WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit objective specific

  1. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  2. Ranking Specific Sets of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jan; Woltran, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Ranking sets of objects based on an order between the single elements has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In particular, it has been shown that it is in general impossible to find a total ranking - jointly satisfying properties as dominance and independence - on the whole power set of objects. However, in many applications certain elements from the entire power set might not be required and can be neglected in the ranking process. For instance, certain sets might be ruled out due to hard constraints or are not satisfying some background theory. In this paper, we treat the computational problem whether an order on a given subset of the power set of elements satisfying different variants of dominance and independence can be found, given a ranking on the elements. We show that this problem is tractable for partial rankings and NP-complete for total rankings.

  3. Parallel object-oriented specification language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florescu, O.; Voeten, J.P.M.; Theelen, B.D.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Corporaal, H.; Burns, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The Parallel Object-Oriented Specification Language (POOSL) is an expressive modelling language for hardware/software systems [10]. It was originally defined in [7] as an object-oriented extension of process algebra CCS [6], supporting (conditional) synchronous message passing between

  4. Object specific reconstruction using compressively sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2008-01-01

    Compressed sensing holds the promise for radically novel sensors that can perfectly reconstruct images using considerably less samples of data than required by the otherwise general Shannon sampling theorem. In surveillance systems however, it is also desirable to cue regions of the image where objects of interest may exist. Thus in this paper, we are interested in imaging interesting objects in a scene, without necessarily seeking perfect reconstruction of the whole image. We show that our goals are achieved by minimizing a modified L2-norm criterion with good results when the reconstruction of only specific objects is of interest. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Objects can be meaningfully sensed in considerable detail while heavily compressing the scene elsewhere. Essentially, this embeds the object detection and clutter discrimination function in the sensing and imaging process.

  5. Cockpit management and Specific Behavioral Objectives (SBOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary tools used to accomplish the task of effective training is the specific behavioral objective (SBO). An SBO is simply a statement which specifically identifies a small segment of the final behavior sought, and a little more. The key word is specific. The company pinpoints exactly what it is it wants the pilot to do after completing training, and what it should evaluate from the point of view of both the program and the pilot. It tells the junior crewmember exactly, specifically, what he should monitor and support insofar as the management function is concerned. It gives greater meaning to the term second in command. And finally, it tells the supervisory pilot exactly what he should observe, evaluate, and instruct, insofar as the management function is concerned.

  6. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  7. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. The Reviewing of Object Files: Object-Specific Integration of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Seven experiments involving a total of 203 college students explored a form of object-specific priming and established a robust object-specific benefit that indicates that a new stimulus will be named faster if it physically matches a previous stimulus seen as part of the same perceptual object. (SLD)

  10. Object marking in Swahili: Definiteness, specificity, or both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the role of object marking in relation to definiteness and specificity in Swahili. Object marking in general has attracted the attention of many scholars in the field of Bantu linguistics due to the complex nature of object markers (OMs) and varying functions they fulfil in Bantu. Opinions differ on the role of ...

  11. General object recognition is specific: Evidence from novel and familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Gauthier, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    In tests of object recognition, individual differences typically correlate modestly but nontrivially across familiar categories (e.g. cars, faces, shoes, birds, mushrooms). In theory, these correlations could reflect either global, non-specific mechanisms, such as general intelligence (IQ), or more specific mechanisms. Here, we introduce two separate methods for effectively capturing category-general performance variation, one that uses novel objects and one that uses familiar objects. In each case, we show that category-general performance variance is unrelated to IQ, thereby implicating more specific mechanisms. The first approach examines three newly developed novel object memory tests (NOMTs). We predicted that NOMTs would exhibit more shared, category-general variance than familiar object memory tests (FOMTs) because novel objects, unlike familiar objects, lack category-specific environmental influences (e.g. exposure to car magazines or botany classes). This prediction held, and remarkably, virtually none of the substantial shared variance among NOMTs was explained by IQ. Also, while NOMTs correlated nontrivially with two FOMTs (faces, cars), these correlations were smaller than among NOMTs and no larger than between the face and car tests themselves, suggesting that the category-general variance captured by NOMTs is specific not only relative to IQ, but also, to some degree, relative to both face and car recognition. The second approach averaged performance across multiple FOMTs, which we predicted would increase category-general variance by averaging out category-specific factors. This prediction held, and as with NOMTs, virtually none of the shared variance among FOMTs was explained by IQ. Overall, these results support the existence of object recognition mechanisms that, though category-general, are specific relative to IQ and substantially separable from face and car recognition. They also add sensitive, well-normed NOMTs to the tools available to study

  12. Object-Oriented Approach to Modeling Units of Pneumatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kyurdzhiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the relevance of the approaches to the object-oriented programming when modeling the pneumatic units (PU.Based on the analysis of the calculation schemes of aggregates pneumatic systems two basic objects, namely a cavity flow and a material point were highlighted.Basic interactions of objects are defined. Cavity-cavity interaction: ex-change of matter and energy with the flows of mass. Cavity-point interaction: force interaction, exchange of energy in the form of operation. Point-point in-teraction: force interaction, elastic interaction, inelastic interaction, and inter-vals of displacement.The authors have developed mathematical models of basic objects and interactions. Models and interaction of elements are implemented in the object-oriented programming.Mathematical models of elements of PU design scheme are implemented in derived from the base class. These classes implement the models of flow cavity, piston, diaphragm, short channel, diaphragm to be open by a given law, spring, bellows, elastic collision, inelastic collision, friction, PU stages with a limited movement, etc.A numerical integration of differential equations for the mathematical models of PU design scheme elements is based on the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. On request each class performs a tact of integration i.e. calcu-lation of the coefficient method.The paper presents an integration algorithm of the system of differential equations. All objects of the PU design scheme are placed in a unidirectional class list. Iterator loop cycle initiates the integration tact of all the objects in the list. One in four iteration makes a transition to the next step of integration. Calculation process stops when any object shows a shutdowns flag.The proposed approach was tested in the calculation of a number of PU designs. With regard to traditional approaches to modeling, the authors-proposed method features in easy enhancement, code reuse, high reliability

  13. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  14. Supporting an Object-Oriented Approach to Unit Generator Development: The Csound Plugin Opcode Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lazzarini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new framework for unit generator development for Csound, supporting a full object-oriented programming approach. It introduces the concept of unit generators and opcodes, and its centrality with regards to music programming languages in general, and Csound in specific. The layout of an opcode from the perspective of the Csound C-language API is presented, with some outline code examples. This is followed by a discussion which places the unit generator within the object-oriented paradigm and the motivation for a full C++ programming support, which is provided by the Csound Plugin Opcode Framework (CPOF. The design of CPOF is then explored in detail, supported by several opcode examples. The article concludes by discussing two key applications of object-orientation and their respective instances in the Csound code base.

  15. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  16. Spanish Tourist Behaviour: A Specific Objective-base Segmantation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Pablo Rodríguez; Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This work uses data from the Spanish Tourism Demand Segments Survey (N=6900) conducted by the IESA-CSIC for Turismo Andaluz, SA. The objective of the paper is to develop a statistical segmentation or typology of Spanish tourists based on objective aspects of tourist behaviour measured in the survey including destinations visited, theme of the trip, lodging, transportation and travel group. Initial categorical data are reduced using multiple correspondence analysis and grouped through cluster ...

  17. A Bayesian alternative for multi-objective ecohydrological model specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yating; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish; Ajami, Hoori

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have identified the importance of vegetation processes in terrestrial hydrologic systems. Process-based ecohydrological models combine hydrological, physical, biochemical and ecological processes of the catchments, and as such are generally more complex and parametric than conceptual hydrological models. Thus, appropriate calibration objectives and model uncertainty analysis are essential for ecohydrological modeling. In recent years, Bayesian inference has become one of the most popular tools for quantifying the uncertainties in hydrological modeling with the development of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. The Bayesian approach offers an appealing alternative to traditional multi-objective hydrologic model calibrations by defining proper prior distributions that can be considered analogous to the ad-hoc weighting often prescribed in multi-objective calibration. Our study aims to develop appropriate prior distributions and likelihood functions that minimize the model uncertainties and bias within a Bayesian ecohydrological modeling framework based on a traditional Pareto-based model calibration technique. In our study, a Pareto-based multi-objective optimization and a formal Bayesian framework are implemented in a conceptual ecohydrological model that combines a hydrological model (HYMOD) and a modified Bucket Grassland Model (BGM). Simulations focused on one objective (streamflow/LAI) and multiple objectives (streamflow and LAI) with different emphasis defined via the prior distribution of the model error parameters. Results show more reliable outputs for both predicted streamflow and LAI using Bayesian multi-objective calibration with specified prior distributions for error parameters based on results from the Pareto front in the ecohydrological modeling. The methodology implemented here provides insight into the usefulness of multiobjective Bayesian calibration for ecohydrologic systems and the importance of appropriate prior

  18. Investigation of some specific industry objects effect on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, M.; Mukhamedshina, N. M.; Mirsagatova, A. A.; Norboev, N.; Amanov, M.; Baynazarov, B.; Khushvaktov, T.

    2001-01-01

    Such industry objects as metallurgical works, chemical fertilizers manufacture, automobile industry and others are contribute to contaminate an environment. For example, it is known, that aluminum factories throw out in an environment fluorine hydride, solid fluorides, nitrogen dioxide, sulpher dioxide, hydrocarbons, ions of heavy metals and others. For comparison of harmful action of various industrial objects on plants we had investigate some leaves and seed of plants grown in areas of Tadjik aluminum factory, Chirchik works of heatproof and refractory metals, Asaka automobile works and Tashkent nuclear reactor action. Investigations were conduct by nuclear techniques and by physical and agrotechnical ethods. The alternative methods have been used by Tashkent state agrarian university. High sensitive and reliable multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray radiometric techniques for determination of 27 elements in plant have been developed in the Institute of nuclear physics (INP)

  19. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A.; Kilby, W.

    2007-01-01

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  20. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A. [Inst. for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Kilby, W. [Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  1. Object-Based Attention on Social Units: Visual Selection of Hands Performing a Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Duan, Jipeng; Shen, Mowei

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, objects of attention are characterized either as full-fledged entities or either as elements grouped by Gestalt principles. Because humans appear to use social groups as units to explain social activities, we proposed that a socially defined group, according to social interaction information, would also be a possible object of attentional selection. This hypothesis was examined using displays with and without handshaking interactions. Results demonstrated that object-based attention, which was measured by an object-specific attentional advantage (i.e., shorter response times to targets on a single object), was extended to two hands performing a handshake but not to hands that did not perform meaningful social interactions, even when they did perform handshake-like actions. This finding cannot be attributed to the familiarity of the frequent co-occurrence of two handshaking hands. Hence, object-based attention can select a grouped object whose parts are connected within a meaningful social interaction. This finding implies that object-based attention is constrained by top-down information.

  2. The main objectives of lifetime management of reactor unit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Y.; Kurakov, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of the work concerned with life management of reactor components in Russian Federation are as follows: development of regulations in the field of NPP components ageing and lifetime management; investigations of ageing processes; residual life evaluation taking into account the actual state of NPP systems, real loading conditions and number of load cycles, results of in-service inspections; development and implementation of measures for maintaining/enhancing the NPP safety

  3. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  4. Deformation-specific and deformation-invariant visual object recognition: pose vs identity recognition of people and deforming objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan J Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When we see a human sitting down, standing up, or walking, we can recognise one of these poses independently of the individual, or we can recognise the individual person, independently of the pose. The same issues arise for deforming objects. For example, if we see a flag deformed by the wind, either blowing out or hanging languidly, we can usually recognise the flag, independently of its deformation; or we can recognise the deformation independently of the identity of the flag. We hypothesize that these types of recognition can be implemented by the primate visual system using temporo-spatial continuity as objects transform as a learning principle. In particular, we hypothesize that pose or deformation can be learned under conditions in which large numbers of different people are successively seen in the same pose, or objects in the same deformation. We also hypothesize that person-specific representations that are independent of pose, and object-specific representations that are independent of deformation and view, could be built, when individual people or objects are observed successively transforming from one pose or deformation and view to another. These hypotheses were tested in a simulation of the ventral visual system, VisNet, that uses temporal continuity, implemented in a synaptic learning rule with a short-term memory trace of previous neuronal activity, to learn invariant representations. It was found that depending on the statistics of the visual input, either pose-specific or deformation-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to individual and view; or that identity-specific representations could be built that were invariant with respect to pose or deformation and view. We propose that this is how pose-specific and pose-invariant, and deformation-specific and deformation-invariant, perceptual representations are built in the brain.

  5. Material specification for ductile cast iron in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The United States currently does not have formal design criteria for qualifying ductile cast iron (DCI) transportation casks. There is also no dedicated material standard for DCI for this particular application. A draft ASTM material specification has been written and is currently in the ASTM approval process. This paper reviews the brief history of the development of the specification, the technical basis for the material properties, the ASTM approval process and the current status of the draft specification. The expected implications of having an adopted ASTM specification on the licensing process are also discussed. (orig./DG)

  6. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafigh, M.; Mirzaeian, M.; Najafi, B.; Rinaldi, F.; Marchesi, R.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, a humidification-dehumidification desalination unit integrated with solar system is considered. In the first step mathematical model of the whole plant is represented. Next, taking into account the logical constraints, the performance of the system is optimized. On one hand it is desired to have higher energetic efficiency, while on the other hand, higher efficiency results in an increment in the required area for each subsystem which consequently leads to an increase in the total cost of the plant. In the present work, the optimum solution is achieved when the specific energy of the solar heater and also the areas of humidifier and dehumidifier are minimized. Due to the fact that considered objective functions are in conflict, conventional optimization methods are not applicable. Hence, multi objective optimization using genetic algorithm which is an efficient tool for dealing with problems with conflicting objectives has been utilized and a set of optimal solutions called Pareto front each of which is a tradeoff between the mentioned objectives is generated.

  7. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units, Stressed Skin Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    Complete outline specifications are given for the construction of supplementary classroom units using stressed skin panels. Sections included are--(1) concrete and related work, (2) masonry, (3) structural and miscellaneous metal, (4) curtain walls and metal windows, (5) carpentry and related work, (6) roofing, sheet metal, and related work, (7)…

  8. Material specification for ductile cast iron in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    The United States currently does not have formal design criteria for qualifying ductile cast iron (DCI) transportation casks. There is also no dedicated material standard for DCI for this particular application. Recognizing the importance of a material standard for this application, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, in a report to the NRC, recommended that steps be taken to develop an ASTM material specification suitable for spent fuel shipping containers. A draft ASTM material specification has been written and is currently in the ASTM approval process. This paper reviews the brief history of the development of the specification, the technical basis for the material properties, the ASTM approval process and the current status of the draft specification. The expected implications of having an adopted ASTM specification on the licensing process are also discussed. The relationship of fracture toughness to composition, microstructure and tensile properties has been evaluated at Sandia National Laboratories. The first main conclusion reached is that static fracture toughness is essentially decoupled from tensile properties such as yield strength, tensile strength and ductility. The significance of this finding is that tensile properties provided for in existing DCI specifications should not be used as an indicator of a material's ability to resist crack initiation. A material specification which includes fracture toughness requirements is needed to address the brittle fracture concerns. Second, static fracture toughness was found to correlate well with material microstructure; specifically, graphite nodule count or nodule spacing

  9. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    a computerized test designed to assess pilot skills by measuring spatial orientation and psychomotor skills and multitasking . The second is the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0028 Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America Joe...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America 5a. CONTRACT

  10. Do overarching mitigation objectives dominate transport-specific targets in the EU?

    OpenAIRE

    GHERSI , Frédéric; Mcdonnell , Simon; Sassi , Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This research investigates if the stringent 2020 and 2050 overarching CO2 mitigation objectives set out by the European Union dominate its 2010 to 2020 targets specific to the transportation arena, specifically its biofuel penetration objectives and gram CO2 per kilometre emission caps. Using a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model, IMACLIM-R, we demonstrate that these overarching targets do not dominate the interim transportation targets when the carbon policy t...

  11. Search and Retrieval of Foreign Objects for the Steam Generator of Wolsung NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We developed a foreign object search and retrieval (FOSAR) system for Wolsung NPP unit 1 steam generators. The steam generators of Wolsung NPP unit 1 have one 2.5 inch hand hole and two 4 inch hand holes. The FOSAR system was designed to be installed through 4 inch hand holes. Using permanent magnet, the FOSAR system was firmly attached to the vertical annulus wall of the steam generator. We successfully developed the FOSAR system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. Using the developed FOSAR system, technicians successfully found and removed various foreign objects. Most of the foreign objects, we found, were made of carbon steel sheet, therefore magnet tool was the most useful to remove it. Alligator tool was sometimes used. Based on the experience during the FOSAR activities, we are developing a lancing system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. It will be designed and manufactured until November 2016

  12. Search and Retrieval of Foreign Objects for the Steam Generator of Wolsung NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Ho [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We developed a foreign object search and retrieval (FOSAR) system for Wolsung NPP unit 1 steam generators. The steam generators of Wolsung NPP unit 1 have one 2.5 inch hand hole and two 4 inch hand holes. The FOSAR system was designed to be installed through 4 inch hand holes. Using permanent magnet, the FOSAR system was firmly attached to the vertical annulus wall of the steam generator. We successfully developed the FOSAR system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. Using the developed FOSAR system, technicians successfully found and removed various foreign objects. Most of the foreign objects, we found, were made of carbon steel sheet, therefore magnet tool was the most useful to remove it. Alligator tool was sometimes used. Based on the experience during the FOSAR activities, we are developing a lancing system for Wolsung NPP unit 1. It will be designed and manufactured until November 2016.

  13. Evaluation of River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the River Bend T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The River Bend Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  14. Evaluation of Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Perry T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through telephone conversations with the staff reviewer and the utility representative. Pending completion of the resolutions noted in Parts 3 and 4 of this report, the Perry Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  15. Evaluation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumption of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Watts Bar T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  16. Evaluation of Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Shoreham T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Shoreham Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  17. Evaluation of Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-09-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Waterford T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved by the cognizant NRC reviewer. Pending completion of the resolutions noted in Part 3 of this report, the Waterford Steam Electric Station Unit 3 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  18. Linking actions and objects: Context-specific learning of novel weight priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2017-06-01

    Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention. To investigate these questions we compared the adaptability of weight predictions used when lifting objects and judging their weights in different groups of participants who experienced size-weight inverted objects passively (with the objects placed on the hands) or actively (where participants lift the objects) under full or divided attention. To assess weight judgments we measured the size-weight illusion after every 20 trials of experience with the inverted objects both passively and actively. The attenuation of the illusion that arises when lifting inverted object was found to be context-specific such that the attenuation was larger when the mode of interaction with the inverted objects matched the method of assessment of the illusion. Dividing attention during interaction with the inverted objects had no effect on attenuation of the illusion, but did slow the rate at which lifting forces were scaled to the weight inverted objects. These findings suggest that the brain stores multiple representations of priors that are context specific, and that focused attention is important for scaling lifting forces, but not for updating weight predictions used when judging object weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  20. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  1. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianni, Vito; López-Ibáñez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled). However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i) allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii) supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii) avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv) solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.

  2. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Trianni

    Full Text Available The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled. However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.

  3. Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, T; Spinks, R L; Umilta, M A; Lemon, R N

    2004-09-01

    During object grasp, a coordinated activation of distal muscles is required to shape the hand in relation to the physical properties of the object. Despite the fundamental importance of the grasping action, little is known of the muscular activation patterns that allow objects of different sizes and shapes to be grasped. In a study of two adult macaque monkeys, we investigated whether we could distinguish between EMG activation patterns associated with grasp of 12 differently shaped objects, chosen to evoke a wide range of grasping postures. Each object was mounted on a horizontal shuttle held by a weak spring (load force 1-2 N). Objects were located in separate sectors of a "carousel," and inter-trial rotation of the carousel allowed sequential presentation of the objects in pseudorandom order. EMG activity from 10 to 12 digit, hand, and arm muscles was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes. We show that the grasp of different objects was characterized by complex but distinctive patterns of EMG activation. Cluster analysis shows that these object-related EMG patterns were specific and consistent enough to identify the object unequivocally from the EMG recordings alone. EMG-based object identification required a minimum of six EMGs from simultaneously recorded muscles. EMG patterns were consistent across recording sessions in a given monkey but showed some differences between animals. These results identify the specific patterns of activity required to achieve distinct hand postures for grasping, and they open the way to our understanding of how these patterns are generated by the central motor network.

  4. What are the underlying units of perceived animacy? Chasing detection is intrinsically object-based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buren, Benjamin; Gao, Tao; Scholl, Brian J

    2017-10-01

    One of the most foundational questions that can be asked about any visual process is the nature of the underlying 'units' over which it operates (e.g., features, objects, or spatial regions). Here we address this question-for the first time, to our knowledge-in the context of the perception of animacy. Even simple geometric shapes appear animate when they move in certain ways. Do such percepts arise whenever any visual feature moves appropriately, or do they require that the relevant features first be individuated as discrete objects? Observers viewed displays in which one disc (the "wolf") chased another (the "sheep") among several moving distractor discs. Critically, two pairs of discs were also connected by visible lines. In the Unconnected condition, both lines connected pairs of distractors; but in the Connected condition, one connected the wolf to a distractor, and the other connected the sheep to a different distractor. Observers in the Connected condition were much less likely to describe such displays using mental state terms. Furthermore, signal detection analyses were used to explore the objective ability to discriminate chasing displays from inanimate control displays in which the wolf moved toward the sheep's mirror-image. Chasing detection was severely impaired on Connected trials: observers could readily detect an object chasing another object, but not a line-end chasing another line-end, a line-end chasing an object, or an object chasing a line-end. We conclude that the underlying units of perceived animacy are discrete visual objects.

  5. Do overarching mitigation objectives dominate transport-specific targets in the EU?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghersi, Frédéric; McDonnell, Simon; Sassi, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates if the stringent 2020 and 2050 overarching CO 2 mitigation objectives set out by the European Union dominate its 2010 to 2020 targets specific to the transportation arena, specifically its biofuel penetration objectives and gram CO 2 per kilometre emission caps. Using a dynamic recursive general equilibrium model, IMACLIM-R, we demonstrate that these overarching targets do not dominate the interim transportation targets when the carbon policy triggering compliance with the mitigation objectives boils down to the theoretical least-cost option of uniform carbon pricing. Ground transportation is confirmed as quite insensitive to high carbon prices, even when such prices are applied over a long term. It is tempting to conclude that pursuing the mitigation objectives specific to transportation will impose unnecessary costs. However, because of the second best conditions prevailing in actual economies, and of the risk of lock-in in carbon intensive trajectories, we conclude with the urgent need for some ambitious transport-specific policy design research agenda. - Highlights: ► We review the European Union’s climate and transportation policy. ► We describe the IMACLIM-R model and how it represents transport. ► We develop an EU carbon pricing scenario that meets its aggregate CO 2 targets. ► This does not require meeting biofuel nor g/km 2010 to 2020 objectives. ► We conclude on the policy implications of this apparent inefficiency

  6. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkx, H.; Iedema, P.; Reissland, B.; van Velzen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  7. Multi-Objective Optimization of Start-up Strategy for Pumped Storage Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiao Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method for the start-up strategy of pumped storage units (PSU for the first time. In the multi-objective optimization method, the speed rise time and the overshoot during the process of the start-up are taken as the objectives. A precise simulation platform is built for simulating the transient process of start-up, and for calculating the objectives based on the process. The Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MOPSO is adopted to optimize the widely applied start-up strategies based on one-stage direct guide vane control (DGVC, and two-stage DGVC. Based on the Pareto Front obtained, a multi-objective decision-making method based on the relative objective proximity is used to sort the solutions in the Pareto Front. Start-up strategy optimization for a PSU of a pumped storage power station in Jiangxi Province in China is conducted in experiments. The results show that: (1 compared with the single objective optimization, the proposed multi-objective optimization of start-up strategy not only greatly shortens the speed rise time and the speed overshoot, but also makes the speed curve quickly stabilize; (2 multi-objective optimization of strategy based on two-stage DGVC achieves better solution for a quick and smooth start-up of PSU than that of the strategy based on one-stage DGVC.

  8. Specific and Class Object Recognition for Service Robots through Autonomous and Interactive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Service robots need to be able to recognize and identify objects located within complex backgrounds. Since no single method may work in every situation, several methods need to be combined and robots have to select the appropriate one automatically. In this paper we propose a scheme to classify situations depending on the characteristics of the object of interest and user demand. We classify situations into four groups and employ different techniques for each. We use Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) in conjunction with Support Vector Machine (SVM) using intensity, color, and Gabor features for five object categories. We show that the use of appropriate features is important for the use of KPCA and SVM based techniques on different kinds of objects. Through experiments we show that by using our categorization scheme a service robot can select an appropriate feature and method, and considerably improve its recognition performance. Yet, recognition is not perfect. Thus, we propose to combine the autonomous method with an interactive method that allows the robot to recognize the user request for a specific object and class when the robot fails to recognize the object. We also propose an interactive way to update the object model that is used to recognize an object upon failure in conjunction with the user's feedback.

