Etude Climat no. 41 'Combating fuel poverty: policies in France and the United Kingdom'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyszler, Johan; Bordier, Cecile; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: The National Debate on Energy Transition in France highlighted issues relating to the social acceptability of the measures in question, and especially the inclusion of fuel poverty. However, the wide range of determining factors for fuel poverty (high energy prices, poor living conditions, and limited financial resources) make it hard to characterise the households involved. Several indicators are available although the defining criterion that is currently used, even though it is disputed, is the allocation of at least 10% of a household's income to expenditure on fuel: in this case, 3.8 million households would be concerned in France, and 4.7 million in the United Kingdom

  14. Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of Baluran National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Harjadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every ecosystem has a different level of susceptibility to environmental disturbances it receives, both from natural factors or anthropogenic disturbance. National Park (NP Baluran is one national park that has a representation of a complete ecosystem that includes upland forest ecosystems, lowland forests, coastal forests, mangroves, savanna and evergreen forest. The objective of this study is to get a formula calculation of vulnerability analysis of constant and dynamic factors. Baluran NP vulnerability assessment to climate change done by looking at the dynamic and fixed factors. Vulnerability remains a vulnerability factor to the condition of the original (control, whereas vulnerability is the vulnerability of the dynamic change factors which affected the condition from the outside. Constant Vulnerability (CV in  Baluran NP dominated resistant conditions (61%, meaning that the geomorphology and other fixed factors (slope and slope direction/aspect, then the condition in Baluran NP sufficiently resilient to climate change. Dynamic Vulnerability (DV is the vulnerability of an area or areas that change because of pressure from external factors. DV is influenced by climatic factors (WI = Wetness Index, soil (SBI = Soil Brightness Index, and vegetation (GI = Greenness Index. DV in  Baluran NP from 1999 to 2010 shifted from the original category of being (84.76% and shifted to the susceptible (59.88%.  The role of remote sensing for the analysis of raster digital system, while the geographic information system to display the results of cartographic maps.

  15. Talks and status of the national conference of the national program of fight against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to fulfill its commitments in the Kyoto protocol for the abatement of greenhouse gases emissions, France has started important environmental actions: the creation of the national program of fight against climate change (validated in January 2000), the integration of the problem of climate change in government actions (collective services and state-region contracts), creation of a national laboratory of global warming effects, creation of a research council on climate change and durable development, presentation of an annual status of the actions carried out in the framework of the national program. This last point was the aim of the conference held in Paris in June 2001. Debates were organized around four main sectors: industry, energy, buildings and transportation systems. The topics approached during the round-tables raised several essential questions for the fight against climate change: which practice changes are needed in the industry and energy production activities? Which actions need to be carried out in new and existing buildings to save energy? Which consistent transportation policies need to be implemented in urban areas? Is a rail-road traffic re-balancing possible? Which importance can have the territory organizations? What are the public expectations in front of the climate change risk? This document brings together the talks of Mrs D. Voynet, Minister of national development and environment, the talk of Mr R.G. Schwartzenberg, Minister of research, the talk of Mr C. Pierret, State Secretary of Industry, and a sectoral status (transports, industry, energy, buildings and mastery of electricity demand) of the first year of the program presented by Mr M. Mousel, head of the inter-ministry mission on greenhouse effect. The document ends with a presentation of the British and European climate change programs. (J.S.)

  16. Creating a Partnering Community Aimed to Foster Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, D.; McNeal, K. S.; Smith, R.; Hare, D.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) is a part of the Climate Change Education Program supported by the National Science Foundation (http://CLiPSE-project.org). The established CLiPSE partnership is dedicated to improving climate literacy in the southeast through crafting a shared vision and strategic plan among stakeholders that promotes scientific formal and informal educational resources, materials and programs; a diverse network of key partnering organizations throughout the Southeastern United States (SE US); and effective public dialogues that address diverse learners and audiences and supports learning of climate, climate change, and its relevance upon human and environmental systems. The CLiPSE project has been successful in creating partnerships with more than fifty key stakeholders that stem from a few key publics such as agriculture, education, leisure, religious organizations, and culturally diverse communities. These key publics in the SE US frequently consist of individuals that place great trust in local, private efforts, and CLiPSE has realized the importance of the role of the partnering organizations in providing information through a trusted source. A second unique characteristic of the SE US is the predominately conservative and Protestant citizenry in the region. Working with and through these communities enhances climate change education outreach to this citizenry. The CLiPSE project rests on solid climate science and learning science research in order to formulate an effective plan with desired learning outcomes of critical thinking and civil conversation through effective communication strategies. This paper will present the CLiPSE model in reaching the key publics that traditionally hold ideologies that are traditionally perceived as incompatible with climate change science. We will present the strategies utilized to bring together experts and researchers in climate science, learning science, and social science with

  17. Predicted Changes in Climatic Niche and Climate Refugia of Conservation Priority Salamander Species in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Sutton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change represents one of the most extensive and pervasive threats to wildlife populations. Amphibians, specifically salamanders, are particularly susceptible to the effects of changing climates due to their restrictive physiological requirements and low vagility; however, little is known about which landscapes and species are vulnerable to climate change. Our study objectives included, (1 evaluating species-specific predictions (based on 2050 climate projections and vulnerabilities to climate change and (2 using collective species responses to identify areas of climate refugia for conservation priority salamanders in the northeastern United States. All evaluated salamander species were projected to lose a portion of their climatic niche. Averaged projected losses ranged from 3%–100% for individual species, with the Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon punctatus, Cheat Mountain Salamander (Plethodon nettingi, Shenandoah Mountain Salamander (Plethodon virginia, Mabee’s Salamander (Ambystoma mabeei, and Streamside Salamander (Ambystoma barbouri predicted to lose at least 97% of their landscape-scale climatic niche. The Western Allegheny Plateau was predicted to lose the greatest salamander climate refugia richness (i.e., number of species with a climatically-suitable niche in a landscape patch, whereas the Central Appalachians provided refugia for the greatest number of species during current and projected climate scenarios. Our results can be used to identify species and landscapes that are likely to be further affected by climate change and potentially resilient habitats that will provide consistent climatic conditions in the face of environmental change.

  18. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations where more sophisticated monitoring instrumentation was not available. The US EPA has conducted numerous evaluations of other similar sensor pods at its Research Triangle Park, NC research campus and has trained staff as well as established research designs for such efforts. Under the terms of the MCRADA, the US EPA would operate the pod using UNEP provided operating procedures in a manner consistent with its planned intent of deployment. The US EPA would collect air quality monitoring data from the pod involving select environmental measures over a period of approximately one month. Reference monitoring data collected from collocated federal regulatory monitors would be used to establish a comparison between the two systems and thus establishment of performance characteristics. In addition, the US EPA would provide feedback information to the UNEP as to observed ease of use features of the pod that would be beneficial in its future evolution and deployment. The UNEP recently developed a multipollutant sensor pod called the UNEP Air Quality Monitoring Unit, herein simply defined as the UNEP pod (http://aqicn.org/faq/2015-10-28/unep-air-quality-monitoring-station/). First introduced in 20

  19. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  20. Climate of the Nation. Australians Attitudes to Climate Change and its Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLIMATE OF THE NATION AUSTRALIANS ATTITUDES TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS SOLUTIONS

    2007-03-01

    It comes as no surprise that concern about climate change is at an all time high and the vast majority of people no longer doubt that it is real or that it is caused by greenhouse gases created by human activity. Not only is concern at an all time high, but climate change now ranks as more important to people than a wide range of issues including housing affordability and national security. While many people are still unfamiliar with the more detailed science of climate change, this does not detract from their passion to deal with it. Focus group research shows that people see climate change and weather as interchangeable. As such, drought, water supply and management, and climate change are often linked in the minds of the general public. This is backed up by quantitative polling which has water management and climate change topping people's concerns. A common theme in the research is that people are looking for leadership. They accept there may be a price to pay and they are hungry for decisive action.They are also keen to know more about the problem, and importantly they want to be able to take action which will make a real difference. Support for clean energy solutions like solar and wind is very strong and there is a view that Australia's abundant sunshine is not being put to good use. People also feel strongly about cutting energy waste. Themes that emerged strongly through the research were: growing understanding that climate change is already happening; particular concern about water resources and the impact of water restrictions; a view that Australia should lead and is not yet doing so; concern about our children's future (both jobs and environment). People expressed very strong support for a future in which our children are protected from the worst impacts of climate change and are able to be involved in a new economy built around renewable energy sources. Climate change as an issue is a mixture of economic (including households) management and

  1. United Nations Charter, Chapter VII, Article 43: Now or Never.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2018-04-25

    For more than 75 years, the United Nations Charter has functioned without the benefit of Chapter VII, Article 43, which commits all United Nations member states "to make available to the Security Council, on its call, armed forces, assistance, facilities, including rights of passage necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security." The consequences imposed by this 1945 decision have had a dramatic negative impact on the United Nation's functional capacity as a global body for peace and security. This article summarizes the struggle to implement Article 43 over the decades from the onset of the Cold War, through diplomatic attempts during the post-Cold War era, to current and often controversial attempts to provide some semblance of conflict containment through peace enforcement missions. The rapid growth of globalization and the capability of many nations to provide democratic protections to their populations are again threatened by superpower hegemony and the development of novel unconventional global threats. The survival of the United Nations requires many long overdue organizational structure and governance power reforms, including implementation of a robust United Nations Standing Task Force under Article 43. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).

  2. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Services Portal: A New Centralized Resource for Distributed Climate Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, J.; Baldwin, R.; Herring, D.; Lott, N.; Boyd, J.; Handel, S.; Niepold, F.; Shea, E.

    2010-09-01

    With the rapid rise in the development of Web technologies and climate services across NOAA, there has been an increasing need for greater collaboration regarding NOAA's online climate services. The drivers include the need to enhance NOAA's Web presence in response to customer requirements, emerging needs for improved decision-making capabilities across all sectors of society facing impacts from climate variability and change, and the importance of leveraging climate data and services to support research and public education. To address these needs, NOAA (during fiscal year 2009) embarked upon an ambitious program to develop a NOAA Climate Services Portal (NCS Portal). Four NOAA offices are leading the effort: 1) the NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO), 2) the National Ocean Service's Coastal Services Center (CSC), 3) the National Weather Service's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), and 4) the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service's (NESDIS) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Other offices and programs are also contributing in many ways to the effort. A prototype NCS Portal is being placed online for public access in January 2010, http://www.climate.gov. This website only scratches the surface of the many climate services across NOAA, but this effort, via direct user engagement, will gradually expand the scope and breadth of the NCS Portal to greatly enhance the accessibility and usefulness of NOAA's climate data and services.

  3. National climate strategy. Finland. Government report to Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the session held in Kyoto in 1997, the Parties to the Climate Convention agreed on legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Under the so- called Kyoto Protocol, the Member States of the European Community and the European Union shall reduce their annual emissions by eight per cent annually during the years 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level. Within the Community, the targets have been allotted among the Member States so that Finland's annual greenhouse gas emissions may amount on average to no more than the 1990 level during the commitment period 2008-2012. This National Climate Strategy, submitted to Parliament in the form of a Government report, contains the principles, targets and measures that the Government finds necessary in order to meet our national target. The background material for the strategy consists of sector-specific reports made by the various ministries. The ministerial working group has coordinated the preparation of the strategy. For the strategy, the ministries have carried out and commissioned numerous separate analyses and studies, the reports of which have been published in the course of preparing the strategy. Based on these end the sector-specific reports, a background report to the National Climate Programme entitled 'The Need for and Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Finland' was compiled for the ministerial working group. The report was co-ordinated by the Kyoto contact network composed of civil servants from the various ministries. The report describes in more detail the factors influencing economic growth, energy consumption and production, and other elements affecting the development of greenhouse gases, which were used as underlying assumptions when determining the recommendations for action under the strategy. The economic and other effects of alternative courses of action were also analysed and described in the above-mentioned background study. It has been published in the Internet on

  4. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner

    Putting space technology and its applications to work for sustainable economic and social development is the primary objective of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, launched in 1971. A specific goal for achieving this objective is to establish a sustainable national space capacity. The traditional line of thinking has supported a logical progression from building capacity in basic space science, to using space applications and finally - possibly - to establishing indigenous space technology capabilities. The experience in some countries suggests that such a strict line of progression does not necessarily hold true and that priority given to the establishment of early indigenous space technology capabilities may contribute to promoting the operational use of space applications in support of sustainable economic and social development. Based on these findings and on the experiences with the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) as well as on a series of United Nations/International Academy of Astronautics Workshops on Small Satellites in the Service of Developing Countries, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is considering the launch of a dedicated United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative (UNBSTI). The initiative would aim to contribute to capacity building in basic space technology and could include, among other relevant fields, activities related to the space and ground segments of small satellites and their applications. It would also provide an international framework for enhancing cooperation between all interested actors, facilitate the exchange of information on best practices, and contribute to standardization efforts. It is expected that these activities would advance the operational use of space technology and its applications in an increasing number of space-using countries and emerging space nations. The paper reports on these initial considerations and on the potential value-adding role

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Rivers and Implications for Electricity Generation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Corsi, F.; Cohen, S. M.; Tidwell, V. C.; Newmark, R. L.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The contemporary power sector in the United States is heavily reliant on water resources to provide cooling water for thermoelectric generation. Efficient thermoelectric plant operations require large volumes of water at sufficiently cool temperatures for their cooling process. The total amount of water that is withdrawn or consumed for cooling and any potential declines in efficiencies are determined by the sector's fuel mix and cooling technologies. As such, the impact of climate change, and the extent of impact, on the power sector is shaped by the choice of electricity generation technologies that will be built over the coming decades. In this study, we model potential changes in river discharge and temperature in the contiguous US under a set of climate scenarios to year 2050 using the Water Balance Model-Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution Model (WBM-TP2M). Together, these models quantify, in high-resolution (3-min), river temperatures, discharge and power plant efficiency losses associated with changes in available cooling water that incorporates climate, hydrology, river network dynamics and multi-plant impacts, on both single power plant and regional scales. Results are used to assess the aptness and vulnerability of contemporary and alternative electricity generation pathways to changes in climate and water availability for cooling purposes, and the concomitant impacts on power plant operating efficiencies. We assess the potential impacts by comparing six regions (Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Great Plains, Southwest, Northwest as in the National Climate Assessment (2014)) across the US. These experiments allow us to assess tradeoffs among electricity-water-climate to provide useful insight for decision-makers managing regional power production and aquatic environments.

  6. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V; Cohen, Erika C; McNulty, Steven G; Aldridge, Heather D; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-21

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr(-1) (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr(-1)). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services.

  7. National Scale Prediction of Soil Carbon Sequestration under Scenarios of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaurralde, R. C.; Thomson, A. M.; Potter, S. R.; Atwood, J. D.; Williams, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is gaining momentum as a tool to mitigate the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Texas A&M University, and USDA-NRCS used the EPIC model to develop national-scale predictions of soil carbon sequestration with adoption of no till (NT) under scenarios of climate change. In its current form, the EPIC model simulates soil C changes resulting from heterotrophic respiration and wind / water erosion. Representative modeling units were created to capture the climate, soil, and management variability at the 8-digit hydrologic unit (USGS classification) watershed scale. The soils selected represented at least 70% of the variability within each watershed. This resulted in 7,540 representative modeling units for 1,412 watersheds. Each watershed was assigned a major crop system: corn, soybean, spring wheat, winter wheat, cotton, hay, alfalfa, corn-soybean rotation or wheat-fallow rotation based on information from the National Resource Inventory. Each representative farm was simulated with conventional tillage and no tillage, and with and without irrigation. Climate change scenarios for two future periods (2015-2045 and 2045-2075) were selected from GCM model runs using the IPCC SRES scenarios of A2 and B2 from the UK Hadley Center (HadCM3) and US DOE PCM (PCM) models. Changes in mean and standard deviation of monthly temperature and precipitation were extracted from gridded files and applied to baseline climate (1960-1990) for each of the 1,412 modeled watersheds. Modeled crop yields were validated against historical USDA NASS county yields (1960-1990). The HadCM3 model predicted the most severe changes in climate parameters. Overall, there would be little difference between the A2 and B2 scenarios. Carbon offsets were calculated as the difference in soil C change between conventional and no till. Overall, C offsets during the first 30-y period (513 Tg C) are predicted to

  8. 77 FR 32572 - (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate... (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION... page http:// www.nesdis.noaa.gov/NCADAC/ [[Page 32573

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion vulnerability across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Segura; G. Sun; S. McNulty; Y. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall runoff erosivity (R) is one key climate factor that controls water erosion. Quantifying the effects of climate change-induced erosivity change is important for identifying critical regions prone to soil erosion under a changing environment. In this study we first evaluate the changes of R from 1970 to 2090 across the United States under nine climate conditions...

  10. Climate change and wildlife in the southern United States: potential effects and management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Eric Winters; E.M. Fucik; M.A. Kwiatkowski; B.R. Parresol; J.D. Austin; G.W. Tanner

    2014-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, climate models project a temperature increase of 2-10°C by 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007). Climate change is already evident. Since the 1970s, average temperature has risen by about 1°C, with the greatest seasonal temperature increase during winter. Average precipitation during autumn has increased by 30% since...

  11. Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Latta; Hailemariam Temesgen; Darius Adams; Tara Barrett

    2010-01-01

    As global climate changes over the next century, forest productivity is expected to change as well. Using PRISM climate and productivity data measured on a grid of 3356 plots, we developed a simultaneous autoregressive model to estimate the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of Pacific Northwest forests of the United States. The model, coupled with...

  12. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  13. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  14. A strategy for assessing potential future changes in climate, hydrology, and vegetation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Stephen; Hostetler, Steven W.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical and geological data indicate that significant changes can occur in the Earth's climate on time scales ranging from years to millennia. In addition to natural climatic change, climatic changes may occur in the near future due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere that are the result of human activities. International research efforts using atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM's) to assess potential climatic conditions under atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of twice the pre-industrial level (a '2 X CO2' atmosphere) conclude that climate would warm on a global basis. However, it is difficult to assess how the projected warmer climatic conditions would be distributed on a regional scale and what the effects of such warming would be on the landscape, especially for temperate mountainous regions such as the Western United States. In this report, we present a strategy to assess the regional sensitivity to global climatic change. The strategy makes use of a hierarchy of models ranging from an AGCM, to a regional climate model, to landscape-scale process models of hydrology and vegetation. A 2 X CO2 global climate simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) GENESIS AGCM on a grid of approximately 4.5o of latitude by 7.5o of longitude was used to drive the NCAR regional climate model (RegCM) over the Western United States on a grid of 60 km by 60 km. The output from the RegCM is used directly (for hydrologic models) or interpolated onto a 15-km grid (for vegetation models) to quantify possible future environmental conditions on a spatial scale relevant to policy makers and land managers.

