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  1. Ibn al-Haytham and psychophysics.

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    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Persian scholar Ibn al-Haytham ('Alhazen') has rightly been credited with many advances in optics and vision science, but recent spurious claims that he is the 'founder of psychophysics' rest upon unsupported assertions, a conflation of psychophysics with the wider discipline of psychology, and semantic arguments over what it is to 'found' a school of thought.

  2. Ibn al-Haytham and geometry

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    Rashed, Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Theory of Conics, Geometrical Constructions and Practical Geometry: A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics Volume 3, provides a unique primary source on the history and philosophy of mathematics and science from the mediaeval Arab world. The present text is complemented by two preceding volumes of A History of Arabic Sciences and Mathematics, which focused on founding figures and commentators in the ninth and tenth centuries, and the historical and epistemological development of 'infinitesimal mathematics' as it became clearly articulated in the oeuvre of Ibn al-Haytham.

  3. Ibn al-Quff (1233-1286 AD), a medieval Arab surgeon and physician.

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    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Abū'l-Faraj ibn Ya'qūb ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī (1233-1286 AD), best known as Ibn al-Quff in the West, was a 13(th) century Arab physician-surgeon. During his lifetime, Ibn al-Quff made some important contributions to the art of healing. He authored several books and commentaries in the field of medicine, in particular surgery. This paper aims to review Ibn al-Quff's life, career, and contributions to medical science.

  4. Ibn al-Haytham: an answer to multicultural science teaching?

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    Bettany, Laurence

    1995-07-01

    Ibn al-Haytham (also known as Alhazan AD 965-1040) was a prolific Arab scientist whose work deserves greater attention. The recent partial translation into English of his great optical work, the Kitab al-Manazir, is a welcome contribution to the history of science. In this article his major contributions to optics are examined and it is shown how these and his historial personage are relevant to current debates on multicultural science teaching.

  5. Ibn Qutayba en al-Andalus. La préface à I 'Adab al-Kātib dans le commentaire d'Ibn al-Sīd al-Baṭalyawsī

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    Soravia, Bruna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Qutayba's preface to his Adab al-kātib has been considered for centuries the most important section of this work and it has been the object of many commentaries, both in the Muslim East and West. This paper deals with Ibn al-Sīd al-Baṭalyawsī´s commentary al-Iqtiḍāb, trying to show the peculiar way in which Ibn al-Sīd develops his own critique of Ibn Qutayba's controversial thesis on the relation between orthodoxy, falsafa and kalām. At the same time, the Andalusi author works out his own conception of adab, deeply influenced by his biographical experience. Finally a full translation of Ibn Qutayba's preface is proposed, half a century after G. Lecomte's partial one.

    El prefacio de Ibn Qutayba a su Adab al-Kātib ha sido considerado durante siglos como el fragmento más importante de su obra, y ha sido objeto de muchos comentarios, tanto orientales como occidentales. Este artículo trata del comentario que Ibn al-Sīd al-Baṭalyawsī hizo de ese texto de Ibn Qutayba, e intenta mostrar la forma peculiar en que Ibn al-Sīd desarrolla su propia crítica a la polémica tesis de Ibn Qutayba sobre la relación entre ortodoxia, falsafa y kalām. Al mismo tiempo, el autor andalusí elabora su propia concepción del adab, profundamente influida por su experiencia biográfica. Para concluir, se presenta una traducción completa del prefacio de Ibn Qutayba, medio siglo después de la parcial realizada por G. Lecomte.

  6. A Critical Analysis of Ibn al-‘Arabi’s Views on Femininity and Gender Issues

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    ملیحه علیزاده

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the sources on Tasawwuf, the works of Ibn al-‘Arabi especially hold femininity in high regard. The present study is to illustrate that beyond the transcendental view of Ibn al-‘Arabi to woman, there are some prominent traces of binary oppositions that, according to Hélèn Cixous, culminate in different reactions to feminine and masculine roles and ultimately lead to the appearance of patriarchal atmosphere. In the first part of the article, some ontological concepts are examined to delineate Ibn al-‘Arabi’s attitude towards femininity. In the following sections, his positive and negative perspectives on woman, which are the representation of his viewpoint towards gender characteristics, are analyzed. Besides, in the analyses, the change of masculine concepts to metaphysical ones in Ibn al-‘Arabi’ s view is shown.