  9. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  10. The specifics of the Russian market of confectionery: subject-object certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsarenko Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of the Russian confectionery market. Determining the specificity of the market in Russia, identified and examined the components of this market with the help of subject - object orientation. As well as the actuality of considering new approaches to promote sales of confectionery products.

  11. Multi-objective unit commitment with wind penetration and emission concerns under stochastic and fuzzy uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuming; Zhou, Xianzhong; Watada, Junzo

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the ever increasing renewable penetration in power generation systems, which entails modern unit commitment problems with modelling and computation burdens. This study aims to simulate the impacts of manifold uncertainties on system operation with emission concerns. First, probability theory and fuzzy set theory are applied to jointly represent the uncertainties such as wind generation, load fluctuation and unit outage that interleaved in unit commitment problems. Second, a Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective approach is developed as a bridge of existing stochastic and robust unit commitment optimizations, which not only captures the inherent conflict between operation cost and supply reliability, but also provides easy-to-adjust robustness against worst-case scenarios. Third, a multi-objective algorithm that integrates fuzzy simulation and particle swarm optimization is developed to achieve approximate Pareto-optimal solutions. The research effectiveness is exemplified by two case studies: The comparison between test systems with and without generation uncertainty demonstrates that this study is practicable and can suggest operational insights of generation mix systems. The sensitivity analysis on Value-at-Risk proves that our method can achieve adequate tradeoff between performance optimality and robustness, thus help system operators in making informed decisions. Finally, the model and algorithm comparisons also justify the superiority of this research. - Highlights: • Probability theory and fuzzy set theory are used to describe different uncertainties. • A Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective unit commitment model is proposed. • An improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed. • The model achieves adequate trade-off between performance optimality and robustness. • The algorithm can obtain convergent and diversified Pareto fronts.

  12. Sludge Removal and Retrieval of Foreign Object in SG of Kori Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Wootae; Kim, Sangtae; Kim, Youngkug; Kang, Seokchul

    2014-01-01

    Sludge deposit was removed and foreign objects were inspected and retrieved on secondary side tube sheet of the SG during January 23 and February 22, April 15 and 27 in 2013. FOLAS-I lancing system, video probe and retrieval tools were used for lancing and foreign object removal respectively. Operators of the lancing system participated in mock-up training before doing the service to minimize operation time and radiation dose. Foreign objects were searched on top of 7 th TSP (tube support plate), on annulus and in tube bundle. Four objects were found and removed on annulus and in tube bundle. During the 21 st OH of Kori NPP unit 4, we removed 345.9 kilo gram of sludge and four foreign objects from three steam generators. Foreign objects which were removed from inside of SG showed us that relatively large object such as the hooked bolt might exists in steam generators. We can conclude that identifying and removing foreign object is very important to avoid possible tube failure. Removing circular metal of 152.4 gram also was successfully removed

  13. Working memory units are all in your head: Factors that influence whether features or objects are the favored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-09-01

    We compared two contrasting hypotheses of how multifeatured objects are stored in visual working memory (vWM); as integrated objects or as independent features. A new procedure was devised to examine vWM representations of several concurrently held objects and their features and our main measure was reaction time (RT), allowing an examination of the real-time search through features and/or objects in an array in vWM. Response speeds to probes with color, shape, or both were studied as a function of the number of memorized colored shapes. Four testing groups were created by varying the instructions and the way in which probes with both color and shape were presented. The instructions explicitly either encouraged or discouraged the use of binding information and the task-relevance of binding information was further suggested by presenting probes with both color and shapes as either integrated objects or independent features. Our results show that the unit used for retrieval from vWM depends on the testing situation. Search was fully object-based only when all factors support that basis of search, in which case retrieving 2 features took no longer than retrieving a single feature. Otherwise, retrieving 2 features took longer than retrieving a single feature. Additional analyses of change detection latency suggested that, even though different testing situations can result in a stronger emphasis on either the feature dimension or the object dimension, neither one disappears from the representation and both concurrently affect change detection performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Easton, E.P.; Coodk, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic-flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects, (DOT/NRC, 1997). These logic-flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the U.S. regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic-flow diagrams adapted in the IAEA regulations, and demonstrated how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements. (authors)

  15. The USL NASA PC R and D project: Detailed specifications of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    The specifications for a number of projects which are to be implemented within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC R and D Project are discussed. The goals and objectives of the PC development project and the interrelationships of the various components are discussed. Six projects are described. They are a NASA/RECON simulator, a user interface to multiple remote information systems, evaluation of various personal computer systems, statistical analysis software development, interactive presentation system development, and the development of a distributed processing environment. The relationships of these projects to one another and to the goals and objectives of the overall project are discussed.

  16. A Conceptual Model for Delineating Land Management Units (LMUs Using Geographical Object-Based Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Gerçek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land management and planning is crucial for present and future use of land and the sustainability of land resources. Physical, biological and cultural characteristics of land can be used to define Land Management Units (LMUs that aid in decision making for managing land and communicating information between different research and application domains. This study aims to describe the classification of ecologically relevant land units that are suitable for land management, planning and conservation purposes. Relying on the idea of strong correlation between landform and potential landcover, a conceptual model for creating Land Management Units (LMUs from topographic data and biophysical information is presented. The proposed method employs a multi-level object-based classification of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs to derive landform units. The sensitivity of landform units to changes in segmentation scale is examined, and the outcome of the landform classification is evaluated. Landform classes are then aggregated with landcover information to produce ecologically relevant landform/landcover assemblages. These conceptual units that constitute a framework of connected entities are finally enriched given available socio-economic information e.g., land use, ownership, protection status, etc. to generate LMUs. LMUs attached to a geographic database enable the retrieval of information at various levels to support decision making for land management at various scales. LMUs that are created present a basis for conservation and management in a biodiverse area in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  17. Passive UHF RFID Tags with Specific Printed Antennas for Dielectric and Metallic Objects Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Siakavara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Design process and respective results for the synthesis of specific Radiofrequency Identification(RFID tag antennas, suitable for dielectric and metallic objects, are presented. The antennas were designed for the UHF(865MHz-869MHz band and their basic configuration is that of the printed spiral type. Six modification steps to the classical spiral layout are proposed and it was proved that they can lead to tags with high readability and reading distances up to 10m when designed for dielectric object and up to 7m in the case of metallic objects. The results of the measurements of the fabricated tags are explained via theoretical evaluations which take into account reflection phenomena, that are present in a real environment at which the tags are used.

  18. Object instance recognition using motion cues and instance specific appearance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Arne

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present an object instance retrieval approach. The baseline approach consists of a pool of image features which are computed on the bounding boxes of a query object track and compared to a database of tracks in order to find additional appearances of the same object instance. We improve over this simple baseline approach in multiple ways: 1) we include motion cues to achieve improved robustness to viewpoint and rotation changes, 2) we include operator feedback to iteratively re-rank the resulting retrieval lists and 3) we use operator feedback and location constraints to train classifiers and learn an instance specific appearance model. We use these classifiers to further improve the retrieval results. The approach is evaluated on two popular public datasets for two different applications. We evaluate person re-identification on the CAVIAR shopping mall surveillance dataset and vehicle instance recognition on the VIVID aerial dataset and achieve significant improvements over our baseline results.

  19. Multiple containment for LSA [low specific activity] and SCO [surface contaminated objects] wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Radioactive wastes are generally transported in the form of Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). This report proposes that a method of acknowledging the beneficial effects of multiple containment for such wastes should be written into the 1996 Edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations. Experience used to assess risks from on-site movements of radioactive material in the UK can be applied to develop safety arguments justifying the alleviation of off-site transport risks. (UK)

  20. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  1. Specific aspects for Cernavoda - Unit 1 NPP life assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucareanu, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The main scope of a Plant Life Management Program is to operate the NPP in a safe manner and at a competitive cost during the reactor life. To achieve this goal, it is important to continuously evaluate the degradation of the main structures and components of the NPP. Background -Cernavoda NPP design life is 30 years. Compared with this target, the operation history is not long (Unit 1 is in commercial operation since 1997). It is still important to begin a plant life management program early to identify the critical components and structures, to establish the data needed for their monitoring and to find methods to mitigate their degradation. A specific aspect for Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1 is the long delay between the fabrication of the main components and the start-up. Most components were procured 10-15 years before start-up. First criticality was achieved in 1996, but the containment perimeter wall sliding was complete in 1983, the Calandria vessel was installed in 1985, the Steam Generators were in position in 1987, the fuel channels were installed in 1989. In evaluating the history of these components, the preservation period must be observed. For Unit 2, which will be in service around 2005, the delay will be longer. For this reason, CNCAN (the Romanian Regulatory Authority) imposed, as a condition to resume the work, to evaluate the ageing of the existing components and structures in order to establish their acceptability for use in the plant. The results of this evaluation can be used as references for subsequent evaluations. Plant Life Assurance Programme - The first step of a PLIM programme is to identify the components and structures that are important for the plant life management. Critical components and structures selection is done using the following criteria: safety criteria - components and structures whose failure can cause a release of radioactivity or which have to mitigate the release of radioactivity in case of a failure of other

  2. A Cross-cultural Comparison of Objectivity in Childhood Games: Iran and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarpour, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Games have been introduced as a means for studying cross-cultural differences and societies. This paper presents a case study in analogous games played by children in two different countries with two different cultures - Iran and the United States. Four examples are presented to demonstrate that games played by Iranian children are subject to less objectivity in their rules. Therefore, nonobjectivity may be a phenomenon that has roots in the society and the many differences between the two societies may very well be the results of this fundamental difference. If the presence of objectivity in childhood game rules could be, in actuality, indicative of objectivity in social and civil interactions in the everyday lives of the people, the direction of causality remains to be established. In other words, it remains unclear whether the games influence the culture or are influenced by the mandates of the society.

  3. Assessment of Psychophysiological Response and Specific Fine Motor Skills in Combat Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2018-03-02

    Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation. A combat simulation provokes an alteration of the psycho-physiological basal state in soldiers and a great unbalance in the sympathetic-vagal interaction. The specific training of Light Infantry unit involves lower metabolic, cardiovascular, and anxiogenic response not only previous, but mainly after a combat maneuver, than Heavy Infantry unit's. No differences were found in relation with fine motor skills, improving in both cases after the maneuver. This fact should be taken into account for betterment units´ deployment preparation in current theaters of operations.

  4. Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance with 10 CFR 61 Performance Objectives - 12179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, C.J.; Esh, D.W.; Yadav, P.; Carrera, A.G. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations at 10 CFR Part 61 to require low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives in Subpart C. The amendments would require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses for protection of the public and inadvertent intruders as well as analyses for long-lived waste. The amendments would ensure protection of public health and safety, while providing flexibility to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, for current and potential future waste streams. NRC staff intends to submit proposed rule language and associated regulatory basis to the Commission for its approval in early 2012. The NRC staff also intends to develop associated guidance to accompany any proposed amendments. The guidance is intended to supplement existing low-level radioactive waste guidance on issues pertinent to conducting site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. The guidance will facilitate implementation of the proposed amendments by licensees and assist competent regulatory authorities in reviewing the site-specific analyses. Specifically, the guidance provides staff recommendations on general considerations for the site-specific analyses, modeling issues for assessments to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives including the performance assessment, intruder assessment, stability assessment, and analyses for long-lived waste. This paper describes the technical basis for changes to the rule language and the proposed guidance associated with implementation of the rule language. The NRC staff, per Commission direction, intends to propose amendments to 10 CFR Part 61 to require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with performance objectives for the protection of public health and the environment. The amendments would require a

  5. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yaïr; Sligte, Ilja G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-08-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to unveil the functional underpinnings of this memory storage. We found that FM is only completely erased when the new visual scene appears at the same location and consists of the same objects as the to-be-recalled information. This result has two important implications: First, it shows that FM is an object- and location-specific store, and second, it suggests that FM might be used in everyday life when the presentation of visual information is appropriately designed.

  6. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    optimization problems where the environment does not change dynamically. For that reason, the requirement for convergence in static optimization problems is not as timecritical as for dynamic optimization problems. Most MOEAs use generic variables and operators that scale to static multi-objective optimization...... problem. The domain specific operators only encode existing knowledge about the environment. A comprehensive comparative study is provided to evaluate the results of applying the CONTROLEUM-GA compared to NSGAII, e-NSGAII and e- MOEA. Experimental results demonstrate clear improvements in convergence time...

  7. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Sprengeler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities. School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively, whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval: −0.03–0.20 and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32, while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53, LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67 and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67. Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children.

  8. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issuance of the guidance in 1997

  9. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Shankman, S.F.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant among the changes were major revisions to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). In preparation for the adoption of these requirements into regulations in the United States, it became apparent that guidance on how to apply these requirements, clarifying technical uncertainties and ensuring proper implementation, would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance for LSA material and SCO transport. The guidance will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules. Ideas being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment prior to final issue of the guidance in 1997. (Author)

  10. Task-specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, James M; Liphardt, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Vibrations occur within the soft tissues of the lower extremities due to the heel-strike impact during walking. Increases in muscle activity in the lower extremities result in increased damping to reduce this vibration. The myoelectric intensity spectra were compared using principal component analysis from the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius of 40 subjects walking with different shoe conditions. The soft insert condition resulted in a significant, simultaneous increase in muscle activity with a shift to higher myoelectric frequencies in the period 0-60 ms after heel-strike which is the period when the greater vibration damping occurred. These increases in myoelectric frequency match the spectral patterns which indicate increases in recruitment of faster motor units. It is concluded that fast motor units are recruited during the task of damping the soft-tissue resonance that occurs following heel-strike.

  11. Atypical right hemisphere specialization for object representations in an adolescent with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy T. Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.

  12. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Zofeyah L; Dimova, Jiva; Pisansky, Marc T; Sun, Mu; Beppu, Hideyuki; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII) in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  13. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  14. Common input to motor units of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles during two-digit object hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A; Kornatz, Kurt W; Santello, Marco

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsic-extrinsic muscle pairs. To address this void in the literature, we quantified the incidence and strength of near-simultaneous discharges of motor units residing in either the same or different intrinsic hand muscles (m. first dorsal, FDI, and m. first palmar interosseus, FPI) during two-digit object hold. To extend the characterization of common input to pairs of extrinsic muscles (previous work) and pairs of intrinsic muscles (present work), we also recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from an extrinsic thumb muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus, FPL). Motor-unit synchrony across FDI and FPI was weak (common input strength, CIS, mean +/- SE: 0.17 +/- 0.02). Similarly, motor units from extrinsic-intrinsic muscle pairs were characterized by weak synchrony (FPL-FDI: 0.25 +/- 0.02; FPL-FPI: 0.29 +/- 0.03) although stronger than FDI-FPI. Last, CIS from within FDI and FPI was more than three times stronger (0.70 +/- 0.06 and 0.66 +/- 0.06, respectively) than across these muscles. We discuss present and previous findings within the framework of muscle-pair specific distribution of common input to hand muscles based on their functional role in grasping.

  15. Plant specific PTS analysis of Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung-Yull, Hong; Changheui, Jang; Ill-Seok, Jeong [Korea Eletric Power Research Inst., Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Tae-Eun, Jin [Korea Power Engineering Company, Yonging (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Currently, a nuclear PLIM (Plant Lifetime Management) program is underway in Korea to extend the operation life of Kori-1 which was originally licensed for 30 years. For the life extension of nuclear power plants, the residual lives of major components should be evaluated for the extended operation period. According to the residual life evaluation of reactor pressure vessel, which was classified as one of the major components crucial to life extension, it was found by screening analysis that reference PTS temperature would exceed screening criteria before the target extended operation years. In order to deal with this problem, a plant-specific PTS analysis for Kori-1 RPV has been initiated. In this paper, the relationship between PTS analysis and Kori-1 PLIM program is briefly described. The plant-specific PTS analysis covers system transient analysis, downcomer mixing analysis, and probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to check the integrity or RPV during various PTS transients. The step-by-step procedure of the analysis will be described in detail. Finally, various issues regarding RPV materials and its integrity will be briefly mentioned, and their implications on Kori-1 PTS analysis will be discussed. Despite of the screening analysis result concern, it is now expected that Kori-1 PTS issues can be handled through the plant-specific PTS analysis. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  16. Do infant Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) categorize objects without specific training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Kamegai, Kimi; Terazawa, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether infant Japanese macaques categorize objects without any training, using a similar technique also used with human infants (the paired-preference method). During the familiarization phase, subjects were presented twice with two pairs of different objects from one global-level category. During the test phase, they were presented twice with a pair consisting of a novel familiar-category object and a novel global-level category object. The subjects were tested with three global-level categories (animal, furniture, and vehicle). It was found that they showed significant novelty preferences as a whole, indicating that they processed similarities between familiarization objects and novel familiar-category objects. These results suggest that subjects responded distinctively to objects without training, indicating the possibility that infant macaques possess the capacity for categorization.

  17. Life table analysis of the United States' Year 2000 mortality objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, I R; Pollard, J H

    1995-06-01

    The US Year 2000 mortality objectives are model standards cast as targeted changes in age-adjusted cause-specific death rates. This research centred on the projected impact of such changes on life expectancy and the mortality toll for each sex. A computer simulation was conducted using single decrement, multiple decrement and cause-elimination life table techniques, together with a decomposition procedure. Male and female life expectancy at birth was projected to increase by 1.71 and 1.51 years, respectively, between the designated 1987 baseline and 2000. The leading beneficiaries would be those aged 65 and older, followed by those aged 45-64, and infants. Declines in coronary heart disease, stroke and injury death rates would most influence the projected life expectancy changes, irrespective of sex. Approximately 782,000 male deaths and 730,000 female deaths would be averted under Year 2000 assumptions. Life expectancy would be a useful summary measure to incorporate into official evaluations of the Year 2000 mortality objectives. Targeting of excess male mortality in the US and other highly industrialized nations is recommended.

  18. Planning for people? An evaluation of objectives for managing visitors at wildlife refuges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Robert Massengale

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality of planning objectives for visitor services as written in Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System of the United States. Planners in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are predominantly writing public use objectives that address wildlife recreation and education. Results indicate that planners are writing...

  19. Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-16

    3 0 B. Cost Accounting Standard 418 ..................................................... 3 1 1. D efinitio n s ...objective" as an activity for which a separate measurement of cost is desired. C. Horngren , Cost Accounting . A Managerial Emphasis 21 (5th ed. 1982...Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives 6. AUTHOR( S ) Stephen Thomas Lynch, Major 7. PERFORMING

  20. Fixed, object-specific intensity compensation for cone beam optical CT radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Hazarika, Rubin; Silveira, Matheus A.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2018-03-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanning of radiochromic gel dosimeters, using a CCD camera and a low stray light convergent source, provides fast, truly 3D radiation dosimetry with high accuracy. However, a key limiting factor in radiochromic gel dosimetry at large (⩾10 cm diameter) volumes is the initial attenuation of the dosimeters. It is not unusual to observe a 5–10×  difference in signal intensity through the dosimeter center versus through the surrounding medium in pre-irradiation images. Thus, all dosimetric information in a typical experiment is measured within the lower 10%–20% of the camera sensor’s range, and re-use of gels is often not possible due to a lack of transmission. To counteract this, in this note we describe a simple method to create source compensators by printing on transparent films. This technique, which is easily implemented and inexpensive, is an optical analogue to the bowtie filter in x-ray CT. We present transmission images and solution phantom reconstructions to demonstrate that (1) placing compensators beyond the focal zone of the imaging lens prevents high spatial frequency features of the printed films from generating reconstruction artifacts, and (2) object-specific compensation considerably reduces the range of intensities measured in projection images. This will improve the measurable dose range in optical CT dosimetry, and will enable imaging of larger gel volumes (∼15 cm diameter). Additionally, it should enable re-use of dosimeters by printing a new compensator for a second experiment.

  1. Space Object Collision Probability via Monte Carlo on the Graphics Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittaldev, Vivek; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-09-01

    Fast and accurate collision probability computations are essential for protecting space assets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is the most accurate but computationally intensive method. A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to parallelize the computation and reduce the overall runtime. Using MC techniques to compute the collision probability is common in literature as the benchmark. An optimized implementation on the GPU, however, is a challenging problem and is the main focus of the current work. The MC simulation takes samples from the uncertainty distributions of the Resident Space Objects (RSOs) at any time during a time window of interest and outputs the separations at closest approach. Therefore, any uncertainty propagation method may be used and the collision probability is automatically computed as a function of RSO collision radii. Integration using a fixed time step and a quartic interpolation after every Runge Kutta step ensures that no close approaches are missed. Two orders of magnitude speedups over a serial CPU implementation are shown, and speedups improve moderately with higher fidelity dynamics. The tool makes the MC approach tractable on a single workstation, and can be used as a final product, or for verifying surrogate and analytical collision probability methods.

  2. IAEA co-ordinated research programme on the transport of low specific activity materials and surface contaminated objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prepares regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, and periodically revised editions of these are published. These regulations are adopted by individual countries across the world and by international organisations concerned with transport. Whilst it is desirable to have a stable framework of regulatory requirements, there is also a need to take account of technical advances and operational experience and revise the regulations. From time to time Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) are established to investigate particular areas of the regulations that are giving concern. In 1996 the IAEA Standing Advisory Group on the Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) concluded that the requirements for classification, packaging and transport of low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCO) did not always have a strong radiation protection basis. Accordingly SAGSTRAM established a CRP with an overall objective to develop a dose-based approach for establishing LSA/SCO requirements. Six countries are participating in this CRP. Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, United Kingdom and United States. Each country is carrying out work that is outlined in agreements with the IAEA, with the work aimed at meeting the specific objective of the agreement and also contributing to achieving the overall objective of the CRP. Completion of the CRP usually involves the preparation of an IAEA TECDOC by a Consultant Services Meeting (CSM), and this TECDOC will summarise the work performed under the CRP and include any recommendations made by the CRP. Following the establishment of the CRP in 1997, the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was held in December 1997. The second RCM was held in March 1999, with the final RCM planned for the end of 2000. The work being carried out by Brazil and Canada is focused upon the transport of uranium and thorium ores, and is a mixture of theoretical and

  3. Mathematics Objectives and Measurement Specifications 1986-1990. Exit Level. Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Educational Assessment.

    This document lists the objectives for the Texas educational assessment program in mathematics. Eighteen objectives for exit level mathematics are listed, by category: number concepts (4); computation (3); applied computation (5); statistical concepts (3); geometric concepts (2); and algebraic concepts (1). Then general specifications are listed…

  4. Visual Working Memory Capacity for Objects from Different Categories: A Face-Specific Maintenance Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason H.; Peterson, Matthew S.; Thompson, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of visual working memory was examined when complex objects from different categories were remembered. Previous studies have not examined how visual similarity affects object memory, though it has long been known that similar-sounding phonological information interferes with rehearsal in auditory working memory. Here, experiments…

  5. Early (M170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2009-03-04

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of 'real' faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, but what happens when nonface objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography, we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165 ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late reinterpretation cognitive phenomenon.

  6. Early (N170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    2009-01-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late re-interpretation cognitive phenomenon. PMID:19218867

  7. Early (N170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    2009-01-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar t...

  8. Formal Transformations from Graphically-Based Object-Oriented Representations to Theory-Based Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    for Software Synthesis." KBSE 󈨡. IEEE, 1993. 51. Kang, Kyo C., et al. Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study. Technical Report...Algebra. New York, NY: Chelsea Publishing Company , 1993. 72. Martin, James. Principles of Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. Englewood Cliffs, New...and usefulness in domain analysis and modeling. Rumbaugh uses three distinct views to describe a domain: (1) the object model describes structural

  9. Delineation of site-specific management units in a saline region at the Venice Lagoon margin, Italy, using soil reflectance and apparent electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Site-specific crop management utilizes site-specific management units (SSMUs) to apply inputs when, where, and in the amount needed to increase food productivity, optimize resource utilization, increase profitability, and reduce detrimental environmental impacts. It is the objective of this study to...

  10. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  11. Stimulus Dependency of Object-Evoked Responses in Human Visual Cortex: An Inverse Problem for Category Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graewe, Britta; De Weerd, Peter; Farivar, Reza; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked the processing of different object categories to specific event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the face-specific N170. Despite reports showing that object-related ERPs are influenced by visual stimulus features, there is consensus that these components primarily reflect categorical aspects of the stimuli. Here, we re-investigated this idea by systematically measuring the effects of visual feature manipulations on ERP responses elicited by both structure-from-motion (SFM)-defined and luminance-defined object stimuli. SFM objects elicited a novel component at 200–250 ms (N250) over parietal and posterior temporal sites. We found, however, that the N250 amplitude was unaffected by restructuring SFM stimuli into meaningless objects based on identical visual cues. This suggests that this N250 peak was not uniquely linked to categorical aspects of the objects, but is strongly determined by visual stimulus features. We provide strong support for this hypothesis by parametrically manipulating the depth range of both SFM- and luminance-defined object stimuli and showing that the N250 evoked by SFM stimuli as well as the well-known N170 to static faces were sensitive to this manipulation. Importantly, this effect could not be attributed to compromised object categorization in low depth stimuli, confirming a strong impact of visual stimulus features on object-related ERP signals. As ERP components linked with visual categorical object perception are likely determined by multiple stimulus features, this creates an interesting inverse problem when deriving specific perceptual processes from variations in ERP components. PMID:22363479

  12. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  13. Control system design specification of advanced spent fuel management process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2003-06-01

    In this study, the design specifications of instrumentation and control system for advanced spent fuel management process units are presented. The advanced spent fuel management process consists of several process units such as slitting device, dry pulverizing/mixing device, metallizer, etc. In this study, the control and operation characteristics of the advanced spent fuel management mockup process devices and the process devices developed in 2001 and 2002 are analysed. Also, a integral processing system of the unit process control signals is proposed, which the operation efficiency is improved. And a redundant PLC control system is constructed which the reliability is improved. A control scheme is proposed for the time delayed systems compensating the control performance degradation caused by time delay. The control system design specification is presented for the advanced spent fuel management process units. This design specifications can be effectively used for the detail design of the advanced spent fuel management process.