  15. Associations among unit leadership and unit climates for implementation in acute care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Clayton J; Liu, Xuefeng; Aebersold, Michelle L; Tschannen, Dana; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Titler, Marita G

    2018-04-25

    Nurse managers have a pivotal role in fostering unit climates supportive of implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in care delivery. EBP leadership behaviors and competencies of nurse managers and their impact on practice climates are widely overlooked in implementation science. The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and nurse manager EBP competencies in explaining unit climates for EBP implementation in adult medical-surgical units. A multi-site, multi-unit cross-sectional research design was used to recruit the sample of 24 nurse managers and 553 randomly selected staff nurses from 24 adult medical-surgical units from 7 acute care hospitals in the Northeast and Midwestern USA. Staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and unit climates for EBP implementation were measured using the Implementation Leadership Scale and Implementation Climate Scale, respectively. EBP competencies of nurse managers were measured using the Nurse Manager EBP Competency Scale. Participants were emailed a link to an electronic questionnaire and asked to respond within 1 month. The contributions of nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors and competencies in explaining unit climates for EBP implementation were estimated using mixed-effects models controlling for nurse education and years of experience on current unit and accounting for the variability across hospitals and units. Significance level was set at α < .05. Two hundred sixty-four staff nurses and 22 nurse managers were included in the final sample, representing 22 units in 7 hospitals. Nurse manager EBP leadership behaviors (p < .001) and EBP competency (p = .008) explained 52.4% of marginal variance in unit climate for EBP implementation. Leadership behaviors uniquely explained 45.2% variance. The variance accounted for by the random intercepts for hospitals and units (p < .001) and years of nursing experience in current unit

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across American Samoa in...

  17. Make way for the climate. National adaptation strategy. The policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    The policy paper is a background document of the interdepartmental memorandum 'Make way for climate', in which the outline is described for a national strategy for adaptation to the consequences of climate change. [mk] [nl

  18. Make way for the climate. National adaptation strategy. The interdepartmental memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    This memorandum describes the outline of a national strategy for adaptation to the consequences of climate change. The memorandum is the first report of the Adapting Spatial Planning to Climate Change programme (ARK). [mk] [nl

  19. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 29: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The United Nations Disarmament book is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices. Web sites of United Nations departments and specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs draws your attention to its web site at http://disarmament.un.org where up-to-date information on disarmament issues may be obtained throughout the year

  20. Report from UNSCEAR to the United Nations General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past few years, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. The result of this work has presented for the general reader in the 2000 Report to the General Assembly. This report with the supporting scientific annexes, which are aimed at the general scientific community, was published as 'Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes'

  1. Origins of a national seismic system in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, John R.; Arabasz, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    This historical review traces the origins of the current national seismic system in the United States, a cooperative effort that unifies national, regional, and local‐scale seismic monitoring within the structure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). The review covers (1) the history and technological evolution of U.S. seismic networks leading up to the 1990s, (2) factors that made the 1960s and 1970s a watershed period for national attention to seismology, earthquake hazards, and seismic monitoring, (3) genesis of the vision of a national seismic system during 1980–1983, (4) obstacles and breakthroughs during 1984–1989, (5) consensus building and convergence during 1990–1992, and finally (6) the two‐step realization of a national system during 1993–2000. Particular importance is placed on developments during the period between 1980 and 1993 that culminated in the adoption of a charter for the Council of the National Seismic System (CNSS)—the foundation for the later ANSS. Central to this story is how many individuals worked together toward a common goal of a more rational and sustainable approach to national earthquake monitoring in the United States. The review ends with the emergence of ANSS during 1999 and 2000 and its statutory authorization by Congress in November 2000.

  2. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  3. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  4. Creating a climate that catalyses healthcare innovation in the United Kingdom - learning lessons from international innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-25

    The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies.  There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Special Agreement extending the jurisdiction of the Administrative Tribunal of the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the applications of officials of this organization alleging non-observance of the Regulations of the Pension Fund UN staff, comes into force October 18, 1963, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [fr

  6. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The text of the Special Agreement extending the jurisdiction of the Administrative Tribunal of the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the applications of officials of this organization alleging non-observance of the Regulations of the Pension Fund UN staff, comes into force October 18, 1963, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Agreements with the United Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-12-02

    The text of the Special Agreement extending the jurisdiction of the Administrative Tribunal of the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the applications of officials of this organization alleging non-observance of the Regulations of the Pension Fund UN staff, comes into force October 18, 1963, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  8. Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) a relevant indicator? Jean Claude Saha. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 12(1) 2005: 1-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Processing United Nations Documents in the University of Michigan Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Gertrude

    This guide provides detailed instructions for recording documents in the United Nations (UN) card catalog which provides access to the UN depository collection in the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan. Procedures for handling documents when they are received include stamping, counting, and sorting into five categories:…

  10. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  11. National Agricultural Library | United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Home National Agricultural Library United States Department of Agriculture Ag Terms of Service Frequently Asked Questions Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons Monthly Metrics News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home About Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons

  12. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, however, where international borders are porous and state organs are sometimes not in .... the media, and information dissemination form part of the options available to the United .... National boundaries are blurred by ..... and arrangements for the free flow of information, including the monitoring of regional arms ...

  13. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  14. Environmental impact assessment of the national climate strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, M.; Attila, M.; Hiltunen, M.; Karvosenoja, N.; Syri, S.

    2001-01-01

    The national climate strategy aims at fulfilling the obligations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in accordance with the Kyoto protocol. The environmental impacts of the strategy were analysed by comparing a business as usual scenario with two scenarios based on additional measures. Both scenarios with additional measures are based on more emphasis on energy saving and use of renewable sources of energy, but they differ with respect to energy production. The environmental consequences until 2010 are similar in the scenarios with additional measures, and they are better from an environmental point of view than the business as usual scenario. Many of the measures have significant effects only in the long term, and all have indirect effects, opportunities and uncertain factors. Some measures can create societal conflicts, which further increases the uncertainty in implementing the climate strategy. In order to be able to adapt to and react on deviations from the development that the strategy aims at achieving the monitoring of the strategy should examine the implementation from many different aspects, because profound knowledge of the nature of the effects and key cause and effects relations is essential in revising and updating the strategy. (orig.)

  15. Local climate change policy in the United Kingdom and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bulkeley, Harriet; Kern, Kristine

    2004-01-01

    "For over a decade climate change has been considered one of the most significant political issues facing the international community. In order to address this challenge, attention needs to be focused not only at the international level of treaties and conventions, but also on how climate protection policy is taking shape at the local level. Germany and the UK have been leading countries for international action on climate change. However, the reductions in domestic emissions of greenhouse ga...

  16. Climate-Change Impacts on Major Societal and Environmental Sectors: a National View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program's Unified Synthesis Product reports on extant and possible future impacts of climate change for seven sectors at the national level - water resources, energy supply and use, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, human health and society. The sectoral analyses provide an integrated national picture of the climate-change consequences, now and in the future, for society and the environment, albeit a picture with regional texture. Major report findings for each sector will be presented. In addition to the specific sectoral findings, several overarching messages emerge from this component of the synthesis activity. First, it is important to think about interactions between and among sectors with regard to climate impacts. For example, the projected changes in the timing and amount of precipitation, and hence water supply, will very likely have significant implications for other sectors considered in the report. Changes in water supply have the potential to affect hydropower generation, river transportation, crop timing and management, in-stream ecosystem services including fish habitat, and human health issues related to links between heavy rains ad water-borne diseases. Second, the report concludes that climate-change impacts on the sectors must be considered in the context of a range of environmental and social factors including pollution, population growth, over use of resources, and urbanization. The multi-factor analysis provides insight into our understanding of where, when and how climate change combines with other environmental and social changes to affect the sectors. It also provides some understanding of how these interactions can either amplify or dampen climate-change impacts. This message has profound implications for the design of research programs and information systems at the national, regional and local levels. Furthermore, it demands that a true partnership be forged between the natural and social sciences

  17. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, C.; Kingma, J.; Vrakking, W.

    1993-04-01

    This summary of Dutch research on global climate change was compiled from a survey of the major research organisations in the Netherlands. The scope and structure of the survey and this report were based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organisation for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP) held (from 14 to 16 April 1993). The WMO request emphasized activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. To extend the usefulness of the exercise, an attempt has been made to broaden the focus to give additional attention to the Intergovernmental Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the Human Dimensions Programme (HDP). This was the first attempt to inventory the research projects on global climate change underway in the Netherlands - both inside and outside the National Research Programme. Other surveys on Dutch climate-related research have been conducted. The most extensive effort was a cataloging of publications from climate research in the Netherlands from 1981 to 1991, which was conducted by the Netherlands Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW). That inventory is being updated to include publications through 1992. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations sponsoring and conducting global climate change research in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and promote coordination among research groups in the Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating Dutch organisations as well as research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1 with a list of projects

  18. National climate assessment technical report on the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Loveland; Rezaul Mahmood; Toral Patel-Weynand; Krista Karstensen; Kari Beckendorf; Norman Bliss; Andrew Carleton

    2012-01-01

    This technical report responds to the recognition by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the importance of understanding how land use and land cover (LULC) affects weather and climate variability and change and how that variability and change affects LULC. Current published, peer-reviewed, scientific literature...

  19. Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States, is a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The 121-author report summarizes knowledge about climate change and its impacts across Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The report looks at links between climate and natural resources, vulnerabilities to climate variability and change across the region and along the U.S.-Mexico border, and adaptation and mitigation choices for addressing future changes. The period since 1950 has been warmer than any period of comparable length in the last 600 years. Droughts of the past 2,000 years have exceeded the most severe and sustained drought during 1901-2010. In the last decade, flows in the major river basins of the Southwest have been lower than their 20th century averages; many snowmelt-fed streams in the region exhibited earlier snowmelt and earlier center of mass of annual streamflows. Climate models project continued temperature increases, with longer and hotter summer heat waves. Average precipitation is projected to decrease in the southern part of the region. Reduced streamflows are projected for the Rio Grande, Colorado, and San Joaquin rivers. More frequent and intense winter flooding is projected for the western Sierra Nevada, whereas Colorado Front Range summer flooding is projected to increase. Observed ecosystems impacts include changes in phenology, widespread forest disturbance due to the confluence of drought, increased temperatures, and changes to insect life cycles. Area burned by wildfire is projected to increase in most of the Southwest. Plant and animal species' distributions will be affected by climate change, and studies show that observed climate changes are strongly associated with observed changes in species' distributions. California coastal ecosystems will be affected by a combination of ocean warming, reduced oxygen content, sea level rise and ocean acidification. When west coast sea levels are

  20. Advancing national climate change risk assessment to deliver national adaptation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R. F.; Wilby, R. L.; Brown, K.; Watkiss, P.; Betts, Richard A.; Murphy, James M.; Lowe, Jason A.

    2018-06-01

    A wide range of climate vulnerability and risk assessments have been implemented using different approaches at different scales, some with a broad multi-sectoral scope and others focused on single risks or sectors. This paper describes the novel approach to vulnerability and risk assessment which was designed and put into practice in the United Kingdom's Second Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA2) so as to build upon its earlier assessment (CCRA1). First, we summarize and critique the CCRA1 approach, and second describe the steps taken in the CCRA2 approach in detail, providing examples of how each was applied in practice. Novel elements of the approach include assessment of both present day and future vulnerability, a focus on the urgency of adaptation action, and a structure focused around systems of receptors rather than conventional sectors. Both stakeholders and reviewers generally regarded the approach as successful in providing advice on current risks and future opportunities to the UK from climate change, and the fulfilment of statutory duty. The need for a well-supported and open suite of impact indicators going forward is highlighted. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  1. Advancing national climate change risk assessment to deliver national adaptation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R F; Wilby, R L; Brown, K; Watkiss, P; Betts, Richard A; Murphy, James M; Lowe, Jason A

    2018-06-13

    A wide range of climate vulnerability and risk assessments have been implemented using different approaches at different scales, some with a broad multi-sectoral scope and others focused on single risks or sectors. This paper describes the novel approach to vulnerability and risk assessment which was designed and put into practice in the United Kingdom's Second Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA2) so as to build upon its earlier assessment (CCRA1). First, we summarize and critique the CCRA1 approach, and second describe the steps taken in the CCRA2 approach in detail, providing examples of how each was applied in practice. Novel elements of the approach include assessment of both present day and future vulnerability, a focus on the urgency of adaptation action, and a structure focused around systems of receptors rather than conventional sectors. Both stakeholders and reviewers generally regarded the approach as successful in providing advice on current risks and future opportunities to the UK from climate change, and the fulfilment of statutory duty. The need for a well-supported and open suite of impact indicators going forward is highlighted.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. 78 FR 4132 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Climate Assessment (NCA), which serves as a status report on climate change science and impacts, is... climate science into larger social, ecological, and policy systems, and with this provide integrated... the climate changes. It also serves to integrate scientific information from multiple sources and...

  3. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  4. Statement to the 54th session of the United Nations General Assembly. United Nations, New York, 4 November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his Statement to the 54th Session of the United Nations General Assembly (New York, 4 November 1999), the Director General of the IAEA presented some of the major Agency's achievements in fulfilling its mandate as described in the Annual Report of the IAEA for 1998, and also some of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead

  5. 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約之財務支援機制:全球環境機構 ― 兼論台灣參與之限制與機會 The Financial Mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: The Global Environment Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蘇義淵 Yi-Yuan Su

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 全球環境機構(Global Environmental Facility, GEF)是聯合國於1991 年建立的國際環境金融機構,目的是提供財務支援與無害技術移轉與開發中及低度開發國家,以協助其針對防止氣候變遷、保護生物物種、保護水資源、減少對臭氧層的破壞等之能力建置,以保護全球環境。聯合國氣候變化綱要公約亦指定此機構作為協助開發中國家之財務支援機構。 礙於聯合國會員國資格之要求,台灣並無法以政治實體的身分參加並取得相關之協助,特別是廣泛涉及科學、經濟、社會等相關領域的防止氣候變遷議題。未能取得此一機構的支援會降低我國環境行政效率及能力、提高我國實施溫室氣體減量成本而損及全球競爭力。本文擬以討論氣候變遷議題為主,從國際法之角度檢討並討論氣候變化綱要公約、京都議定書、馬拉喀什協定及全球環境機構等就開發中及低度開發國家申請財務支援的規範與限制;從中整理、瞭解對台灣所造成的實質限制,最後將建議我國公、私營部 門如何在既有限制之下規劃策略,以取得實質參與全球環境治理之機會維持競爭力,並同時落實台灣的環境保護。 those countries to develop their capacities on preventing climate change, protecting biodiversity, protecting water resources and decreasing the ozone depletion. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC also entrusted this institution as its financial mechanism to provide assistance to developing countries. Because of the limitation of membership of United Nations, Taiwan does not allow to enroll and enjoy the benefits of this mechanism as a political entity, especially on the scientific, social and economic issues relating to against the climate change. It could seriously reduce the administrative efficiency of our environmental policies in government and

  6. Adaptation with climate uncertainty: An examination of agricultural land use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Zhang, Hongliang

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines adaptation responses to climate change through adjustment of agricultural land use. The climate drivers we examine are changes in long-term climate normals (e.g., 10-year moving averages) and changes in inter-annual climate variability. Using US county level data over 1982 to 2012 from Census of Agriculture, we find that impacts of long-term climate normals are as important as that of inter-annual climate variability. Projecting into the future, we find projected climate change will lead to an expansion in crop land share across the northern and interior western United States with decreases in the south. We also find that grazing land share increases in southern regions and Inland Pacific Northwest and declines in the northern areas. However, the extent to which the adaptation potential would be is dependent on the climate model, emission scenario and time horizon under consideration.

  7. Vulnerabilities of national parks in the American Midwest to climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Shaver, David; Karstensen, Krista A.

    2016-06-08

    Many national parks in the American Midwest are surrounded by agricultural or urban areas or are in highly fragmented or rapidly changing landscapes. An environmental stressor is a physical, chemical, or biological condition that affects the functioning or productivity of species or ecosystems. Climate change is just one of many stressors on park natural resources; others include urbanization, land use change, air and water pollution, and so on. Understanding and comparing the relative vulnerability of a suite of parks to projected climate and land use changes is important for region-wide planning. A vulnerability assessment of 60 units in the 13-state U.S. National Park Service Midwestern administrative region to climate and land use change used existing data from multiple sources. Assessment included three components: individual park exposure (5 metrics), sensitivity (5 metrics), and constraints to adaptive capacity (8 metrics) under 2 future climate scenarios. The three components were combined into an overall vulnerability score. Metrics were measures of existing or projected conditions within park boundaries, within 10-kilometer buffers surrounding parks, and within ecoregions that contain or intersect them. Data were normalized within the range of values for all assessed parks, resulting in high, medium, and low relative rankings for exposure, sensitivity, constraints to adaptive capacity, and overall vulnerability. Results are consistent with assessments regarding patterns and rates of climate change nationwide but provide greater detail and relative risk for Midwestern parks. Park overall relative vulnerability did not differ between climate scenarios. Rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and constraints to adaptive capacity varied geographically and indicate regional conservation planning opportunities. The most important stressors for the most vulnerable Midwestern parks are those related to sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of the park) and

  8. A Survey of Registered Dietitians' Concern and Actions Regarding Climate Change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Irana W; Balsam, Alan L; Goldman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Dietary choices are a tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While registered dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change among registered dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all registered dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data were gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p = 0.002) and vegan dietitians (p = 0.007) were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change among dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  9. A survey of Registered Dietitians’ concern and actions regarding climate change in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irana W. Hawkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary choices are a viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While Registered Dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change amongst Registered Dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all Registered Dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data was gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p=0.002 and vegan dietitians (p=0.007 were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change amongst dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered Dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  10. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  11. Grazing and climatic variability in Sajama National Park, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yager, K.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sajama National Park, the first protected area in Bolivia, includes five indigenous communities with a primary production base of pastoralism. The semi-arid region of the Central Andes is one of the most extreme areas of human occupation at 4200 meters altitude and affected by high climatic variability. This paper studies the relations between climate variability, resilience, biodiversity of pastures and pastoral production in Sajama National Park. We present a botanical study of palatable pasture herbs between two years, one humid (2006 and the other dry (2007. Thirty vascular plants were recorded. The number of species and the cover of iro (Festuca ortophylla peak in areas of intermediate disturbance; areas that are at a medium distance from camelid corrals. On the other hand, the cover of ephemeral plants between tussocks increases in high disturbance areas. This is interpreted as a result of the tradeoff between the damage of grazing and the benefit of the fertilization produced by the herding animals. The local people clearly perceive strong impacts of climate change, combined with changes in management and human pressures. The social dynamics and production management, combined with climate warming, water reduction, and the increasing variability of surface water regimes create potential risks for the local sustainability of pastoralism.