  7. Ibn Abi Al-Hadid’s and Ibn Meysam’s interpretations comparative analysis for the purpose of Nahj Al-Balagha 1 to 34 sermons lexicological understanding

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    Shahnaz Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nahj Al-Balagha, as a valuable literary, scientific and Palladian work is the focus of scientists in various Islamic fields such as literature, history, ethics, theosophy, philosophy and discourse, politics and government and management. Now, we are the inheritors of various massive explications on Nahj Al-Balagha which is approached by many from various perspectives. The lexicological terms proposition and analysis, before going to the interpretations, is a general method of interpreting a text, but not all of the explicators have acted in one single level of elaboration and analysis of the terminologies. The study of the wording can be based on the lexical, literary, eloquence, discourse, philosophical and theosophical methods. In the present study the comparative analysis and the lexical exegesis and the interpretations by the great expositor of Nahj Al-Balagha, Ibn Abi Al-Hadid and Ibn Meysam, is presented on the first “34 sermons of Nahj Al-Balagha”.

  8. El De imaginibus caelestibus de Ibn al-Ḥātim

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    Oliveras, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available K. Lippincott and D. Pingree published in 1987 a first Latin edition and English translation of the 15th bilingual Arabic-Latin De imaginibus caelestibus, written originally by the Andalusian Ibn al-Ḥātim in the 10th century. The paper presented here aims to complete the preceding one with an Arabic edition, Spanish translation and some interpretations on the possible sources of talismanic imagery. In this brief astromagic treatise, Ibn al-Ḥātim focuses on twenty eight talismans, related to the lunar mansions, and their magical properties.

    En 1987 K. Lippincott y D. Pingree publicaron una primera edición latina junto a una traducción inglesa del tratado bilingüe árabo-latino del s. XV De imaginibus caelestibus, escrito originariamente por el andalusí Ibn al-Ḥātim en el s. X. El trabajo que se presenta aquí pretende completar al precedente con una edición del texto árabe, su traducción al español y añadir algunas interpretaciones a las posibles fuentes de la imaginería talismánica. En este breve tratado de astromagia, Ibn al-Ḥātim se dedica principalmente a describir veintiocho talismanes, relacionados con las mansiones lunares, y sus propiedades mágicas.

  9. al-Farghani, Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir (c. 860)

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    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Farghana, Transoxiana (northern Iran), he wrote A Book on Celestial Motion and Science of the Stars (Kitab fi al-Harakat al-Samawiya wa Jawami Ilm al-Nujum), which was translated several times into Latin and Hebrew starting in the twelfth century. The book spread knowledge of Ptolemaic astronomy in Europe, at least until this role was taken over by Sacrobosco's Sphere on which it was base...

  10. Why historians of medicine called Ibn al-Nafis second Avicenna?

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    Masic, Izet; Dilic, Mirza; Solakovic, Emir; Rustempasic, Nedzad; Ridjanovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    At the end of IX and beginning of the X century begins development and renaissance of the medicine called Arabic, and which main representatives were: Ali at-Taberi, Ahmed at-Taberi, Ar-Razi (Rhazes), Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Magusi (Haly), ibn al-Baitar, ibn al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), ibn Sina (Avicenna), ibn al-Haitam (Alhazen), ibn Abi al-Ala Zuhr (Avenzor), ibn Rushd (Averroes) and ibn al-Nafis. Doctors Taberi, Magusi and Razi were born as Persians. Each of the listed great doctors of the Arab medicine in their own way made legacy to the medical science and profession, and left lasting impression in the history of medicine. Majority of them is well known in the West well and have their place in the text-books as donors of significant medical treasure, without which medicine would probably, especially the one at the Middle dark century, be pale and prosaic, insufficiently studied and misunderstood, etc. Abdullah ibn Sina (Avicenna) remained unsurpassed in the series of above listed. Close to him can only come Alauddin ibn al-Nafis, who will in mid-XII century rebut some of the theories made by Avicenna and all his predecessors, from which he collected material for his big al-Kanun fit-tibb (Cannon of medicine). Cannon will be commended for centuries and fulfilled with new knowledge. One of the numerous and perhaps the best comments-Excerpts is from Nafis-Mugaz al-Quanun, article published as a reprint in War Sarajevo under the siege during 1995 in Bosnian language, translated from Arabic by the professor Sacir Sikiric and chief physician Hamdija Karamehmedovic in 1961. Today, at least 740 years since professor from Cairo and director of the Hospital A-Mansuri in Cairo Alauddin ibn Nefis (1210-1288), in his paper about pulse described small (pulmonary) blood circulatory system and coronary circulation. At the most popular search engines very often we can find its name, especially in English language. Majority of quotes about al-Nafis are on Arabic or Turkish