  14. Category-specific responses to faces and objects in primate auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L Hoffman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals often occur together, and the two sensory channels are known to infl uence each other to facilitate perception. The neural basis of this integration is not well understood, although other forms of multisensory infl uences have been shown to occur at surprisingly early stages of processing in cortex. Primary visual cortex neurons can show frequency-tuning to auditory stimuli, and auditory cortex responds selectively to certain somatosensory stimuli, supporting the possibility that complex visual signals may modulate early stages of auditory processing. To elucidate which auditory regions, if any, are responsive to complex visual stimuli, we recorded from auditory cortex and the superior temporal sulcus while presenting visual stimuli consisting of various objects, neutral faces, and facial expressions generated during vocalization. Both objects and conspecifi c faces elicited robust fi eld potential responses in auditory cortex sites, but the responses varied by category: both neutral and vocalizing faces had a highly consistent negative component (N100 followed by a broader positive component (P180 whereas object responses were more variable in time and shape, but could be discriminated consistently from the responses to faces. The face response did not vary within the face category, i.e., for expressive vs. neutral face stimuli. The presence of responses for both objects and neutral faces suggests that auditory cortex receives highly informative visual input that is not restricted to those stimuli associated with auditory components. These results reveal selectivity for complex visual stimuli in a brain region conventionally described as non-visual unisensory cortex.

  15. The hollow-face illusion: object-specific knowledge, general assumptions or properties of the stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Harold; Johnston, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The hollow-face illusion, in which a mask appears as a convex face, is a powerful example of binocular depth inversion occurring with a real object under a wide range of viewing conditions. Explanations of the illusion are reviewed and six experiments reported. In experiment 1 the detrimental effect of figural inversion, evidence for the importance of familiarity, was found for other oriented objects. The inversion effect held for masks lit from the side (experiment 2). The illusion was stronger for a mask rotated by 90 degrees lit from its forehead than from its chin, suggesting that familiar patterns of shading enhance the illusion (experiment 2). There were no effects of light source visibility or any left/right asymmetry (experiment 3). In experiments 4-6 we used a 'virtual' hollow face, with illusion strength quantified by the proportion of noise texture needed to eliminate the illusion. Adding characteristic surface colour enhanced the illusion, consistent with the familiar face pigmentation outweighing additional bottom-up cues (experiment 4). There was no difference between perspective and orthographic projection. Photographic negation reduced, but did not eliminate, the illusion, suggesting shading is important but not essential (experiment 5). Absolute depth was not critical, although a shallower mask was given less extreme convexity ratings (experiment 6). We argue that the illusion arises owing to a convexity preference when the raw data have ambiguous interpretations. However, using a familiar object with typical orientation, shading, and pigmentation greatly enhances the effect.

  16. 76 FR 24831 - Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance With Subpart C Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance... public health and safety, these amendments would enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste... would be to enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The NRC is also proposing...

  17. General and Specific Effects of Lexicon in Grammar: Determiner and Object Pronoun Omissions in Child Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Castilla-Earls, Anny Patricia; Brunner, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the hypothesis that vocabulary growth can have 2 types of effects in morphosyntactic development. One is a general effect, where vocabulary growth globally determines utterance complexity, defined in terms of sentence length and rates of subordination. There are also specific effects, where vocabulary size has a…

  18. Optimal unit sizing for small-scale integrated energy systems using multi-objective interval optimization and evidential reasoning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, F.; Wu, Q.H.; Jing, Z.X.; Chen, J.J.; Zhou, X.X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive framework including a multi-objective interval optimization model and evidential reasoning (ER) approach to solve the unit sizing problem of small-scale integrated energy systems, with uncertain wind and solar energies integrated. In the multi-objective interval optimization model, interval variables are introduced to tackle the uncertainties of the optimization problem. Aiming at simultaneously considering the cost and risk of a business investment, the average and deviation of life cycle cost (LCC) of the integrated energy system are formulated. In order to solve the problem, a novel multi-objective optimization algorithm, MGSOACC (multi-objective group search optimizer with adaptive covariance matrix and chaotic search), is developed, employing adaptive covariance matrix to make the search strategy adaptive and applying chaotic search to maintain the diversity of group. Furthermore, ER approach is applied to deal with multiple interests of an investor at the business decision making stage and to determine the final unit sizing solution from the Pareto-optimal solutions. This paper reports on the simulation results obtained using a small-scale direct district heating system (DH) and a small-scale district heating and cooling system (DHC) optimized by the proposed framework. The results demonstrate the superiority of the multi-objective interval optimization model and ER approach in tackling the unit sizing problem of integrated energy systems considering the integration of uncertian wind and solar energies. - Highlights: • Cost and risk of investment in small-scale integrated energy systems are considered. • A multi-objective interval optimization model is presented. • A novel multi-objective optimization algorithm (MGSOACC) is proposed. • The evidential reasoning (ER) approach is used to obtain the final optimal solution. • The MGSOACC and ER can tackle the unit sizing problem efficiently.

  19. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING...

  20. Site-specific sediment clean-up objectives developed by the sediment quality triad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redman, S.; Janisch, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community data were collected and evaluated in concert (1) to characterize adverse effects of hydrocarbon and metal contaminants in the sediments of a small inlet of Superior Bay, Lake Superior and a tributary creek and (2) to derive numeric objectives for the clean up of this system. Sediments from reference locations and eight study sites were analyzed for a range of contaminants, including hydrocarbons (measured both as diesel range organics (DRO) and oil and grease), lead, chromium, and ammonia. A range of sediment toxicity was observed across the eight study sites using a variety of tests and endpoints: Hyalella azteca (10 day survival and growth), Chironomus tentans (10 day survival and growth), Ceriodaphnia dubia (48 hour survival), and Daphnia magna (48 hour survival and 10 day survival and reproduction). A range of alterations of the benthic macroinvertebrate community compared with communities from reference locations were observed. Benthic community alterations were summarized quantitatively by taxa richness and Shannon-Weiner mean diversity. Lowest effect levels determined through this study included 150 microg/g dry sediment for DRO (as measured in this study) and 40 microg/g dry sediment for lead. Effects thresholds determined through this study included 1,500 microg/g dry sediment for DRO and 90 microg/g dry sediment for lead. These levels and concentrations measured in relevant reference locations are being used to define objectives for sediment clean up in the inlet and creek

  1. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    McBrayer, Zofeyah L.; Dimova, Jiva; Pisansky, Marc T.; Sun, Mu; Beppu, Hideyuki; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII) in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not ...

  2. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Objectives, specification and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills involving a French PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    1989-08-01

    All safety measures taken during the design, the construction and the operation of a nuclear power plant decrease to an extremely low level the probability of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public. Nevertheless, for the case such an accident should be initiated, emergency plans have been elaborated: the on-site emergency plan to protect the plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate the consequences; the short-term and longer-term off-side emergency plans to protect the public and organise the return to acceptable living conditions. The appropriateness and preparedness of such plans have to be checked regularly by means of drills, which may be restricted to technical aspects concerning the nuclear units, or involve all actors, i.e. the utility, all the branches of the administration concerned and a media simulation. Some aspects of the choice of goals and preparation of drills are presented and illustrated by the national EPAULE exercice in 1987. Technically speaking, the drills have proved the validity of the current organization and evidenced its operability: uncertainties remain as regards the actual vs expected behavior of the population, due to emotional aspects linked to the lack of direct perception of the degree of danger and to the information received in an actual nuclear emergency

  4. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  5. Environmental Impact Specification for Direct Space Weathering of Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The Direct Space Weathering Project of NASA's Outer Planets Research Program addresses specification of the plasma and energetic particle environments for irradiation and surface chemical processing of icy bodies in the outer solar system and the local interstellar medium. Knowledge of the radiation environments is being expanded by ongoing penetration of the twin Voyager spacecraft into the heliosheath boundary region of the outer heliosphere and expected emergence within the next decade into the very local interstellar medium. The Voyager measurements are being supplemented by remote sensing from Earth orbit of energetic neutral atom emission from this boundary region by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Although the Voyagers long ago passed the region of the Classical Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 and thereafter explore one or more KBOs, meanwhile providing updated measurements of the heliospheric radiation environment in this region. Modeling of ion transport within the heliosphere allows specification of time-integrated irradiation effects while the combination of Voyager and IBEX data supports projection of the in-situ measurements into interstellar space beyond the heliosheath. Transformation of model ion flux distributions into surface sputtering and volume ionization profiles provides a multi-layer perspective for space weathering impact on the affected icy bodies and may account for some aspects of color and compositional diversity. Other important related factors may include surface erosion and gardening by meteoritic impacts and surface renewal by cryovolcanism. Chemical products of space weathering may contribute to energy resources for the latter.

  6. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  7. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  8. Identification of Auditory Object-Specific Attention from Single-Trial Electroencephalogram Signals via Entropy Measures and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has revealed that auditory attention can be tracked from ongoing electroencephalography (EEG signals. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the identification of peoples’ attention to a specific auditory object from single-trial EEG signals via entropy measures and machine learning. Approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, composite multiscale entropy (CmpMSE and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn were used to extract the informative features of EEG signals under three kinds of auditory object-specific attention (Rest, Auditory Object1 Attention (AOA1 and Auditory Object2 Attention (AOA2. The linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM, were used to construct two auditory attention classifiers. The statistical results of entropy measures indicated that there were significant differences in the values of ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn between Rest, AOA1 and AOA2. For the SVM-based auditory attention classifier, the auditory object-specific attention of Rest, AOA1 and AOA2 could be identified from EEG signals using ApEn, SampEn, CmpMSE and FuzzyEn as features and the identification rates were significantly different from chance level. The optimal identification was achieved by the SVM-based auditory attention classifier using CmpMSE with the scale factor τ = 10. This study demonstrated a novel solution to identify the auditory object-specific attention from single-trial EEG signals without the need to access the auditory stimulus.

  9. Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty: Objective Outcomes and Site-Specific Quality-of-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Davide Thomas; Sampieri, Claudio; Deganello, Alberto; Danesi, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Objective Evaluate outcomes of the lengthening temporalis myoplasty in facial reanimations. Study Design Case series with planned data collection. Setting Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, and AOUC Careggi, Florence, Italy. Subjects and Methods From 2011 to 2016, 11 patients underwent lengthening temporalis myoplasty; demographic data were collected for each. Pre- and postoperative photographs and videos were recorded and used to measure the smile angle and the excursion of the oral commissure, according to the SMILE system (Scaled Measurements of Improvement in Lip Excursion). All patients were tested with the Facial Disability Index, and they also completed a questionnaire about the adherence to physiotherapy indications. Results All patients demonstrated a significant improvement in functional parameters and in quality of life. On the reanimated side, the mean z-line and a-value, measured when smiling, significantly improved in all patients: from 22.6 mm (95% CI, 20.23-25.05) before surgery to 30.9 mm (95% CI, 27.82-33.99) after surgery ( P smile at the reanimated side, was 3.1 mm (95% CI, 1.30-4.88) for the z-line and 3.3° (95% CI, 1.26°-5.29°) for the a-value. The Facial Disability Index score increased from a preoperative mean of 33.4 points (95% CI, 28.25-38.66) to 49.9 points (95% CI, 47.21-52.60) postoperatively ( P smile reanimation, with satisfying functional and quality-of-life outcomes.

  10. Testing of toxicity based methods to develop site specific clean up objectives - phase 1: Toxicity protocol screening and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, H.; Kerr, D.; Thorne, W.; Taylor, B.; Zadnik, M.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.

    1994-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a cost-effective and practical protocol for using bio-assay based toxicity assessment methods for remediation of decommissioned oil and gas production, and processing facilities. The objective was to generate site-specific remediation criteria for contaminated sites. Most companies have used the chemical-specific approach which, however, did not meet the ultimate land use goal of agricultural production. The toxicity assessment method described in this study dealt with potential impairment to agricultural crop production and natural ecosystems. Human health concerns were not specifically addressed. It was suggested that chemical-specific methods should be used when human health concerns exist. . Results showed that toxicity tests will more directly identify ecological stress caused by site contamination than chemical-specific remediation criteria, which can be unnecessarily protective. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  11. A multi-objective approach to the assignment of stock keeping units to unidirectional picking lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roux, G. J.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An order picking system in a distribution centre consisting of parallel unidirectional picking lines is considered. The objectives are to minimise the walking distance of the pickers, the largest volume of stock on a picking line over all picking lines, the number of small packages, and the total penalty incurred for late distributions. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective multiple knapsack problem that is not solvable in a realistic time. Population-based algorithms, including the artificial bee colony algorithm and the genetic algorithm, are also implemented. The results obtained from all algorithms indicate a substantial improvement on all objectives relative to historical assignments. The genetic algorithm delivers the best performance.

  12. Сriminological crime prevention: the concept, the specifics, the structure, the object of precautionary influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Голіна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. Crime is one of the oldest existing forms of social life, despite the burning desire of human to destroy it. World history persuades explicitly that cruel, inhumane punishment punishments are inefficient to prevent crime. It’s necessary to rebuild human behavior, and this is possible through the elimination of various stimuli that enhance human passions and lead to irrational, destructive behavior. Recent research and publications analysis. Theory of combating crime primarily through its prevention has been substantively enriched during XIX-XXI centuries through scientific works of domestic and foreign criminologists and other researchers, which laid the philosophical, sociological, moral, psychological, social, anthropological, organizational, managerial, economic, educational, penitentiary and other types of crime prevention (Yu. M. Antonyan, A. Herry, A. Quetelet, C. Lombroso, D. Drill, E. Durkheim, G. Tarde, E. Ferry, R. Garofalo, A. Kystyakivskyi, M. Gernet, A. Gertsenzon, E. Sutherland, N. Kuznetsov, V. Kudryavtsev, A. Sakharov, I. Karpets, A. Zelinsky, V. Dryomin, O. Tulyakov, O. Litvinov, A. Zakalyuk, V. Shakun, B. Golovkin etc.. Paper objective is providing a thorough analysis of a range of issues, related to the criminological crime prevention as an essential part of special criminological crime prevention. Paper main body. Crime is a complex social phenomenon whose causes and conditions are usually associated with a genetic predisposition to decline form normal behavior, along with the defects and imperfections of the society. Crime prevention is state social policy aimed at overcoming dangerous criminal contradictions in social relations in order to reach positive resolution and the gradual elimination (so-called general social prevention along with proactive practice of combating criminal offenses at various stages. Crime prevention can be divided into several types: prevention in advance, restrictive prevention

  13. Color- and motion-specific units in the tectum opticum of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Morna; Behrend, Konstantin; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-01-05

    Extracellular recordings were performed from 69 units at different depths between 50 and [Formula: see text]m below the surface of tectum opticum in goldfish. Using large field stimuli (86[Formula: see text] visual angle) of 21 colored HKS-papers we were able to record from 54 color-sensitive units. The colored papers were presented for 5[Formula: see text]s each. They were arranged in the sequence of the color circle in humans separated by gray of medium brightness. We found 22 units with best responses between orange, red and pink. About 12 of these red-sensitive units were of the opponent "red-ON/blue-green-OFF" type as found in retinal bipolar- and ganglion cells as well. Most of them were also activated or inhibited by black and/or white. Some units responded specifically to red either with activation or inhibition. 18 units were sensitive to blue and/or green, 10 of them to both colors and most of them to black as well. They were inhibited by red, and belonged to the opponent "blue-green-ON/red-OFF" type. Other units responded more selectively either to blue, to green or to purple. Two units were selectively sensitive to yellow. A total of 15 units were sensitive to motion, stimulated by an excentrically rotating black and white random dot pattern. Activity of these units was also large when a red-green random dot pattern of high L-cone contrast was used. Activity dropped to zero when the red-green pattern did not modulate the L-cones. Neither of these motion selective units responded to any color. The results directly show color-blindness of motion vision, and confirm the hypothesis of separate and parallel processing of "color" and "motion".

  14. Technical specifications: Seabrook Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-443)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Seabrook Station, Unit 1 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  15. Technical specifications, Limerick Generating Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-353)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The Limerick, Unit 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. Comparing sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp Jacobsen, Katja; O'Meara, Ellen S; Key, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of screening mammography differs substantially between the United States (US) and Denmark. We evaluated whether there are differences in screening sensitivity and specificity. We included screens from women screened at age 50-69 years during 1996-2008/2009 in the US Breast Cancer...

  17. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also

  18. Technical Specifications, Limerick Generating Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-353)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The Limerick, Unit 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  19. Site Specific Waste Management Instruction for the 116-F-4 soil storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction provides guidance for management of waste generated during the excavation and remediation of soil and debris from the 116-4 soil storage unit located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This document outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements

  20. Recent Patterns in Shared Decision Making for Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Gansler, Ted; Smith, Robert; Sauer, Ann Goding; Wender, Richard; Brawley, Otis W; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598). Changes in receipt of shared decision making were expressed as adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified on PSA testing (recent [in the past year] or no testing). Elements of shared decision making assessed included the patient being informed about the advantages only, advantages and disadvantages, and full shared decision making (advantages, disadvantages, and uncertainties). Among men with recent PSA testing, 58.5% and 62.6% reported having received ≥1 element of shared decision making in 2010 and 2015, respectively ( P = .054, aPR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11). Between 2010 and 2015, being told only about the advantages of PSA testing significantly declined (aPR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96) and full shared decision making prevalence significantly increased (aPR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.28-1.79) in recently tested men. Among men without prior PSA testing, 10% reported ≥1 element of shared decision making, which did not change with time. Between 2010 and 2015, there was no increase in shared decision making among men with recent PSA testing though there was a shift away from only being told about the advantages of PSA testing towards full shared decision making. Many men receiving PSA testing did not receive shared decision making. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  1. Specific MRI quality control: development and production of a multimodal test-object. Assessment of MRI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedieu, Veronique; Bard, Jean-Jacques; Bonnet, Jacques; Buchheit, Isabelle; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Certaines, Jacques de; Lacaze, Brigitte; Vincensini, Dominique; Joffre, Francis

    2007-02-01

    After a first part recalling the operation principle of a MRI imager and the modalities of acquisition of MRI images (base MNR experiment, image quality, technical issues, artefacts and main defects of MRI imagers), this document addresses the different types of quality control in MRI and regulatory issues. The third part presents the characteristics of a multimodal test-object which has been developed, the parameters of the specific quality control, and control procedures

  2. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation, the programs applied in French UEROS units, and the specificity of the Limoges experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonet-Torny, J; Fayol, P; Faure, P; Carrière, H; Dumond, J-J

    2013-04-01

    First created in 1996, the French evaluation, retraining, social and vocational orientation units (UEROS) now play a fundamental role in the social and vocational rehabilitation of patients with brain injury. As of today, there exist 30 UEROS centers in France. While their care and treatment objectives are shared, their means of assessment and retraining differ according to the experience of each one. The objective of this article is to describe the specific programs and the different tools put to work in the UEROS of Limoges. The UEROS of Limoges would appear to offer a form of holistic rehabilitation management characterized by the importance of psycho-education and its type of approach towards vocational reintegration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  4. Objectively Measured School Day Physical Activity Among Elementary Students in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kulmala, Janne Santeri; Jaakkola, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Fish, Joseph Cole; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-04-01

    Schools are in a unique position to ensure that all students meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations. This study aimed to examine 1st to 3rd grade elementary students' accelerometer measured school day PA in the United States (U.S.) and Finland. The sample consisted of 200 students (107 girls, 93 boys; ages 6 to 8) and their school day PA was monitored with hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers across a 5-day school week and the thresholds 100 and 2296 count per minute were used to separate sedentary time, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). On an average school day, students were engaged in MVPA for 20.0 min in the U.S. and 24.1 min in Finland. Students' school-day MVPA was 9 to 16 minutes higher during physical education (PE) days compared with non-PE days (U.S: 25.8 vs. 16.6 min/day; Finland: 36.3 vs. 20.1 min/day). Girls had less MVPA and more sedentary time compared with boys in both samples. This study highlights both the role of PE and other school day physical activities in meeting PA guidelines. Policy measures are needed to change the structure of the school day and enhance PA to ensure that students meet the PA recommendations.

  5. Unit-Specific Contingency Plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-04-01

    This document is a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, 'Hanford Contingency Plan.' It provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code. General emergency and response information is contained in the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and is not repeated in this supplement. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins were four concrete internal surfaces, which contained radiologically and hazardous contaminated waste. The 183-H Basin area is a final status treatment, storage, and disposal unit undergoing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act modified post- closure care

  6. Calibration is action specific but perturbation of perceptual units is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing S; Coats, Rachel O; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2014-02-01

    G. P. Bingham and C. C. Pagano (1998, The necessity of a perception/action approach to definite distance perception: Monocular distance perception to guide reaching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 145-168) argued that metric space perception should be investigated using relevant action measures because calibration is an intrinsic component of perception/action that yields accurate targeted actions. They described calibration as a mapping from embodied units of perception to embodied units of action. This mapping theory yields a number of predictions. We tested two of them. The first prediction is that calibration should be action specific because what is calibrated is a mapping from perceptual units to a unit of action. Thus, calibration does not generalize to other actions. This prediction is consistent with the "action-specific approach" to calibration (D. R. Proffitt, 2008, An action specific approach to spatial perception. In R. L. Klatzky, B. MacWhinney, & M. Behrmann (Eds.), Embodiment, ego-space and action (pp. 179-202). New York, NY: Psychology Press.). The second prediction is that a change in perceptual units should generalize to all relevant actions that are guided using that perceptual information. The same perceptual units can be mapped to different actions. Change in the unit affects all relevant actions. This prediction is consistent with the "general purpose perception approach" (J. M. Loomis & J. W. Philbeck, 2008, Measuring spatial perception with spatial updating and action. In R. L. Klatzky, B. MacWhinney, & M. Behrmann (Eds.), Embodiment, ego-space and action (pp. 1-43). New York, NY: Psychology Press). In Experiment 1, two targeted actions, throwing and extended reaching were tested to determine if they were comparable in precision and in response to distorted calibration. They were. Comparing these actions, the first prediction was tested in Experiment 2 and confirmed. The second prediction was

  7. Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzelius, Kyra Marie

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions.

  8. ENEA`s mobile treatment units for specific waters; Impianti mobili ENEA di trattamento / smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G.; Barni, E.; Coronidi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Bortone, G.; Gambaro, L.; Zanetti, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Liccione, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Zanin, E.

    1997-11-01

    Solid waste production in turistic places is characterized by a large increase, up to 80 % for few months during the year. Generally a waste treatment plant is designed for a mean production and can support increases that non exceed 10 %. Treatment plants with higher capacity are not economically convenient and the excedent production is landfilled. An answer to this problem are mobile treatment units that could be used to support resident plants when higher treatment capacity is requested. Mobile units are very useful for other uses like as treatment of specific wastes (agricultural plastic bags and sheets contaminated by antiparasitics and herbicides) infective wastes from hospital and laboratories and leaches from landfills. Mobile units flexibility is also important for environmental protection actions, either scheduled on in an emergency, like as reclamation of contaminated soils, asbestos contaminated site and every time when waste transport is characterized by high cost or safety and sanitary problems.

  9. Motor unit potential morphology differences in individuals with non-specific arm pain and lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain (NSAP is unclear and the diagnosis is made by excluding other specific upper limb pathologies, such as lateral epicondylitis or cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i if the quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology and/or motor unit firing patterns derived from electromyographic (EMG signals detected from an affected muscle of patients with NSAP are different from those detected in the same muscle of individuals with lateral epicondylitis (LE and/or control subjects and (ii if the quantitative EMG parameters suggest that the underlying pathophysiology in NSAP is either myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Methods Sixteen subjects with NSAP, 11 subjects with LE, eight subjects deemed to be at-risk for developing a repetitive strain injury, and 37 control subjects participated. A quantitative electromyography evaluation was completed using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG. Needle- and surface-detected EMG signals were collected during low-level isometric contractions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB muscle. DQEMG was used to extract needle-detected motor unit potential trains (MUPTs, and needle-detected motor unit potential (MUP and surface detected motor unit potential (SMUP morphology and motor unit (MU firing rates were compared among the four groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's pairwise comparisons. Results Significant group differences were found for all MUP variables and for MU firing rate (p p p p p Conclusion The size-related parameters suggest that the NSAP group had significantly smaller MUPs and SMUPs than the control and LE subjects. Smaller MUPs and SMUPs may be indicative of muscle fiber atrophy and/or loss. A prospective study is needed to confirm any causal relationship between smaller MUPs and SMUPs and NSAP as found

  10. Age specific interactions between smoking and radon among United States uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenland, K.