    El Parque Nacional Sajama, la primer área protegida de Bolivia, incluye a cinco comunidades indígenas con una base de producción principalmente de ganadería. Esta región semi-árida de los Andes Centrales es una de las áreas más extremas de ocupación humana a 4200 metros de altura y es afectada por una alta variabilidad climática. Este trabajo considera las relaciones entre la variabilidad climática, resiliencia, biodiversidad de pastos y la producción ganadera en el Parque Nacional Sajama. Presentamos un estudio botánico de las comunidades de hierbas palatables a lo largo de dos a

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on the built environment: ASHRAE climate zones, building codes and national energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the Problem: ASHRAE releases updates to 90.1 “Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings” every three years resulting in a 3.7%-17.3% increase in energy efficiency for buildings with each release. This is adopted by or informs building codes in nations across the globe, is the National Standard for the US, and individual states elect which release year of the standard they will enforce. These codes are built upon Standard 169 “Climatic Data for Building Design Standards,” the latest 2017 release of which defines climate zones based on 8, 118 weather stations throughout the world and data from the past 8-25 years. This data may not be indicative of the weather that new buildings built today, will see during their upcoming 30-120 year lifespan. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Using more modern, high-resolution datasets from climate satellites, IPCC climate models (PCM and HadGCM), high performance computing resources (Titan) and new capabilities for clustering and optimization the authors briefly analyzed different methods for redefining climate zones. Using bottom-up analysis of multiple meteorological variables which were the subject matter, experts selected as being important to energy consumption, rather than the heating/cooling degree days currently used. Findings: We analyzed the accuracy of redefined climate zones, compared to current climate zones and how the climate zones moved under different climate change scenarios, and quantified the accuracy of these methods on a local level, at a national scale for the US. Conclusion & Significance: There is likely to be a significant annual, national energy and cost (billions USD) savings that could be realized by adjusting climate zones to take into account anticipated trends or scenarios in regional weather patterns.

  13. Unprecedented climate events: Historical changes, aspirational targets, and national commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Singh, Deepti; Mankin, Justin S.

    2018-01-01

    The United Nations Paris Agreement creates a specific need to compare consequences of cumulative emissions for pledged national commitments and aspirational targets of 1.5° to 2°C global warming. We find that humans have already increased the probability of historically unprecedented hot, warm, wet, and dry extremes, including over 50 to 90% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. Emissions consistent with national commitments are likely to cause substantial and widespread additional increases, including more than fivefold for warmest night over ~50% of Europe and >25% of East Asia and more than threefold for wettest days over >35% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. In contrast, meeting aspirational targets to keep global warming below 2°C reduces the area experiencing more than threefold increases to 90% of North America, Europe, East Asia, and much of the tropics—still exhibit sizable increases in the probability of record-setting hot, wet, and/or dry events. PMID:29457133

  14. Gender Perspectives on Climate Change & Human Security in India: An Analysis of National Missions on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti K Parikh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Women play a crucial role in many activities essential for coping with climate change. Indian women appear to be more vulnerable than men to differential impacts of climate change because they share most of the household managing responsibilities but have limited access to participation in decision making and governance. Most of the policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation do not specifically address the vulnerability of women. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC, formulated to shape future discourse of climate change adaptation and development, recognizes the differential impacts of climate change on society, but incorporates merely a few gender specific measures. The paper suggests gender specific measures for each mission of the NAPCC to make the adaptation and development process more inclusive and sustainable in India.

  15. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  16. CERN’s new seat at the United Nations

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    At the end of December, the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York granted CERN Observer status. As the only science organisation to acquire this prestigious status in the Assembly, CERN hopes to be able to raise awareness about the importance of fundamental science for society more effectively.   “Both CERN and the United Nations are committed to promoting science as a driving element for society. Both organisations promote dialogue between different cultures and can propose concrete models for peaceful cooperation towards objectives that benefit society as a whole,” says Maurizio Bona, CERN's officer in charge of relations with international organisations. Although the basic motivations are clear, obtaining the prestigious status from the UN was a long process that required negotiations and diplomatic work. Following some preliminary contacts with Switzerland starting in spring 2012, the resolution to grant observer status to CERN was jointly submitted...

  17. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  18. United States National Waste Terminal Storage argillaceous rock studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The past and present argillaceous rock studies for the US National Waste Terminal Storage Program consist of: (1) evaluation of the geological characteristics of several widespread argillaceous formations in the United States; (2) laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of selected argillaceous rock samples; and (3) two full-scale in-situ surface heater experiments that simulate the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste in argillaceous rock

  19. The United Nations General Assembly and Disarmament 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report offers a summary of the proposals made and action taken on disarmament issues by the Assembly at its forty-second regular session. It is published in the framework of the World Disarmament Campaign, which was launched by a unanimous decision of the Assembly in 1982 to inform, to educate and to generate public understanding and support for the objectives of the United Nations in the field of disarmament

  20. United nations Supported principles for Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godemann, Jasmin; Moon, Jeremy; Haertle, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    and various ecological system crises. The United Nations supported Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative is an important catalyst for the transformation of management education and a global initiative to change and reform management education in order to meet the increasing......The expectation that management education institutions should be leading thought and action on issues related to corporate responsibility and sustainability has been reinforced in the light of their association with business leaders' failings, including corporate corruption, the financial crisis...

  1. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9139-3] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water...

  2. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9198-8] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National...

  3. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9165-6] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National...

  4. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9101-9] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory...

  5. Fire and climate suitability for woody vegetation communities in the south central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther; Struckhoff, Matthew; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Guyette, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and fire are primary drivers of plant species distributions. Long-term management of south central United States woody vegetation communities can benefit from information on potential changes in climate and fire frequencies, and how these changes might affect plant communities. We used historical (1900 to 1929) and future (2040 to 2069 and 2070 to 2099) projected climate data for the conterminous US to estimate reference and future fire probabilities

  6. National Forest management options in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2009-01-01

    The effect of climate change on ecosystem structure, function, and services will depend on the ecosystem's degree of sensitivity to climate change, the natural ability of plants and animals to adapt, and the availability of effective management options. Sensitivity to climate change is a function of ecosystem health and environmental stresses such as air pollution...

  7. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...

  8. Protection of the climate in Germany. Second report presented by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany according to the United Nations Agreement on Climatic Changes; Klimaschutz in Deutschland. Zweiter Bericht der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland nach dem Rahmenuebereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen ueber Klimaaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report is the second government report after the climate convention. It contains an inventory of emissions of relevance for the greenhouse effect and the states where they are stored (forest) plus a description of the government`s preventive measures to protect the climate. You can find emission scenarios and the projection to the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2020 and an assessment of the effects of the measures. (orig./SR)

  9. Climate-induced changes in vulnerability to biological threats in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Qinfeng Guo; Songlin Fei; William Otrosina; Kier Klepzig; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make...

  10. Vulnerability of United States Bridges to Potential Increases in Flooding from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the potential impacts of increased river flooding from climate change on bridges in the continental United States. Daily precipitation statistics from four climate models and three greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) are used to capture ...

  11. Implementing climate change adaptation in forested regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar; Janine M. Rice; Christopher W. Swanston

    2014-01-01

    Natural resource managers need concrete ways to adapt to the effects of climate change. Science-management partnerships have proven to be an effective means of facilitating climate change adaptation for natural resource management agencies. Here we describe the process and results of several science-management partnerships in different forested regions of the United...

  12. Landscape units of Puerto Rico: influence of climate, substrate, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones

    2008-01-01

    The landscape units map of Puerto Rico represents climatic, substrate, and topographic variation by integrating six climatic zones (Ewel and Whitmore 1973), six distinct substrates (Bawiec 2001, USGS 2005), five topographic positions or landforms (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), and prominent lakes and rivers (USGS 2005). Substrates were a simplified set of Bawiec’s (2001)...

  13. Influence of winter season climate variability on snow-precipitation ratio in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Shraddhanand Shukla; Ivan Arismendi; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Anne Nolin

    2015-01-01

    In the western United States, climate warming poses a unique threat to water and snow hydrology because much of the snowpack accumulates at temperatures near 0 °C. As the climate continues to warm, much of the region's precipitation is expected to switch from snow to rain, causing flashier hydrographs, earlier inflow to reservoirs, and reduced spring and summer...

  14. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  15. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  16. Crop Yield Simulations Using Multiple Regional Climate Models in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural productivity (described by crop yield) is strongly dependent on climate conditions determined by meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation). California is the largest producer of agricultural products in the United States, but crops in associated arid and semi-arid regions live near their physiological limits (e.g., in hot summer conditions with little precipitation). Thus, accurate climate data are essential in assessing the impact of climate variability on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States and other arid regions. To address this issue, we produced simulated climate datasets and used them as input for the crop production model. For climate data, we employed two different regional climate models (WRF and OLAM) using a fine-resolution (8km) grid. Performances of the two different models are evaluated in a fine-resolution regional climate hindcast experiment for 10 years from 2001 to 2010 by comparing them to the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. Based on this comparison, multi-model ensembles with variable weighting are used to alleviate model bias and improve the accuracy of crop model productivity over large geographic regions (county and state). Finally, by using a specific crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings from the multi-regional climate model ensemble, we demonstrate the degree to which maize yields are sensitive to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States.

  17. A Plan for improving the industrial constitution in Korea for the Convention on Climate Change - concentrated on manufacturing CO{sub 2} unit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Yong Kun; Sohn, Yang Hoon; Kim, Seung Woo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Due to the implementation of the Convention on Climate Change in future, a policy plan to prepare for the Convention on Climate Change was promoted to improve constitution of domestic economy practically including foreign negotiation strategies, national energy policy and change in consumption pattern. Based on the CO{sub 2} unit analysis in manufacturing, this study proposed an improvement plan of industrial constitution in Korea to prepare for emission trading system. 31 refs., 30 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Varying geospatial analyses to assess climate risk and adaptive capacity in a hotter, drier Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E.; Reyes, J. J.; Steele, C. M.; Rango, A.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate variability and change is vital in securing food systems and sustaining rural livelihoods. Farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners rely on science-based, decision-relevant, and localized information to maintain production, ecological viability, and economic returns. This contribution synthesizes a collection of research on the future of agricultural production in the American Southwest (SW). Research was based on a variety of geospatial methodologies and datasets to assess the vulnerability of rangelands and livestock, field crops, specialty crops, and forests in the SW to climate-risk and change. This collection emerged from the development of regional vulnerability assessments for agricultural climate-risk by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Climate Hub Network, established to deliver science-based information and technologies to enable climate-informed decision-making. Authors defined vulnerability differently based on their agricultural system of interest, although each primarily focuses on biophysical systems. We found that an inconsistent framework for vulnerability and climate risk was necessary to adequately capture the diversity, variability, and heterogeneity of SW landscapes, peoples, and agriculture. Through the diversity of research questions and methodologies, this collection of articles provides valuable information on various aspects of SW vulnerability. All articles relied on geographic information systems technology, with highly variable levels of complexity. Agricultural articles used National Agricultural Statistics Service data, either as tabular county level summaries or through the CropScape cropland raster datasets. Most relied on modeled historic and future climate information, but with differing assumptions regarding spatial resolution and temporal framework. We assert that it is essential to evaluate climate risk using a variety of complementary methodologies and

  19. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  20. Climatic change and wetland desiccation cause amphibian decline in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Sarah K; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Wright, Christopher K

    2008-11-04

    Amphibians are a bellwether for environmental degradation, even in natural ecosystems such as Yellowstone National Park in the western United States, where species have been actively protected longer than anywhere else on Earth. We document that recent climatic warming and resultant wetland desiccation are causing severe declines in 4 once-common amphibian species native to Yellowstone. Climate monitoring over 6 decades, remote sensing, and repeated surveys of 49 ponds indicate that decreasing annual precipitation and increasing temperatures during the warmest months of the year have significantly altered the landscape and the local biological communities. Drought is now more common and more severe than at any time in the past century. Compared with 16 years ago, the number of permanently dry ponds in northern Yellowstone has increased 4-fold. Of the ponds that remain, the proportion supporting amphibians has declined significantly, as has the number of species found in each location. Our results indicate that climatic warming already has disrupted one of the best-protected ecosystems on our planet and that current assessments of species' vulnerability do not adequately consider such impacts.

  1. Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Phytogeographical Units. A Case Study of the Moesz Line

    OpenAIRE

    Bede-Fazekas, Ákos

    2013-01-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) provide reliable climatic predictions for the next 90 years with high horizontal and temporal resolution. In the 21st century northward latitudinal and upward altitudinal shift of the distribution of plant species and phytogeographical units is expected. It is discussed how the modeling of phytogeographical unit can be reduced to modeling plant distributions. Predicted shift of the Moesz line is studied as case study (with three different modeling approaches) us...

  2. Estimation of evapotranspiration across the conterminous United States using a regression with climate and land-cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Selnick, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important quantity for water resource managers to know because it often represents the largest sink for precipitation (P) arriving at the land surface. In order to estimate actual ET across the conterminous United States (U.S.) in this study, a water-balance method was combined with a climate and land-cover regression equation. Precipitation and streamflow records were compiled for 838 watersheds for 1971-2000 across the U.S. to obtain long-term estimates of actual ET. A regression equation was developed that related the ratio ET/P to climate and land-cover variables within those watersheds. Precipitation and temperatures were used from the PRISM climate dataset, and land-cover data were used from the USGS National Land Cover Dataset. Results indicate that ET can be predicted relatively well at a watershed or county scale with readily available climate variables alone, and that land-cover data can also improve those predictions. Using the climate and land-cover data at an 800-m scale and then averaging to the county scale, maps were produced showing estimates of ET and ET/P for the entire conterminous U.S. Using the regression equation, such maps could also be made for more detailed state coverages, or for other areas of the world where climate and land-cover data are plentiful.

  3. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  4. Variation of a Lightning NOx Indicator for National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Vant-Hull, B.; McCaul, E. W.; Peterson, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, satellite Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data is used to estimate lightning nitrogen oxides (LNOx) production over the southern portion of the conterminous US. The total energy of each flash is estimated by analyzing the LIS optical event data associated with each flash (i.e., event radiance, event footprint area, and derivable event range). The LIS detects an extremely small fraction of the total flash energy; this fraction is assumed to be constant apart from the variability associated with the flash optical energy detected across the narrow (0.909 nm) LIS band. The estimate of total energy from each flash is converted to moles of LNOx production by assuming a chemical yield of 10(17) molecules Joule(-1). The LIS-inferred variable LNOx production from each flash is summed to obtain total LNOx production, and then appropriately enhanced to account for LIS detection efficiency and LIS view time. Annual geographical plots and time series of LNOx production are provided for a 16 year period (1998-2013).

  5. Inventory of Dutch National Research on Global Climate Change: Inside and outside the National Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, C.; Kingma, J.; Vrakking, W.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of research projects in the field of global climate change, performed both within and outside the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The descriptions result from a survey of the major research institutions in The Netherlands, conducted by two consultancies (Science and Policy Associates, SPA and Holland Consulting Group, HCG) at the request of the NRP. The inventory had to be completed within a relatively brief period; it is thus unavoidable that one or more projects may sometimes contain inaccuracies. Taken as a whole, this report presents a good picture of the Dutch research activities in this area. The scope and structure of this survey and the contents of this report are based on a request for information from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for an intergovernmental meeting on the World Climate Programme (WCP), held on 14-16 April 1993. The WMO request emphasised activities related to the WCP and its associated programmes. The database resulting from this exercise will be a useful tool for organisations which sponsor and conduct research into global climate change in their efforts to stimulate cooperation and to promote coordination between the research groups in The Netherlands and abroad. There are plans to update the inventory in the future and to provide the information to participating organisations in The Netherlands, as well as to research organisations in other countries. An overview of the current research is provided in Volume 1, a list of projects being provided in Annex 3. The projects are presented according to the themes and subthemes which are used in the NRP

  6. Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: Process and prospects for sustained assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy B.; Groffman, Peter M; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Tallis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.