  11. PEMIKIRAN TEOLOGI SUFISTIK SYAIKH AL-AKBAR IBN ‘ARABÎ

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    Mutawalli Mutawalli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In any discourse of religion, the existence of God is central because God is the ultimate Being, from whom all creatures come to exist. However, religious perceptions of God have never been unified. In Islam, especially Sufis believe that God is present in all creatures because they are regarded to be the manifestation of God. This stance leads to a divinely-dominated view. This Sufi perception deviates from the maintream thought of Muslim who reject such a view since it reflects pantheism.  As the view is common in Sufism, Ibn Arabi, one of the greates Sufi, holds the similar view and introduces a new concept of wahdat al-wujûd. This essay examines the conceptual framework of Ibn Arabi’s Sufi theology and reveals his epistemology. It begins by tracing Ibn Arabi’s socio-intellectual background. It then proceeds to explain his method and view of the union of existence and the concept of God.Abstrak: Kajian tentang eksistensi Tuhan merupakan aspek fundamental dalam setiap agama. Karena setiap agama mengajarkan bahwa eksistensi alam dengan segala realitasnya adalah ciptaan Tuhan. Dalam Islam, khususnya para sufi, yang mengandaikan bahwa segala yang tercipta, fisik atau non fisik, merupakan bentuk Tuhan meng-ada-kan dirinya dalam bentuk lain. Sudut pandang ini pada akhirnya, menyeret pada cara pandang yang serba Tuhan. Pandangan para sufi tersebut, jika dilihat dengan nalar bayânî, yang merupakan paradigma berpikir mainstream umat Islam, tentu saja akan dianggap sebagai sebuah penyimpangan yang pasti. Karena mencerminkan ajaran pantheisme. Sebagaimana pandangan para sufistik tersebut, Ibn ‘Arabî juga memiliki pandangan yang sama, yang dia perkenalkan dengan konsep wahdah al-Wujûd. Tulisan ini hendak menggali kerangka konsepsional teologi sufistik Ibn ‘Arabî serta berusaha menemukan kerangka epistemologinya. Dan, untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, tulisan ini diawali dengan melacak setting sosial-intelektual Ibn ‘Arabî, dilanjutkan

  12. Metode Penafsiran Ibn al-‘Arabî dalam Ahkâm al-Qur’ân

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    Saiful Fahmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explain the concept of ontological Ibn al-‘Arabi of interpretation, the general idea of the book Ahkâm al-Qur’ân that includes methods, patterns, sources of interpretation, interpretation elements and characteristics that distinguish it from the interpreters other. Ontological view regarding the interpretation that was never a logical consequence of the importance of the final carry was critical of the existing interpretation of the results so far, so it is legitimate to question whether Ahkâm al-Qur’ân is still relevant to the demands of his time or not? Whether in it there is coercion-coercion and preconceptions-ideological Ibn al-‘Arabî or not? Given, Ahkâm al-Qur’ân is reproduced in the 5th century AH, where the fight discourse between the schools of thought Islam was at its height. While Ibn al-‘Arabi is an intellectual who embrace genuine Mâlikî School, so it brought the prejudice that he is stuck in an ideological reason

  13. LEGALITAS AGAMA (TAHAQQUQ AL-ADYÂN PERSPEKTIF IBN ‘ARABÎ

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    Mukhlis Mukhlis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibn ‘Arabî is one of the prominent and authoritative thinkers on Islamic mysticisms. Among his starting and brilliant ideas is the unity of religions (wahdah al-adyân, one of the fundamental ideas of religious pluralism. The supporters of pluralism expose his opinion on the unity of religions intensely and consider any religions valid and true.This article examines further Ibn ‘Arabî’s thought on pluralism. Through critical analysis on his works, I find that positioning his thought on pluralism issue is a partial understanding of his complete views on such topic. The unity of religions as described by Ibn ‘Arabî is a system of belief which is closely related to the Prophetical tradition and not merely based on the speculative assumption of human-being. He formulated a parameter—to see whether a religion is true or not—which contains three principal dimentions: the divinity, prophecy, and devotion. 