    1994-01-01

    United States uranium miners who smoked have death rates from lung cancer that are intermediate between the rates predicted by the additive and multiplicative models (on a ratio scale) across all age groups. Age specific patterns of interaction have not been thoroughly examined, and most analyses have been internal ones in which there was no truly non-exposed group. Here age specific death rates of lung cancer among ever smoking uranium miners have been examined for conformity with the additive and multiplicative models. The multiplicative model fits well for the youngest and oldest categories, but poorly for the middle age ranges. In the middle age range, predicted rates under the multiplicative model were quite high, surpassing the corresponding United States death rates for all causes combined. (Author)

  11. Audit of Wolf Creek Generating Station, Unit 1 technical specifications. Final technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.

    1985-07-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumptions of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented, and the Comments and Responses to the Wolf Creek Technical Specification Draft Inspection Report. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, the SER as supplemented, and the Draft Inspection Report was performed with the Wolf Creek T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Wolf Creek Generating Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR, SER, and Draft Inspection Report

  12. Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) implementation: Zion Generating Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, W.; Akers, D.W.; Duce, S.W.; Mandler, J.W.; Simpson, F.B.; Young, T.E.

    1985-06-01

    A review of the Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) of the Zion Generating Station Units 1 and 2 was performed. The principal review guidelines used were NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and Draft 7 of NUREG-0472, Revision 3, ''Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Pressurized Water Reactors.'' Draft submittals were discussed with the Licensee by both EG and G and the NRC staff until all items requiring changes to the Technical Specifications were resolved. The Licensee then submitted final proposed RETS to the NRC which were evaluated and found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines. The proposed Offsite Dose Calculation Manual was reviewed and generally found to be consistent with the NRC review guidelines. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  14. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  15. Technical Specifications, Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-445)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Technical Specifications for Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 1 were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. They set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility, as set forth in Section 50.36 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  17. No Evidence for Phase-Specific Effects of 40 Hz HD–tACS on Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Bland

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase synchronization drives connectivity between neural oscillators, providing a flexible mechanism through which information can be effectively and selectively routed between task-relevant cortical areas. The ability to keep track of objects moving between the left and right visual hemifields, for example, requires the integration of information between the two cerebral hemispheres. Both animal and human studies have suggested that coherent (or phase-locked gamma oscillations (30–80 Hz might underlie this ability. While most human evidence has been strictly correlational, high-density transcranial alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS has been used to manipulate ongoing interhemispheric gamma phase relationships. Previous research showed that 40 Hz tACS delivered bilaterally over human motion complex could bias the perception of a bistable ambiguous motion stimulus (Helfrich et al., 2014. Specifically, this work showed that in-phase (0° offset stimulation boosted endogenous interhemispheric gamma coherence and biased perception toward the horizontal (whereby visual tokens moved between visual hemifields—requiring interhemispheric integration. By contrast, anti-phase (180° offset stimulation decreased interhemispheric gamma coherence and biased perception toward the vertical (whereby tokens moved within separate visual hemifields. Here we devised a multiple object tracking arena comprised of four quadrants whereby discrete objects moved either entirely within the left and right visual hemifields, or could cross freely between visual hemifields, thus requiring interhemispheric integration. Using the same HD-tACS montages as Helfrich et al. (2014, we found no phase-specific effect of 40 Hz stimulation on overall tracking performance. While tracking performance was generally lower during between-hemifield trials (presumably reflecting a cost of integration, this difference was unchanged by in- vs. anti-phase stimulation. Our null results

  18. Hierarchical Object-Based Mapping of Riverscape Units and in-Stream Mesohabitats Using LiDAR and VHR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new, semi-automated methodology for mapping hydromorphological indicators of rivers at a regional scale using multisource remote sensing (RS data. This novel approach is based on the integration of spectral and topographic information within a multilevel, geographic, object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. Different segmentation levels were generated based on the two sources of Remote Sensing (RS data, namely very-high spatial resolution, near-infrared imagery (VHR and high-resolution LiDAR topography. At each level, different input object features were tested with Machine Learning classifiers for mapping riverscape units and in-stream mesohabitats. The GEOBIA approach proved to be a powerful tool for analyzing the river system at different levels of detail and for coupling spectral and topographic datasets, allowing for the delineation of the natural fluvial corridor with its primary riverscape units (e.g., water channel, unvegetated sediment bars, riparian densely-vegetated units, etc. and in-stream mesohabitats with a high level of accuracy, respectively of K = 0.91 and K = 0.83. This method is flexible and can be adapted to different sources of data, with the potential to be implemented at regional scales in the future. The analyzed dataset, composed of VHR imagery and LiDAR data, is nowadays increasingly available at larger scales, notably through European Member States. At the same time, this methodology provides a tool for monitoring and characterizing the hydromorphological status of river systems continuously along the entire channel network and coherently through time, opening novel and significant perspectives to river science and management, notably for planning and targeting actions.

  19. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  20. Removal of Secondary Side Deposit and Foreign Objects in SG of Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Wootae [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sangjung; Choi, Yongseok; Kim, Taehwa; Seo, Hongchang [Byucksan Digital Valley II, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Mock-up test and training before the service were made to minimize operation time and radiation dose. 8 bag filters and 49 cartridge filters were consumed for filtering of soft and hard sludge in SG A, B, and C. Total 21.05 kilograms of sludge was removed. Five foreign objects were found and removed in tube bundle of SG A, in annulus and tube bundle of SG B, and in tube bundle of SG C. During the 20{sup th} OH of Yonggwang NPP unit 2, we removed 21.05 kilograms of sludge and five foreign objects from three steam generators. Gradual increase in weight of sludge removed is assumed to show us that more sludge is created as operation time of steam generator increases. Low level chemical cleaning at 19{sup th} OH removed 517 kilograms of sludge which was dominant of all the sludge removal weight. We could assume, from this fact, that high level chemical cleaning could remove significant amount of sludge compared to mechanical lancing method. Five foreign objects which were removed from inside of SG showed us that more thorough inside cleaning and inspection is necessary during fabrication of steam generator.

  1. Unit-specific contingency plan for the 183-H solar evaporation basins. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document is a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. It provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, ''Dangerous Waste Regulations,'' for contingency plans. General emergency and response information is contained in the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and is not repeated in this supplement. The 183-H solar evaporation basins are four concrete internal surfaces which contained radiologically- and hazardous-contaminated waste. The 183-H basins are currently empty, inactive and designated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim-status treatment, storage, and disposal unit undergoing closure. There is no dangerous waste management actively occurring. There is very little likelihood of any incidents that would present hazards to public health or the environment occurring at the 183-H basins

  2. Unit-specific contingency plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. It provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, ''Dangerous Waste Regulations,'' for contingency plans. General emergency and response information is contained in the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and is not repeated in this supplement. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins are four concrete internal surfaces which contained radiologically- and hazardous-contaminated waste. The 183-H basins are currently empty, inactive and designated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim-status treatment, storage, and disposal unit undergoing closure. There is no dangerous waste management actively occurring. There is very little likelihood of any incidents that would present hazards to public health or the environment occurring at the 183-H basins

  3. Accuracy of specific BIVA for the assessment of body composition in the United States population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Buffa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA is a technique for the assessment of hydration and nutritional status, used in the clinical practice. Specific BIVA is an analytical variant, recently proposed for the Italian elderly population, that adjusts bioelectrical values for body geometry. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the accuracy of specific BIVA in the adult U.S. population, compared to the 'classic' BIVA procedure, using DXA as the reference technique, in order to obtain an interpretative model of body composition. DESIGN: A cross-sectional sample of 1590 adult individuals (836 men and 754 women, 21-49 years old derived from the NHANES 2003-2004 was considered. Classic and specific BIVA were applied. The sensitivity and specificity in recognizing individuals below the 5(th and above the 95(th percentiles of percent fat (FMDXA% and extracellular/intracellular water (ECW/ICW ratio were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Classic and specific BIVA results were compared by a probit multiple-regression. RESULTS: Specific BIVA was significantly more accurate than classic BIVA in evaluating FMDXA% (ROC areas: 0.84-0.92 and 0.49-0.61 respectively; p = 0.002. The evaluation of ECW/ICW was accurate (ROC areas between 0.83 and 0.96 and similarly performed by the two procedures (p = 0.829. The accuracy of specific BIVA was similar in the two sexes (p = 0.144 and in FMDXA% and ECW/ICW (p = 0.869. CONCLUSIONS: Specific BIVA showed to be an accurate technique. The tolerance ellipses of specific BIVA can be used for evaluating FM% and ECW/ICW in the U.S. adult population.

  4. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  6. Landform Evolution Modeling of Specific Fluvially Eroded Physiographic Units on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed certain terrain types (i.e., physiographic units) on Titan thought to be formed by fluvial processes acting on local uplands of bedrock or in some cases sediment. We have earlier used our landform evolution models to make general comparisons between Titan and other ice world landscapes (principally those of the Galilean satellites) that we have modeled the action of fluvial processes. Here we give examples of specific landscapes that, subsequent to modeled fluvial work acting on the surfaces, produce landscapes which resemble mapped terrain types on Titan.

  7. Specification of Eight 2400 W @ 1.8 K Refrigeration Units for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Jäger, B; Millet, F; Roussel, P; Tavian, L; Wagner, U

    2000-01-01

    The cooling capacity below 2 K for the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will be provided by eight refrigeration units at 1.8 K, each of them coupled to a 4.5 K refrigerator. Taking into account the cryogenic architecture of the LHC and corresponding process design constraints, a reference solution based on a combination of cold centrifugal and warm volumetric compressors was established in 1997. The process and technical requirements expressed in the specification issued in 1998 and the procurement scenario based on pre-series acceptance prior to final series delivery between 2002 and 2004 are presented in this paper.

  8. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  9. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  10. Patient-specific electric field simulations and acceleration measurements for objective analysis of intraoperative stimulation tests in the thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hemm-Ode

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS the fundamental mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Simulation of electric entities has previously been proposed for chronic DBS combined with subjective symptom evaluations, but not for intraoperative stimulation tests. The present paper introduces a method for an objective exploitation of intraoperative stimulation test data to identify the optimal implant position of the chronic DBS lead by relating the electric field simulations to the patient-specific anatomy and the clinical effects quantified by accelerometry. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, it was applied to five patients with essential tremor bilaterally implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM. The VIM and its neighborhood structures were preoperatively outlined in 3D on white matter attenuated inversion recovery MR images. Quantitative intraoperative clinical assessments were performed using accelerometry. Electric field simulations (n = 272 for intraoperative stimulation test data performed along two trajectories per side were set-up using the finite element method for 143 stimulation test positions. The resulting electric field isosurface of 0.2V/mm was superimposed to the outlined anatomical structures. The percentage of volume of each structure's overlap was calculated and related to the corresponding clinical improvement. The proposed concept has been successfully applied to the five patients. For higher clinical improvements, not only the VIM but as well other neighboring structures were covered by the electric field isosurfaces. The percentage of the volumes of the VIM, of the nucleus intermediate lateral of the thalamus and the prelemniscal radiations within the prerubral field of Forel increased for clinical improvements higher than 50% compared to improvements lower than 50%. The presented new concept allows a detailed and objective analysis of a high amount of intraoperative data to

  11. Technical Specifications, Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-461). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This report presents information on the technical specifications of the Clinton Unit No. 1 Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  12. Technical Specifications, Seabrook Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-443). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides specifications for the Seabrook Station Unit 1 reactor concerning: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  13. Technical specifications, South Texas Project, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-498): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report presents specifications for the South Texas Project, Unit No. 1 concerning: safety limits, and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  14. Guidance For The Proper Characterization And Classification Of Low Specific Activity Materials And Surface Contaminated Objects For Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Blackford, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D and D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D and D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D and D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 (3): a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 (3) is now thirteen

  15. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Objectives of the National Education in the United States, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarheed, Arif Mohammed Mufleh

    2015-01-01

    The researcher in this study attempted to identify the objectives of the National Educational and sources to derive educational objectives and the methods and means to achieve the objectives of National Education and the subjects and courses that are taught in the subject of national education in the levels of education in a range of countries:…

  17. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  18. Intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of safety after a highly specific safety intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, N C; Brungs, S M; Nagy, M; Kudel, I; Render, M L

    2008-02-01

    It is unknown if successful changes in specific safety practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) generalize to broader concepts of patient safety by staff nurses. To explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in ICUs following participation in a safety project that decreased hospital acquired infections. After implementation of practices that reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections in ICUs at four community hospitals, ICU nurses participated in focus groups to discuss patient safety. Audiotapes from the focus groups were transcribed, and two independent reviewers categorised the data which were triangulated with responses from selected questions of safety climate surveys and with the safety checklists used by management leadership on walk rounds. Thirty-three nurses attended eight focus groups; 92 nurses and managers completed safety climate surveys, and three separate leadership checklists were reviewed. In focus groups, nurses predominantly related patient safety to dangers in the physical environment (eg, bed rails, alarms, restraints, equipment, etc.) and to medication administration. These areas also represented 47% of checklist items from leadership walk rounds. Nurses most frequently mentioned self-initiated "double checking" as their main safety task. Focus-group participants and survey responses both noted inconsistency between management's verbal and written commitment compared with their day-to-day support of patient safety issues. ICU nurses who participated in a project to decrease hospital acquired infections did not generalize their experience to other aspects of patient safety or relate it to management's interest in patient safety. These findings are consistent with many adult learning theories, where self-initiated tasks, combined with immediate, but temporary problem-solving, are stronger learning forces than management-led activities with delayed feedback.

  19. State-Specific Prevalence of Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Willis, Gordon; Hartman, Anne M; Agaku, Israel T

    2018-01-26

    Despite recent declines in cigarette smoking prevalence, the tobacco product landscape has shifted to include emerging tobacco products* (1,2). Previous research has documented adult use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by state (3); however, state-specific data on other tobacco products are limited. To assess tobacco product use in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed self-reported use of six tobacco product types: cigarettes, cigars, regular pipes, water pipes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco products among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Prevalence of ever-use of any tobacco product ranged from 27.0% (Utah) to 55.4% (Wyoming). Current (every day or some days) use of any tobacco product ranged from 10.2% (California) to 27.7% (Wyoming). Cigarettes were the most common currently used tobacco product in all states and DC. Among current cigarette smokers, the proportion who currently used one or more other tobacco products ranged from 11.5% (Delaware) to 32.3% (Oregon). Differences in tobacco product use across states underscore the importance of implementing proven population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use and expanding these strategies to cover all forms of tobacco marketed in the United States. Such strategies could include comprehensive smoke-free policies, tobacco product price increases, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to clinical smoking cessation resources (1,4).

  20. The Role of Sensory-Motor Information in Object Recognition: Evidence from Category-Specific Visual Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, D.A.; Coslett, H.B.; Glosser, G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of sensory-motor representations in object recognition was investigated in experiments involving AD, a patient with mild visual agnosia who was impaired in the recognition of visually presented living as compared to non-living entities. AD named visually presented items for which sensory-motor information was available significantly more…

  1. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 270.23 - Specific part B information requirements for miscellaneous units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... address and ensure compliance of the unit with each factor in the environmental performance standards of § 264.601. If the applicant can demonstrate that he does not violate the environmental performance... the Director to be necessary for evaluation of compliance of the unit with the environmental...

  3. Common Input to Motor Units of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscles During Two-Digit Object Hold

    OpenAIRE

    Winges, Sara A.; Kornatz, Kurt W.; Santello, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsi...

  4. Improving software requirements specification for safety-related systems using the fault tree developed by an object-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the fault tree analysis is presented. The new fault tree integrates structural and behavioral models of a system. Information on the system structure is captured in the name of each gate and basic event of the fault tree. Information on the system behavior is captured in their description. Behavior is expressed using the axiomatic notation based on first order predicate logic. The new fault tree is a useful model for analysis and improvement of software requirements specification. The benefit of such improvements is reduced probability of failures in specification, which in turn results in increased reliability of the software.(author)

  5. Recent age- and gender-specific trends in mortality during stroke hospitalization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Markovic, Daniela; Towfighi, Amytis

    2011-10-01

    Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have resulted in better clinical outcomes after stroke; however, the influence of age and gender on recent trends in death during stroke hospitalization has not been specifically investigated. We assessed the impact of age and gender on nationwide patterns of in-hospital mortality after stroke. Data were obtained from all US states that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients admitted to hospitals between 1997 and 1998 (n=1 351 293) and 2005 and 2006 (n=1 202 449), with a discharge diagnosis of stroke (identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure codes), were included. Time trends for in-hospital mortality after stroke were evaluated by gender and age group based on 10-year age increments (84) using multivariable logistic regression. Between 1997 and 2006, in-hospital mortality rates decreased across time in all sub-groups (all P84 years. In unadjusted analysis, men aged >84 years in 1997-1998 had poorer mortality outcomes than similarly aged women (odds ratio 0·93, 95% confidence interval=0·88-0·98). This disparity worsened by 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·88, 95% confidence interval=0·84-0·93). After adjusting for confounders, compared with similarly aged women, the mortality outcomes among men aged >84 years were poorer in 1997-1998 (odds ratio 0·97, 95% confidence interval=0·92-1·02) and were poorer in 2005-2006 (odds ratio 0·92, 95% confidence interval=0·87-0·96), P=0·04, for gender × time trend. Over the last decade, in-hospital mortality rates after stroke in the United States have declined for every age/gender group, except men aged >84 years. Given the rapidly ageing US population, avenues for boosting in-hospital survival among very elderly men with stroke need to be explored. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  6. 26 CFR 1.862-1 - Income specifically from sources without the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property; (v) Gains, profits, and income from the sale of real property located without the United States; and (vi) Gains, profits, and...

  7. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G

    2009-01-01

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system

  8. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  9. Significance of specific activity and a possible universal unit for its definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The growing importance of specific activity is reviewed. It concerns especially surface phenomena, toxicity, labelling of radiopharmaceuticals, isotope exchange, enzymatic and pharmacological ligand-receptor reactions. The present state of evaluating the specific activity is analyzed. Introduction of the coefficient Dsub(CF) (deviation from true carrier free state) is proposed as a possibility for universal declaration of the specific activity. (author)

  10. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  11. Placement of effective work-in-progress limits in route-specific unit-based pull systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziengs, N.; Riezebos, J.; Germs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unit-based pull systems control the throughput time of orders in a production system by limiting the number of orders on the shop floor. In production systems where orders can follow different routings on the shop floor, route-specific pull systems that control the progress of orders on the shop

  12. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  13. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  14. Technical Specifications: Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-461): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Clinton Power Station, Unit No. 1 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  15. Technical Specifications, Seabrook Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-443): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The Seabrook Station, Unit 1 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. Farmers' objectives toward their woodlands in the upper Midwest of the United States: implications for woodland volumes and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Earl C. Leatherberry; Mark H. Hansen; Brett J. Butler

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that explores the relationship between farm woodland owners' stated intentions for owning woodland, and the structure and composition of these woodlands in the states of Illinois, Indiana and Iowa in the upper Midwest of the United States. Data from two sample-based inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest...

  17. Some Specific Features of the Object of Prosecutorial Supervision over the Observance of Constitutional Rights of the Individual to Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil S. Tishkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the place of supervision functions within the system of the functions of prosecution bodies of the Russian Federation as one of the priority sectors of prosecutorial supervision. The legal regulation of prosecutorial supervision of the rights and freedoms of Russian Federation citizens is examined. The Author reveals the specific features of the subject of prosecutorial supervision in compliance with the constitutional rights of the individual to work based on the results of the current legislation system analysis. The assumption of the need for changes to the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation organizational and administrative documents in order to increase the efficiency of prosecutorial supervision over the observance of individual’s constitutional rights to work is expressed.

  18. How Many Feathers for the War Bonnet? A Groundwork for Distributing the Planning Function in Objectives Force Units of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-23

    22/02; David Tate, “VR in the Field: Hunter Warrior & JCOS/MCM Situational Awareness Using the Virtual Reality Responsive Workbench;” available from... Fetterman Union-Pacific Railroad N. Platte River Missouri River Missouri River Yellowstone River Bighorn R. Black Hills Powder R. Little Missouri R... Fetterman on March 1, 1876, and made contact with a Sioux band on the Powder River two weeks later. However, the lead Unit of Action failed to defeat

  19. Specification of an Expert system for the control of extraction units in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, A.; Charon, E.; Coppens, P.; Romet, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial operation of extraction units in reprocessing plants is very complex because the great number of chemical and hydraulic parameters to take into account. This complexity associated to the impossibility to see inside the active enclosures make difficult the operation processes, diagnosis and corrections. Management of parameters by an expert system will increase productivity and safety of solvent extraction in pulsed columns [fr

  20. Implementation of a mandatory checklist of protocols and objectives improves compliance with a wide range of evidence-based intensive care unit practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Schuerer, Douglas J E; Schallom, Marilyn E; Sona, Carrie S; Mazuski, John E; Taylor, Beth E; McKenzie, Wendi; Thomas, James M; Emerson, Jeffrey S; Nemeth, Jennifer L; Bailey, Ruth A; Boyle, Walter A; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-10-01

    To determine a) if a checklist covering a diverse group of intensive care unit protocols and objectives would improve clinician consideration of these domains and b) if improved consideration would change practice patterns. Pre- and post observational study. A 24-bed surgical/burn/trauma intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. A total of 1399 patients admitted between June 2006 and May 2007. The first component of the study evaluated whether mandating verbal review of a checklist covering 14 intensive care unit best practices altered verbal consideration of these domains. Evaluation was performed using real-time bedside audits on morning rounds. The second component evaluated whether the checklist altered implementation of these domains by changing practice patterns. Evaluation was performed by analyzing data from the Project IMPACT database after patients left the intensive care unit. Verbal consideration of evaluable domains improved from 90.9% (530/583) to 99.7% (669/671, p < .0001) after verbal review of the checklist was mandated. Bedside consideration improved on the use of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis (p < .05), stress ulcer prophylaxis (p < .01), oral care for ventilated patients (p < 0.01), electrolyte repletion (p < .01), initiation of physical therapy (p < .05), and documentation of restraint orders (p < .0001). Mandatory verbal review of the checklist resulted in a greater than two-fold increase in transferring patients out of the intensive care unit on telemetry (16% vs. 35%, p < .0001) and initiation of physical therapy (28% vs. 42%, p < .0001) compared with baseline practice. A mandatory verbal review of a checklist covering a wide range of objectives and goals at each patient's bedside is an effective method to improve both consideration and implementation of intensive care unit best practices. A bedside checklist is a simple, cost-effective method to prevent errors of omission in basic domains of intensive care unit management that might

  1. Accuracy of specific BIVA for the assessment of body composition in the United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Roberto; Saragat, Bruno; Cabras, Stefano; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Marini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a technique for the assessment of hydration and nutritional status, used in the clinical practice. Specific BIVA is an analytical variant, recently proposed for the Italian elderly population, that adjusts bioelectrical values for body geometry. Evaluating the accuracy of specific BIVA in the adult U.S. population, compared to the 'classic' BIVA procedure, using DXA as the reference technique, in order to obtain an interpretative model of body composition. A cross-sectional sample of 1590 adult individuals (836 men and 754 women, 21-49 years old) derived from the NHANES 2003-2004 was considered. Classic and specific BIVA were applied. The sensitivity and specificity in recognizing individuals below the 5(th) and above the 95(th) percentiles of percent fat (FMDXA%) and extracellular/intracellular water (ECW/ICW) ratio were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Classic and specific BIVA results were compared by a probit multiple-regression. Specific BIVA was significantly more accurate than classic BIVA in evaluating FMDXA% (ROC areas: 0.84-0.92 and 0.49-0.61 respectively; p = 0.002). The evaluation of ECW/ICW was accurate (ROC areas between 0.83 and 0.96) and similarly performed by the two procedures (p = 0.829). The accuracy of specific BIVA was similar in the two sexes (p = 0.144) and in FMDXA% and ECW/ICW (p = 0.869). Specific BIVA showed to be an accurate technique. The tolerance ellipses of specific BIVA can be used for evaluating FM% and ECW/ICW in the U.S. adult population.

  2. Breastfeeding trends and updated national health objectives for exclusive breastfeeding--United States, birth years 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    Breastfeeding is associated with decreased risk for many early-life diseases and conditions, including otitis media, respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, gastroenteritis, type 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome, and obesity. Breastfeeding also is associated with health benefits to women, including decreased risk for type 2 diabetes, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as an infant receiving only breast milk and no other liquids or solids except for drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, minerals, or medicines. In 2007, Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objectives for breastfeeding initiation and duration were updated to include two new objectives on exclusive breastfeeding (i.e., to increase the proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their infants through age 3 months to 60% and through age 6 months to 25% [objectives 16-19d and 16-19e]). To monitor progress toward achieving HP2010 breastfeeding objectives, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that rates for breastfeeding initiation and duration increased among infants born during 2000-2004. Rates for exclusive breastfeeding through ages 3 months and 6 months among infants born in 2004 were 30.5% and 11.3%, respectively, below targets set by HP2010. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding were significantly lower among black infants (compared with white infants) and infants born to unmarried mothers (compared with married mothers). Additionally, older age, urban residence, higher education, and higher income of mothers all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Further research is needed to identify successful programs and policies to support exclusive breastfeeding, especially among subgroups with the lowest rates.