  7. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C

    2014-05-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species populations at the warm and dry end of the species niche are underrepresented in the network. However, by 2100, target species in 33-65 % of conservation units, mostly located in southern Europe, will be at the limit or outside the species' current climatic niche as demonstrated by favourabilities below required model sensitivities of 95%. The highest average decrease in favourabilities throughout the network can be expected for coniferous trees although they are mainly occurring within units in mountainous landscapes for which we estimated lower velocities of change. Generally, the species-specific estimates of favourabilities showed only low correlations to the velocity of climate change in individual units, indicating that both vulnerability measures should be considered for climate risk analysis. The variation in favourabilities among target species within the same conservation units is expected to increase with climate change and will likely require a prioritization among co-occurring species. The present results suggest that there is a strong need to intensify monitoring efforts and to develop additional conservation measures for populations in the most vulnerable units. Also, our results call for continued transnational actions for genetic conservation of European forest trees, including the establishment of dynamic conservation populations outside the current species distribution ranges within European assisted migration schemes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Informing climate change adaptation in the Northeast and Midwest United States: The role of Climate Science Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, A. M.; Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information and tools that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. The NE CSC partners with other federal agencies, universities, and NGOs to facilitate stakeholder interaction and delivery of scientific products. For example, NE CSC researchers have partnered with the National Park Service to help managers at Acadia National Park adapt their infrastructure, operations, and ecosystems to rising seas and more extreme events. In collaboration with the tribal College of Menominee Nation and Michigan State University, the NE CSC is working with indigenous communities in Michigan and Wisconsin to co-develop knowledge of how to preserve their natural and cultural values in the face of climate change. Recently, in its largest collaborative initiative to date, the NE CSC led a cross-institutional effort to produce a comprehensive synthesis of climate change, its impacts on wildlife and their habitats, and available adaptation strategies across the entire Northeast and Midwest region; the resulting document was used by wildlife managers in 22 states to revise their Wildlife Action Plans (WAPs). Additionally, the NE CSC is working with the Wildlife Conservation Society to help inform moose conservation management. Other research efforts include hydrological modeling to inform culvert sizing under greater rainfall intensity, forest and landscape modeling to inform tree planting that mitigates the spread of invasive species, species and habitat modeling to help identify suitable locations for wildlife refugia. In addition, experimental research is being conducted to improve our understanding of how species such as brook trout are responding to climate change. Interacting with stakeholders during all phases of

  9. The Role of Sub-National Actors in Climate Change Policy. The Case of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roppongi, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Tokyo is known as a pioneer throughout the history of Japan's environmental policy, often being compared to California in the United States or Paris in France. Following the global trend of growing local initiatives tackling climate change, Tokyo introduced a cap-and-trade scheme in 2010 ahead of a national implementation. The Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program is the first of its kind that regulates CO_2 emissions from all business sectors, where energy consumers are defined in terms of the business establishments they own. Tokyo's initiative is largely seen as a reaction to the modest national commitment, following the tradition of center-local rivalry. This study first explains the centre-local relationship in the history of Japan's environmental governance. It then analyzes the development of the Tokyo's flagship climate policy and its implications for national and other sub-national governments in Japan. The tactics used by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to overcome business opposition typically seen in the introduction of GHG control, and future policy challenges are also discussed. The study finds that Tokyo's policy encourages behavioral changes and technological improvement in the business sector, going a step beyond the existing culture of energy conservation in Japan. An emission trading scheme is often associated with the collapse of carbon markets and the 'money game', rather than a practical tool to reduce CO_2 emissions, but the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program has demonstrated a policy impact that recasts such an image. A known case of policy diffusion to Saitama prefecture, an immediate neighbor of Tokyo with the fifth largest population in Japan, is also discussed to elaborate on the potential domestic diffusion of the policy. (author)

  10. National Security and the Accelerating Risks of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    there would be too much. Over the coming decades, projected climate change likely will cause Australia, portions of India , and much of inland China...significant potential water , food, and energy insecurity; political instability; extreme weather events; and other manifestations of climate change ...production, and human sustenance. In light of projected climate change , stresses on the water -food-energy nexus are a mounting security concern

  11. The National Security Strategy Under the United Nations and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    a result of that war." This was addressed in 1951 by Hans Kelsen in a legal analysis of fundamental problems with the UN Charter. He concluded that...www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm>; Internet; accessed 31 January 2004. 36 Charter of the United Nations, Article 107. 37 Kearly, 27–28. 38 Hans Kelsen

  12. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  13. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  14. Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernstroem, E.; Tietenberg, T.

    2008-01-01

    In meeting the threat posed by climate change nations have responded quite differently. Using an extensive data set this study explores factors that affect individuals' attitudes towards climate change and how those attitudes ultimately affect national climate change policy. The results show that attitudes do indeed matter in implementing policy and that attitudes are shaped not only by how individuals react to the specific attributes of climate change, but also by information, by the openness of society and by attitudes toward the trustworthiness of government. (author)

  15. The National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center annual report for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Acevedo, Elda

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Congress created the National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The center was formed to respond to the demands of natural resource managers for rigorous scientific information and effective tools for assessing and responding to climate change. Located at the USGS National Headquarters in Reston, Va., the NCCWSC has invested more than $93 million (through FY13) in cutting-edge climate change research and, in response to Secretarial Order No. 3289, established and is managing eight regional Department of Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs). In 2013:

  16. A Cancun stake: to revitalize climate cooperation while improving transparency about national greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    After having recalled the instruments which are available for the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) to ensure an as much as transparent as possible information transmission between states about greenhouse gas emissions, this article questions the way the Copenhagen agreement can be implemented while considering the discussions which took place. It draws lessons from other previous examples of international cooperation: WTO agreements, the Clean Development Mechanism. Three propositions are made in the perspective of the Cancun conference: to create a reliable world inventory of emissions, to organize cooperation with countries wishing to define statistics for their emission monitoring, and to reinforce transparency and control of measures (with the MRV criteria) which are subsidized by the international community

  17. Bi-national Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin climate change and hydrologic scenarios report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, B.; Smith, J.V.; Koshida, G.; Mortsch, L.D. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    Climate experts in government, industry and academic institutions have put together a national assessment of how climate change will affect Canadians and their social, biological and economic environment over the next century. This volume documents the impacts and implications of climate change on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin, and provides an analysis and assessment of various climate and hydrologic scenarios used for the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Basin Project. As part of the analysis and assessment, results from the Canadian Climate Centre second-generation General Circulation Model and four transposition scenarios for both climate and hydrological resources are reviewed. The objective is to provide an indication of sensitivities and vulnerabilities of the region to climate, with a view to improve adaptation to potential climate changes. 25 tabs., 26 figs. figs.

  18. Ethiopia before the United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brems

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known — together with their additional protocols — as the core international human rights instruments: - The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; - The Convention on the Rights of the Child;  - The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.  The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in international human rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining the treaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted by the state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nations materials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of this process the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state — Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system. Key Words: United Nations, Human Rights Conventions, State Reporting, Human Rights Situation in Ethiopia

  19. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 23: 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament book is a designed to be a concise reference work. As background information is greatly condensed, reader may wish to consult the previous editions. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices with the status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements. The present volume, 23 years after the first one was published, represents some of the best times and some of the worst times for disarmament. Up to date information on disarmament is also available through the internet home page of the Department of Disarmament Affairs:www.un.org/depts/dda/DDAHome.htm

  20. [Evaluating the impact of the United Nations funding act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of the principal donors supporting population assistance in India are concerned about the impact of the cuts in funds given by the US to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The suppression of US aid to the UNFPA will definitely affect the largest programs, including those in South Asia. India is the country receiving the most assistance from the UNFPA. The UNFPA contributed 63 million dollars for the current 5 year plan which began in April 1985. US spokesmen stated that UNFPA funding was cut off because of that organization's support for coercive family planning programs in China.

  1. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  2. The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

  3. Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.; Arasto, A.; Sijm, J.; Peck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers apply multiple policy instruments simultaneously in the climate and energy policy field at both EU and Member State levels. This creates interactions between instruments that can be complementary and synergistic but also conflicting. This article focuses on the interactions of climate policy instruments and their impact on biomass use. The objectives are to examine interactions of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) with the main national climate policy instruments and to identify the influence of these on biomass use. The work draws experiences from seven EU countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), with a special focus on Finland and Sweden. The analysis explores the effects of policy interactions and is based on an examination of literature, and interviews with biomass experts in research, industry and policy spheres. Results indicate that the combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass use, whereas the causal links to the EU ETS are difficult to assess separately. Policy impacts found include increased competition for biomass resources, changes in fuel mixes and a contribution to upward pressure on wood prices. Differences in these effects are linked to differing national policy mixes and energy-carrier portfolios – an example being the relative differences in the importance of peat to the energy mix in Finland and Sweden. Analysis and comparison of the effects in the selected countries can yield insight on how to improve the design of policy interventions that impact biomass use. This study confirms the importance of identifying interactions between policy instruments so as to recognise – and manage – synergies and conflicts. The development of more synergistic and coordinated policy instrument mixes would also be beneficial for the bioenergy field. -- Highlights: ► Combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass

  4. Data Resource Profile: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children’s rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF’s wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF’s flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General’s Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses. PMID:23211414

  5. Data resource profile: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children's rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF's wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF's flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General's Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses.

  6. United States policy for mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, P.; Kane, R.; Kildow, J.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to explain current US policy on global climate change. US Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to implement this policy are described. A secondary objective of this paper is to discuss from a US perspective the social and political efforts which must be initiated in order for ocean storage of CO 2 to be considered as a viable CO 2 mitigation option. The fact that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has not been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now recognized. Thus, US policy has shifted towards the development of binding medium-term emissions targets and long-term atmosphere concentration goals. The US believes these goals can be accomplished through the adoption of cost-effective joint implementation agreements and international emissions trading mechanisms. Studies are currently underway to assess specific targets and timetables for emissions reductions. Voluntary efforts on the part of US industry have proven to be extremely successful in reducing US CO 2 -emissions. The US electric utility industry has taken the lead in voluntarily lowering greenhouse gas emissions under the DOE Climate Challenge Program. Areas of research interest to DOE include the development of high efficiency advanced power generation cycles and CO 2 sequestration technology. The US currently spends $1.6 billion on understanding global climate phenomena and only $1.6 million on CO 2 mitigation research. A number of socio-political considerations must be looked at in assessing the feasibility of ocean storage of CO 2 . Developing public trust appears to be a major concern in establishing the acceptability of ocean storage. Uncertainties in the effects of CO 2 on marine life, potential safety hazards associated with pipelining, and ship transport of CO 2 are all issues which must be dealt with as soon as possible. Some hidden costs associated with ocean disposal is also discussed

  7. National ownership in the implementation of global climate policy in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the history, from a developing country perspective, of how external interventions to implement global policies on the Climate Convention and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been integrated into national development policy frameworks in the period 1990-2005. The main...... question asked is to what extent external interventions have formed part of a country-driven approach in Uganda. The conflicting national and global priorities concerning the need for adaptation to the impacts of climate change versus the need for global mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are explored...... first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited...

  8. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  9. Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum Invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amanda M.; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  10. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M West

    Full Text Available National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass, which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park, Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211, current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2 and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum.

  11. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

    2004-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

  12. Technical Note: Linking climate change and downed woody debris decomposition across forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems play a critical role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Forest carbon (C) is stored through photosynthesis and released via decomposition and combustion. Relative to C fixation in biomass, much less is known about C depletion through decomposition of woody debris, particularly under a changing climate. It is assumed that the increased temperatures and longer growing seasons associated with projected climate change will increase the decomposition rates (i.e., more rapid C cycling) of downed woody debris (DWD); however, the magnitude of this increase has not been previously addressed. Using DWD measurements collected from a national forest inventory of the eastern United States, we show that the residence time of DWD may decrease (i.e., more rapid decomposition) by as much as 13% over the next 200 years, depending on various future climate change scenarios and forest types. Although existing dynamic global vegetation models account for the decomposition process, they typically do not include the effect of a changing climate on DWD decomposition rates. We expect that an increased understanding of decomposition rates, as presented in this current work, will be needed to adequately quantify the fate of woody detritus in future forests. Furthermore, we hope these results will lead to improved models that incorporate climate change scenarios for depicting future dead wood dynamics in addition to a traditional emphasis on live-tree demographics.

  13. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  14. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Quality Controlled Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Products are available on public FTP and derived from the USCRN processed data. Available parameters include averages and calculated values for precipitation,...

  15. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Processed Data (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  16. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Experimental Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Experimental USCRN data consists of data from four separate locations. Two of these stations--Johnstown, PA and Sterling, VA--were used to establish USCRN data...

  17. Global climate change, energy subsidies and national carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Shah, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the previous chapter of the book it is indicated that fossil-fuel burning is one of the main environmental culprits. Nevertheless, many countries continue to subsidize fossil fuels. In this chapter estimates of subsidies to energy and energy complements in OECD and non-OECD countries are provided. The authors conclude that the removal of energy subsidies in OECD countries on the order of US$30 billion annually (primarily in the US and Germany) and subsidies to complements on the order of US$50-90 (United States) are likely to have only little impact on CO-emissions. In contrast, the removal of energy subsidies of US$270-330 billion in non-OECD countries could substantially curb the growth of global CO 2 emissions, equivalent to the impact of a carbon tax on the order of US$60-70 per ton in the OECD countries. Nonetheless, even with the removal of energy subsidies, the growth in CO 2 emissions in non-OECD countries is projected to increase by 80% from the year 1990 to 2010. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of a revenue-neutral national carbon tax, in addition to energy subsidy removal, can yield significant health benefits from the reduction in local pollution. The authors note that carbon taxes are considerably less regressive relative to lifetime income or annual consumption expenditures than to annual income. 7 tabs., 23 refs

  18. The National Legal Framework of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosland, Martha S.

    2017-01-01

    Ms Crosland presented the United States legal framework regarding public participation. Under the Administrative Procedure Act, the primary way of conducting public participation is through 'notice and comment rulemaking'. A proposed rule is published in the Federal Register and is open to comment by the general public; the final publication of the rule includes the answers to the comments received. The various agencies in the United States make use of several digital tools to expand effective public participation and manage the process. The Atomic Energy Act established an adjudicatory process including 'trial-type' hearings, providing participation opportunities to any individual or group whose interests may be affected by a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing action. The National Environmental Policy Act requires several levels of review for all actions with potentially significant environmental impacts. An environmental assessment (EA) is conducted, to determine whether there is no significant impact or if a more detailed environmental impact statement (EIS) is needed. The EA requires notification of the host state and/or tribe, and the agency in charge has discretion as to the level of public involvement. The EIS requires public notification, a period for public comments on the draft EIS, and at least one public hearing. Ms Crosland presented stakeholder involvement initiatives carried out beyond the legal requirements, such as Citizen Advisory Boards at certain Department of Energy nuclear sites or the National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Risks of Cholera Prophylaxis for United Nations Peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Amber; Lewnard, Joseph A; Pitzer, Virginia E; Cohen, Ted

    2017-08-01

    More than 5 years after a United Nations peacekeeping battalion introduced cholera to Haiti, over 150,000 peacekeepers continue to be deployed annually from countries where cholera is endemic. The United Nations has thus far declined to provide antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers, a policy based largely on concerns that the risks of drug resistance generation and spread would outweigh the potential benefits of preventing future cholera importations. In this study, we sought to better understand the relative benefits and risks of cholera chemoprophylaxis for peacekeepers in terms of antibiotic resistance. Using a stochastic model to quantify the potential impact of chemoprophylaxis on importation and transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive Vibrio cholerae , we found that chemoprophylaxis would decrease the probability of cholera importation but would increase the expected number of drug-resistant infections if an importation event were to occur. Despite this potential increase, we found that at least 10 drug-sensitive infections would likely be averted per excess drug-resistant infection under a wide range of assumptions about the underlying prevalence of drug resistance and risk of acquired resistance. Given these findings, policymakers should reconsider whether the potential resistance risks of providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers are sufficient to outweigh the anticipated benefits. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. ROTARY DAY AT THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE IN GENEVA

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    We have been informed about the Rotary day at the United Nations office in Geneva. Join us on November 10th & 11th, 2017 at the United Nations office Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Geneva, Switzerland   PEACE: MAKING A DIFFERENCE! Conflict and violence displace millions of people each year. Half of those killed in conflict are children, and 90 percent are civilians. We, Rotarians, refuse conflict as a way of life. But how can we contribute to Peace? And what about you? Are you keen on meeting exceptional individuals and exchanging ideas to move forward? Would you like to network and collaborate with Rotarians, Government Representatives, International Civil Servants, Representatives of Nongovernmental Organizations and Liberal Professions, Businessmen/women, and Students to make a difference in Peace? In November 2017, come to Geneva, get involved, and formulate recommendations to the international community. Together, we’ll celebrate Rotary&a...

  1. Improved National Response to Climate Change: Aligning USGCRP reports and the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, F.; Dahlman, L. E.; Herring, D.; Fox, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    As part of an effort to coordinate production and distribution of scientific climate information across the U.S. Government, and to spur adaptation actions across the nation, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has worked to better integrate the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) and its Climate Explorer (CE) tool into USGCRP activities and products. Much of the initial CRT content was based on the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The opportunity to integrate current development of NCA4—scheduled for release in late 2018—with CRT and CE can enhance all three projects and result in a useable and "living" NCA that is part of USGCRP's approach to sustained climate assessment. To coordinate this work, a USGCRP-led science team worked with CRT staff and CE developers to update the set of climate projections displayed in the CE tool. In concert with the USGCRP scenarios effort, the combined team selected the Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) dataset for the updated version of CE, based on its capabilities for capturing climate extremes and local climate variations. The team identified 28 variables from the LOCA dataset for display in the CE; many of these variables will also be used in USGCRP reports. In CRT engagements, communities with vulnerable assets have expressed a high value for the ability to integrate climate data available through the CE with data related to non-climate stressors in their locations. Moving forward, the teams intend to serve climate information needs at additional spatial scales by making NCA4 content available via CE's capability for dynamic interaction with climate-relevant datasets. This will permit users to customize the extent of data they access for decision-making, starting with the static NCA4 report. Additionally, NCA4 case studies and other content can be linked to more in-depth content within the CRT site. This capability will enable more frequent content updates than can be managed with quadrennial

  2. Using Climate Regionalization to Understand Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2) Precipitation Performance for the Conterminous United States (CONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regonda, Satish K.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Badr, Hamada S.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Dynamically based seasonal forecasts are prone to systematic spatial biases due to imperfections in the underlying global climate model (GCM). This can result in low-forecast skill when the GCM misplaces teleconnections or fails to resolve geographic barriers, even if the prediction of large-scale dynamics is accurate. To characterize and address this issue, this study applies objective climate regionalization to identify discrepancies between the Climate Forecast SystemVersion 2 (CFSv2) and precipitation observations across the Contiguous United States (CONUS). Regionalization shows that CFSv2 1 month forecasts capture the general spatial character of warm season precipitation variability but that forecast regions systematically differ from observation in some transition zones. CFSv2 predictive skill for these misclassified areas is systematically reduced relative to correctly regionalized areas and CONUS as a whole. In these incorrectly regionalized areas, higher skill can be obtained by using a regional-scale forecast in place of the local grid cell prediction.

  3. The USA National Phenology Network: A national science and monitoring program for understanding climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J.

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although phenological data and models have applications related to scientific research, education and outreach, agriculture, tourism and recreation, human health, and natural resource conservation and management, until recently there was no coordinated effort to understand phenology at the national scale in the United States. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org), established in 2007, is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology. The first year of operation of USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement. Products include a new web-site (www.usanpn.org) that went live in June 2008; the web-site includes a tool for on-line data entry, and serves as a clearinghouse for products and information to facilitate research and communication related to phenology. The new core Plant Phenology Program includes profiles for 200 vetted local, regional, and national plant species with descriptions and (BBCH-consistent) monitoring protocols, as well as templates for addition of new species. A partnership program describes how other monitoring networks can engage with USA-NPN to collect, manage or disseminate phenological information for science, health, education, management or predictive service applications. Project BudBurst, a USA-NPN field campaign for citizen scientists, went live in February 2008, and now includes over 3000 registered observers monitoring 4000 plants across the nation. For 2009 and beyond, we will initiate a new Wildlife Phenology Program, create an on-line clearing-house for phenology education and outreach, strengthen

  4. Climate change and the water cycle: A new southwest regional climate hub curriculum unit for 6th-12th grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    As climate change intensifies, increased temperatures and altered precipitation will make water, a limited resource in the arid southwestern United States, even scarcer in many locations. The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub (SWRCH) developed Climate Change and the Water Cycle, an engaging and sc...