  14. KHILÂFIYAH NAHWIYYAH: Dialektika Pemikiran Nahwu Basrah dan Kufah dalam Catatan Ibn al-Anbâri

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    Asrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Khilâfiyah Nahwiyyah: Dialectics of Nahwu Basra and Kufah Thoughts Reflected in Ibn al-Anbâri’s Notes. Nahwu has been passed a lot of discussion, orientation and direction throughout its history. Each Nahwu has its own method that can be identified from the use of nahwu arguments in applying of nahwu rule and arguments that are constructed to explain the nahwu problems. The thoughts that were raised by the nahwu experts are a way to distinguish between one ideology to another. As an expert of nahwu Ibn al-Anbâri has written many scientific papers that related to nahwu and other sciences. Ibn al-Anbâri has spawned a monumental work in khilâfiyyah nahwiyyah problems that known as al-Inshâf. Ibn al-Anbâri has its own method in explaining khilâfiyyah nahwiyyah problems through his masterpiece. This study tries to describe and analyze khilâfiyyah nahwiyyah and Ibn al-Anbâri methods in describing the khilâfiyyah nahwiyyah.

  15. On occasion of 800th anniversary of birth of Ibn al-Nafis--discoverer of cardiac and pulmonary circulation.

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    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    With Ibn Sina great Canon came the "golden age of Arabic medicine", almost to its peak. Since the beginning of XI century, when Ibn Sina died, until the middle of XIII century, when creative was Ibn al-Nafis, medical science continues to develop and progress, and had its brilliant minds. For that time characteristic is the fact that neither the strong authority as Avicenna was could paralyze the progress of medical science. Three hundred years before Paracelsus, in Cairo appears a medical scientist who dares to touch the authority of Ibn Sina-Avicenna in the infallibility of Canon-"Medical Bible". The scholar was called Alauddin Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288). He, 250 years ago Servet, (Michael Servetus, XVI century) reveals the truly describes the small or pulmonary circulation, but also gives a description of the great forerunner of the bloodstream. In his separate work on the anatomy, Ibn al-Nafis in five places contested arguments of Galen's teachings, which also Ibn Sina was accepted. He very persuasively argues that the blood does not oxidize ("does not mix with air "), passing through some hypothetical pores in the partition between the right half of the heart, in which blood is collected and left half, in which, supposedly is the air, but that this happen when the blood is going from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, where it is mixed with air and thus "converted" murmurs through the pulmonary vein into the left half of the heart. On occasion of the 800th anniversary of Ibn al-Nafis birth, one of the largest Arab and world doctors of all times we publish this article so that readers get something closer image his creative work, especially the one which relates to his contribution to the discovery of cardiac and pulmonary circulation, revolutionary discoveries in the world of medicine. In the year 1924 a heated debate started regarding the discovery of the pulmonary circulation. This discovery was attributed only to European scholars

  16. Felicity and Value on Ibn Al Arabi’s ViewPoint

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    Mahdiyeh Kasaeezadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   The issue of "the meaning of life "calls man's felicity into question in terms of three concepts, namely value, utility and the ultimate goal of life. In Ibn Al Arabi's mystical view, "intuitive cognition about truth "which is also known as "knowledge mingled with belief " enjoys such originality that it is regarded as the sufficient requirement for man's felicity. Although, Ibn Al Arabi mentions another type of felicity, which is universal. He maintains that pure felicity and wickedness concern the other world, regards wickedness as transient and believes that on the basis of Divine blessing, it leads to salvation. He believes that the world came into existence for salvation and that it will eventually achieve this ultimate goal. We can infer from his other views about salvation that the feeling of satisfaction towards life and, in other words, the feeling of happiness, requires intuitive cognition, which also clarifies the meaning of life. Furthermore, man's salvation-oriented attitude refutes the view that man's life is only an instrument used to access the Divine End .  