  3. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... and scale effects. Moreover, some results from the Crescent City Prototype Dolosse study are presented and related to results from small-de model tests. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse ir presented as well....

  4. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrume...

  5. Category-Specific Visual Recognition and Aging from the PACE Theory Perspective: Evidence for a Presemantic Deficit in Aging Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordaberry, Pierre; Gerlach, Christian; Lenoble, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes that the stru......Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281–301). This view assumes...... that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. Methods: In two experiments on object recognition, young (36 participants, 18–27 years) and older (36 participants, 53–69 years) adult participants...... in the selection stage of the PACE theory (visual long-term memory matching) could be responsible for these impairments. Indeed, the older group showed a deficit when this stage was most relevant. This article emphasize on the critical need for taking into account structural component of the stimuli and type...

  6. Technical Specifications, South Texas Project, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-498): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The South Texas Project, Unit No. 1, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public. This report is Appendix A to License No. NPF-76

  7. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  8. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Anna E; Shiels, Meredith S; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A

    2015-07-20

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well

  9. Specific problems and practical experience of regulatory inspection during commissioning in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.

    1977-01-01

    The commissioning of nine Magnox and two Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor Nuclear Power Plants in the United Kingdom during the last sixteen years under the regulatory control of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive has been based on a Stage Approval Philosophy starting with proof-testing of the primary gas circuit and concluding with tests on the reactor at full power. The practical experience gained during this period has enabled the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate to rationalise the procedures and test requirements without comporomising safety standards. The Operating Rules and Maintenance Schedules are approved for commissioning and during this period are reviewed for their adequacy for future power operation of the plant. The organisation, documentation, test procedures and the commissioning programme used for the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors are briefly explained. (author)

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of obesity diagnosis in pediatric ambulatory care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carolyn O; Milliren, Carly E; Feldman, Henry A; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of an obesity diagnosis in a nationally representative sample of pediatric outpatient visits. We used the 2005 to 2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care surveys. We included visits with children 2 to 18 years, yielding a sample of 48 145 database visits. We determined 3 methods of identifying obesity: documented body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code; and positive answer to the question, "Does the patient now have obesity?" Using BMI as the gold standard, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical obesity diagnosis. Among the 19.5% of children who were obese by BMI, 7.0% had an ICD-9 code and 15.2% had a positive response to questioning. The sensitivity of an obesity diagnosis was 15.4%, and the specificity was 99.2%. The sensitivity of the obesity diagnosis in pediatric ambulatory visits is low. Efforts are needed to increase identification of obese children.

  11. Knowledge ecologies, "supple" objects, and different priorities across women's and gender studies programs and departments in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine Virginia

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the evolving connections between local conditions and knowledge processes in women's and gender studies, a research field in the social sciences and humanities. Data are historical records from five early-adopting women's and gender studies units in the United States and interviews with affiliated professors. In their formative years, these programs were consistent in their intellectual content. Scholars across sites defined the purpose of women's studies similarly: to address the lack of research on women and social problems of sex inequality. Gradually, scholars incorporated a range of analytic categories into women's studies' agenda, including gender identities and masculinities, leading to diverse understandings and redefinitions of the central objects of analysis. Analytic shifts are reflected in differences in the institutional and intellectual composition of programs and departments. To explain how local departmental conditions affect the conception of core objects of study in gender research, the author builds on the literature on knowledge ecologies and introduces the concept of the "supple object." © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Specificities of reactor coolant pumps units with lead and lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Anotonenkov, M.A.; Bokov, P.A.; Baranova, V.S.; Kustov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis results of impact of lead and lead-bismuth coolants specific properties on the coolants flow features in flow channels of the main and auxiliary circulating pumps are presented. Impossibility of cavitation initiation in flow channels of vane pumps pumping lead and lead-bismuth coolants was demonstrated. The experimental research results of discontinuity of heavy liquid metal coolant column were presented and conditions of gas cavitation initiation in coolant flow were discussed. Invalidity of traditional calculation methods of water and sodium coolants circulation pumps calculations for lead and lead-bismuth coolants circulation pumps was substantiated [ru

  13. Radiation Dose Effects into LCO in Technical Specification by Iodine in Hanul units 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Min; Lee, Seung Chan [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This study estimates the impact of the 1-th coolant system in NPP to the LCO (Limiting Condition of Operation) limits which is in the site boundary. Dose limit is merged into the effective dose from whole body and thyroid dose limits, that is possible to combine the two LCOs to a unified LCO. To estimate the limits, the radiation dose of one of the designed accidents should be chosen to check the radiation dose response. The selected accident is based on Seung Chan Lee's study at KHNP in 2011. Using the selected accident, Iodine dose effect is reviewed depending on the LCO limiting responsibility and the specific behavior. In order to evaluate the radiation dose effect in Technical Specification of Hanul 1,2, SGTR is selected for some sensitivity analysis. From the results, in Hanul site, the case of LOOP plus ADV plus GIS is the most severe case and the dose limit margin is about 110% in LCO.

  14. The object of the unitization agreement under the Brazilian legal system; O objeto do acordo de unitizacao no sistema juridico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiana Zuma [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The concept of unitization was incorporated in the Brazilian law through the article 27 of Law n. 9.478/97 (Petroleum Act). There is unitization when a deposit of oil or natural gas extends by two or more contiguous blocks, whose rights of exploration and production belong to different concessionaires and in which case such concessionaires may conclude an Agreement for Individualization of Production (hereinafter referred to Unitization Agreement). This study intends to examine the object of the unitization agreement and to define the limits of the area on which the concessionaires of the neighbouring areas should exercise the production joint operations. Therefore, it was studied the concepts of Block (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIII), Field (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIV), and Reservoir (Petroleum Act, article 6, X and XI), and the articles 26 and 27 of the Petroleum Act were interpreted systematically. The Comparative Law has also been examined and used as a basis for the conclusions presented in this study. (author)

  15. The joint industry development of a recommended practice for the site specific assessment of mobile jackup units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.E.; Bennett, W.T.; Hoyle, M.J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The mobile self-elevating (drilling) unit, or jack-up, has been central to the exploration and development of offshore oil and gas reserves. In recent years there has been an increased desire to benefit from the potential economics of using these units in longer term production roles either in association with a fixed platform or as a stand-alone facility. However, until recently there had been no concerted effort to develop a consistent and commonly accepted standard for general industry use in site specific assessment of jack-ups. This paper describes the background and work carried out to develop such a standard. The project is nearing completion and has resulted in the publication of a Guideline document. A Recommended Practice and associated Commentary are (at the time of writing) in the final stage of drafting for release to the project sponsors for trial and comment prior to issuing the first Edition early in 1994

  16. Neonatal intensive care unit-specific screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung Lai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its risk factors in a tertiary referral hospital in Taiwan to evaluate the applicability of the ROP screening guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Ophthalmology, and American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus in 2006 (2006 guidelines. A pediatric ophthalmologist applied the 2006 guidelines to screen for ROP and to treat with laser photocoagulation in each case. We retrieved all records of premature infants referred for ROP screening at the hospital during 2004 to 2008. Univariate logistic regression analysis was applied firstly to identify factors correlating with stage 3 ROP or with laser treatment, and then those significant (p < 0.05 risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. In the 138 male and 118 female premature infants in this study, mean gestation age was 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks, and mean birth weight was 1464.7 ± 434.2 g. The percentage of infants with ROP in at least one eye was 38.7%. Thirty two (12.5% had ROP stage 3 or higher in at least one eye. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictors of type 1 pre-threshold ROP (requiring laser treatment were young gestational age, low birth weight and male gender. As medical care of extremely premature infants improves, timely identification and treatment of conditions such as ROP are essential. Although the incidence of ROP in this institute was comparable to that in developing countries and higher than that in developed countries, the 2006 guidelines originally developed for a United States population were still applicable. However, the 2006 guidelines should be modified for a Taiwan population by considering gender.

  17. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  18. Effects of mobile phone use on specific intensive care unit devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Nidhi; Kapadia, Farhad N

    2008-10-01

    To observe the effects of mobile phone use in the vicinity of medical devices used in a critical care setting. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) was tested by using two types of mobile phones - GSM and CDMA. Mobile phones were placed at a distance of one foot from three medical devices - syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, and the bedside monitor - in switch off, standby, and talking modes of the phone. Medical devices were observed for any interference caused by the electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from the mobile phones. Out of the three medical devices that were tested, EMI occurred while using the mobile phone in the vicinity of the syringe pump, in the 'talk mode.' The mean variation observed in the calculated and delivered volume of the syringe pump was 2.66 ml. Mechanical ventilator did not show any specific adverse effects with mobile phone use in the one-foot vicinity. No other adverse effects or unexplained malfunctions or shutdown of the syringe pump, mechanical ventilator, or the bedside monitor was noted during the study period of 36 hours. EMI from mobile phones have an adverse effect on the medical devices used in critical care setup. They should be used at least one foot away from the diameter of the syringe pump.

  19. SPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MARKING OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS DISTINGUISHED FROM THE CARRIERS OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL AND OBJECTS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IN CURATIVE INSTITUTIONS OF THE SOUTH RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grechishkina Y.A.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Carried out specific differentiation of pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from various environmental objects surgical hospital, biomaterials from patients. The results of the research brought together strains of pathogenic staphylococci in the lytic group and 4 show the frequency of detection of each analytic group in the particular material. Received the rationale for the introduction of phage-typing method in the practical work of bacteriological laboratories, epidemiological control software in the hospital for bacteriological indicators to effectively combat nosocomial infections.

  20. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Operating experience program and plant specific performance indicators (level 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodor, Vasile; Popa, Viorel

    1998-01-01

    The basis for the Operating Experience Program was set in place since early stages of the commissioning phase (1993), when a system based on the Canadian approach was implemented for reporting, reviewing, assessing and establishing of the necessary corrective action for unplanned events. This system provided excellent opportunity to train staff in unplanned event assessment methodology, and prepare the station for the formal reporting process following criticality in accordance with the licensing requirements. The formal process, set in place after criticality is described in Station Instruction Procedure SI-01365-P13 'Unplanned Event Report' and was developed under the supervision of Safety and Compliance Department. In parallel, a program for information exchange and trending of performance indicators was developed by Technical Services Department. The WANO recommendations following August 1997 Peer Review provided the opportunity for a better understanding and reconsideration of the Operating Experience Program. As a result, all the activities related to this topic were assigned to a new structure, within Safety and Compliance Department. As such an Operating Experience Group was created and a new program is now being developed in an integrated and centralized manner. The content of the paper is the following: - Overview; - Operating Experience Program; - Event Analysis (Unplanned Events Assessment System - UEIR Process- and Systematic Analysis of Operational Events - ACR Process); - Information Exchange Program; - Monitoring of Operating Experience - Plant Specific Performance Indicators; - Purpose; - Level 2 Performance Indicators. Four appendices are added containing: - A. Station performance indicators/targets (Level 2); - B. SPI (Station Performance Indicators - Level 2) - Graphics; - C. UEIR, LRS (Safety and Licensing Review Sheet), UEFR (Unplanned Event Follow-up Report), ACR and OPEX forms. (authors)

  1. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Chris H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346 of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346 follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346 used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%. In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.

  2. Improved perception of communication and compliance with a revised, intensive care unit-specific bedside communication sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Patel, Linda; Sen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Although many pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) use beside communication sheets (BCSs) to highlight daily goals, the optimal format is unknown. A site-specific BCS could improve both PICU communication and compliance completing the BCS. Via written survey, PICU staff at an academic children's hospital provided recommendations for improving and revising an existing BCS. Pre- and post-BCS revision, PICU staff were polled regarding PICU communication and BCS effectiveness, and daily compliance for completing the BCS was monitored. After implementation of the revised BCS, staff reporting "excellent" or "very good" day-to-day communication within the PICU increased from 57% to 77% (P = .02). Compliance for completing the BCS also increased significantly (75% vs 83%, P = .03). Introduction of a focused and concise BCS tailored to a specific PICU leads to improved perceptions of communication by PICU staff and increased compliance completing the daily BCS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Context-specific activation of hippocampus and SN/VTA by reward is related to enhanced long-term memory for embedded objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eleanor; Kumaran, Dharshan; Koster, Raphael; Berron, David; Dolan, Ray; Duzel, Emrah

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies indicate that hippocampal representations of environmental context modulate reward-related processing in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), a major origin of dopamine in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated the neural specificity of context-reward associations under conditions where the presence of perceptually similar neutral contexts imposed high demands on a putative hippocampal function, pattern separation. The design also allowed us to investigate how contextual reward enhances long-term memory for embedded neutral objects. SN/VTA activity underpinned specific context-reward associations in the face of perceptual similarity. A reward-related enhancement of long-term memory was restricted to the condition where the rewarding and the neutral contexts were perceptually similar, and in turn was linked to co-activation of the hippocampus (subfield DG/CA3) and SN/VTA. Thus, an ability of contextual reward to enhance memory for focal objects is closely linked to context-related engagement of hippocampal-SN/VTA circuitry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Language Cultural Specificity of the Language Units “Cat” and “Dog” in English and Chinese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жером Багана

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the national and cultural features of zoonyms “cat” and “dog” in English and Chinese languages. The authors point out zoonyms’ main characteristics and their national cultural originality. Zoonyms represent the special features of national linguistic world view and values in the comparative analysis’ aspect The article represents interpretation of the language units in the monolingual explanatory dictionaries. The dictionary definitions of the terms phraseology and zoonym are given. The research is devoted to phraseology in the English and Chinese languages. The historical notes about the attitude toward cats and dogs in Britain and China are shown. Also some peculiarities of zoonyms function in English and Chinese animal fairy-tales are observed. Based on the differences the authors notice differences of phraseology between zoonyms “cat” and “dog”. Some examples in the English and Chinese languages are observed. The analysis represents universal and national specific semantic features of the present units in the languages so far as phraseology contains the most vivid representation of the national-cultural specificity of world view, connotative features and values peoples in Europe and Asia.

  5. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations

  6. The Relationship between Exposure to Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Drinkers—United States, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S.; Albers, Alison B.; DeJong, William; King, Charles; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. Objectives To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. Methods We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence—by brand—among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs), was obtained from GfK MRI and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1,031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. Results Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior— brand choice—among youth who consume alcohol. PMID:26479468

  7. Effect of object location on the density measurement and Hounsfield conversion in a NewTom 3G cone beam computed tomography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravère, M O; Carey, J; Ben-Zvi, M; Packota, G V; Major, P W

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an object's location in a cone beam CT imaging chamber (CBCT-NewTom 3G) on its apparent density and to develop a linear conversion coefficient for Hounsfield units (HU) to material density (g cm(-3)) for the NewTom 3G Scanner. Three cylindrical models of materials with different densities were constructed and scanned at five different locations in a NewTom 3G Volume Scanner. The average HU value for each model at each location was obtained using two different types of software. Next, five cylinders of different known densities were scanned at the exact centre of a NewTom 3G Scanner. The collected data were analysed using the same two types of software to determine a standard linear relationship between density and HU for each type of software. There is no statistical significance of location of an object within the CBCT scanner on determination of its density. A linear relationship between the density of an object and the HU of a scan was rho = 0.001(HU)+1.19 with an R2 value of 0.893 (where density, rho, is measured in g cm(-3)). This equation is to be used on a range between 1.42 g cm(-3) and 0.4456 g cm(-3). A linear relationship can be used to determine the density of materials (in the density range of bone) from the HU values of a CBCT scan. This relationship is not affected by the object's location within the scanner itself.

  8. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  9. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre

  10. RAMS+C informed decision-making with application to multi-objective optimization of technical specifications and maintenance using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villanueva, J.F.; Carlos, S.; Nebot, Y.; Sanchez, A.; Pitarch, J.L.; Serradell, V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of technical specifications and maintenance (TSM) activities at nuclear power plants (NPP) aims to increase reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) of Safety-Related Equipment, which, in turn, must yield to an improved level of plant safety. However, more resources (e.g. costs, task force, etc.) have to be assigned in above areas to achieve better scores in reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS). Current situation at NPP shows different programs implemented at the plant that aim to the improvement of particular TSM-related parameters where the decision-making process is based on the assessment of the impact of the change proposed on a subgroup of RAMS+C attributes. This paper briefly reviews the role of TSM and two main groups of improvement programs at NPP, which suggest the convenience of considering the approach proposed in this paper for the Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on changes to TSM-related parameters based on RAMS+C criteria as a whole, as it can be seem as a decision-making process more consistent with the role and synergic effects of TSM and the objectives and goals of current improvement programs at NPP. The case of application to the Emergency Diesel Generator system demonstrates the viability and significance of the proposed approach for the Multi-objective Optimization of TSM-related parameters using a Genetic Algorithm

  11. Primary phonological planning units in spoken word production are language-specific: Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Wang, Suiping; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-07-19

    It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded. Each two consecutive pictures implicitly formed a pair of prime and target, whose names shared the same word-initial atonal syllable or the same word-initial segments, or were unrelated in the control conditions. Only syllable repetition induced significant effects on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) after target onset: a widely distributed positivity in the 200- to 400-ms interval and an anterior positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval. We interpret these to reflect syllable-size representations at the phonological encoding and phonetic encoding stages. Our results provide the first electrophysiological evidence for the distinct role of syllables in producing Mandarin spoken words, supporting a language specificity hypothesis about the primary phonological units in spoken word production.

  12. Technical specifications, Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented concerning specifications on the following aspects of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  13. Technical Specifications, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-400). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report presents specifications for the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant Unit No. 1 concerning: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  14. Integrated approach to e-learning enhanced both subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W B; Tagamolila, V; Toh, Y P; Cheng, Z R

    2015-03-01

    Various meta-analyses have shown that e-learning is as effective as traditional methods of continuing professional education. However, there are some disadvantages to e-learning, such as possible technical problems, the need for greater self-discipline, cost involved in developing programmes and limited direct interaction. Currently, most strategies for teaching amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide depend on traditional teaching methods. We implemented a programme that utilised an integrated approach to e-learning. The programme consisted of three sessions of supervised protected time e-learning in an NICU. The objective and subjective effectiveness of the approach was assessed through surveys administered to participants before and after the programme. A total of 37 NICU staff (32 nurses and 5 doctors) participated in the study. 93.1% of the participants appreciated the need to acquire knowledge of aEEG. We also saw a statistically significant improvement in the subjective knowledge score (p = 0.041) of the participants. The passing rates for identifying abnormal aEEG tracings (defined as ≥ 3 correct answers out of 5) also showed a statistically significant improvement (from 13.6% to 81.8%, p e-learning can help improve subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG.

  15. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  16. Impaired spatial learning strategies and novel object recognition in mice haploinsufficient for the dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1A (Dyrk1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Arqué

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogenic aneuploidies involve the concept of dosage-sensitive genes leading to over- and underexpression phenotypes. Monosomy 21 in human leads to mental retardation and skeletal, immune and respiratory function disturbances. Most of the human condition corresponds to partial monosomies suggesting that critical haploinsufficient genes may be responsible for the phenotypes. The DYRK1A gene is localized on the human chromosome 21q22.2 region, and has been proposed to participate in monosomy 21 phenotypes. It encodes a dual-specificity kinase involved in neuronal development and in adult brain physiology, but its possible role as critical haploinsufficient gene in cognitive function has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mice heterozygous for a Dyrk1A targeted mutation (Dyrk1A+/- to investigate the implication of this gene in the cognitive phenotypes of monosomy 21. Performance of Dyrk1A+/- mice was assayed 1/ in a navigational task using the standard hippocampally related version of the Morris water maze, 2/ in a swimming test designed to reveal potential kinesthetic and stress-related behavioral differences between control and heterozygous mice under two levels of aversiveness (25 degrees C and 17 degrees C and 3/ in a long-term novel object recognition task, sensitive to hippocampal damage. Dyrk1A+/- mice showed impairment in the development of spatial learning strategies in a hippocampally-dependent memory task, they were impaired in their novel object recognition ability and were more sensitive to aversive conditions in the swimming test than euploid control animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results are clear examples where removal of a single gene has a profound effect on phenotype and indicate that haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A might contribute to an impairment of cognitive functions and stress coping behavior in human monosomy 21.

  17. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  19. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  20. Stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age, race, and ethnicity, United States, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Siegel, David A; King, Jessica B

    2018-05-01

    Current literature shows different findings on the contemporary trends of distant-stage prostate cancer incidence, in part, due to low study population coverage and wide age groupings. This study aimed to examine the stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age (5-year grouping), race, and ethnicity using nationwide cancer registry data. Data on prostate cancer cases came from the 2004-2014 United States Cancer Statistics data set. We calculated stage-specific incidence and 95% confidence intervals by age (5-year age grouping), race, and ethnicity. To measure the changes in rates over time, we calculated annual percentage change (APC). We identified 2,137,054 incident prostate cancers diagnosed during 2004-2014, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 453.8 per 100,000. Distant-stage prostate cancer incidence significantly decreased during 2004-2010 (APC = -1.2) and increased during 2010-2014 (APC = 3.3). Significant increases in distant prostate cancer incidence also occurred in men aged older than or equal to 50 years except men aged 65-74 and older than or equal to 85 years, in men with white race (APC = 3.9), and non-Hispanic ethnicity (APC = 3.5). Using data representing over 99% of U.S. population, we found that incidence rates of distant-stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2014 among men in certain ages, in white, and with non-Hispanic ethnicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  2. Near-Earth Objects. Chapter 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.; Drube, Line; McFadden, Lucy A.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    A near-Earth object (NEO) is an asteroid or comet orbiting the Sun with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 Astronomical Units (AU) (1 AU, an astronomical unit, is the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun, around 150 million kilometers). If the orbit of an NEO can bring it to within 0.05 AU of the Earth's orbit, and it is larger than about 120 meters, it is termed a potentially hazardous object (PHO); an object of this size is likely to survive passage through the atmosphere and cause extensive damage on impact. (The acronyms NEA and PHO are used when referring specifically to asteroids.)

  3. Plutonium-related work and cause-specific mortality at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David; Wolf, Susanne; Mihlan, Gary

    2004-02-01

    Health effects of working with plutonium remain unclear. Plutonium workers at the United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, USA were evaluated for increased risks of cancer and non-cancer mortality. Periods of employment in jobs with routine or non-routine potential for plutonium exposure were identified for 26,389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978. Life table regression was used to examine associations of length of employment in plutonium jobs with confirmed plutonium deposition and with cause specific mortality through 1994. Incidence of confirmed internal plutonium deposition in all plutonium workers was 15.4 times greater than in other Hanford jobs. Plutonium workers had low death rates compared to other workers, particularly for cancer causes. Mortality for several causes was positively associated with length of employment in routine plutonium jobs, especially for employment at older ages. At ages 50 and above, death rates for non-external causes of death, all cancers, cancers of tissues where plutonium deposits, and lung cancer, increased 2.0 +/- 1.1%, 2.6 +/- 2.0%, 4.9 +/- 3.3%, and 7.1 +/- 3.4% (+/-SE) per year of employment in routine plutonium jobs, respectively. Workers employed in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure have low mortality rates compared to other Hanford workers even with adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and employment factors. This may be due, in part, to medical screening. Associations between duration of employment in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure and mortality may indicate occupational exposure effects. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  5. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 2. Surry Power Plants, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 1 and 2 of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant was carried out for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1973 through 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring employ a fixed thermographs network and boat measurements. Review of data indicates that both the application and formulation of the hydrothermal monitoring program are inadequate to fully characterize the operation of the plant and the behavior of the thermal plume. Furthermore, there are no existing data that can be used to adequately verify or disprove the validity of the various Surry plume predictions. The ecological analysis includes validation of impacts predicted in the Final Environmental Statement using the operational monitoring data. Phytoplankton cell concentrations, chlorophyll a, and carbon-14 measurements were used to monitor changes in the primary producers. Densities of consumers (i.e., zooplankton, benthos, and fish) were sed to monitor changes in the primary producers. Models based on operating data were constructed to determine whether changes were occurring at each trophic level. Analysis of the monitoring data suggests that the thermal discharges at Surry are having a negative effect on the phytoplankton and zooplankton but are enhancing the benthic and nekton populations in the discharge area

  6. Technical Specifications, Byron Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-454 and STN 50-455). Appendix A to license No. NPF-37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Byron Station, Unit No. 1 and Unit No. 2 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public. Specifications are presented for limiting conditions for operation for the reactor control system, power distribution limits, instrumentation, primary coolant circuit, ECCS, containment systems, plant systems, electrical power systems, refueling operations, radioactive effluents, and radiological environmental monitoring

  7. Modernization of Unit 2 at Oskarshamn NPP- Main Objectives, Experience from Design, Separation of Operational and Nuclear Safety Equipment - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Salah K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant (OKG) experience from design for one of the biggest modernization project in the world and focuses on what was learned that is specific to robustness of electrical power systems, especially through Fukushima Station Blackout (SBO). The planning for unit 2 at OKG was initiated in 1967 and the plant was completed on time and was synchronized to the grid October 2, 1974 and is of type BWR. Unit 2 was originally on 580 MW. In 1982 a thermal power up-rate was performed, from 1700 MWh to 1800 MWh (106% reactor output). A decision was made to perform a modernization and a new power up-rate to 850 MW and there were several reasons for this decision; New safety regulations from Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), Ageing of important components and the initial focus was on safety and availability - Project Plant Life Extension (Plex) was established and became the largest nuclear power modernization in the world. The modernization will lead to: - New safety concept with 4 divisions instead for existing 2 with 2 new buildings South Electrical Building (SEB) and North Electrical Building (NEB); - Completely new software - based equipments for monitoring, control and I and C; - New Low Pressure Turbine, new generator and main transformer; - New MCR and simulator; - Compliance with modern reactor safety requirements; - Redundancy, Separation, Diversification, Earthquake; - Reinforcement of existing safety functions; - New Electricity - I and C (electric power incl. reinforced emergency power and control systems); - New buildings for Electricity - I and C; - Reinforcement of existing process systems as well as installation of new ones. Based on studies and good experiences on how to separate the operational and the safety equipment, the project led to a completely new safety concept. The safety concept is based on fully understanding the safety system that shall encompass all of the elements required to

  8. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical-specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the San Onofre Nuclear Genetating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes will ensure that the Class 1E equipment will be protected from sustained voltage degradation

  9. Technical specifications, Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report presents information concerning the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 Reactor. Topics under discussion include: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting condition for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  10. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.com, E-mail: gbaez@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-01-15

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} the values appropriate to each system.