  5. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 25: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 edition of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook provides a descriptive narrative of events at the United Nations in the field of disarmament during the year of the historic Millennium Assembly. Though The Yearbook is now in its 25th edition, its more distant roots date back to the Armaments Year-Books issued by the League of Nations. Then, as now, nation-States and members of the concerned public have found it useful to have in one place a handy shelf reference documenting the triumphs and setbacks of the world community's efforts to reduce and eliminate the deadliest of weapons. The year 2000 marked a crucial juncture in the history of disarmament. During the Millennium Summit, 22 States responded to the Secretary-General's invitation to ratify six key legal instruments in the field of disarmament. Over the course of the year, 86 States chose to advance their security interests by ratifying or acceding to a wide range of disarmament treaties. The solemn 'ends' of disarmament also guided the deliberation of roughly 50 resolutions in the General Assembly as well as the work of many institutions throughout the United Nations disarmament machinery, including the Disarmament Commission, the Department for Disarmament Affairs and its three regional centres, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, and the Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Even the Conference on Disarmament, which has been deadlocked for so many years, has persisted in its efforts to forge a new consensus on a multilateral agenda for this difficult field. The Security Council also devoted attention to aspects of disarmament pertaining to peace-keeping and peace-building.With respect to the 'means' of disarmament, the world community reaffirmed its determination to implement agreed disarmament commitments and to work out arrangements in new areas. The States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) after four weeks of

  6. Sexual orientation and future parenthood in a 2011-2013 nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L

    2017-09-01

    Previous researchers have found evidence for differences in parenting goals between lesbian and gay people and their heterosexual peers. However, no previous research has quantified the parenting goals of bisexual people or evaluated parenting goals as a function of sexual partner gender. In addition, political and social climates for sexual minority people had improved rapidly since the last representative data on lesbian and gay peoples' plans for parenthood were collected. We analyzed data from 3,941 childless lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual participants from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG; United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2014), a nationally representative sample of United States residents aged 15 to 44 years. We found that statistically significant, within-gender sexual orientation differences in parenting plans persist, despite social and legal changes. Consistent with hypotheses, bisexual men's parenting desires and intentions were similar to those of their heterosexual male peers and different from those of their gay male peers, while bisexual women's reports were more mixed. Also consistent with hypotheses, the gender of the most recent sexual partner was a strong predictor of parenting goals. We discuss implications for mental and reproductive health-care providers, attorneys, social workers, and others who interact with sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  8. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  9. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  10. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the

  11. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the

  12. The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico: Implications for National/Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, E.; Papyrakis, E.; Tol, R.S.J.; Gay-García, C.

    2013-01-01

    The recent Mexican government study, The Economics of Climate Change in Mexico (ECCM), which has largely influenced Mexico's stance on climate change issues and international negotiations, is critically reviewed. Whilst the importance of such government-supported national studies as a first attempt

  13. National diversity and team performance: the moderating role of interactional justice climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buengeler, C.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this team-level study, we present and test a model in which two aspects of interactional justice climate, its level and its strength, interact to moderate the effects of national diversity on team performance. Connecting the literatures on team diversity and (interactional) justice climate, we

  14. Adaptations to climate change: Colville and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Gaines; David W. Peterson; Cameron A. Thomas; Richy J. Harrod

    2012-01-01

    Forest managers are seeking practical guidance on how to adapt their current practices and, if necessary, their management goals, in response to climate change. Science-management collaboration was initiated on national forests in eastern Washington where resource managers showed a keen interest in science-based options for adapting to climate change at a 2-day...

  15. The National Climate Assessment: A Treasure Trove for Education, Communications and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.; Connolly, R.; Niepold, F., III; Poppleton, K. L. I.; Cloyd, E.; Ledley, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Required by Congress under the Global Change Act of 1990 to inform the nation on the findings of current climate research, the Third U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), released in May 2014, is a rich resource for climate change education, communications and outreach (ECO). Using a website design with mobile applications in mind, NCA takes advantage of mobile learning technology which is revolutionizing how, when and where learning occurs. In an effort to maximize the "teachable moments" inherent in the assessment, a community of experts from the National Center for Science Education and the CLEAN Network, working under the auspices of the National Climate Assessment Network (NCAnet) Education Affinity Group, have developed a series of NCA Learning Pathways that match key NCA messages and resources with reviewed educational materials and trusted online information sources, thereby adding pedagogical depth to the assessment. The NCA Learning Pathways, which focus on the regional chapters of the report, are designed make climate change science more local, human, relevant and, if properly framed by educators and communicators, hopeful for learners. This paper touches on the challenges and opportunities of infusing climate education, communications and outreach into curriculum and society, and details the development and content of NCA Learning Pathways, which are available online through NOAA's Climate.gov website: http://www.climate.gov/teaching

  16. National programme for weather, climate and atmosphere research. Annual report 1984/85

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, CW

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews the activities of the National Programme for Weather, Climate and Atmosphere Research (NPWCAR) for 1984/85, highlights the findings and also discusses future developments and general needs regarding research within the framework...

  17. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M.

    2009-11-01

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  18. The climate and the forest - basis for national research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, Johan

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a proposed interdisciplinary research program to develop support tools to help decision-makers in forestry to adapt forest management practices to meet challenges posed by anticipated, but uncertain, climatic changes. The Climate and the forest Committee at the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry (KSLA) invited around 30 scientists from different disciplines to a two-day workshop. During the workshop objectives, goals, and methods for a research program were formulated. The participants of the workshop subsequently made contributions to this document, which has been completed by the four named editors. Climate changes would inevitably affect Swedish forestry. The forests have a direct effect on the climate and forestry may have to adapt to the new conditions. Uncertainties about the future climate pose new challenges for forest management of which we have no experience. To support decision-making in this new situation we need new knowledge as well as rational methods to handle uncertainty and risk. Despite uncertainties in the climate scenarios and lack of knowledge about the responses of forests to likely climatic changes, we can still predict some probable effects of anticipated warming on the Swedish forests. Increased potential for biomass production can be expected, as well as greater opportunities to utilise new tree species in commercial forestry. At the same time, the risks for several kind of damage is likely to increase. The basic assumption underlying this research program is that knowledge of likely climate changes and associated uncertainties will increase the possibility to achieve forestry objectives. We advocate a research program consisting of the following three modules, each focusing on different aspects of these issues: Module 1 FORESTRY with the objectives to: Develop a framework to handle uncertainty and risks in forestry. Develop decision-maps that systematically describe the consequences of both single and

  19. Climate-Driven Risk of Large Fire Occurrence in the Western United States, 1500 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, J.; Westerling, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatially comprehensive fire climatology has provided managers with tools to understand thecauses and consequences of large forest wildfires, but a paleoclimate context is necessary foranticipating the trajectory of future climate-fire relationships. Although accumulated charcoalrecords and tree scars have been utilized in high resolution, regional fire reconstructions, there isuncertainty as to how current climate-fire relationships of the western United States (WUS) fitwithin the natural long-term variability. While contemporary PDSI falls within the naturalvariability of the past, contemporary temperatures skew higher. Here, we develop a WUSfire reconstruction by applying climate-fire-topography model built on the 1972 to 2003 periodto the past 500 years, validated by recently updated fire-scar histories from WUS forests. Theresultant narrative provides insight into changing climate-fire relationships during extendedperiods of high aridity and temperature, providing land managers with historical precedent toeffectively anticipate disturbances during future climate change.

  20. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  1. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  2. Prospects for greenhouse gas controls and a climate-friendly energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An update on the activities in the United States regarding climate change and energy policy was presented. The author noted that despite the de-linking of gross domestic product (GDP) growth and energy use, emissions in the United States are currently 14.5 per cent higher than they were in 1990. The impact that the statement by the Bush administration regarding policy on climate change was also reviewed. It was suggested that greenhouse gas emissions in the United States will continue to increased over the next decade, even with the new strategy on climate change. The rate of increase will be only slightly lower than that predicted under a business-as-usual scenario. The author approved support for baseline protection for firms that have already reduced their emissions, but expressed concern that mandatory tracking and reporting systems are not required under the new strategy. 7 figs

  3. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  4. Modern Climate Analogues of Late-Quaternary Paleoclimates for the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Cary Jeffrey

    This study examined spatial variations of modern and late-Quaternary climates for the western United States. Synoptic climatological analyses of the modern record identified the predominate climatic controls that normally produce the principal modes of spatial climatic variability. They also provided a modern standard to assess past climates. Maps of the month-to-month changes in 500 mb heights, sea-level pressure, temperature, and precipitation illustrated how different climatic controls govern the annual cycle of climatic response. The patterns of precipitation ratios, precipitation bar graphs, and the seasonal precipitation maximum provided additional insight into how different climatic controls influence spatial climatic variations. Synoptic-scale patterns from general circulation model (GCM) simulations or from analyses of climatic indices were used as the basis for finding modern climate analogues for 18 ka and 9 ka. Composite anomaly maps of atmospheric circulation, precipitation, and temperature were compared with effective moisture maps compiled from proxy data to infer how the patterns, which were evident from the proxy data, were generated. The analyses of the modern synoptic climatology indicate that smaller-scale climatic controls must be considered along with larger-scale ones in order to explain patterns of spatial climate heterogeneity. Climatic extremes indicate that changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation seasonality are the exception rather than the rule, reflecting the strong influence of smaller-scale controls. Modern climate analogues for both 18 ka and 9 ka clearly depict the dry Northwest/wet Southwest contrast that is suggested by GCM simulations and paleoclimatic evidence. 18 ka analogues also show the importance of smaller-scale climatic controls in explaining spatial climatic variation in the Northwest and northern Great Plains. 9 ka analogues provide climatological explanations for patterns of spatial heterogeneity over several

  5. Evaluations of high-resolution dynamically downscaled ensembles over the contiguous United States Climate Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobel, Zachary; Wang, Jiali; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kotamarthi, V. Rao

    2018-02-01

    This study uses Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to evaluate the performance of six dynamical downscaled decadal historical simulations with 12-km resolution for a large domain (7200 x 6180 km) that covers most of North America. The initial and boundary conditions are from three global climate models (GCMs) and one reanalysis data. The GCMs employed in this study are the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics component, Community Climate System Model, version 4, and the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 2-Earth System. The reanalysis data is from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-US. Department of Energy Reanalysis II. We analyze the effects of bias correcting, the lateral boundary conditions and the effects of spectral nudging. We evaluate the model performance for seven surface variables and four upper atmospheric variables based on their climatology and extremes for seven subregions across the United States. The results indicate that the simulation’s performance depends on both location and the features/variable being tested. We find that the use of bias correction and/or nudging is beneficial in many situations, but employing these when running the RCM is not always an improvement when compared to the reference data. The use of an ensemble mean and median leads to a better performance in measuring the climatology, while it is significantly biased for the extremes, showing much larger differences than individual GCM driven model simulations from the reference data. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of these historical model runs in order to make informed decisions when making future projections.

  6. Climatic water deficit, tree species ranges, and climate change in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lutz; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Modelled changes in climate water deficit between past, present and future climate scenarios suggest that recent past changes in forest structure and composition may accelerate in the future, with species responding individualistically to further declines in water availability. Declining water availability may disproportionately affect Pinus monticola...

  7. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 22: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament and arms regulation each year. The Centre for Disarmament Affairs has endeavoured to make the publication as concise as possible without diminishing its usefulness as a reference work. Background information is greatly condensed; thus readers may wish to consult previous editions of The Yearbook. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices. The status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements is presented in appendix 1. With regard to resolutions on disarmament adopted by the General Assembly, texts are consolidated in appendix IV, information on sponsorship and voting is presented in appendix V and voting patterns are reproduced in appendix VI. Appendices II and Ill contain the texts of the Ottawa Convention on anti-personnel mines and the Inter-American Convention on trafficking in firearms, respectively

  8. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 26: 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices, and website addresses of other UN departments and services, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs takes this opportunity to remind you that you can access current information on disarmament issues throughout the year by clicking onto the Department's home page on the Internet: www.un.org/Depts/dda. Among the many electronic resources, you will find updated on a daily basis, the status of multilateral treaties, containing the full texts of the treaties covered in appendix I of The Yearbook

  9. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...... traces this to the ability of indigenous peoples to create consensus among themselves; the establishment of an indigenous caucus; and the construction of a global indigenousness in a continuously developing process in which contentious relationships and symbols have been constructed, reformulated......, negotiated and re-negotiated internally and with the states. In this process 'indigenous peoples' developed as a category and an evolving concept. Dahl looks into the ability of different indigenous representatives to make an impact on the UN processes and use achievements for purposes at home. Combining...

  10. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 22: climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate is a master controller of the structure, composition, and function of biotic communities, affecting them both directly, through physiological effects, and indirectly, by mediating biotic interactions and by influencing disturbance regimes. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park’s (SEKI’s) dramatic elevational changes in biotic communities -- from warm mediterranean to cold alpine -- are but one manifestation of climate’s overarching importance in shaping SEKI’s landscape. Yet humans are now altering the global climate, with measurable effects on ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Over the last few decades across the western United States, human-induced climatic changes have likely contributed to observed declines in fraction of precipitation falling as snow and snowpack water content (Mote et al. 2005, Knowles et al. 2006), advance in spring snowmelt (Stewart et al. 2005, Barnett et al. 2008), and consequent increase in area burned in wildfires (Westerling et al. 2006). In the Sierra Nevada, warming temperatures have likely contributed to observed glacial recession (Basagic 2008), uphill migration of small mammals (Moritz et al. 2008), and increasing tree mortality rates (van Mantgem and Stephenson 2007, van Mantgem et al. 2009). More substantial changes can be expected for the future (e.g., IPCC 2007). Given the central importance of climate and climatic changes, we sought to describe long-term trends in temperature and precipitation at SEKI. Time and budget constraints limited us to analyses of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation, using readily-available data. If funds become available in the future, further analyses will be needed to analyze trends by season, trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures, and so on. We chose to analyze data from individual weather stations rather than use interpolated climatic data from sources such as PRISM (http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/). In topographically complex mountainous regions with few

  11. Adapting to climate change at Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; Kathy A. O’Halloran; Catherine Hawkins Hoffman

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge to natural resource managers both because of the magnitude of potential effects of climate change on ecosystem structure, processes, and function, and because of the uncertainty associated with those potential ecological effects. Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the...

  12. Nurses' perception of their manager's leadership style and unit climate: are there generational differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amany A; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Anthony, Mary K

    2009-01-01

    To describe and compare how nurses representing four age cohorts perceive their manager's leadership style and unit climate. The current workforce consists of nurses representing four generational cohorts. Nursing literature suggests that nurses from each age cohort think, behave and approach work differently. Limited empirical evidence, however, exists about how nurses from each age cohort perceive two aspects of their work environment: their managers' leadership style and unit climate. This cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 475 registered nurses working in different inpatient units in three community non-magnet hospitals. Only nurses from Boomer and Gen-Xers had sufficient representation to be included in the data analysis. Nurses from the two main age cohorts did not differ in their perceptions of their manager's leadership style. Significant differences were found in two unit climate dimensions. The Gen-Xers had a less favourable perception of their unit climate related to warmth and belonging and administrative support. Nurse manager's might reflect on how they interact with different age cohorts; and to involve nurses from various age cohorts in the development of policies to create a flexible work environment.

  13. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  14. Evaluating the completeness of the national ALS registry, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Wendy E; Wagner, Laurie; Wu, Ruoming; Mehta, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the completeness of the United States National ALS Registry (Registry). We compared persons with ALS who were passively identified by the Registry with those actively identified in the State and Metropolitan Area ALS Surveillance project. Cases in the two projects were matched using a combination of identifiers, including, partial social security number, name, date of birth, and sex. The distributions of cases from the two projects that matched/did not match were compared and Chi-square tests conducted to determine statistical significance. There were 5883 ALS cases identified by the surveillance project. Of these, 1116 died before the Registry started, leaving 4767 cases. We matched 2720 cases from the surveillance project to those in the Registry. The cases identified by the surveillance project that did not match cases in the Registry were more likely to be non-white, Hispanic, less than 65 years of age, and from western states. The methods used by the Registry to identify ALS cases, i.e. national administrative data and self-registration, worked well but missed cases. These findings suggest that developing strategies to identify and promote the Registry to those who were more likely to be missing, e.g. non-white and Hispanic, could be beneficial to improving the completeness of the Registry.

  15. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  16. Nordic national climate adaptation and tourism strategies – (how) are they interlinked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landauer, Mia; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Juhola, Sirkku

    2018-01-01

    , there is a need to review adaptation actions for tourism within the national adaptation framework supported by research based evidence. Next, by means of Nordic cooperation, guidance for both public and private tourism actors within and across Nordic countries can be provided. This can enhance the competitiveness......The tourism sector is affected by climate change. Nordic tourism destinations have also experienced changes, such as changing precipitation patterns, lack of snow in winter and shifts in seasons. The sector has to implement adaptation strategies but it is unclear whether the current public climate...... policy is sufficient to support considering adaptation actions. We reviewed national climate strategies of the Nordic countries from the perspectives of tourism, but excluding the transport sector. We also reviewed Nordic national tourism strategies from the perspective of climate change, particularly...

  17. Sensitivity of Regulated Flow Regimes to Climate Change in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Voisin, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Leng, Guoyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kraucunas, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2018-03-01

    Water management activities or flow regulations modify water fluxes at the land surface and affect water resources in space and time. We hypothesize that flow regulations change the sensitivity of river flow to climate change with respect to unmanaged water resources. Quantifying these changes in sensitivity could help elucidate the impacts of water management at different spatiotemporal scales and inform climate adaptation decisions. In this study, we compared the emergence of significant changes in natural and regulated river flow regimes across the Western United States from simulations driven by multiple climate models and scenarios. We find that significant climate change-induced alterations in natural flow do not cascade linearly through water management activities. At the annual time scale, 50% of the Hydrologic Unit Code 4 (HUC4) sub-basins over the Western U.S. regions tend to have regulated flow regime more sensitive to the climate change than natural flow regime. Seasonality analyses show that the sensitivity varies remarkably across the seasons. We also find that the sensitivity is related to the level of water management. For 35% of the HUC4 sub-basins with the highest level of water management, the summer and winter flows tend to show a heightened sensitivity to climate change due to the complexity of joint reservoir operations. We further demonstrate that the impacts of considering water management in models are comparable to those that arises from uncertainties across climate models and emission scenarios. This prompts further climate adaptation studies research about nonlinearity effects of climate change through water management activities.