  17. Felicity and Value on Ibn Al Arabi’s ViewPoint

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    Amirabbas Alizamani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of "the meaning of life "calls man's felicity into question in terms of three concepts, namely value, utility and the ultimate goal of life. In Ibn Al Arabi's mystical view, "intuitive cognition about truth "which is also known as "knowledge mingled with belief " enjoys such originality that it is regarded as the sufficient requirement for man's felicity. Although, Ibn Al Arabi mentions another type of felicity, which is universal. He maintains that pure felicity and wickedness concern the other world, regards wickedness as transient and believes that on the basis of Divine blessing, it leads to salvation. He believes that the world came into existence for salvation and that it will eventually achieve this ultimate goal. We can infer from his other views about salvation that the feeling of satisfaction towards life and, in other words, the feeling of happiness, requires intuitive cognition, which also clarifies the meaning of life. Furthermore, man's salvation-oriented attitude refutes the view that man's life is only an instrument used to access the Divine End .

  18. A Study of \\"Repetition\\" in Critical Views of Ibn-Rashiq in Al-Omdah

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    غلامرضا شانقی

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract     Repetition is a method which is used a lot in Arabic. It has been commonly used by poets and writers. A topic with interest has been finding the reasons behind using repetition. A reason contributing the interest in the area has been the frequent use of this technique in the holy Kor’an. The present article aims to investigate the views of "Ibn-Rashiq" as a significant figure in the realm of literature and poetry and also a prominent critique of the 5th century about the "Repetition" phenomenon in literary text using Al-omdah. This book actually built his reputation is one of the most important literary books among old Arabic masterpieces. It holds the views of previous critiques in different literary issues specially "eloquence". Also, in the current study the vie points of other critiques are compared with that of Ibn-Rashiq in Al-omdah on the issue of reputation so that the true value of this book is illustrated.

  19. Muslim Poetic: Songs to the Beloved Woman. Muahmmud Ibn Al-Mahad

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    Reyna Carretero Rangel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share the discovery of the mystical songs of muslim poet Muahmmud Ibn Al-Mahad. His poems disclose our poetic and mystical ancestral wealth, since the Muslim legacy, as well as the Greek and Hebrew,are part of our civilization matrix. The uruguayan poet Saúl Ibargoyen through the narrative identity of Al-Mahad, whom unveils as one Other on himself, has configured a very special kind of poetic mirror, close to a palimpsest sui géneriswhere we find the signs of an eternal scripture, which approach us to the Beloved woman’s beauty and the desert as images of the mystical experience. Inthe Al-Mahad’ songs we find out the profound traces of the well-known Sufi poet Yalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, who expressed in his verses the union with his beloved (tawhid the Perfect One. Also we perceive on his poems the delicate fragrance of Ibn ‘Arabî, called al Shaykh al-Akbar, “The Great Master”, whogaves us the gift of the “unity of the divine Essence”. The Real Being is incomparable and transcendent, but unveils itself as divine manifestation (tajallí in allthings. Thus, Al-Mahad’s verses configure this relation between love and unity to express with all subtleness the passion for the Beloved woman, as we appreciate in this poem: “In the book came from the Highest, is written also the silence ofthe zeal that cross your heart. Love the Beloved woman with that silence and the book will have new words for you”.

  20. Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, Biruni and Biological Evolutionary Theory

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    H Miandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory contains two major ideas: common descent and natural selection. This theory goes back to mid-nineteenth century and Darwin. Some scholars have claimed that this theory had been given by Muslims such as Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, and Biruni. Among contemporary scholars who agree with this claim are Ebrahimzadeh, Motahari, and Azkaei. But there are scholars who disagree with this claim, among them are Nasr and Falatouri. Nasr says that those Muslims believed in "the great chain of being." And Falatouri says especifically about Biruni that he believed in some kind of gradual evolution, not a Darwinian one. In this paper we first explain these opinions. Then to clarify what is at stake, evolutionary theory and the great chain of being will be described. Criticisms and suggestions come next. We argue that because evolutinary theory was the result of gradual changes of the great chain of being, there is some truth in the ideas of the first camp. And because the great chain that those Muslims hold was of the type of that of Ibn Sina, there is also some truth in the ideas of the second camp. At last we claim that the great chain of the type that Mulla Sadra maintained is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  1. Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, Biruni and Biological Evolutionary Theory

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    Dr Hassan Miandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory contains two major ideas: common descent and natural selection. This theory goes back to mid-nineteenth century and Darwin. Some scholars have claimed that this theory had been given by Muslims such as Ikhwan al-Safa, Ibn Miskawayh, and Biruni. Among contemporary scholars who agree with this claim are Ebrahimzadeh, Motahari, and Azkaei. But there are scholars who disagree with this claim, among them are Nasr and Falatouri. Nasr says that those Muslims believed in "the great chain of being." And Falatouri says especifically about Biruni that he believed in some kind of gradual evolution, not a Darwinian one. In this paper we first explain these opinions. Then to clarify what is at stake, evolutionary theory and the great chain of being will be described. Criticisms and suggestions come next. We argue that because evolutinary theory was the result of gradual changes of the great chain of being, there is some truth in the ideas of the first camp. And because the great chain that those Muslims hold was of the type of that of Ibn Sina, there is also some truth in the ideas of the second camp. At last we claim that the great chain of the type that Mulla Sadra maintained is consistent with evolutionary theory.