  11. Technical specifications: Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-388). Appendix A to License No. NPF-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  12. Technical specifications, Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-322): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The Shoreham, Unit 1, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public. 20 figs., 75 tabs

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(5)-1 - Services in employ of an instrumentality of the United States specifically exempted from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND... employ of an instrumentality of the United States specifically exempted from the employer tax. Services... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in employ of an instrumentality of the...

  14. Technical specifications, Braidwood Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Braidwood Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public. 18 figs., 55 tabs

  15. Technical specifications for Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 (Docket No. 50-416). Appendix A to License No. NPF-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1 Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions and other requirements applicable to a nuclear facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Kumar Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  17. The relationship between exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and brand-specific consumption among underage drinkers--United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; Albers, Alison B; DeJong, William; King, Charles; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2016-01-01

    Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence--by brand--among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs, a standard measure of advertising exposure), was obtained from GfK MRI (a media consumer research company) and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior--brand choice--among youth who consume alcohol.

  18. Technical specifications Limerick Generating Station, Unit No.1 (Docket No. 50-352). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The specifications include: definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, bases, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls

  19. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  20. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  1. Time-of-flight data acquisition unit (DAU) for neutron scattering experiments. Specification of the requirements and design concept. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdam, G.; Klessmann, H.; Wawer, W.; Adebayo, J.; David, G.; Szatmari, F.

    1989-12-01

    This specification describes the requirements for the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and defines the design concept for the functional units involved. The Data Acquisition Unit will be used in the following neutron scattering experiments: Time-of-Flight Spectrometer NEAT, Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SPAN. In addition, the data of the SPAN spectrometer in Spin Echo experiments will be accumulated. The Data Acquisition Unit can be characterised by the following requirements: Time-of-flight measurement with high time resolution (125 ns), sorting the time-of-flight in up to 4096 time channels (channel width ≥ 1 μs), selection of different time channel widths for peak and background, on-line time-of-flight correction for neutron flight paths of different lengths, sorting the detector position information in up to 4096 position channels, accumulation of two-dimensional spectra in a 32 Mbyte RAM memory (4 K time channels*4 K position channels*16 bits). Because of the stringent timing requirements the functional units of the DAU are hardware controlled via tables. The DAU is part of a process control system which has access to the functional units via the VMEbus in order to initialise, to load tables and control information, and to read status information and spectra. (orig.) With 18 figs

  2. Technical specifications: Byron Station Unit No. 1 (Docket No. STN 50-454). Appendix A to License No. NPF-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Specifications are presented concerning safety limits; reactor control systems; instrumentation; coolant circuits; emergency core cooling systems; containment systems; plant systems; electrical power systems; refueling operations; radioactive effluents; radiological environmental monitoring; design features; and administrative controls

  3. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches’ evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches’ judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle. PMID:28953958

  4. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicheur, Halim; Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  5. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Hicheur

    Full Text Available The cognitive-motor performance (CMP, defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46 young elite soccer players (including 2 female players aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation. We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  6. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Comfort Scale to Assess Pain in Ventilated Critically Ill Adult Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Indah Sri; Prasetyo, Awal; Utami, Reni Sulung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain is a common phenomenon experienced by ventilated and critically ill adult patients. It is urgent to measure the pain among these patients since they are unable to report their pain verbally. Comfort Scale is one of the instruments used to measure pain in adult patients. The scale is used to measure pain among children patients with fairly high sensitivity and specificity.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Comfort Scale to measure pain ...

  7. Cross-cultural generality and specificity in self-regulation: avoidance personal goals and multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Sedikides, Constantine; Murayama, Kou; Tanaka, Ayumi; Thrash, Todd M; Mapes, Rachel R

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined avoidance personal goals as concurrent (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) predictors of multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan. In both studies, participants adopted more avoidance personal goals in Japan relative to the United States. Both studies also demonstrated that avoidance personal goals were significant negative predictors of the most relevant aspects of well-being in each culture. Specifically, avoidance personal goals were negative predictors of intrapersonal and eudaimonic well-being in the United States and were negative predictors of interpersonal and eudaimonic well-being in Japan. The findings clarify and extend puzzling findings from prior empirical work in this area, and raise provocative possibilities about the nature of avoidance goal pursuit.

  8. Quantifying Trade-Offs Between Economic and Ecological Objectives in Uneven-Aged Mixed- Species Forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Kenneth E. Skog

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes research on the management of uneven-aged loblolly pine-hardwood stands in the southern United States. This research was composed of three elements: (1) modeling of biological growth of uneven-aged stands of mixed loblolly pine and hardwood trees, (2) optimization to discover sustainable regimes that would best meet economic and ecological...

  9. Specific Features of Diagnostics of Efficiency of Management of Innovation Risks at Enterprises of the Baking Industry (Cost-is-no-object Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilynska Juliana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses diagnostics of efficiency of management of innovation risks through cost optimisation. Management of costs on innovation grounds is carried out with the aim of their reduction. In order to realise measures on reduction of influence of innovation risks in the system of cost management the article specifies the most important factors and builds multi-factor models. The process of study of influence of the innovation risk upon the cost value of the sold products of bakeries is presented in the form of a scheme of logically united stages. The article takes into account all restrictions and requirements, eliminates multi-collinearity and uses MS Excel Regression analysis for modelling dynamic multi-factor models of cost value of sold products of the studied bakeries. In the result of the study the article obtains main factors that would be used for forecasting tendencies of development of the studied enterprises, development of the decision making system and improvement of methodical provision of innovation risk management.

  10. Technical specifications, Callaway Plant, Unit No. 1. Appendix A to license No. NPF-25 (Docket No. STN 50-483)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, F.D.

    1984-06-01

    Technical specifications are presented for the limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements for the reactor core, reactivity control systems, power distribution limits, instrumentation, reactor coolant system, emergency core cooling systems, containment systems, plant systems, electrical power systems, refueling operations, special test exceptions, radioactive effluents, radiological environmental monitoring; design features of the site, containment, core, coolant system, and fuel storage; and plant staff organization

  11. Survival after Liver Transplantation in the United States: A Disease-Specific Analysis of the UNOS database

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roberts, M.S.; Angus, D.C.; Bryce, C.L.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Weissfeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2004), s. 886-897 ISSN 1527-6465 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : disease-specific survival * liver transplantation * cox PH model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.984, year: 2004

  12. Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Eke, Paul I; Giles, Wayne H

    2017-05-05

    Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged blacks in age groups deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

  13. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  14. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  15. Endochitinase 1 (Tv-ECH1) from Trichoderma virens has high subsite specificities for acetylated units when acting on chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußwinkel, Franziska; Goñi, Oscar; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; O'Connell, Shane; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2018-03-15

    Chitosans with defined characteristics have been shown to possess reproducible bioactivities for numerous applications. A promising approach for producing chitosans with defined degrees of polymerization (DP), degrees of acetylation (DA), and patterns of acetylation (PA) involves using chitin-modifying enzymes. One such enzyme, the chitinase Tv-ECH1 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 18, seems to have an important role in the biocontrol properties of the fungus Trichoderma virens, suggesting its potential in generating novel chitosans for plant health applications. In this study, the Tv-ECH1 enzyme was overexpressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, yielding large amounts (up to 2mgmL -1 ) of purified recombinant enzyme of high activity, high purity, and high stability, making the system promising for industrial production of Tv-ECH1. The purified Tv-ECH1 chitinase displayed a wide optimal pH range from 4.5 to 6 and an optimal temperature of 37°C. Detailed subsite specificity analyses revealed high preference for acetylated residues at all four subsites analyzed (-2, -1, +1, +2), making Tv-ECH1 a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of specific chitosan oligomers and for the characterization of chitosan polymers via enzymatic fingerprinting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diagnostic specificity of the African swine fever virus antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in feral and domestic pigs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, H C; Glas, P S; Schumann, K R

    2017-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs that has the potential to cause mortality nearing 100% in naïve animals. While an outbreak of ASF in the United States' pig population (domestic and feral) has never been reported, an introduction of the disease has the potential to cause devastation to the pork industry and food security. During the recovery phase of an outbreak, an antibody detection diagnostic assay would be required to prove freedom of disease within the previously infected zone and eventually nationwide. Animals surviving an ASF infection would be considered carriers and could be identified through the persistence of ASF viral antibodies. These antibodies would demonstrate exposure to the disease and not vaccination, as there is no ASF vaccine available. A well-established commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detects antibodies against ASF virus (ASFV), but the diagnostic specificity of the assay had not been determined using serum samples from the pig population of the United States. This study describes an evaluation of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended Ingezim PPA COMPAC ELISA using a comprehensive cohort (n = 1791) of samples collected in the United States. The diagnostic specificity of the assay was determined to be 99.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): [98.9, 99.7]). The result of this study fills a gap in understanding the performance of the Ingezim PPA COMPAC ELISA in the ASF naïve pig population of the United States. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  19. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  20. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  1. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youth: a randomized clinical trial in the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H; Ost, Lars-Göran; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Costa, Natalie; Cederlund, Rio; Sirbu, Cristian; Davis, Thompson E; Jarrett, Matthew A

    2009-06-01

    One hundred and ninety-six youth, ages 7-16, who fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for various specific phobias were randomized to a one-session exposure treatment, education support treatment, or a wait list control group. After the waiting period, the wait list participants were offered treatment and, if interested, rerandomized to 1 of the 2 active treatments. The phobias were assessed with semistructured diagnostic interviews, clinician severity ratings, and behavioral avoidance tests, whereas fears, general anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were assessed with self- and parent report measures. Assessments were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6 months following treatment. Results showed that both treatment conditions were superior to the wait list control condition and that 1-session exposure treatment was superior to education support treatment on clinician ratings of phobic severity, percentage of participants who were diagnosis free, child ratings of anxiety during the behavioral avoidance test, and treatment satisfaction as reported by the youth and their parents. There were no differences on self-report measures. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2009 APA

  2. Technical evaluation report on the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification change for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation finds that the licensee has not provided sufficient information on the undervoltage protection system to allow a complete evaluation into the adequacy of protecting the Class 1E equipment from sustained voltage degradation

  3. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB.In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  4. Up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models from objects to land use units at the meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Flood risk management increasingly relies on risk analyses, including loss modelling. Most of the flood loss models usually applied in standard practice have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel multi-variable models significantly improve loss estimation on the micro-scale and may also be advantageous for large-scale applications. However, more input parameters also reveal additional uncertainty, even more in upscaling procedures for meso-scale applications, where the parameters need to be estimated on a regional area-wide basis. To gain more knowledge about challenges associated with the up-scaling of multi-variable flood loss models the following approach is applied: Single- and multi-variable micro-scale flood loss models are up-scaled and applied on the meso-scale, namely on basis of ATKIS land-use units. Application and validation is undertaken in 19 municipalities, which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany by comparison to official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB).In the meso-scale case study based model validation, most multi-variable models show smaller errors than the uni-variable stage-damage functions. The results show the suitability of the up-scaling approach, and, in accordance with micro-scale validation studies, that multi-variable models are an improvement in flood loss modelling also on the meso-scale. However, uncertainties remain high, stressing the importance of uncertainty quantification. Thus, the development of probabilistic loss models, like BT-FLEMO used in this study, which inherently provide uncertainty information are the way forward.

  5. GA/particle swarm intelligence based optimization of two specific varieties of controller devices applied to two-area multi-units automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents the comparative performance analysis of the two specific varieties of controller devices for optimal transient performance of automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area power system, having multiple thermal-hydro-diesels mixed generating units. The significant improvement of optimal transient performance is observed with the addition of a thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in the tie-line or capacitive energy storage (CES) units fitted in both the areas. Three different optimization algorithms are adopted for the sake of comparison of optimal performances and obtaining the optimal values of the gain settings of the devices independently. Craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) proves to be moderately fast algorithm and yields true optimal gains and minimum overshoot, minimum undershoot and minimum settling time of the transient response for any system. Comparative studies of TCPS and CES by any algorithm reveals that the CES units fitted in both the areas improve the transient performance to a greater extent following small load disturbance(s) in both the areas. (author)

  6. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  7. Comparison of 2015 Medicare relative value units for gender-specific procedures: Gynecologic and gynecologic-oncologic versus urologic CPT coding. Has time healed gender-worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M F; Ma, J F; Upperman, B A

    2017-02-01

    In 1992, Congress implemented a relative value unit (RVU) payment system to set reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In 1997, data supported that a significant gender bias existed in reimbursement for gynecologic compared to urologic procedures. The present study was performed to compare work and total RVU's for gender specific procedures effective January 2015 and to evaluate if time has healed the gender-based RVU worth. Using the 2015 CPT codes, we compared work and total RVU's for 50 pairs of gender specific procedures. We also evaluated 2015 procedure related provider compensation. The groups were matched so that the procedures were anatomically similar. We also compared 2015 to 1997 RVU and fee schedules. Evaluation of work RVU's for the paired procedures revealed that in 36 cases (72%), male vs female procedures had a higher wRVU and tRVU. For total fee/reimbursement, 42 (84%) male based procedures were compensated at a higher rate than the paired female procedures. On average, male specific surgeries were reimbursed at an amount that was 27.67% higher for male procedures than for female-specific surgeries. Female procedure based work RVU's have increased minimally from 1997 to 2015. Time and effort have trended towards resolution of some gender-related procedure worth discrepancies but there are still significant RVU and compensation differences that should be further reviewed and modified as surgical time and effort highly correlate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Multiple mini-interview as a predictor of performance in the objective structured clinical examination among Physician Associates in the United Kingdom: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Bhardwaj, Shailaja; Rahman, Eqram

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Patient satisfaction and health care outcomes are directly linked to useful communication skills. Therefore, excellent interpersonal skills are imperative for health care professionals. Multiple mini-interview (MMI) is designed as a selection tool to assess the communication skills of applicants in medical schools during the admission process. However, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assesses students’ communication and clinical skills at the end of their academic terms. Recently, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK, adopted MMI in the selection process for the first cohort of MSc Physician Associate trainees for the academic year 2015–2016. This study aimed to determine the likelihood of MMI as a predictor of future performance of communication skills in the OSCE. Materials and methods The anonymous data of the average scores of communication skills attained in MMI and OSCE at the end of year 1 were collected for 30 students from the Physician Associate program team. Subsequently, Pearson’s correlation was computed to determine the relationship between the average scores of communication skills attained in MMI, and OSCE during trimester 2 and trimester 3 by the Physician Associate trainees. Results The study showed positive correlation between the scores of communication skills attained in MMI and OSCE during trimester 2 (r=0.956, n=30, p<0.001) and trimester 3 (r=0.966, n=30, p<0.001). Conclusion The study provides empirical evidence for the validity of MMI as a predictor of future performance of Physician Associate trainees’ communication skills during subsequent OSCEs. PMID:29695944

  9. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  10. Basic objects of marketing in project activities

    OpenAIRE

    Онищенко, Світлана Петрівна; Берневек, Тетяна Іванівна

    2013-01-01

    The article identified the main types of a project product from the point of view of a business level that is necessary to determine the specificity of the project marketing. As such objects of marketing - variants of the project product we have singled out: a product, a combination "product-market segment," a commodity group, a strategic business unit, a company. We have analyzed the relation "product life cycle - project-organization" and received a generalized representation of this relati...

  11. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  13. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  14. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  15. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  17. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefor...

  18. The Effect of Stabilization Exercises on Objective Outcome Measures in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review with Particular Emphasis On Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common and costly health problems. Changes in muscle activity and recruitment of lumbar deep muscles which are responsible for lumbar spine stability have been reported in patients with LBP. Different exercise programs are used in the treatment of such patients to improve spinal stability. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of stabilization exercises on objective outcome measures in patients with non-specific chronic LBP in previous randomized controlled trials. Materials & Methods: A literature search for the period of 2000-2012 was performed, using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google scholar, Science Direct, OVID and CINAHL databases. Low back pain, stabilization exercise, motor control exercise, segmental stabilization, transverse abdominis muscle, multifidus muscle, electromyography, ultrasound, ultrasonography, and randomized controlled trial were used as keywords. Muscle recruitment, postural balance control, muscle endurance, muscle size and lumbar range of motion were studied as objective outcome measures.  Results: In total, of 158 articles, 13 articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria of the study. There was a wide variation among studies in terms of methodology, main outcome measures, sample size, procedure, etc. The results demonstrated that stabilization exercise was more effective than other interventions on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural balance control, muscle endurance and range of motion, while it was not significantly different with other interventions on deep muscle size.  Conclusion: It seems that stabilization exercise has considerable effect on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural control, muscle endurance and range of motion and can be considered as an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with non-specific chronic LBP

  19. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  20. The State of Prescreening Discussions About Prostate-specific Antigen Testing Following Implementation of the 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turini, George A; Gjelsvik, Annie; Renzulli, Joseph F

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the quality of prescreening discussions has changed following release of the United States Preventive Services Task Force statement against prostate cancer screening. This cross-sectional study used the 2012 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Respondents were categorized based on the year in which they responded to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Quality of prescreening discussion was operationalized as having discussed only advantages, only disadvantages, both advantages and disadvantages, or neither. Race/ethnicity, education level, income, insurance status, and having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level actually drawn after prescreening counseling served as confounders in our multivariate analysis. Among 217,053 men in the analytic sample, 37% were told about only advantages of PSA screening compared to 30% of men who were advised about both advantages and disadvantages. Men who were told about neither advantages nor disadvantages were more likely to be Hispanic, not graduate high school, have low income, and not have insurance. Controlling for covariates, men in 2014 were significantly more likely to have undergone PSA testing without having discussed either advantages or disadvantages than men in 2012. Comprehensive prescreening discussions about advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing are critical to informed decision making about prostate cancer screening. Disparities not only exist with regard to the quality of prescreening discussions that patients receive from their providers prior to PSA testing across categories of race/ethnicity, education, income, and insurance status, but these disparities became more substantial between 2012 and 2014. Further investigation is warranted to elicit more specific reasons behind these variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety objectives and basic design for surface centres for long-term storage of solid radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and low or medium specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The role of this RFS is to define the safety objectives and the basic design philosophy for surface centres for long-term storage of packages of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity

  2. Urban vs. rural differences in prescription opioid misuse among adults in the United States: informing region specific drug policies and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, prescription opioid misuse (POM) has increased dramatically over the past two decades. However, there are still questions regarding whether rural/urban differences in adult POM exist, and more important, which factors might be driving these differences. Using data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we conducted unadjusted and adjusted binary logistic regression analyses to determine the association between metropolitan status and POM. We found that urban adults were more likely to engage in POM compared to rural adults because of their higher use of other substances, including alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit and prescription drugs, and because of their greater use of these substances as children. This study fills an important gap in the literature by not only identifying urban/rural differences in POM, but by also pointing out factors that mediate those differences. Because patterns and predictors of POM can be unique to geographic region, this research is critical to informing tailored interventions and drug policy decisions. Specifically, these findings suggest that interventions should be aimed at urban illicit drug users and adults in manual labor occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolate-specific effects of patulin, penicillic Acid and EDTA on biofilm formation and growth of dental unit water line biofilm isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Iram; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Edyvean, Robert G J

    2010-08-01

    Dental unit water line (DUWL) contamination by opportunistic pathogens has its significance in nosocomial infection of patients, health care workers, and life-threatening infections to immunocompromized persons. Recently, the quorum sensing (QS) system of DUWL isolates has been found to affect their biofilm-forming ability, making it an attractive target for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, the effect of two quorum-sensing inhibitory compounds (patulin; PAT, penicillic acid; PA) and EDTA on planktonic growth, AI-2 signalling and in vitro biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp. was monitored. Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay and crystal violet staining methods were used to detect the AI-2 monitoring and biofilm formation in DUWL isolates, respectively. The V. harveyi BB170 bioassay failed to induce bioluminescence in A. xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp., while P. aeruginosa showed AI-2 like activity suggesting the need of some pretreatments prior to bioassay. All strains were found to form biofilms within 72 h of incubation. The QSIs/EDTA combination have isolate-specific effects on biofilm formation and in some cases it stimulated biofilm formation as often as it was inhibited. However, detailed information about the anti-biofilm effect of these compounds is still lacking.

  4. A Case Study of Resources Management Planning with Multiple Objectives and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; David G. Silsbee; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resources management plan (RMP) every four years or less. The plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects for four years, but they are prepared with little quantitative and analytical rigor and without formal decisionmaking tools. We have previously described a multiple objective planning...

  5. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  6. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  7. Integrating complementary views on an exercise into an objectives-based training support toolset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, J. van; Gouweleeuw, R.G.W.

    2000-01-01

    A significant trend in the use of synthetic environments for military unit training is to move away from using generic scenarios that cover a multitude of training objectives. Instead, dedicated scenarios are designed that cover a smaller set of specific training objectives. A few tools exist that

  8. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  9. Technical evaluation report on the proposed amendment to the technical specifications on the reactor protection system and the engineered safety features actuation system for Ft. Calhoun, Unit No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the application to amend the Technical Specifications for the Ft. Calhoun Unit No. 1 Nuclear Generating Plant. The review criteria are based on the Technical Specifications of St. Lucie and Calvert Cliffs, IEEE Standards, Combustion Engineering Standard Technical Specifications, and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittal made by the licensee with the NRC staff position and the review criteria and presents the reviewer's conclusion on the acceptability of the application to amend the Technical Specifications

  10. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  11. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  12. Technical Specifications, Braidwood Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457). Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Information is presented for Braidwood Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2 in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  13. Technical Specifications: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425): Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-68 and NPF-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  14. Technical Specifications, Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425): Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-68 and NPF-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  15. Technical specifications, Braidwood Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. STN 50-456 and STN 50-457): Appendix ''A'' to License No. NPF-72, [October 1986-July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Braidwood Station, Units 1 and 2, technical specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. Technical Specifications, South Texas Project, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499): Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-76 and NPF-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The South Texas Project, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  17. Technical specifications, South Texas Project, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499): Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-76 and NPF-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The South Texas Project, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Technical Specifications were prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to set forth the limits, operating conditions, and other requirements applicable to a nuclear reactor facility as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  18. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, H. L

    2000-01-01

    ...: interpupillary distance, tilt, eye relief, height, eyepiece and objective lens focus. Currently, aircrew use a Hoffman 20/20 test unit to pre-focus their NVG objective lenses at optical infinity before boarding their aircraft...

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  20. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-336)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  1. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-286)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  2. UNITED STATES AND GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP ON REDEVELOPMENT OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED SITES SITE-SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REDEVELOPMENT TOOLS - RESOURCE (SMARTRESOURCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) continues an ongoing partnership to gain an understanding of each other's approach to the cleanup of chemical contamination in order to protect human health ...

  3. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  4. Laser sources for object illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, G.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The considerations which formulate the specifications for a laser illuminator are explained, using the example of an underwater object. Depending on the parameters which define the scenario, widely varying laser requirements result.