  18. [Emotional climate and internal communication in a clinical management unit compared with two traditional hospital services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Selected international efforts to address climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, M.; Christ, R. [Atmosphere Unit, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two decades, concern about human-induced climate change has become an increasingly important item on the environmental and political agenda. The signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 provided international organizations and the nations of the world with a new focus for climate-related activities. Although there remains considerable scientific uncertainty about the extent, magnitude, and rate of climate change and the impacts of such change, actions to address climate change have been initiated both internationally and nationally. Major international activities include the World Climate Programme, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. and the United Nations Environment Program me. 16 refs.

  20. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol; Parties a la convention-cadre des Nations-Unies sur les changements climatiques et seconde reunion des parties au Protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  1. The United States and international climate cooperation: International 'pull' versus domestic 'push'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri; Froyn, Camilla Bretteville; Hovi, Jon; Menz, Fredric C.

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international 'pull' and the domestic 'push' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be 'reformed'. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future

  2. The United States and international climate cooperation: international ''pull'' versus domestic ''push''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, G.; Froyn, C.B.; Hovi, J.; Menz, F.C.; Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

    2007-01-01

    The US government is being pressured by both international and domestic influences to re-engage in international climate control. This paper considers whether the international ''pull'' and the domestic ''push'' will be strong enough to accomplish this. First, we discuss whether changes in the architecture of the current climate regime might induce the United States to re-engage at the international level. We argue that the United States is unlikely to rejoin any global climate regime that is based on the Kyoto architecture, even if Kyoto were to be ''reformed''. Second, we discuss whether domestic political developments might eventually cause the United States to re-engage. We conclude that US re-engagement is likely to require the emergence of a new climate regime that basically extends US regulation to other countries. However, the forging of a unified US climate policy is still in the making. Furthermore, a new regime can gain widespread participation only if the Kyoto countries accept the idea of replacing Kyoto with some alternative architecture, which seems unlikely in the near future. (author)

  3. Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change in the Midwest United States present unprecedented challenges to regional agriculture. In response to these challenges, a variety of climate-smart agricultural methodologies have been proposed to retain or improve crop yields, reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, retain soil quality and increase climate resilience of agricultural systems. One component that is commonly neglected when assessing the environmental impacts of climate-smart agriculture is the biophysical impacts, where changes in ecosystem fluxes and storage of moisture and energy lead to perturbations in local climate and water availability. Using a combination of observational data and an agroecosystem model, a series of climate-smart agricultural scenarios were assessed to determine the biophysical impacts these techniques have in the Midwest United States. The first scenario extended the growing season for existing crops using future temperature and CO2 concentrations. The second scenario examined the biophysical impacts of no-till agriculture and the impacts of annually retaining crop debris. Finally, the third scenario evaluated the potential impacts that the adoption of perennial cultivars had on biophysical quantities. Each of these scenarios was found to have significant biophysical impacts. However, the timing and magnitude of the biophysical impacts differed between scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 78 FR 58343 - Information Collection Activities: Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ....NM0000] Information Collection Activities: Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks... Information Collection 1024-NEW, Visitor Perceptions of Climate Change in U.S. National Parks in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angie Richman, Communication Specialist, Climate Change Response...

  5. Recent Trends in National Policy on Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessøe, Jeppe; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Climate change education (CCE) is a new phenomenon which is gaining increasing significance in the work of international organizations and international non-governmental organizations. Based primarily on a cross-national desk study of national policy documents relevant to CCE in 17 countries, which was commissioned by UNESCO to gain a robust…

  6. Changing climate, changing forests: the impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lindsey; Campbell, John; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Huntington, Thomas; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Mohan, Jacqueline; Rodenhouse, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. Greater change is projected in the future. The amount of projected future change depends on the emissions scenarios used. Tree species composition of northeast forests has shifted slowly in response to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid and it is unclear how forests will respond to large changes in suitable habitat. Projections indicate significant declines in suitable habitat for spruce-fir forests and expansion of suitable habitat for oak-dominated forests. Productivity gains that might result from extended growing seasons and carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization may be offset by productivity losses associated with the disruption of species assemblages and concurrent stresses associated with potential increases in atmospheric deposition of pollutants, forest fragmentation, and nuisance species. Investigations of links to water and nutrient cycling suggest that changes in evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and mineralization rates could result in significant alterations of key ecosystem processes. Climate change affects the distribution and abundance of many wildlife species in the region through changes in habitat, food availability, thermal tolerances, species interactions such as competition, and susceptibility to parasites and disease. Birds are the most studied northeastern taxa. Twenty-seven of the 38 bird species for which we have adequate long-term records have expanded their ranges predominantly in a northward direction. There is some evidence to suggest that novel species, including pests and

  7. National Assessment of Climate Resources for Tourism Seasonality in China Using the Tourism Climate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a very important industry, and it is deeply affected by climate. This article focuses on the role of climate in tourism seasonality and attempts to assess the impacts of climate resources on China’s tourism seasonality by using the Tourism Climate Index (TCI. Seasonal distribution maps of TCI scores indicate that the climates of most regions in China are comfortable for tourists during spring and autumn, while the climate conditions differ greatly in summer and winter, with “excellent”, “good”, “acceptable” and “unfavorable” existing almost by a latitudinal gradation. The number of good months throughout China varies from zero (the Tibetan Plateau area to 10 (Yunnan Province, and most localities have five to eight good months. Moreover, all locations in China can be classified as winter peak, summer peak and bi-modal shoulder peak. The results will provide some useful information for tourist destinations, travel agencies, tourism authorities and tourists.

  8. Subseasonal climate variability for North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Jha, Manoj K.; Mekonnen, Ademe; Schimmel, Keith A.

    2014-08-01

    Subseasonal trends in climate variability for maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin) and precipitation were evaluated for 249 ground-based stations in North Carolina for 1950-2009. The magnitude and significance of the trends at all stations were determined using the non-parametric Theil-Sen Approach (TSA) and the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, respectively. The Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) test was also applied to find the initiation of abrupt trend changes. The lag-1 serial correlation and double mass curve were employed to address the data independency and homogeneity. Using the MK trend test, statistically significant (confidence level ≥ 95% in two-tailed test) decreasing (increasing) trends by 44% (45%) of stations were found in May (June). In general, trends were decreased in Tmax and increased in Tmin data series in subseasonal scale. Using the TSA method, the magnitude of lowest (highest) decreasing (increasing) trend in Tmax is - 0.050 °C/year (+ 0.052 °C/year) in the monthly series for May (March) and for Tmin is - 0.055 °C/year (+ 0.075 °C/year) in February (December). For the precipitation time series using the TSA method, it was found that the highest (lowest) magnitude of 1.00 mm/year (- 1.20 mm/year) is in September (February). The overall trends in precipitation data series were not significant at the 95% confidence level except that 17% of stations were found to have significant (confidence level ≥ 95% in two-tailed test) decreasing trends in February. The statistically significant trend test results were used to develop a spatial distribution of trends: May for Tmax, June for Tmin, and February for precipitation. A correlative analysis of significant temperature and precipitation trend results was examined with respect to large scale circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). A negative NAO index (positive-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index) was found to be associated with

  9. Joint Applications Pilot of the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform and the North Central Climate Science Center: Delivering climate projections on regional scales to support adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The DOI North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) and the NOAA/NCAR National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform and have initiated a joint pilot study to collaboratively explore the "best available climate information" to support key land management questions and how to provide this information. NCPP's mission is to support state of the art approaches to develop and deliver comprehensive regional climate information and facilitate its use in decision making and adaptation planning. This presentation will describe the evolving joint pilot as a tangible, real-world demonstration of linkages between climate science, ecosystem science and resource management. Our joint pilot is developing a deliberate, ongoing interaction to prototype how NCPP will work with CSCs to develop and deliver needed climate information products, including translational information to support climate data understanding and use. This pilot also will build capacity in the North Central CSC by working with NCPP to use climate information used as input to ecological modeling. We will discuss lessons to date on developing and delivering needed climate information products based on this strategic partnership. Four projects have been funded to collaborate to incorporate climate information as part of an ecological modeling project, which in turn will address key DOI stakeholder priorities in the region: Riparian Corridors: Projecting climate change effects on cottonwood and willow seed dispersal phenology, flood timing, and seedling recruitment in western riparian forests. Sage Grouse & Habitats: Integrating climate and biological data into land management decision models to assess species and habitat vulnerability Grasslands & Forests: Projecting future effects of land management, natural disturbance, and CO2 on woody encroachment in the Northern Great Plains The value of climate information: Supporting management decisions in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. NCCSC's role in

  10. Changes in forest biomass and tree species distribution under climate change in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; William D. Dijak

    2016-01-01

    Context. Forests in the northeastern United States are currently in early- and mid-successional stages recovering from historical land use. Climate change will affect forest distribution and structure and have important implications for biodiversity, carbon dynamics, and human well-being. Objective. We addressed how aboveground biomass (AGB) and...

  11. Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    identifying the model’s elements and influential individuals, define spheres of influence and construct a model that details the ecological systems...Research Report 1997 Ecological Systems Theory: Using Spheres of Influence to Support Small-unit Climate and Training...Technical review by: Sena Garven, U.S. Army Research Institute Michael D. Wood , Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

  12. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  13. Climate change impacts on freshwater fish, coral reefs, and related ecosystem services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the potential physical and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries and coral reefs in the United States, examining a reference scenario and two policy scenarios that limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We modeled shifts in suitable habitat ...

  14. Relating adaptive genetic traits to climate for Sandberg bluegrass from the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Erin Espeland; Ken Vance-Borland

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation for potentially adaptive traits of the key restoration species Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) was assessed over the intermountain western United States in relation to source population climate. Common gardens were established at two intermountain west sites with progeny from two maternal parents from each of 130 wild populations. Data were...

  15. Modeled ecohydrological responses to climate change at seven small watersheds in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles T. Driscoll; John L. Campbell; Katharine Hayhoe; Anne M. K. Stoner; Mary Beth Adams; Douglas Burns; Ivan Fernandez; Myron J. Mitchell; James B. Shanley

    2016-01-01

    A cross-site analysis was conducted on seven diverse, forested watersheds in the northeastern United States to evaluate hydrological responses (evapotranspiration, soil moisture, seasonal and annual streamflow, and water stress) to projections of future climate. We used output from four atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs; CCSM4, HadGEM2-CC, MIROC5, and...

  16. Vulnerability Assessment of Dust Storms in the United States under a Changing Climate Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe weather events, such as flooding, drought, forest fires, and dust storms can have a serious impact on human health. Dust storm events are not well predicted in the United States, however they are expected to become more frequent as global climate warms through the 21st cen...

  17. Climate change poses additional threat to the future of ash resources in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Prasad; Louis Iverson; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that climate change has the potential to alter the distribution of plant species all over the world. In the United States, ash (Fraxinus spp.) is encountering the double threat of short-term emerald ash borer (EAB) infestation, which could decimate ash throughout the country, and longer term perturbations due to...

  18. Predicting abundance of 80 tree species following climate change in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Anantha M. Prasad

    1998-01-01

    Projected climate warming will potentially have profound effects on the earth?s biota, including a large redistribution of tree species. We developed models to evaluate potential shifts for 80 individual tree species in the eastern United States. First, environmental factors associated with current ranges of tree species were assessed using geographic information...

  19. The 2015 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Youth in Our Nation's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…

  20. Climate change through an intersectional lens: gendered vulnerability and resilience in indigenous communities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Vinyeta; Kyle Powys Whyte; Kathy Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The scientific and policy literature on climate change increasingly recognizes the vulnerabilities of indigenous communities and their capacities for resilience. The role of gender in defining how indigenous peoples experience climate change in the United States is a research area that deserves more attention. Advancing climate change threatens the continuance of many...

  1. Food-borne disease and climate change in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R

    2017-12-05

    This review examined the likely impact of climate change upon food-borne disease in the UK using Campylobacter and Salmonella as example organisms. Campylobacter is an important food-borne disease and an increasing public health threat. There is a reasonable evidence base that the environment and weather play a role in its transmission to humans. However, uncertainty as to the precise mechanisms through which weather affects disease, make it difficult to assess the likely impact of climate change. There are strong positive associations between Salmonella cases and ambient temperature, and a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind this. However, because the incidence of Salmonella disease is declining in the UK, any climate change increases are likely to be small. For both Salmonella and Campylobacter the disease incidence is greatest in older adults and young children. There are many pathways through which climate change may affect food but only a few of these have been rigorously examined. This provides a high degree of uncertainty as to what the impacts of climate change will be. Food is highly controlled at the National and EU level. This provides the UK with resilience to climate change as well as potential to adapt to its consequences but it is unknown whether these are sufficient in the context of a changing climate.

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Hawaiian...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  7. Conceptualising national climate change policy through the local lenses: The case of Capricorn District Municipality, Limpopo, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, Miriam D

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This poster presents the preliminary findings of a study which seeks to understand the learning systems used for climate change adaptation at local government level. It looks at how the local government officials conceptualise the National Climate...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoquadrat benthic images were collected at NCRMP climate stations and permanent sites identified by the Ocean and Climate Change team across the Mariana...

  9. Detection and attribution of streamflow timing changes to climate change in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H.G.; Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Bala, G.; Mirin, A.; Wood, A.W.; Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Nozawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article applies formal detection and attribution techniques to investigate the nature of observed shifts in the timing of streamflow in the western United States. Previous studies have shown that the snow hydrology of the western United States has changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Such changes manifest themselves in the form of more rain and less snow, in reductions in the snow water contents, and in earlier snowmelt and associated advances in streamflow "center" timing (the day in the "water-year" on average when half the water-year flow at a point has passed). However, with one exception over a more limited domain, no other study has attempted to formally attribute these changes to anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Using the observations together with a set of global climate model simulations and a hydrologic model (applied to three major hydrological regions of the western United States_the California region, the upper Colorado River basin, and the Columbia River basin), it is found that the observed trends toward earlier "center" timing of snowmelt-driven streamflows in the western United States since 1950 are detectably different from natural variability (significant at the p analysis, and it is the only basin that showed a detectable signal when the analysis was performed on individual basins. It should be noted that although climate change is an important signal, other climatic processes have also contributed to the hydrologic variability of large basins in the western United States. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.

  10. Projecting climate change in the United States: A technical document supporting the Forest Service RPA 2010 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; David T. Price; David P. Coulson; Daniel W. McKenney; R. Martin Siltanen; Pia Papadopol; Kevin. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    A set of climate change projections for the United States was developed for use in the 2010 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment. These climate projections, along with projections for population dynamics, economic growth, and land use change in the United States, comprise the RPA scenarios and are used in the RPA Assessment to project future renewable resource conditions...

  11. United Kingdom national paediatric bilateral cochlear implant audit: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen; Bele, Devyanee; Brinton, Julie; Lutman, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Prior to 2009, United Kingdom (UK) public funding was mainly only available for children to receive unilateral cochlear implants. In 2009, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published guidance for cochlear implantation following their review. According to these guidelines, all suitable children are eligible to have simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants or a sequential bilateral cochlear implant if they had received the first before the guidelines were published. Fifteen UK cochlear implant centres formed a consortium to carry out a multi-centre audit. The audit involves collecting data from simultaneously and sequentially implanted children at four intervals: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, 1, 2, and 3 years after bilateral implants. The measures include localization, speech recognition in quiet and background noise, speech production, listening, vocabulary, parental perception, quality of life, and surgical data including complications. The audit has now passed the 2-year point, and data have been received on 850 children. This article provides a first view of some data received up until March 2012.

  12. Climate Change Effects: Issues for International and US National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Philip Meade, Mr. Michael Nash, Ms. Vanessa Pena, Mr. Ronald Rolph, Dr. Jocelyn Seng, Mr. Mark Tillman, Dr. Richard Van Atta, Mr. Ryan Wagner, Gen...DeRiggi, Dr. Tony Fainberg, Mr. Keith Green, Mr. Frederick Hartman, Mr. Edward Kenschaft, Dr. Gregory Larsen, Dr. Jamie Link, Mr. Frank Mahncke, Mr...Worst-case Scenario of Climate Change in the South-west Pacific, study by Edwards . Study   Appendix B:   Recommendations for DoD – Response to

  13. NASA and the National Climate Assessment: Promoting awareness of NASA Earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth science observations, models, analyses, and applications made significant contributions to numerous aspects of the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) report and are contributing to sustained climate assessment activities. The agency's goal in participating in the NCA was to ensure that NASA scientific resources were made available to understand the current state of climate change science and climate change impacts. By working with federal agency partners and stakeholder communities to develop and write the report, the agency was able to raise awareness of NASA climate science with audiences beyond the traditional NASA community. To support assessment activities within the NASA community, the agency sponsored two competitive programs that not only funded research and tools for current and future assessments, but also increased capacity within our community to conduct assessment-relevant science and to participate in writing assessments. Such activities fostered the ability of graduate students, post-docs, and senior researchers to learn about the science needs of climate assessors and end-users, which can guide future research activities. NASA also contributed to developing the Global Change Information System, which deploys information from the NCA to scientists, decision makers, and the public, and thus contributes to climate literacy. Finally, NASA satellite imagery and animations used in the Third NCA helped the pubic and decision makers visualize climate changes and were frequently used in social media to communicate report key findings. These resources are also key for developing educational materials that help teachers and students explore regional climate change impacts and opportunities for responses.

  14. Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

  15. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O' Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes

  16. Decision-support tools for Extreme Weather and Climate Events in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Lowery, M.; Whelchel, A.