  2. Theological Conflicts in Early Islamic Era: The Execution of Ghaylan ibn Muslim al- Dimashqi al-Qadarī

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    Spahic Orner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ghaylān ibn Muslim al-Dimashqī al-Qadarī incident represented a growing trend towards politicizing theological disputes during the early Islamic history. The belief that man is absolutely free and possesses the ability to act on his own is the central idea of his thought. Although he received the whole concept from his predecessors, he advanced the idea to new heights to such an extent that the credit of establishing and advancing the Qadariyyah School is given to him. When applied to the then political reality of the Umayyad domination, the notion of absolute human free will would have had grave implications. The relations between Ghaylān and the ruling political elite were unhealthy. Ghaylān, despite repeated warnings, refused to relinquish his beliefs or to remain quiet and hence paid dearly with his life.

  3. Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD) to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his medical works.

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    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2008-01-01

    This primary-source study of 4 medical works of the 13th century Muslim scholar Ibn Al-Nafis confirmed that his Kitab Al-Mujaz Fi Al-Tibb was authored as an independent book meant to be a handbook for medical students and practitioners not as an epitome of Kitab Al-Qanun of Ibn Sina as thought by recent historians. His huge medical encyclopedia, Al-Shamil, represents a wave of intense scientific activity that spread among the scholars of Cairo and Damascus following the massive destruction of books by Hulako's Army during the devastation of Baghdad in 1258. Like his predecessors in the Islamic Era, Ibn Al-Nafis critically appraised the views of scholars before him in the light of his own experimentation and direct observations. Accordingly, in his books Sharh Tashreeh Al-Qanun, Risalat al-Aadaa and Al-Risalah Al-Kameleyyah, we find the first description of the coronary vessels and the true concept of the blood supply of the heart as well as the correct description of the pulmonary circulation and the beginnings of the proper understanding of the systemic circulation. Those discoveries of Ibn Al-Nafis, translated to Latin by Andreas Alpagus printed in Venice in 1547, appeared, 6 years later, in the Christianismi Restituto of Servetus and, in 1555, in the De Fabrica Humani Corporis of Vesalius 2nd edition then in the works of Valvarde 1554, Columbus 1559, Cesalpino 1571, and finally Harvey in 1628. Furthermore, this study documented several other contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis to the progress of human functional anatomy and to advances in medical and surgical practice.

  4. ‘Aqidah al-Tauh id ‘Inda Ibn Taimiyah

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    Amal Fathullah Zarkasyi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There were various explications of the concept of tawhid presented by Muslim scholars in the past, especially among mutakallimun and falasifah, but most of them emphasized on the unity of essence, attribute activities. Ibn Taymiyyah is one of the most celebrated Muslim theologians and regarded by some as mujaddid or reformer on Islamic theological thought. His reformative thought could be discerned from his concept oftawhid, which is deemed unique and worthy of further studies. However, it is not only of his concept that he was regarded as reformer, but also his framework of theological studies. The method employed in this research is literary studies, yet it is also supported by historical, descriptive, inductive and critical analytical method. The finding of this research is that Ibn Taimiyyah’s concept of tawhidconsists of unity of God, unity of Allah worship and the unity of essence and attribute. The first means the belief existence of God as the Creator; the second is the manifestation of belief in the form worship by heart, speech and good deed; the last one is belief in the perfect attributes of Allah based on the Qur’an and Sunnah. He also emphasized that one who does not believe in these three kinds of tawhid, or believe only in the unity of God could not save from the Hell. Regarding the framework, Ibn Taymiyyah restricts that the theological discourses should commit to the Qur’an and Hadits, rely on rational capacity of man, rebuff kalam interpretation and prever revelation from reason.