  5. A violência como objeto da assistência em um hospital de trauma: "o olhar" da enfermagem Violence as object of care in a trauma intensive care unit: the nurses' "view"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Cezar Leal

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa apóia-se na tipologia dos estudos híbridos. O objetivo é conhecer e compreender o "olhar" e o fazer das trabalhadoras de enfermagem no cuidado ao paciente vítima de violência, hospitalizado em serviços de emergência em trauma. Foi realizada em um hospital público de emergência em trauma, em Porto Alegre. Os sujeitos são os profissionais da equipe de enfermagem das unidades de internação e os pacientes internados vítimas de violência, em 2001. Os dados quantitativos são originários dos registros de internação do hospital e foram analisados com índices freqüenciais absolutos e relativos, com auxílio do software Epi-Info; para os dados discursivos adotou-se a Análise de Conteúdo. Dos 697 pacientes hospitalizados, vítimas de violência, 90,5% eram do sexo masculino; 73% brancos e 27% negros ou descendentes dessa etnia; a faixa etária dos 11 aos 39 anos corresponde a 78,9% das internações; 47,9% agredidos por arma de fogo, 26,5% por arma branca, 25% por agressão física, 0,3% vítimas de estupro. Em relação ao "olhar" da enfermagem no cuidado ao paciente ficou evidente a preocupação das trabalhadoras e as dificuldades desse enfrentamento. Aponta-se, que os serviços públicos de saúde necessitam se auto-avaliar e propiciar a criação de espaços de co-responsabilização nesse processo.This study is based on hybrid typology. The objective is to know and understand the "perspective" and responses of the nurses when caring for a patient that was the victim of violence and hospitalized with services in a trauma intensive care unit. The study was carried out in Porto Alegre, in a public hospital in the emergency trauma center. The subjects are professionals of the nursing team from intensive care units and the patients hospitalized were victims of violence in 2001. The quantitative data came from the hospitalization records and were analyzed with absolute and relative frequency rates with help from Epi

  6. Technical specifications: Perry Nuclear Power Plant, unit no. 1 (Docket no. 50-440): Appendix ''A'' to license no. NPF-58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    This report presents technical specifications for the Perry-1 Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  7. Technical specifications: Callaway Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. STN 50-483). Appendix A to License No. NPF-30. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Revised specifications are presented concerning limiting safety system settings for control systems, power distribution, instrumentation, coolant system, emergency core cooling system, containment systems, plant systems, electrical systems, refueling operations, radioactive effluents, and radiation environmental monitoring

  8. Technical specifications, Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-424): Appendix ''A'' to license No. NPF-61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This technical specifications report presents information concerning the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant in the following areas: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  9. Proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-266 and 50-301). Technical evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design mofifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittals made by the licensee with the NRC staff positions and the review criteria and presents the reviewer's conclusion on the acceptability of the proposed system

  10. Strain-specific transmission in an outbreak of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the hemato-oncology care unit: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Makiko; Imataki, Osamu; Uchida, Shumpei; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Ohue, Yukiko; Matsuka, Harumi; Mori, Hatsune; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadowaki, Norimitsu

    2017-01-05

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are resistant to several types of antibiotics excluding carbapenems. A transmissibility of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae would be depending on each bacterial property, however, that has not been elucidated in clinical setting. In this study, we attempted to identify the source of an outbreak of ESBL-producing bacteria in a medical oncology and immunology care unit. An ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) outbreak observed between July 2012 and August 2012 in Kagawa University Hospital was surveyed using various molecular microbiology techniques. We used Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based ESBL gene typing, and direct sequence of ESBL gene as molecular microbiology typing method to distinguish each strain. The typical prevalence of ESBL-E isolation in the unit was 7.0 per month (1.7 per week). The prevalence of ESBL-E isolation during the target research period was 20.0 per month (5.0 per week). In total, 19 isolates (11 K. pneumoniae and 8 E. coli) were obtained from clinical samples, including four control strains (two each of both bacteria), that were physically different from those obtained from other inpatient units in our hospital. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for K. pneumoniae (digested by XbaI) produced similar patterns excluding one control strain. PCR classification of the ESBL gene for K. pneumoniae revealed that all strains other than the control strain carried SHV and CTX-M-9. This result was reconfirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Although the outbreak of K. pneumoniae was considered to be "clonal," PFGE and PCR classification of the ESBL genes for E. coli uncovered at least six different "non-clonal" strains possessing individual ESBL gene patterns. According to the result of an antibiogram, the pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility was more variable for K. pneumoniae than for E. coli. Typing by PFGE and ESBL gene PCR analysis is practical for discriminating

  11. Improvement of FK506 Production in Streptomyces tsukubaensis by Genetic Enhancement of the Supply of Unusual Polyketide Extender Units via Utilization of Two Distinct Site-Specific Recombination Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qinglin; Cen, Peilin

    2012-01-01

    FK506 is a potent immunosuppressant that has a wide range of clinical applications. Its 23-member macrocyclic scaffold, mainly with a polyketide origin, features two methoxy groups at C-13 and C-15 and one allyl side chain at C-21, due to the region-specific incorporation of two unusual extender units derived from methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) and allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), respectively. Whether their intracellular formations can be a bottleneck for FK506 production remains elusive. In this study, we report the improvement of FK506 yield in the producing strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis by the duplication of two sets of pathway-specific genes individually encoding the biosyntheses of these two extender units, thereby providing a promising approach to generate high-FK506-producing strains via genetic manipulation. Taking advantage of the fact that S. tsukubaensis is amenable to two actinophage (ΦC31 and VWB) integrase-mediated recombination systems, we genetically enhanced the biosyntheses of methoxymalonyl-ACP and allylmalonyl-CoA, as indicated by transcriptional analysis. Together with the optimization of glucose supplementation, the maximal FK506 titer eventually increased by approximately 150% in comparison with that of the original strain. The strategy of engineering the biosynthesis of unusual extender units described here may be applicable to improving the production of other polyketide or nonribosomal peptide natural products that contain pathway-specific building blocks. PMID:22582065

  12. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  13. Specific features of acute stroke in the Russian Federation and in the People’s Republic of China (according to the data of some big stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on comparison and analysis of the work of big stroke units in the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China specialized in the medical care for patients with acute stroke. 522 patients were surveyed in Russia’s and China’s regional stroke units. In the Russian Federation, patients being treated in the «City Hospital No.26» (SaintPetersburg took part in the study. In China patients of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Chongqing Medical University, Central Hospital Jiang jin, Regional People’s Hospital Yubei district, Regional People’s Hospital Bishan (Chongqing Province. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: personality traits, age, gender, level of education, income, health insurance category, profession, employment, professional activities over the last year, place of residence of the patient, features of the stroke, time during the first symptoms of stroke to hospitalization, kinds of medical services, the main risk factors and value of prevention before stroke.

  14. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Technical specifications, La Salle County Station, Unit No. 1. Appendix A to License No. NPF-11, Docket No. 50-373

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Specifications are presented concerning safety limits; reactivity control systems; power distribution limits; instrumentation; reactor coolant system; emergency core cooling system; containment systems; plant systems; electrical power systems; refueling operations; special test exceptions; radioactive effluents; radiological environmental monitoring; reactor site; fuel storage; and plant operations

  16. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  17. Technical specifications, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-529). Appendix A to License No. NPF-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Information is presented concerning the technical specifications for the Palo Verde-2 Reactor. Areas of interest discussed in this report include: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls. 19 figs., 62 tabs

  18. Technical specifications, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit No. 1 (Docket No. 50-528). Appendix A to License No. NPF-34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning operating safety limits for reactivity control systems, power distribution, instrumentation, coolant system, emergency core cooling system, containment systems, plant systems, electrical power systems, refueling operations, radioactive effluents, and radiological environmental monitoring; design features of the reactor site, containment, reactor core, coolant system, and fuel storage; and administrative controls

  19. Technical specifications: Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-416, Appendix A to License No. NPF-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Technical specifications are presented concerning safety limits; limiting safety system settings; reactivity control systems; power distribution limits; instrumentation; reactor coolant system; emergency core cooling systems; containment systems; plant systems; electrical power systems; refueling operations; radioactive effluents; radiological environmental monitoring; site; and administrative controls

  20. Parent experiences of communication with healthcare professionals in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Janne; Lundqvist, Pia

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this review are to explore parents' experiences of communication with healthcare professionals and to identify the meaningfulness of communication to parents in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).More specifically, the objectives are to identify....

  1. Genome-scale multilocus microsatellite typing of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit I reveals phylogeographic structure and specific genotypes linked to human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Llewellyn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America and is also genetically highly diverse, with at least six discrete typing units (DTUs reported: Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, and IIe. However, the current six-genotype classification is likely to be a poor reflection of the total genetic diversity present in this undeniably ancient parasite. To determine whether epidemiologically important information is "hidden" at the sub-DTU level, we developed a 48-marker panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate population structure among 135 samples from across the geographic distribution of TcI. This DTU is the major cause of resurgent human disease in northern South America but also occurs in silvatic triatomine vectors and mammalian reservoir hosts throughout the continent. Based on a total dataset of 12,329 alleles, we demonstrate that silvatic TcI populations are extraordinarily genetically diverse, show spatial structuring on a continental scale, and have undergone recent biogeographic expansion into the southern United States of America. Conversely, the majority of human strains sampled are restricted to two distinct groups characterised by a considerable reduction in genetic diversity with respect to isolates from silvatic sources. In Venezuela, most human isolates showed little identity with known local silvatic strains, despite frequent invasion of the domestic setting by infected adult vectors. Multilocus linkage indices indicate predominantly clonal parasite propagation among all populations. However, excess homozygosity among silvatic strains and raised heterozygosity among domestic populations suggest that some level of genetic recombination cannot be ruled out. The epidemiological significance of these findings is discussed.

  2. Technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation (Part A) for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed design modifications and Technical Specification changes for protection of Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and the Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittals made by the licensee with the NRC staff positions and the review criteria and presents the reviewer's conclusion on the acceptability of the proposed system

  3. Specific infant feeding practices do not consistently explain variation in anthropometry at age 1 year in urban United States, Mexico, and China cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S; McMahon, Robert J; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.

  4. Specific Infant Feeding Practices Do Not Consistently Explain Variation in Anthropometry at Age 1 Year in Urban United States, Mexico, and China Cohorts12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M.; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S.; McMahon, Robert J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant’s birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. PMID:23236024

  5. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  6. How learning might strengthen existing visual object representations in human object-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brants, Marijke; Bulthé, Jessica; Daniels, Nicky; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2016-02-15

    Visual object perception is an important function in primates which can be fine-tuned by experience, even in adults. Which factors determine the regions and the neurons that are modified by learning is still unclear. Recently, it was proposed that the exact cortical focus and distribution of learning effects might depend upon the pre-learning mapping of relevant functional properties and how this mapping determines the informativeness of neural units for the stimuli and the task to be learned. From this hypothesis we would expect that visual experience would strengthen the pre-learning distributed functional map of the relevant distinctive object properties. Here we present a first test of this prediction in twelve human subjects who were trained in object categorization and differentiation, preceded and followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging session. Specifically, training increased the distributed multi-voxel pattern information for trained object distinctions in object-selective cortex, resulting in a generalization from pre-training multi-voxel activity patterns to after-training activity patterns. Simulations show that the increased selectivity combined with the inter-session generalization is consistent with a training-induced strengthening of a pre-existing selectivity map. No training-related neural changes were detected in other regions. In sum, training to categorize or individuate objects strengthened pre-existing representations in human object-selective cortex, providing a first indication that the neuroanatomical distribution of learning effects depends upon the pre-learning mapping of visual object properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  8. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Sub site-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, K. A.; Stroup, A. M.; Sherman, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic sub site and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by sub site (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in sub site-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  9. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend trend trend 0.07) for the OC-PRBS. The PRBS and OP-PRBS had similar performance when they were derived from fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  11. Estimating a possibility for automatized monitoring radioactive aerosols in the Ukrytie Object air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalmanzon, Yu.B.; Fertman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the measurement specifications of the BDAS-OZP industrial detection unit for monitoring aerosols, produced in the Ukrytie object rooms. It is shown that the unit ensures monitoring alpha-active aerosols with radionuclide content of 3x10 -15 Ci/l and beta-active ones - with 3x10 -13 Ci/l. 2 refs.; 1 tabs

  12. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  13. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  14. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  15. A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n = 49,835 using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (T-HBVs administered at specific intervals in the first 6 months of life and specific delays in development [International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9: 315.xx] among children born between 1991 and 1994 and continuously enrolled from birth for at least 5.81 years. Infants receiving increased Hg doses from T-HBVs administered within the first month, the first 2 months, and the first 6 months of life were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with specific delays in development than infants receiving no Hg doses from T-HBVs. During the decade in which T-HBVs were routinely recommended and administered to US infants (1991–2001, an estimated 0.5–1 million additional US children were diagnosed with specific delays in development as a consequence of 25 μg or 37.5 μg organic Hg from T-HBVs administered within the first 6 months of life. The resulting lifetime costs to the United States may exceed $1 trillion.

  16. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  17. Conformance Testing, the Elixer within the Chain for Learning Scenarios and Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolski, Rob; O'Neill, Owen; Vegt van der, Wim; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    The chain for learning scenarios and learning objects includes five iterative links: (i) development, (ii) publication, (iii) making resources searchable and reusable and (iv) facilitating their arrangement (v) towards a runnable unit of learning. The use of e-learning specifications and

  18. SEGMENT OF FINANCIAL CORPORATIONS AS AN OBJECT OF FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Marat F. Mazitov

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study specific features of the formation and change of economic assets of financial corporations as an object of management and financial analysis. He author identifies the features and gives the classification of institutional units belonging to the sector of financial corporations from the viewpoint of assessment and financial analysis of the flows, reflecting change of their assets.

  19. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  20. POMP - Pervasive Object Model Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    The focus on mobile devices is continuously increasing, and improved device connectivity enables the construction of pervasive computing systems composed of heterogeneous collections of devices. Users who employ different devices throughout their daily activities naturally expect their applications...... computing environment. This system, named POM (Pervasive Object Model), supports applications split into coarse-grained, strongly mobile units that communicate using method invocations through proxies. We are currently investigating efficient execution of mobile applications, scalability to suit...

  1. The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

  2. Channels as Objects in Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is often a sort of a protocol associated to each class, stating when and how certain methods should be called. Given that this protocol is, if at all, described in the documentation accompanying the class, current mainstream object-oriented languages cannot provide for the verification of client code adherence against the sought class behaviour. We have defined a class-based concurrent object-oriented language that formalises such protocols in the form of usage types. Usage types are attached to class definitions, allowing for the specification of (1 the available methods, (2 the tests clients must perform on the result of methods, and (3 the object status - linear or shared - all of which depend on the object's state. Our work extends the recent approach on modular session types by eliminating channel operations, and defining the method call as the single communication primitive in both sequential and concurrent settings. In contrast to previous works, we define a single category for objects, instead of distinct categories for linear and for shared objects, and let linear objects evolve into shared ones. We introduce a standard sync qualifier to prevent thread interference in certain operations on shared objects. We formalise the language syntax, the operational semantics, and a type system that enforces by static typing that methods are called only when available, and by a single client if so specified in the usage type. We illustrate the language via a complete example.

  3. Country-specific HPV-related genital disease among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and The United States: The HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Fulp, William J; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Ingles, Donna J; Stoler, Mark; Messina, Jane L; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  5. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  6. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  7. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. What Makes an Object Memorable?

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit; Peterson, Joshua; Khosla, Aditya; Yang, Ming-Hsuan; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on image memorability have shed light on what distinguishes the memorability of different images and the intrinsic and extrinsic properties that make those images memorable. However, a clear understanding of the memorability of specific objects inside an image remains elusive. In this paper, we provide the first attempt to answer the question: what exactly is remembered about an image? We augment both the images and object segmentations from the PASCAL-S dataset with ground truth memorability scores and shed light on the various factors and properties that make an object memorable (or forgettable) to humans. We analyze various visual factors that may influence object memorability (e.g. color, visual saliency, and object categories). We also study the correlation between object and image memorability and find that image memorability is greatly affected by the memorability of its most memorable object. Lastly, we explore the effectiveness of deep learning and other computational approaches in predicting object memorability in images. Our efforts offer a deeper understanding of memorability in general thereby opening up avenues for a wide variety of applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  10. Compact objects and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandford, Roger; Agol, Eric; Broderick, Avery; Heyl, Jeremy; Koopmans, Leon; Lee, Hee-Won

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the spectropolarimetric study of compact objects, specifically black holes (stellar and massive) and neutron stars are reviewed. The lectures are organized around five topics: disks, jets, outflows, neutron stars and black holes. They emphasize physical mechanisms and are

  11. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  12. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  13. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  14. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  15. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  16. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  17. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  18. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  19. Magnesium Object Manager Sandbox, A More Effective Sandbox Method for Windows 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    keys, synchronization primitives , etc.). The object body is specific to, and the same for, each object type; it contains information common to each...the Object Directory Specific Rights Synchronization Object (Event, Mutex, Semaphore , Timer) Synchronization objects allow multiple threads to... Synchronization Object Specific Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.5 File Object Specific Rights

  20. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  1. Ahdaf al-ta'lim al-fanni, al-tujari, al-zira'i, wal-sina'i (Vocational Education Objectives: Commercial, Agricultural and Industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Cairo (United Arab Republic).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a publication outlining the objectives and problems of vocational education in the United Arab Republic. The data presented include both the general objectives of vocational education and the specific goals of each type. The goal of vocational education is to prepare…

  2. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  3. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  4. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  5. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  6. Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects is reviewed. The results of optical studies of the proper motions and alignments, variability, and polarization of HH objects and the results of spectroscopic studies are discussed. Ground-based infrared studies and far-infrared observations are reviewed. Findings on the properties of molecular clouds associated with HH objects, on gas flows associated with HH IR stars, on maser emission, and on radio continuum observations are considered. A history of proposed excitation mechanisms for HH objects is briefly presented, and the salient shock-wave calculations aimed at synthesizing the spectra of HH objects are summarized along with hypotheses that have been advanced about the origin of the objects. 141 references

  7. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  8. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the principal characteristics and problems associated with the prototype BL Lacertae. The most important characteristics of this group and its relevance, the consideration of a few particular objects in moderate detail, the relation between these objects QSOs, and normal galaxies, and finally the possible physical nature of BL Lac objects and the important questions they raise are treated. 15 references

  9. Fast neuromimetic object recognition using FPGA outperforms GPU implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Garrick; Martin, Jacob G; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of objects in still images has traditionally been regarded as a difficult computational problem. Although modern automated methods for visual object recognition have achieved steadily increasing recognition accuracy, even the most advanced computational vision approaches are unable to obtain performance equal to that of humans. This has led to the creation of many biologically inspired models of visual object recognition, among them the hierarchical model and X (HMAX) model. HMAX is traditionally known to achieve high accuracy in visual object recognition tasks at the expense of significant computational complexity. Increasing complexity, in turn, increases computation time, reducing the number of images that can be processed per unit time. In this paper we describe how the computationally intensive and biologically inspired HMAX model for visual object recognition can be modified for implementation on a commercial field-programmable aate Array, specifically the Xilinx Virtex 6 ML605 evaluation board with XC6VLX240T FPGA. We show that with minor modifications to the traditional HMAX model we can perform recognition on images of size 128 × 128 pixels at a rate of 190 images per second with a less than 1% loss in recognition accuracy in both binary and multiclass visual object recognition tasks.

  10. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  11. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  12. Object technology: A white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  13. Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2008-01-01

    Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability

  14. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  15. Use your head! Perception of action possibilities by means of an object attached to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Hajnal, Alen

    2016-03-01

    Perceiving any environmental property requires spontaneously assembling a smart perceptual instrument-a task-specific measurement device assembled across potentially independent anatomical units. Previous research has shown that to a large degree, perception of a given environmental property is anatomically independent. We attempted to provide stronger evidence for this proposal by investigating perception by an organization of anatomical and inert components that likely requires the spontaneous assembly of a novel smart perceptual instrument-a rod attached to the head. Specifically, we compared cephalic and manual perception of whether an inclined surface affords standing on. In both conditions, perception reflected the action capabilities of the perceiver and not the appendage used to wield the rod. Such results provide stronger evidence for anatomical independence of perception within a given perceptual system and highlight that flexible task-specific detection units can be assembled across units that span the body and inert objects.

  16. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  17. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  18. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  19. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  20. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  1. Objects of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes learning objects, also known as granules, chunks, or information nuggets, and likens them to help screens. Discusses concerns about how they can go wrong: (1) faulty pretest questions; (2) missing links in the learning object chain; (3) poor frames of reference; and (4) lack of customization. (JOW)

  2. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  3. Stability of multihypernuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics

  4. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  5. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  6. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  7. Predicting biological system objectives de novo from internal state measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maranas Costas D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization theory has been applied to complex biological systems to interrogate network properties and develop and refine metabolic engineering strategies. For example, methods are emerging to engineer cells to optimally produce byproducts of commercial value, such as bioethanol, as well as molecular compounds for disease therapy. Flux balance analysis (FBA is an optimization framework that aids in this interrogation by generating predictions of optimal flux distributions in cellular networks. Critical features of FBA are the definition of a biologically relevant objective function (e.g., maximizing the rate of synthesis of biomass, a unit of measurement of cellular growth and the subsequent application of linear programming (LP to identify fluxes through a reaction network. Despite the success of FBA, a central remaining challenge is the definition of a network objective with biological meaning. Results We present a novel method called Biological Objective Solution Search (BOSS for the inference of an objective function of a biological system from its underlying network stoichiometry as well as experimentally-measured state variables. Specifically, BOSS identifies a system objective by defining a putative stoichiometric "objective reaction," adding this reaction to the existing set of stoichiometric constraints arising from known interactions within a network, and maximizing the putative objective reaction via LP, all the while minimizing the difference between the resultant in silico flux distribution and available experimental (e.g., isotopomer flux data. This new approach allows for discovery of objectives with previously unknown stoichiometry, thus extending the biological relevance from earlier methods. We verify our approach on the well-characterized central metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion We illustrate how BOSS offers insight into the functional organization of biochemical networks

  8. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  9. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  10. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  11. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  12. Automatic video segmentation employing object/camera modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Practically established video compression and storage techniques still process video sequences as rectangular images without further semantic structure. However, humans watching a video sequence immediately recognize acting objects as semantic units. This semantic object separation is currently not

  13. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  14. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  15. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  16. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, M.R.; Rainford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  17. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  18. Java Test Driver Generation from Object-Oriented Interaction Traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); F.S. de Boer (Frank); A. Gruener; M. Steffen

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the context of test-driven development for object-oriented programs, mock objects are increasingly used for unit testing. Several Java mock object frameworks exist, which all have in common that mock objects, realizing the test environment, are directly specied at the Java program

  19. 75 FR 66419 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Object of Devotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Determinations: ``Object of Devotion: Medieval English Alabaster Sculpture From the Victoria and Albert Museum... Devotion: Medieval English Alabaster Sculpture from the Victoria and Albert Museum,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are...

  20. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  1. Object formation in visual working memory: Evidence from object-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Zhang, Haihang; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2016-09-01

    We report on how visual working memory (VWM) forms intact perceptual representations of visual objects using sub-object elements. Specifically, when objects were divided into fragments and sequentially encoded into VWM, the fragments were involuntarily integrated into objects in VWM, as evidenced by the occurrence of both positive and negative object-based attention effects: In Experiment 1, when subjects' attention was cued to a location occupied by the VWM object, the target presented at the location of that object was perceived as occurring earlier than that presented at the location of a different object. In Experiment 2, responses to a target were significantly slower when a distractor was presented at the same location as the cued object (Experiment 2). These results suggest that object fragments can be integrated into objects within VWM in a manner similar to that of visual perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Popularity and user diversity of online objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Han, Jingti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The popularity has been widely used to describe the object property of online user-object bipartite networks regardless of the user characteristics. In this paper, we introduce a measurement namely user diversity to measure diversity of users who select or rate one type of objects by using the information entropy. We empirically calculate the user diversity of objects with specific degree for both MovieLens and Diggs data sets. The results indicate that more types of users select normal-degree objects than those who select large-degree and small-degree objects. Furthermore, small-degree objects are usually selected by large-degree users while large-degree objects are usually selected by small-degree users. Moreover, we define 15% objects of smallest degrees as unpopular objects and 10% ones of largest degrees as popular objects. The timestamp is introduced to help further analyze the evolution of user diversity of popular objects and unpopular objects. The dynamic analysis shows that as objects become popular gradually, they are more likely accepted by small-degree users but lose attention among the large-degree users.

  3. Base compaction specification feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this research is to establish the technical engineering and cost : analysis concepts that will enable WisDOT management to objectively evaluate the : feasibility of switching construction specification philosophies for aggregate base...

  4. An Ada-based preprocessor language for concurrent object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almulla, M.; Al-Haddad, M.; Loeper, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, implementation issues of concurrent-objected programming using Ada 95 are addressed. Ada is not a pure object-oriented language; in order to make it so, a uniform template for structuring object classes is proposed. The template constitutes a basis for an Ada-based preprocessor language that handles concurrent object-oriented programming. The preprocessor accepts Ada-like object-oriented programs (object classes, subclasses and main program) as input and produces Ada 95 concurrent object-oriented program units as output. The preprocessor language has the advantage of adding a new component to the class specification called the protocol, which specifies the order for requesting methods f an object. The preprocessor also touches on the extensibility of object classes issue. It supports defining class hierarchies by inheritance and aggregation. In addition, the preprocessor language supports the re-use of Ada packages, which are not necessarily written according to the object-oriented approach. The paper also investigates the definition of circular dependent object classes and proposes a solution for introducing a collection of classes. (author)

  5. Benchmarks for dynamic multi-objective optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Helbig, M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When algorithms solve dynamic multi-objective optimisation problems (DMOOPs), benchmark functions should be used to determine whether the algorithm can overcome specific difficulties that can occur in real-world problems. However, for dynamic multi...