    2013-12-01

    Decision-support tools were assessed for the 2013 National Climate Assessment technical input document, "Climate Change in the Northeast, A Sourcebook". The assessment included tools designed to generate and deliver actionable information to assist states and highly populated urban and other communities in assessment of climate change vulnerability and risk, quantification of effects, and identification of adaptive strategies in the context of adaptation planning across inter-annual, seasonal and multi-decadal time scales. State-level adaptation planning in the Northeast has generally relied on qualitative vulnerability assessments by expert panels and stakeholders, although some states have undertaken initiatives to develop statewide databases to support vulnerability assessments by urban and local governments, and state agencies. The devastation caused by Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 has raised awareness of the potential for extreme weather events to unprecedented levels and created urgency for action, especially in coastal urban and suburban communities that experienced pronounced impacts - especially in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. Planning approaches vary, but any adaptation and resiliency planning process must include the following: - Knowledge of the probable change in a climate variable (e.g., precipitation, temperature, sea-level rise) over time or that the climate variable will attain a certain threshold deemed to be significant; - Knowledge of intensity and frequency of climate hazards (past, current or future events or conditions with potential to cause harm) and their relationship with climate variables; - Assessment of climate vulnerabilities (sensitive resources, infrastructure or populations exposed to climate-related hazards); - Assessment of relative risks to vulnerable resources; - Identification and prioritization of adaptive strategies to address risks. Many organizations are developing decision-support tools to assist in the urban

  17. Effects of climate change on streamflow extremes and implications for reservoir inflow in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Gao, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of hydrometeorological extremes are expected to increase in the conterminous United States (CONUS) over the rest of this century, and their increase will significantly impact water resource management. While previous efforts focused on the effects of reservoirs on downstream discharge, the effects of climate change on reservoir inflows in upstream areas are not well understood. We evaluated the large-scale climate change effects on extreme hydrological events and their implications for reservoir inflows in 178 headwater basins across CONUS using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC model was forced with a 10-member ensemble of global circulation models under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° grid cell resolution. The results projected an increase in the likelihood of flood risk by 44% for a majority of subbasins upstream of flood control reservoirs in the central United States and increased drought risk by 11% for subbasins upstream of hydropower reservoirs across the western United States. Increased risk of both floods and droughts can potentially make reservoirs across CONUS more vulnerable to future climate conditions. In conclusion, this study estimates reservoir inflow changes over the next several decades, which can be used to optimize water supply management downstream.

  18. United Nations Commission on Commodities for Women's and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... commodities in order to achieve the health-related Millennium Development ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work ... to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, ...

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE, Change International Negociations?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Climate change is one of key threats to human beings who have to deal with.According to Bali Action Plan released after the 2007 Bali Climate Talk held in Indonesia,the United Nations Framework on Climate Change(UNFCCC) has launched a two-year process to negotiate a post-2012 climate arrangement after the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012 and the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference will seal a final deal on post-2012 climate regime in December,2009.For this,the United Nation Chief Ban Ki Moon called 2009"the year ofclimate change".

  20. Climate change and carbon sequestration opportunities on national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Deal

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation globally accounts for about 20 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions. One of the major forestry challenges in the United States is reducing the loss of forest land from development. Foresters have a critical role to play in forest management and carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and forestry can be part of the solution. A recent...

  1. Climate change impacts on thermoelectric-power generation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric-power generation accounts for more than 70% of the total electricity generation in the United States, which requires large amounts of water for cooling purposes. Water withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation accounted for 45% of total water use in the United States in 2010. Across the country, water demand from power plants is increasing due to pressures from growing populations and other needs, and is straining existing water resources. Moreover, temperature exceedance in receiving waters has increasingly caused power plants shut downs across parts of the country. Thermoelectric power is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined effects of lower summer river flows and higher receiving water temperatures. In addition, the efficiency of production is reduced as air temperature rises, which propagates to more unfulfilled power demand during peak seasons. Therefore, a holistic modeling framework of water-energy-climate for the contiguous U.S. is presented here to quantify thermal output from power plants and estimate water use and energy production fluctuations due to ambient climate as well as environmental regulations. The model is calibrated on a plant-by-plant basis for year 2010 and 2011 using the available power plant inventory from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Simulations were carried out for years 2012 and 2013, and results show moderate improvements in capturing thermal output variabilities after calibration. Future power plant operations under scenarios featuring different climate and regulatory settings were investigated. Results demonstrate the interplay among water, energy and climate, and that future changes in climate and socioeconomics significantly affect power plant operations, which may provide insights to climate change mitigation considerations and energy decisions.

  2. A climatic deconstruction of recent drought trends in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficklin, Darren L; Maxwell, Justin T; Gholizadeh, Hamed; Letsinger, Sally L

    2015-01-01

    We present high spatial-resolution trends of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and selected climate variables from 1979–2013 for the contiguous United States in order to gain an understanding of recent drought trends and their climatic forcings. Based on a spatial grouping analysis, four regions of increasing (upper Midwest, Louisiana, southeastern United States (US), and western US) and decreasing (New England, Pacific Northwest, upper Great Plains, and Ohio River Valley) drought trends based on Mann–Kendall Z values were found. Within these regions, partial correlation and multiple regression for trends in climate variables and PDSI were performed to examine potential climatic controls on these droughts. As expected, there was a US-wide concurrence on drought forcing by precipitation. However, there was correspondence of recent PET trends with recent drought trends in many regions. For regions with an increase in recent droughts, average air temperature was generally the second most important variable after precipitation in determining recent drought trends. Across the regions where recent drought trends are decreasing, there was no clear ranking of climate-variable importance, where trends in average temperature, specific humidity and net radiation all played significant regional roles in determining recent drought trends. Deconstructing the trends in drought show that, while there are regions in the US showing positive and negative trends in drought conditions, the climate forcings for these drought trends are regionally specific. The results of this study allow for the interpretation of the role of the changing hydroclimatic cycle in recent drought trends, which also have implications for the current and impending results of climate change. (letter)

  3. Climate Change and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Adaptation Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hjeresen, Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Silverman, Josh [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been adapting to climate change related impacts that have been occurring on decadal time scales. The region where LANL is located has been subject to a cascade of climate related impacts: drought, devastating wildfires, and historic flooding events. Instead of buckling under the pressure, LANL and the surrounding communities have integrated climate change mitigation strategies into their daily operations and long-term plans by increasing coordination and communication between the Federal, State, and local agencies in the region, identifying and aggressively managing forested areas in need of near-term attention, addressing flood control and retention issues, and more.

  4. Estimating the economic impact of climate change on the freshwater sportsfisheries of the Northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendleton, L. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Economics; Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1997-06-06

    This study links models of global climate circulation, ecology, and economic valuation (hedonic travel cost and random utility models) to value the impact of global warming on freshwater sportfishing in the Northeast. An origin-specific linear random utility model (RUM) is introduced. The results of the RUM are shown to be comparable to those of a hedonic travel cost model. A doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is predicted to generate between a $4.6 million loss and a $20.5 million net benefit for the Northeastern United States, depending on the climate scenario.

  5. The vulnerability of tourism and recreation in the National Capital Region to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D; Jones, B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Khaled, H.A. [National Capital Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-03-15

    The potential impact of climate change on recreation and tourism in Canada's National Capital Region was assessed. The objectives of the study were to examine two important issues, including how climate change will influence the seasonality of major recreation and tourism segments in the winter and summer months. The study analysed the disparate vulnerability of recreation and tourism segments to climate variability and change, explored risks and opportunities for recreation and tourism in the region, and examined management adaptation strategies. The study was conducted in several phases involving consultation meetings with National Capital Commission staff, data compilation and development of climate change scenarios. This was followed by a climate change impact assessment. The report also provided information on the methodology used for the study and on climate change impact indicators. It was concluded that as a result of climate change, the Winterlude season would become shorter and that the timeframe for skating on the Rideau Canal was projected to be shortened. 61 refs., 23 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.

  6. Quantifying and Valuing Potential Climate Change Impacts on Coral Reefs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, C. W.; Lane, D.; Buddemeier, R. W.; Ready, R. C.; Shouse, K. C.; Martinich, J.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change presents a two-pronged threat to coral reef ecosystems: increasing sea surface temperatures will increase the likelihood of episodic bleaching events, while increasing ocean carbon dioxide concentrations will change the carbonate chemistry that drives coral growth. Because coral reefs have important societal as well as ecological benefits, climate change mitigation policies that ameliorate these impacts may create substantial economic value. We present a model that evaluates both the ecological and the economic impacts of climate change on coral reefs in the United States. We use a coral reef mortality and bleaching model to project future coral reef declines under a range of climate change policy scenarios for south Florida, Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Using a benefits transfer approach, the outputs from the physical model are then used to quantify the economic impacts of these coral reef declines for each of these regions. We find that differing climate change trajectories create substantial changes in projected coral cover and value for Hawaii, but that the ecological and economic benefits of more stringent emissions scenarios are less clear for Florida and Puerto Rico. Overall, our results indicate that the effectiveness of climate change mitigation policies may be region-specific, but that these policies could result in a net increase of nearly $10 billion in economic value from coral reef-related recreational activities alone, over the 21st century.

  7. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997; Les changements climatiques. 3eme conference des Parties de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies a Kyoto au Japon du 1er au 10 Decembre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-11-28

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO{sub 2} emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO{sub 2} emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO{sub 2} emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO{sub 2} non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate.

  8. Climatic change. The third Conference of the Parties of the United Nations - Framework Convention. Kyoto, Japan, 1-10 December 1997; Les changements climatiques. 3eme conference des Parties de la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies a Kyoto au Japon du 1er au 10 Decembre 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meclot, Bernard; Madet, Daniel [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-11-28

    Facing the global problems raised by the climatic change, it is absolutely necessary to bring forth worldwide orientations which must balance the economic growth in the developing countries, the competition between countries and between industrial companies, the right repartition of the efforts of developed countries and the remaining world's countries as well as among the developed countries. This EDF press communique, concerning the 3. Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework - Convention, held in Kyoto on 1-10 Dec 1999, presents the results of EDF struggle against the Greenhouse effect, a comparative statistics of the CO{sub 2} emission and, particularly, the role of electric sector. The following conclusions are drown in this report: 1. No matter what common target will be established for CO{sub 2} emission (2-4.5 tones per inhabitant, for instance), it implies that big countries like US and Canada should decide on plans for significant lowering of the emissions while Europe as well as China have still important steps to do; 2. Although, Europe has mastered rather well the global CO{sub 2} emission there are still very contrasting values from the different countries of the European Union; 3. The emissions produced by transport do increase continuously and will soon become the main contributor to the polluting emissions; 4. The European industrial sector has reduced its emission by about 12% during the last ten years and at present it is only the fourth contributor; 5. The electric sector can bring a major contribution to the pollution abatement by choosing CO{sub 2} non-emitting power generating systems, so as the plots giving the emission evolution in France, Sweden or Austria demonstrate.

  9. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  10. Interactive Development of Regional Climate Web Pages for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Redmond, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    Weather and climate have a pervasive and significant influence on the western United States, driving a demand for information that is ongoing and constantly increasing. In communications with stakeholders, policy makers, researchers, educators, and the public through formal and informal encounters, three standout challenges face users of weather and climate information in the West. First, the needed information is scattered about the web making it difficult or tedious to access. Second, information is too complex or requires too much background knowledge to be immediately applicable. Third, due to complex terrain, there is high spatial variability in weather, climate, and their associated impacts in the West, warranting information outlets with a region-specific focus. Two web sites, TahoeClim and the Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard were developed to overcome these challenges to meeting regional weather and climate information needs. TahoeClim focuses on the Lake Tahoe Basin, a region of critical environmental concern spanning the border of Nevada and California. TahoeClim arose out of the need for researchers, policy makers, and environmental organizations to have access to all available weather and climate information in one place. Additionally, TahoeClim developed tools to both interpret and visualize data for the Tahoe Basin with supporting instructional material. The Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard arose from discussions at an informal meeting about Nevada drought organized by the USDA Farm Service Agency. Stakeholders at this meeting expressed a need to take a 'quick glance' at various climate indicators to support their decision making process. Both sites were designed to provide 'one-stop shopping' for weather and climate information in their respective regions and to be intuitive and usable by a diverse audience. An interactive, 'co-development' approach was taken with sites to ensure needs of potential users were met. The sites were

  11. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  12. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change, Land-Use Changes, and Regional Carbon Dynamics in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, J. E.; Sleeter, B. M.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The fact that climate change is likely to accelerate throughout this century means that climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture will need to adapt increasingly to climate change. This fact also means that understanding the potential for agricultural adaptation, and how it could come about, is important for ongoing technology investments in the public and private sectors, for infrastructure investments, and for the various policies that address agriculture directly or indirectly. This paper is an interdisciplinary study by collaborating with climate scientist, agronomists, economists, and ecologists. We first use statistical models to estimate impacts of climate change on major crop yields (wheat, corn, soybeans, sorghum, and cotton) and predict changes in crop yields under future climate condition using downscaled climate projections from CMIP5. Then, we feed the predicted yield changes to a partial equilibrium economic model (FASOM-GHG) to evaluate economic and environmental outcomes including changes in land uses (i.e., cropland, pastureland, forest land, urban land and land for conservation) in United States. Finally, we use outputs from FASOM-GHG as inputs for the ST-SIM ecological model to simulate future carbon dynamics through changes in land use under future climate conditions and discuss the rate of adaptation through land-use changes. Findings in this paper have several merits compared to previous findings in the literature. First, we add economic components to the carbon calculation. It is important to include socio-economic conditions when calculating carbon emission and/or carbon sequestration because human activities are the major contribution to atmosphere GHG emissions. Second, we use the most recent downscaled climate projections from CMIP5 to capture uncertainties from climate model projections. Instead of using all GCMs, we select five GCMs to represent the ensemble. Third, we use a bottom-up approach because we start from micro-level data

  13. USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries service from The National Map (TNM) represents major civil areas for the Nation, including States or Territories, counties (or...

  14. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  15. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  16. Indigenous Rights in the Making: The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Jérémie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines to what extent the recently adopted United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples participate to the development of indigenous peoples' international human rights.

  17. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report Made In 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-11-06

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14(a) of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1974 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Twenty-Ninth Session (A/9609). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them.

  18. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report made in 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-11-27

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14(a) of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1975 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Thirtieth Session (A/10009). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them.

  19. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report made in 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14 of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1972 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Twenty-Seventh Session (A/8709). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them

  20. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report Made In 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14(a) of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1974 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Twenty-Ninth Session (A/9609). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them

  1. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report made in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14(a) of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1975 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Thirtieth Session (A/10009). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them

  2. Annual Report of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board. The Report made in 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-11-28

    Pursuant to the requirement in Article 14 of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund that the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the member organizations of the Fund, the United Nations has published the report presented by the Board in 1972 as Supplement No. 9 to the Official Records of the General Assembly: Twenty-Seventh Session (A/8709). The report has thus already been communicated to Governments. However, if any Member should require additional copies, the Secretariat is ready to obtain them.

  3. Relationships between forest fine and coarse woody debris carbon stocks across latitudinal gradients in the United States as an indicator of climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; G.C. Liknes

    2008-01-01

    Coarse and fine woody materials (CWD and FWD) are substantial forest ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. There is a lack of understanding how these detritus C stocks may respond to climate change. This study used a nation-wide inventory of CWD and FWD in the United States to examine how these C stocks vary by latitude. Results indicate that the highest CWD and FWD C stocks...

  4. National Security and the Threat of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    As sea levels rise and storm surges increase, saline water can contaminate groundwater, inundate river deltas and valleys, and destroy croplands...focused on protecting the border and beach - es. Europe will be focused on its own borders. There is potential for fracturing some very strong...Mediterranean), while alleviating it in others (such as the United Kingdom). Areas that depend on tropical mountain glaciers for water (such as Lima

  5. Towards a national trauma registry for the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka Ezedin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE as well as worldwide. Trauma registries provide large longitudinal databases for analysis and policy improvement. We aim in this paper to report on the development and evolution of a national trauma registry using a staged approach by developing a single-center registry, a two-center registry, and then a multi-center registry. The three registries were established by developing suitable data collection forms, databases, and interfaces to these databases. The first two registries collected data for a finite period of time and the third is underway. The steps taken to establish these registries depend on whether the registry is intended as a single-center or multi-center registry. Findings Several issues arose and were resolved during the development of these registries such as the relational design of the database, whether to use a standalone database management system or a web-based system, and the usability and security of the system. The inclusion of preventive medicine data elements is important in a trauma registry and the focus on road traffic collision data elements is essential in a country such as the UAE. The first two registries provided valuable data which has been analyzed and published. Conclusions The main factors leading to the successful establishment of a multi-center trauma registry are the development of a concise data entry form, development of a user-friendly secure web-based database system, the availability of a computer and Internet connection in each data collection center, funded data entry personnel well trained in extracting medical data from the medical record and entering it into the computer, and experienced personnel in trauma injuries and data analysis to continuously maintain and analyze the registry.

  6. U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers and U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center—Annual report for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Sarah R.; Varela Minder, Elda; Padgett, Holly A.

    2017-05-19

    Introduction2016 was an exciting year for the Department of the Interior (DOI) Climate Science Centers (CSCs) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC). In recognition of our ongoing efforts to raise awareness and provide the scientific data and tools needed to address the impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, ecosystems, and people, NCCWSC and the CSCs received an honorable mention in the first ever Climate Adaptation Leadership Award for Natural Resources sponsored by the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plant Climate Adaptation Strategy’s Joint Implementation Working Group. The recognition is a reflection of our contribution to numerous scientific workshops and publications, provision of training for students and early career professionals, and work with Tribes and indigenous communities to improve climate change resilience across the Nation. In this report, we highlight some of the activities that took place throughout the NCCWSC and CSC network in 2016.