  6. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  7. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  8. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  9. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  10. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  11. Multi-objective unit commitment problem using Cuckoo search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Many solution strategies are available to solve the highly non-smooth problem. ... So, artificial intelligence techniques like, neural ..... For instance, let us assume that the Ton and Toff for a hypothetical thermal power ...... Energy Convers, Vol.

  12. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  13. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

  14. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  15. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  16. Quantum objective realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether quantum measurements reflect some underlying objective reality has no generally accepted answer. We show that a description of such reality is possible under natural conditions such as linearity and causality, although in terms of moments and cumulants of finite order and without relativistic invariance. The proposed construction of observations’ probability distribution originates from weak, noninvasive measurements, with detection error replaced by some external finite noise. The noise allows us to construct microscopic objective reality, but remains dynamically decoupled and hence unobservable at the macroscopic level. (paper)

  17. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  18. 32 CFR 636.2 - Program objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program objectives. 636.2 Section 636.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.2 Program objectives. In addition to the...

  19. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  20. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  1. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  2. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also e...

  3. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  4. Riscos ocupacionais à saúde e voz de professores: especificidades das unidades de rede municipal de ensino Occupational risks to the health and voice of teachers: specificities of municipal education units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilse Aparecida Merlin Servilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar as condições de trabalho, saúde e voz em professores de diferentes escolas municipais. MÉTODOS: participaram 165 professores, média de 37 anos, casados, predomínio de mulheres e escolaridade superior da rede municipal de ensino de uma cidade do estado de São Paulo, que responderam ao questionário proposto por Ferreira et al (2003, abrangendo questões sócio-demográficas, situação funcional, aspectos vocais e de saúde. As respostas dos docentes foram separadas por unidade escolar e submetidas à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: constatou-se diferença significante entre as escolas quanto à presença de local para descanso, fiscalização constante e facilidade para se ausentar da sala de aula, número de alunos por classe (PURPOSE: to compare the work, health and voice conditions of teachers from different city schools. METHODS: 165 teachers took part, mean age 37, married, predominance of women and university degree, from the city school system of a city from the state of São Paulo, who answered to the questionnaire proposed by Ferreira et al (2003, covering socio-demographic topics, functional situation, vocal and health aspects. The teachers' answers were separated by scholar unit and submitted to a statistical analysis. RESULTS: there was a significant difference among schools as for the presence of restrooms, constant surveillance and the ease of leaving the classroom, number of students per classroom (<0.001, noise (0.002, lightning (<0.001, cleaning (0.001, toilets' hygiene (0.002, dust (0.001, classroom size (0.020, space sufficiency in classrooms (0.033 and temperature (<0.001. The mentioning of vocal alteration varied from 76.47% to 40%, with no significance for teachers from different schools. The health problems were diversified with significant difference only to sound nuisance (0.036. CONCLUSION: there are specific occupational risks related to organizational and work environment in distinct

  5. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  6. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.

  7. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  8. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  9. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  10. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  11. Ten objectives for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A

    2000-02-01

    Sustainable development is one of the fundamental strategies for China's socioeconomic development in its 10th 5-Year Plan (2001-2005) period and beyond. It is a human-centered strategy focusing on improved quality of life in which environmental quality is an important part. This article presents 10 objectives that must be achieved for the sustainable development strategy to succeed. These objectives are: 1) continue to implement the family planning program; 2) maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares) and implement an agricultural development strategy; 3) maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added; 4) import large quantities of oil and natural gas; 5) control emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide by large cities and industries and close high-pollution thermal power plants; 6) compensate for ¿forest deficit¿ with ¿trade surplus¿ by reducing timber production and increase timber import; 7) import large quantities of iron ore, copper, zinc, aluminum, and other minerals and encourage foreign participation in resource exploration and development; 8) make time-bound commitments to clean up large cities, rivers, and lakes and forcefully close down seriously polluting enterprises; 9) implement a massive ecological construction project to slow down ecological degradation; and 10) develop the environmental industry and eco-buildup to expand domestic demand, increase employment, and alleviate poverty.

  12. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  13. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the clean air act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Shanley, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining SO2-4 concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2+ + Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO-3), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (???decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow early

  14. Orbiting objective lens telescope system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A large objective lens is placed in a highly eccentric orbit about the earth. The orbit and orientation of the lens are carefully chosen so that it focuses light or other radiation from a preselected astronomical object into an image which slowly moves across the surface of the earth. A row of optical sensing units is located on the surface of the earth so that the image focused by the orbiting objective lens will travel substantially perpendicularly across the row during an observation. Output data generated from the sensing units may be multiplexed and fed to a real time processor which produces display signals. Each of the sensing units provides one scan line of the image being observed. The display signals are fed to a suitable display device which produces a picture of the preselected astronomical object. The objective lens may comprise a large flexible Fresnel zone plate or a flexible convex lens carried by a bicycle wheel-type supporting structure. The lens and supporting structure may be unfolded from compact cargo configurations and rotated after being placed into orbit

  15. VIMOS Instrument Control Software Design: an Object Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau-Nogué, Sylvie; Lucuix, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The Franco-Italian VIMOS instrument is a VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph with outstanding multiplex capabilities, allowing to take spectra of more than 800 objects simultaneously, or integral field spectroscopy mode in a 54x54 arcsec area. VIMOS is being installed at the Nasmyth focus of the third Unit Telescope of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Mount Paranal in Chile. This paper will describe the analysis, the design and the implementation of the VIMOS Instrument Control System, using UML notation. Our Control group followed an Object Oriented software process while keeping in mind the ESO VLT standard control concepts. At ESO VLT a complete software library is available. Rather than applying waterfall lifecycle, ICS project used iterative development, a lifecycle consisting of several iterations. Each iteration consisted in : capture and evaluate the requirements, visual modeling for analysis and design, implementation, test, and deployment. Depending of the project phases, iterations focused more or less on specific activity. The result is an object model (the design model), including use-case realizations. An implementation view and a deployment view complement this product. An extract of VIMOS ICS UML model will be presented and some implementation, integration and test issues will be discussed.

  16. [Depressive realism: happiness or objectivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinci, Fatih; Dirik, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    Realism is described as objective evaluations and judgments about the world; however, some research indicates that judgments made by "normal" people include a self-favored, positive bias in the perception of reality. Additionally, some studies report that compared to normal people, such cognitive distortions are less likely among depressive people. These findings gave rise to the depressive realism hypothesis. While results of several studies verify the notion that depressive people evaluate reality more objectively, other studies fail to support this hypothesis. Several causes for these inconsistent findings have been proposed, which can be characterized under 3 headings. One proposed explanation suggests that what is accepted as "realistic" in these studies is not quite objective and is in fact ambiguous. According to another perspective, the term "depressive" used in these studies is inconsistent with the criteria of scientific diagnostic methods. Another suggests that the research results can only be obtained under the specific experimental conditions. General negativity and limited processing are popular approaches used for explaining the depressive realism hypothesis. Nowadays, the debate over this hypothesis continues. The present review focuses on frequently cited research related to depressive realism and discusses the findings.

  17. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  18. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited....... The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  19. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  20. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  1. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  2. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  3. Multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis and optimization of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ligang; Lampe, Matthias; Voll, Philip; Yang, Yongping; Bardow, André

    2016-01-01

    The merits of superstructure-free synthesis are demonstrated for bi-objective design of thermal power plants. The design of thermal power plants is complex and thus best solved by optimization. Common optimization methods require specification of a superstructure which becomes a tedious and error-prone task for complex systems. Superstructure specification is avoided by the presented superstructure-free approach, which is shown to successfully solve the design task yielding a high-quality Pareto front of promising structural alternatives. The economic objective function avoids introducing infinite numbers of units (e.g., turbine, reheater and feedwater preheater) as favored by pure thermodynamic optimization. The number of feasible solutions found per number of mutation tries is still high even after many generations but declines after introducing highly-nonlinear cost functions leading to challenging MINLP problems. The identified Pareto-optimal solutions tend to employ more units than found in modern power plants indicating the need for cost functions to reflect current industrial practice. In summary, the multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis framework is a robust approach for very complex problems in the synthesis of thermal power plants. - Highlights: • A generalized multi-objective superstructure-free synthesis framework for thermal power plants is presented. • The superstructure-free synthesis framework is comprehensively evaluated by complex bi-objective synthesis problems. • The proposed framework is effective to explore the structural design space even for complex problems.

  4. Integrated Multidisciplinary Optimization Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OpenMDAO is an open-source MDAO framework. It is used to develop an integrated analysis and design environment for engineering challenges. This Phase II project integrated additional modules and design tools into OpenMDAO to perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. It also showcased a refined system architecture that allows the system to be less customized to a specific configuration (i.e., system and configuration separation). By delivering a capable and validated MDAO system along with a set of example applications to be used as a template for future users, this work greatly expands NASA's high-fidelity, physics-based MDAO capabilities and enables the design of revolutionary vehicles in a cost-effective manner. This proposed work complements M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.

  5. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  6. The emerging causal understanding of institutional objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Alexander; Keil, Frank C; Dunham, Yarrow

    2018-01-01

    Institutional objects, such as money, drivers' licenses, and borders, have functions because of their social roles rather than their immediate physical properties. These objects are causally different than standard artifacts (e.g. hammers, chairs, and cars), sharing more commonality with other social roles. Thus, they inform psychological theories of human-made objects as well as children's emerging understanding of social reality. We examined whether children (N=180, ages 4-9) differentiate institutional objects from standard artifacts. Specifically, we examine whether children understand that mutual intentions (i.e., the intentions of a social collective) underlie the functional affordances of institutional objects in ways that they do not for standard artifacts. We find that young children assimilate institutional objects into their intuitive theories of standard artifacts; children begin to differentiate between the domains in the elementary school years. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  8. United Kingdom's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation

  9. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  10. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  11. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  12. Location mortgage in accounting objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygiska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mechanism of the implementation of all kinds of mortgage (mortgage, pledge, mortgage of securities, security of property rights, the mortgage of goods in circulation or processing, tax lien defined the specificity of receipt/return of the mortgage, particularly payments between mortgagor and the mortgagee. Determine the subject property entities that can act as mortgage; identified by their place in the system of objects of accounting mortgagor and the mortgagee. The peculiarities of the balance sheet and off-balance sheet assets as a reflection of your collateral. Identified two groups of mortgage transactions: transactions with mortgage for its receipt and transmission; business transactions related to the conditions of loan agreements (loan and mortgage. The results are shown in the research paper proposals allow for further research to develop mortgage organizational and methodological support the operations accounting for the effective management of financial resources and obligations, collateralised.

  13. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  14. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; Carvalho, A C P L F; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-06-18

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis.

  15. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  16. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  17. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  18. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  19. Object interaction competence model v. 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Schulte, C.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning object oriented programming has to take into account the specific object oriented characteristics of program execution, namely the interaction of objects during runtime. Prior to the research reported in this article, we have developed a competence model for object interaction...

  20. Neurocomputational bases of object and face recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, I; Kalocsai, P

    1997-01-01

    A number of behavioural phenomena distinguish the recognition of faces and objects, even when members of a set of objects are highly similar. Because faces have the same parts in approximately the same relations, individuation of faces typically requires specification of the metric variation in a holistic and integral representation of the facial surface. The direct mapping of a hypercolumn-like pattern of activation onto a representation layer that preserves relative spatial filter values in...

  1. Geometrical objects architecture and the mathematical sciences 1400-1800

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume explores the mathematical character of architectural practice in diverse pre- and early modern contexts. It takes an explicitly interdisciplinary approach, which unites scholarship in early modern architecture with recent work in the history of science, in particular, on the role of practice in the scientific revolution. As a contribution to architectural history, the volume contextualizes design and construction in terms of contemporary mathematical knowledge, attendant forms of mathematical practice, and relevant social distinctions between the mathematical professions. As a contribution to the history of science, the volume presents a series of micro-historical studies that highlight issues of process, materiality, and knowledge production in specific, situated, practical contexts. Our approach sees the designer’s studio, the stone-yard, the drawing floor, and construction site not merely as places where the architectural object takes shape, but where mathematical knowledge itself is depl...

  2. Planeamiento de la unidad didactica en le ensenanza del ingles como idioma extranjero (Planning the Teaching Unit in the Instruction of English as a Foreign Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina T., Rene

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the teaching unit as a means for organization in English-as-a-foreign-language classes. It lists the essential elements in the construction of such a unit: cultural topic, linguistic elements, time period, main objectives, instructional materials, focus, specific activities, intended results, evaluation techniques,…

  3. Multi-objective engineering design using preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, J.; Martinez, M.; Blasco, X.

    2008-03-01

    System design is a complex task when design parameters have to satisy a number of specifications and objectives which often conflict with those of others. This challenging problem is called multi-objective optimization (MOO). The most common approximation consists in optimizing a single cost index with a weighted sum of objectives. However, once weights are chosen the solution does not guarantee the best compromise among specifications, because there is an infinite number of solutions. A new approach can be stated, based on the designer's experience regarding the required specifications and the associated problems. This valuable information can be translated into preferences for design objectives, and will lead the search process to the best solution in terms of these preferences. This article presents a new method, which enumerates these a priori objective preferences. As a result, a single objective is built automatically and no weight selection need be performed. Problems occuring because of the multimodal nature of the generated single cost index are managed with genetic algorithms (GAs).

  4. Specifying Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  5. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  6. BOSS: context-enhanced search for biomedical objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jaehoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exist many academic search solutions and most of them can be put on either ends of spectrum: general-purpose search and domain-specific "deep" search systems. The general-purpose search systems, such as PubMed, offer flexible query interface, but churn out a list of matching documents that users have to go through the results in order to find the answers to their queries. On the other hand, the "deep" search systems, such as PPI Finder and iHOP, return the precompiled results in a structured way. Their results, however, are often found only within some predefined contexts. In order to alleviate these problems, we introduce a new search engine, BOSS, Biomedical Object Search System. Methods Unlike the conventional search systems, BOSS indexes segments, rather than documents. A segment refers to a Maximal Coherent Semantic Unit (MCSU such as phrase, clause or sentence that is semantically coherent in the given context (e.g., biomedical objects or their relations. For a user query, BOSS finds all matching segments, identifies the objects appearing in those segments, and aggregates the segments for each object. Finally, it returns the ranked list of the objects along with their matching segments. Results The working prototype of BOSS is available at http://boss.korea.ac.kr. The current version of BOSS has indexed abstracts of more than 20 million articles published during last 16 years from 1996 to 2011 across all science disciplines. Conclusion BOSS fills the gap between either ends of the spectrum by allowing users to pose context-free queries and by returning a structured set of results. Furthermore, BOSS exhibits the characteristic of good scalability, just as with conventional document search engines, because it is designed to use a standard document-indexing model with minimal modifications. Considering the features, BOSS notches up the technological level of traditional solutions for search on biomedical information.

  7. The Pauli Objection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    Schrödinger's equation says that the Hamiltonian is the generator of time translations. This seems to imply that any reasonable definition of time operator must be conjugate to the Hamiltonian. Then both time and energy must have the same spectrum since conjugate operators are unitarily equivalent. Clearly this is not always true: normal Hamiltonians have lower bounded spectrum and often only have discrete eigenvalues, whereas we typically desire that time can take any real value. Pauli concluded that constructing a general a time operator is impossible (although clearly it can be done in specific cases). Here we show how the Pauli argument fails when one uses an external system (a "clock") to track time, so that time arises as correlations between the system and the clock (conditional probability amplitudes framework). In this case, the time operator is conjugate to the clock Hamiltonian and not to the system Hamiltonian, but its eigenvalues still satisfy the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary system Hamiltonians.

  8. Constraints on reusability of learning objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Anne Skov

    2010-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to discuss some didactic constraints on the use and reuse of digital modular learning objects. Engineering education is used as the specific context of use with examples from courses in introductory electronics and mathematics. Digital multimedia and modular learning....... Constraints on reuse arise from the nature of conceptual understanding in higher education and the functionality of learning objects within present technologies. We will need didactic as well as technical perspectives on learning objects in designing for understanding....

  9. Running tests in isolation using mock objects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    "Mocking" is a technique used in unit-testing that replace external dependencies with "fake" objects, simulating the behavior of the real ones. This process is usually applied when the existence of these dependencies makes impossible to write proper tests or when its result can be non-deterministic, hard to reproduce and/or slow to calculate. In this talk, I will briefly describe this technique and show how and where to use it through some examples.

  10. Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  11. Remembering perceptual features unequally bound in object and episodic tokens: Neural mechanisms and their electrophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Hubert D; Ecker, Ullrich K H

    2010-06-01

    We present a neurocognitive model of long-term object memory. We propose that perceptual priming and episodic recognition are phenomena based on three distinct kinds of representations. We label these representations types and tokens. Types are prototypical representations needed for object identification. The network of non-arbitrary features necessary for object categorization is sharpened in the course of repeated identification, an effect that we call type trace and which causes perceptual priming. Tokens, on the other hand, support episodic recognition. Perirhinal structures are proposed to bind intrinsic within-object features into an object token that can be thought of as a consolidated perceptual object file. Hippocampal structures integrate object- with contextual information in an episodic token. The reinstatement of an object token is assumed to generate a feeling of familiarity, whereas recollection occurs when the reinstatement of an episodic token occurs. Retrieval mode and retrieval orientation dynamically modulate access to these representations. In this review, we apply the model to recent empirical research (behavioral, fMRI, and ERP data) including a series of studies from our own lab. We put specific emphasis on the effects that sensory features and their study-test match have on familiarity. The type-token approach fits the data and additionally provides a framework for the analysis of concepts like unitization and associative reinstatement. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...... it is comparable to an executable transaction schema. Finally, we briefly compare our approach to object-oriented approaches based on encapsulated objects....

  13. Technical Specifications, Catawba Nuclear Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-413 and 50-414). Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-35 and NPF-48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    These specifications cover: definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, bases, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls

  14. Technical Specifications, Catawba Nuclear Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-413 and 50-414). Appendix ''A'' to License Nos. NPF-35 and NPF-52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    These specifications cover: definitions, safety limits and limiting safety system settings, bases, limiting conditions for operation and surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls

  15. Science Unit Plans. PACE '94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains mathematics unit plans for Biology, Chemistry, and Physical Science developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each unit plan contains suggested timing, objectives, skills to be acquired, workplace relationships, learning activities with suggested…

  16. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  17. Care management in nursing within emergency care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Juliane Tono de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Understand the conditions involved in the management of nursing care in emergency care units. Methodology. Qualitative research using the methodological framework of the Grounded Theory. Data collection occurred from September 2011 to June 2012 through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants of the two emergency care units in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Results. Hindering factors to care management are: lack of experience and knowledge of professionals in emergency services; inadequate number of professionals; work overload of emergency care units in the urgent care network; difficulty in implementing nursing care systematization, and need for team meetings. Facilitating factors are: teamwork; importance of professionals; and confidence of the nursing technicians in the presence of the nurse. Conclusion. Whereas the hindering factors in care management are related to the organizational aspects of the emergency care units in the urgency care network, the facilitating ones include specific aspects of teamwork.

  18. Where Is the Beef In the Objective Force?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The United States Army Transformation Campaign Plan is designed as a means of ensuring an innovative and flexible transformation from the current force structure to the transformational goal of the Objective Force...

  19. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  20. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  1. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  2. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  3. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  4. Radiological characterisation - Know your objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindow, Veronica; Moeller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When developing a programme for mapping the radiological characteristics of a facility to be decommissioned it is important to take into account the objectives of the programme. Will the results be used to plan for radiological control and selection of appropriate decontamination and dismantling techniques? Will the radiological inventory be used for dimensioning of future waste repositories? These are two examples of the applications for such studies, which could require that a radiological characterisation programme be adapted to provide the data appropriate to the intended use. The level of detail and scope needed for a radiological characterisation will also vary depending on how the data will be used. An application to free-release a facility requires a comprehensive survey and well documented analysis in order to ensure that no radioactive contamination above prescribed levels is present. A bounding calculation to determine the maximum anticipated volumes and activity of radioactive waste requires a different approach. During the past few years, older decommissioning studies for the Swedish nuclear power plants have been updated (or are in the process of being updated). The decommissioning study's main purpose is to estimate the cost for decommissioning. The cost estimation is based on material and activity inventories, which in turn is based on previous and, in some cases, updated radiological characterisations of the facilities. The radiological inventory is an important part of the study as it affects the cost of decommissioning but also the uncertainties and accuracy of the cost estimation. The presentation will discuss the challenges in specifying a radiological characterisation programme with multiple objectives, together with insights on how data delivered can be applied to yield results suitable for the intended purpose, without introducing excessive conservatism. The intent of the presentation is to define issues that can be of use in various aspects

  5. Object oriented distributed programming: studies and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    1992-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of the object concept in distributed programming. Henceforth, this programming style has become a reality in the computer science world, since it allows to increase of the availability of applications and to decrease their execution time. Nevertheless, designing a distributed application is a hard task: the various abstraction levels that must be considered hinder the software reusability and maintenance, while errors and concurrent accesses are often sources of executions incoherence. The object concept improves the software modularity, and raises the computing abstraction level. Integrating distribution related aspects into the object model brings up the issues of expressing the concurrency and maintaining the coherency. The investigation of these problems in this thesis has been guided by a major concern for the preservation of the intrinsic properties of object-orientation, and the orthogonality of the solutions given. The main contributions of the thesis are: (i) the classification, regarding modularity, of the different design alternatives for object-oriented concurrent languages; (ii) the evaluation of various transactional mechanisms in object-based concurrent languages, and the design of an atomic asynchronous communication protocol named ACS; (iii) the definition of a transaction-based object-oriented concurrent language called KAROS; (iv) the implementation of a modular framework which allows to combine in a same application, various concurrency control and error recovery mechanisms; (v) the identification of a formal property, named general atomicity, which constitutes a correctness criteria for atomic objects specifications. (author) [fr

  6. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  7. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  8. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer bein...

  9. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Jacobs, Neil

    2007-01-01

    YouTube, Flickr, del.icio.us, blogs, message boards and other "Web 2.0" related technologies are indicative of the contemporary web experience. There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer being stat...

  10. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  11. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  12. Coding Transparency in Object-Based Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2006-01-01

    A novel algorithm for coding gray level alpha planes in object-based video is presented. The scheme is based on segmentation in multiple layers. Different coders are specifically designed for each layer. In order to reduce the bit rate, cross-layer redundancies as well as temporal correlation are...

  13. Active Grasp Synthesis for Grasping Unknown Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çall?, B.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation is a key feature for robots which are designed to work in daily environments like homes, offices and streets. These robots do not often have manipulators that are specialized for specific tasks, but grippers that can grasp the target object. This makes grasping a crucial ability that

  14. Data quality objectives for PUREX deactivation flushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Data Quality Objection (DQO) defines the sampling and analysis requirements necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated by WAC 173-303. Specifically, sampling and analysis requirements are identified for the flushing operations that are a major element of PUREX deactivation

  15. OBJECTIVES AND PROCESSES OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIZEMORE, MAMIE

    THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…

  16. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  17. Fusion of heterocyclic polymerogenic units onto a central ring: a fruitful approach to the investigation and specific tailoring of the dependence of electrical properties on monomer structure in conductive polyheterocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, A.; Brenna, E.; Pagani, G.A.; Sannicolo, F. (Dipt. di Chimica Organica e Industriale, Univ. di Milano (Italy) Centro CNR Speciali Sistemi Organici, Milan (Italy)); Zotti, G.; Schiavon, G. (CNR, Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padua (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    In this review the ''spacer'' strategy is described and evaluated in detail. According to this principle, the monomer contains, as terminal units, two polymerogenic rings (pyrrole or thiophene) linked to a central [pi]-conjugatively-active frame; as spacers, we have investigated ethenylic, sulphide, and aromatic moieties. In this way the redox potentials, E[sup 0], of the polymers derived from such monomers can be calibrated by the substituent effect exerted by the spacer. This control is beneficial because it is possible to increase the E[sup 0] value of polypyrrole-type systems and decrease the E[sup 0] value of polythiophene-type systems. Also, the ''spacer'' may be further functionalised and, being remote from the polymerisation site, cannot alter the conductivity characteristics typical of the polymer derived from the parent heterocycle (pyrrole or thiophene): such a functionalisation may provide the final, tailored, conductive polymer with special properties (e.g., solubility). If the central ring, acting as a ''spacer'', is formed linking two positions of a di-heterocycle with a saturated chain, it is possible partially to control the twist angle between the heterocyclic units. Crystal and molecular structures have shown that dipyrrole units, further linked through the nitrogen atoms, are quite sensitive to the central ring size. With regard to the conductivity of unsubstituted polypyrrole, the conductivity of the polymers derived from such monomers is dependent upon the twist angle between the rings. This result is relevant to a description of conjugation conditions between the heterocyclic units of a monomer required to produce a conductive polymer on doping. (orig.).

  18. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities...

  19. Accounting and analysis of the real labour input for objects and types of works during NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvaev, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for determining the actual labour input for PP construction according to types of works, construction units and objects is considered. The data are presented on specific expenditures on civil engineering, heat and electric installation, insulation and anticorrosion works for construction of the Chernobylsk and Kursk NPPs. A conclusion is drawn about the necessity of computer utilization in calculating the labour input for different types of works, number of workers and planning works during the NPP construction

  20. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...