  7. France 2001. Third national communication under the UN framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In line with obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, France, like all the signatories of the convention, is required periodically to provide a National Communication following a plan established by the Conference of Parties to the Convention. This document provides information on national actions related to climate change. It also aims to help our country respect its commitments and encourage the release of information so as to enable an examination and in-depth evaluation of the implementation of the commitments made under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the 1998 European agreement on burden-sharing within the European Union. (author)

  8. National Climate Policies: Aiming at the Factor 4 Target by 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers how the governments of midsize developed countries could define national strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions, assuming that such strategies are the product of cognitive and ethical choices relating to global climate scenarios and the rule for allocating shares of expected global climate damage to individual States. After evaluating the carbon value linked to each cognitive-ethical configuration, I identify the configurations that justify the target of dividing national emissions by 4 between 1990 and 2050 - a goal known as 'Factor 4'. Lastly, I examine the resulting constraints on the shape of the control trajectory leading to that target

  9. National Security Implications of Climate-related Risks and a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    with military experts from Chile, Colombia, El Salvador , and Trinidad & Tobago, and presented the outcomes to the Inter- American Defense Board...in use for humanitarian assistance following the earthquakes in Nepal in 2015. The main source of funding for the GCCs’ HA/DR programs is the...although not necessarily climate change planning per se, for the last three years (after the Haiti earthquake in 2010) USSOUTHCOM has requested

  10. Convergence and conflict with the ‘National Interest’: Why Israel abandoned its climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Lucy; Tal, Alon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how Israel abandoned its climate policy through the prism of the country's evolving energy profile, most importantly the 2009 discovery of huge natural gas reserves in Israel's Mediterranean exclusive zone. The article outlines five phases of Israeli political engagement with climate change from 1992 until 2013 when the National GHG Emissions Reduction Plan was defunded. Israel was motivated to develop its climate policy by international norms: OECD membership and the 2009 UN Summit in Copenhagen. Although the eventual Plan may not have significantly reduced Israel’s emissions, it contained immediate cost-effective, energy efficiency measures. Despite rhetorical support for renewable energy, in practice, most Israeli leaders consistently perceive ensuring supply of fossil fuels as the best means to achieve energy security. The gas finds thus effectively ended a potentially significant switch towards renewable energy production. The development of commercially competitive Israeli renewable energy technology may change this prevailing economic calculus alongside renewed international and domestic leadership and a resolution of the region's conflicts. Although Israel's political circumstances are idiosyncratic, the dynamics shaping its climate policy reflect wider trends such as competing economic priorities and failure to consider long term energy security. - Highlights: • In 2013 Israel defunded its climate policy despite cost and efficiency savings. • Initially climate policy converged with national interests: ‘climate bandwagoning’. • Deepwater natural gas finds in Israeli waters ended renewable energy ambitions. • Advocates failed to securitise ‘climate change’ which would have raised its profile. • Policy failure reflects both national idiosyncrasies and wider international trends.

  11. Assessment of Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.; Barker, C. M.; Garofalo, J.; Hahn, M.; Hayden, M.; Ogden, N.; Schramm, P.

    2016-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. The seasonality, distribution, and prevalence of vector-borne diseases are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. In this presentation we summarize key findings from Chapter 5 ("Vector-borne Diseases") of the recently published USGCRP Scientific Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States. Climate change is expected to alter geographic and seasonal distributions of vectors and vector-borne diseases, leading to earlier activity and northward range expansion of ticks capable of carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other pathogens, and influencing the distribution, abundance and prevalence of infection in mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus and other pathogens. The emergence or reemergence of vector-borne pathogens is also likely.

  12. Climatic Warmth and National Wealth: Some Culture-Level Determinants of National Character Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Terracciano, Antonio; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri

    2007-12-01

    National character stereotypes are widely shared, but do not reflect assessed levels of personality traits. In this article we present data illustrating the divergence of stereotypes and assessed personality traits in north and south Italy, test hypotheses about the associations of temperature and national wealth with national character stereotypes in 49 cultures, and explore possible links to national values and beliefs. Results suggest that warmth and wealth are common determinants of national stereotypes, but that there are also idiosyncratic influences on the perceptions of individual nations.

  13. The response of surface ozone to climate change over the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Racherla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the response of surface ozone (O3 to future climate change in the eastern United States by performing simulations corresponding to present (1990s and future (2050s climates using an integrated model of global climate, tropospheric gas-phase chemistry, and aerosols. A future climate has been imposed using ocean boundary conditions corresponding to the IPCC SRES A2 scenario for the 2050s decade. Present-day anthropogenic emissions and CO2/CH4 mixing ratios have been used in both simulations while climate-sensitive emissions were allowed to vary with the simulated climate. The severity and frequency of O3 episodes in the eastern U.S. increased due to future climate change, primarily as a result of increased O3 chemical production. The 95th percentile O3 mixing ratio increased by 5 ppbv and the largest frequency increase occured in the 80–90 ppbv range; the US EPA's current 8-h ozone primary standard is 80 ppbv. The increased O3 chemical production is due to increases in: 1 natural isoprene emissions; 2 hydroperoxy radical concentrations resulting from increased water vapor concentrations; and, 3 NOx concentrations resulting from reduced PAN. The most substantial and statistically significant (p<0.05 increases in episode frequency occurred over the southeast and midatlantic U.S., largely as a result of 20% higher annual-average natural isoprene emissions. These results suggest a lengthening of the O3 season over the eastern U.S. in a future climate to include late spring and early fall months. Increased chemical production and shorter average lifetime are two consistent features of the seasonal response of surface O3, with increased dry deposition loss rates contributing most to the reduced lifetime in all seasons except summer. Significant interannual variability is observed in the frequency of O3

  14. Enlisting municipal governments in a national approach to clean air and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) and the Government of Canada have a shared commitment to improve environmental performance and protect the health of Canadians. Air pollution and climate change are also a shared responsibility among federal, municipal and provincial/territorial governments. Although they operate independently, their policies and programs tend to overlap. This is both costly and inefficient. In order to create synergies and leverage the role and potential of each level of government, the FCM proposed a national approach to clean air and climate change. The approach involves all levels of government in a nationally coordinated effort, with roles appropriate to their capacities. The municipal role in clean air and climate change action, roles and responsibilities of municipal governments, and guiding principles of a new Canadian approach were discussed in this document. Recommendations and next steps were also identified. They centred on the following themes: enhancing public transit, clean transportation and related infrastructure; improving commercial and residential building efficiency; stimulating ongoing productivity and pollution prevention within municipal operations through incentives and policies; enhancing clean energy; strengthened and enforceable air quality standards; emissions trading; climate change adaptation; public education and awareness; and demonstrating success and ensuring accountability. The document concluded that only a long-term intergovernmental partnership can meet the challenges posed by climate change and air pollution. FCM urged the Government of Canada to adopt an integrative and strategic approach to clean air and climate change by enlisting municipal governments as partners in both its development and implementation

  15. Managing for climate change on federal lands of the western United States: perceived usefulness of climate science, effectiveness of adaptation strategies, and barriers to implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry B. Kemp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent mandates in the United States require federal agencies to incorporate climate change science into land management planning efforts. These mandates target possible adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the degree to which climate change is actively being considered in agency planning and management decisions is largely unknown. We explored the usefulness of climate change science for federal resource managers, focusing on the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies and barriers limiting the use of climate change science in adaptation efforts. Our study was conducted in the northern Rocky Mountains region of the western United States, where we interacted with 77 U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management personnel through surveys, semistructured interviews, and four collaborative workshops at locations across Idaho and Montana. We used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate managers' perceptions about adapting to and mitigating for climate change. Although resource managers incorporate general language about climate change in regional and landscape-level planning documents, they are currently not planning on-the-ground adaptation or mitigation projects. However, managers felt that their organizations were most likely to adapt to climate change through use of existing management strategies that are already widely implemented for other non climate-related management goals. These existing strategies, (e.g., thinning and prescribed burning are perceived as more feasible than new climate-specific methods (e.g., assisted migration because they already have public and agency support, accomplish multiple goals, and require less anticipation of the future timing and probability of climate change impacts. Participants reported that the most common barriers to using climate change information included a lack of management-relevant climate change science, inconsistent agency guidance, and insufficient time and resources to access

  16. National measures required by the implementation of the climate convention and the Kyoto Protocol in Finland. Report by the Committee on National Climate Policy Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The task of the Committee was to develop the administrative framework for the national measures that the UN Climate Convention and the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol require in Finland. The Committee proposes that a ministerial working group should continue to act in the Government to draft and implement the climate policy, assisted by a contact network representing the central ministries. The Committee recommends that Finland should have a national climate strategy that would be updated at two or three year's intervals. The drafting, implementation and monitoring of the Climate Strategy should be under the steering of the ministerial working group. In drafting and implementation of the strategy, the responsible ministry would be the one whose minister is the Chairman of the ministerial working group. The evaluation reports on the impacts of policy measures reducing greenhouse gases would be drawn up as part of the strategy's implementation. The Ministry of Trade and Industry would coordinate the scenarios that examine greenhouse gas emissions and that are required by the climate policy in practice. The drafting of the scenarios would be steered by the ministerial working group assisted by a contact network Expert institutions would participate both in the drafting and implementation of the strategy and in the follow-up of the implementation by producing the necessary surveys. In the Committee's opinion, international climate negotiations should still be under the drafting responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment. The Committee suggests that Statistics Finland should be appointed as the inventory entity of greenhouse gases and that a temporary steering group chaired by the Ministry of the Environment, representing all the central ministries and expert institutes, should be set up to assist and steer the national system calculating greenhouse gas emissions. The initial distribution according to the proposal for an EC Directive on emissions trading

  17. Sensitivity of intermittent streams to climate variations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K.

    2015-12-01

    There is growing interest in the effects of climate change on streamflows because of the potential negative effects on aquatic biota and water supplies. Previous studies of climate controls on flows have primarily focused on perennial streams, and few studies have examined the effect of climate variability on intermittent streams. Our objectives in this study were to (1) identify regions showing similar patterns of intermittency, and (2) evaluate the sensitivity of intermittent streams to historical variability in climate in the United States. This study was carried out at 265 intermittent streams by evaluating: (1) correlations among time series of flow metrics (number of zero-flow events, the average of the central 50% and largest 10% of flows) with precipitation (magnitudes, durations and intensity) and temperature, and (2) decadal changes in the seasonality and long-term trends of these flow metrics. Results identified five distinct seasonal patterns of flow intermittency: fall, fall-to-winter, non-seasonal, summer, and summer-to-winter intermittent streams. In addition, strong associations between the low-flow metrics and historical climate variability were found. However, the lack of trends in historical variations in precipitation results in no significant seasonal shifts or decade-to-decade trends in the low-flow metrics over the period of record (1950 to 2013).

  18. Sensitivity of intermittent streams to climate variations in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K.; Wolock, D.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    There is a great deal of interest in streamflow changes caused by climate change because of the potential negative effects on aquatic biota and water supplies. Most previous studies have focused on perennial streams, and only a few studies have examined the effect of climate variability on intermittent streams. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of intermittent streams to historical variability in climate in the semi-arid regions of the western United States. This study was carried out at 45 intermittent streams that had a minimum of 45 years of daily-streamgage record by evaluating: (1) correlations among time series of flow metrics (number of zero-flow events, the average of the central 50% and largest 10% of flows) with climate, and (2) decadal changes in the seasonality and long-term trends of these flow metrics. Results showed strong associations between the low-flow metrics and historical changes in climate. The decadal analysis, in contrast, suggested no significant seasonal shifts or decade-to-decade trends in the low-flow metrics. The lack of trends or changes in seasonality is likely due to unchanged long-term patterns in precipitation over the time period examined.

  19. Building Capacity: The National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. These informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. After two years of project implementation, key findings include: 1. Importance of adaptive management - We continue to make ongoing changes in training format, content, and roles of facilitators and participants. 2. Impacts on interpreters - We have multiple lines of evidence for changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. 3. Social radiation - Trained interpreters have a significant influence on their friends, family and colleagues. 4. Visitor impacts - "Exposure to "strategically framed" interpretation does change visitors' perceptions about climate change. 5. Community of practice - We are seeing evidence of growing participation, leadership, and sustainability. 6. Diffusion of innovation - Peer networks are facilitating dissemination throughout the informal science education community. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education

  20. Climate change implications for wind power resources in the Northwest United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, David J.; Smith, Michael; Hart, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Using statistically downscaled output from four general circulation models (GCMs), we have investigated scenarios of climate change impacts on wind power generation potential in a five-state region within the Northwest United States (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming). All GCM simulations were extracted from the standardized set of runs created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Analysis of model runs for the 20th century (20c3m) simulations revealed that the direct output of wind statistics from these models is of relatively poor quality compared with observations at airport weather stations within each state. When the GCM output was statistically downscaled, the resulting estimates of current climate wind statistics are substantially better. Furthermore, in looking at the GCM wind statistics for two IPCC future climate scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES A1B and A2), there was significant disagreement in the direct model output from the four GCMs. When statistical downscaling was applied to the future climate simulations, a more coherent story unfolded related to the likely impact of climate change on the region's wind power resource. Specifically, the results suggest that summertime wind speeds in the Northwest may decrease by 5-10%, while wintertime wind speeds may decrease by relatively little, or possibly increase slightly. When these wind statistics are projected to typical turbine hub heights and nominal wind turbine power curves are applied, the impact of the climate change scenarios on wind power may be as high as a 40% reduction in summertime generation potential. (author)

  1. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  2. NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) Mean Layer Temperature, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains three channel-based, monthly gridded atmospheric layer temperature Climate Data Records generated by merging nine MSU NOAA polar orbiting...

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Climate Resiliency Planning Process and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brandenberger, Jill M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-22

    In 2015, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed its first Climate Resilience Plan for its Richland Campus. PNNL has performed Climate Resilience Planning for the Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy (DOE) over the past 5 years. The assessment team included climate scientists, social scientists, engineers, and operations managers. A multi-disciplinary team was needed to understand the potential exposures to future changes at the site, the state of the science on future impacts, and the best process for “mainstreaming” new actions into existing activities. The team uncovered that the site’s greatest vulnerabilities, and therefore priorities for climate resilience planning, are high temperature due to degraded infrastructure, increased wildfire frequency, and intense precipitation impacts on stormwater conveyance systems.

  4. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, R.; Fort, E.; Hartke-O'Berg, N.; Varela-Acevedo, E.; Padgett, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the USGS's National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) is to serve the scientific needs of managers of fish, wildlife, habitats, and ecosystems as they plan for a changing climate. DOI Climate Science Centers (CSCs) are management by NCCWSC and include this mission as a core responsibility, in line with the CSC mission to provide scientific support for climate-adaptation across a full range of natural and cultural resources. NCCWSC is a Science Center application designed in Drupal with the OMEGA theme. As a content management system, Drupal allows the science center to keep their website up-to-date with current publications, news, meetings and projects. OMEGA allows the site to be adaptive at different screen sizes and is developed on the 960 grid.

  5. Climate protection after Copenhagen. International instruments and national implementation. Proceedings; Klimaschutz nach Kopenhagen. Internationale Instrumente und nationale Umsetzung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Joerg; Lange, Knut Werner (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The publication contains the results of the First Bayreuth Energy Law Days on the subject of 'Climate Protection after Copenhagen'. Following the UN climate conference of December 2009, it presents the current state of discussion of the legal instruments of climate protection on an international, European and national level. (orig./RHM)

  6. A national benchmarking survey of student counselling centres/units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study further found that the majority of counselling centres/units had one or more staff members with specialised training in areas such as HIV/AIDS counselling, sexual abuse counselling and multicultural counselling. In 2007, these counselling centres/units saw on average 18 per cent of enrolled students as ...

  7. The National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McConnell, J. M

    2007-01-01

    .... Our adversaries -- foreign intelligence services, terrorists, foreign criminal enterprises and cyber intruders -- use overt, covert, and clandestine activities to exploit and undermine US national security interests...

  8. Leader reliance on subordinates across nations that differ in development and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Smith, P B

    How, where, and why do leaders follow the people they lead? An 84-nation analysis of survey responses from 19,525 managers shows that their reliance on subordinates depends on the level of wealth and development, and the harshness of cold or hot climates. In support of the thermal demands-resources

  9. Good Practice in Designing and Implementing National Monitoring Systems for Adaptation to Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naswa, Prakriti; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bouroncle, Claudia

    In this report, we identify, analyse and compare international good practices in the design and implementation of national monitoring and evaluating indicator systems for climate change adaptation. This first chapter provides an introduction to the context and key terminology in the domain...

  10. Responding to climate change in national forests: a guidebook for developing adaptation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Connie I. Millar; Linda A. Joyce; Michael J. Furniss; Jessica E. Halofsky; Ronald P. Neilson; Toni Lyn. Morelli

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook contains science-based principles, processes, and tools necessary to assist with developing adaptation options for national forest lands. The adaptation process is based on partnerships between local resource managers and scientists who work collaboratively to understand potential climate change effects, identify important resource issues, and develop...

  11. 78 FR 51711 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... public will not be able to dial into the call. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site for... prior to the meeting date. Special Accommodations: These meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for special accommodations may be directed no later than 12 p.m. on Tuesday...

  12. 77 FR 43574 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC); Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... check the National Climate Assessment Web site for additional information at http://www.globalchange.gov... date. Special Accommodations: These meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for special accommodations may be directed no later than 12 p.m. on Friday, August 10, 2012, to Dr...

  13. 77 FR 64491 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... One Veterans Place Silver Spring, MD 20910. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site for... meeting date. Special Accommodations: These meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for special accommodations may be directed no later than 12 p.m. on Friday, November 9, 2012, to...

  14. 78 FR 64481 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... public will not be able to dial into the call. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site for... prior to the meeting date. Special Accommodations: These meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for special accommodations may be directed no later than 12 p.m. on...

  15. 78 FR 21598 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... public will not be able to dial into the call. Please check the National Climate Assessment Web site for... meeting date. Special Accommodations: These meetings are physically accessible to people with disabilities. Requests for special accommodations may be directed no later than 12 p.m. on Monday, May 6, 2013 to Dr...

  16. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  17. New representative of the Director-General of the IAEA to the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives information about Mr. Kwaku Aning (Ghana) who was nominated as the Representative of the Director-General of the IAEA to the United Nations and as Director of its Office at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, USA, as of 1 February 2000

  18. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Knouft, J.; Ficklin, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of long-term observation data have revealed significant changes in several components of climate and the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States during the twentieth and early twenty-first century. Mean surface air temperatures have significantly increased in most areas of the country. In addition, water temperatures are increasing in many watersheds across the United States. While there are numerous studies assessing the impact of climate change on air temperatures at regional and global scales, fewer studies have investigated the impacts of climate change on stream water temperatures. Projecting increases in water temperature are particularly important to the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. To achieve better insights into attributes regulating population and community dynamics of aquatic biota at large spatial and temporal scales, we need to establish relationships between environmental heterogeneity and critical biological processes of stream ecosystems at these scales. Increases in stream temperatures caused by the doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide may result in a significant loss of fish habitat in the United States. Utilization of physically based hydrological-water temperature models is computationally demanding and can be onerous to many researchers who specialize in other disciplines. Using statistical techniques to analyze observational data from 1760 USGS stream temperature gages, our goal is to develop a simple yet accurate method to quantify the impacts of climate warming on stream water temperatures in a way that is practical for aquatic biologists, water and environmental management purposes, and conservation practitioners and policy-makers. Using an ensemble of five global climate models (GCMs), we estimate the potential impacts of climate change on stream temperatures within the contiguous United States based on recent trends. Stream temperatures are projected to increase across the US, but the magnitude of the

  19. National priorities list sites: The United States Territories, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the nation can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program

  20. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.