  5. Filsafat Moral Ibn Hazm

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    Ahmad Tajuddin Arafat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKajian ini menitikberatkan pada telaah atas pemikiran etik Ibn Hazm al-Andalusy dalam karyanya al-Akhlaq was-Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan content analysis, tujuan riset ditemukan bahwa dalam karyanya tersebut terdapat beberapa nilai-nilai filosofis yang berkaitan dengan upaya memperbaikimoralitas dan mencari cita-cita luhur manusia, yaitu kebahagiaan. Menurutnya, dalam menghadapi problematika kehidupan serta mencari kebahagiaan, manusia harus lebih menekankan pada upaya-upaya untuk menghilangkan rasa sedih dan kegalauan (thard al-hamm. Selain itu, Ibn Hazm menyatakan bahwa ada empatkebajikan utama, kebajikan lainnya sebagai dasar atas: keadilan (al-’adl, intelegensi (al-fahm, keberanian (an-najadat, dan kedermawanan (al-jud. Sebaliknya, ada empat keburukan utama, di mana seluruh keburukan lainnya didasarkan atas keempatnya, yaitu: ketidak adilan (al-ja`ur, kebodohan (al-jahl, ketakutan (aljubn,dan kekikiran (asy-syuh.Kata kunci: Filsafat Moral, Thard al-Hamm, Kebajikan Utama, Nazahat al-Nufus AbstractThis study emphasizes on Ibn Hazm Al Andalusy’s ethical thoughts in his magnum opus: al Akhlaq was Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. By using content analysis approach, it’s found that there are some philosophical points of Ibn Hazm’s ehical thoughts which looks for good morality and happiness. Ibn Hazm stated that man shall make more efforts on removing downcast, confusion, and anxiety (thard al hamm. He alsodeclared that there are four main righteousnesses (al-fadha`il: justice (al-’adl, intelligence (al-fahm, bravery (an-najadat, and generosity(al-jud.On the contrary, there are also four main adnesses; injustice (al-jaur, folly (al-jahl, fear (al-jubn, and niggardliness (asy-syuh.Keywords: Moral Philosophy, Remove Of Anxiety, Righteousness, Chastity Of Soul

  6. Viajes del andalusí Ibn Ŷubayr al Oriente

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    Maíllo Salgado, Felipe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La Rihla o relación de viaje del andalusí Ibn Ŷubayr es la obra maestra de ese género en las letras árabes. Nadie ha transmitido un cuadro tan vivo y acabado de los principales centros del oriente árabe, ni ha dejado descripciones más precisas de los lugares visitados, ni ha evocado de modo tan personal los hechos y los gestos de los hombres. Es también documento esencial para la arqueología islámica, pues tiene especial cuidado en describir y situar los principales monumentos de las ciudades, adobado todo con datos de tipo geográfico, histórico, etnológico, folclórico...; nada importante escapa a su mirada.…

  7. Relevance of some of the theories of Ibn Khaldoun in his "Al Muqaddimah" to contemporary medicine. A personal interpretation.

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    Al-Khader, Abdulla A

    2002-11-01

    The subjects in this paper include Ibn Khaldoun's thoughts on writing, and their implications on today's medical writing. This paper discusses why people write, plagiarism, "Original" and "Copied' writings and where history writing goes wrong and how this can be applied to Medical writing today. The paper also discusses the nature of Science and Knowledge as viewed by Ibn Khaldoun, the anatomy of intelligence, types of thought processes, and effects of environment and craftsmanship on intellect. Ibn Khaldoun's definition of the "Medical" profession and its social standing is discussed as well as his emphasis of the importance of exercise, diet and climate on healthy living. Ibn Khaldoun has clear and advanced concepts on education and methodology of education. He emphasizes 3 stages of coaching, and the importance of travel in consolidating and clarifying knowledge attainment. He abhors coercion as a method of educating the young. Developing the interest of the pupil in the art he is studying, is thought by Ibn Khaldoun to be the central theme of good education. Relevance of all this to contemporary medical education is discussed. Ibn Khaldoun has fascinating ahead-of-time views on the influence of peer pressure and what is now known as "Emotional Intelligence" and he rejects the idea that intelligence is ethnically determined. Instead, he emphasizes the environmental, social and craftsmanship influence on human behavior. He stresses that the method of education has a lot to do with the "apparent" intelligence or "stupidity" of pupils.

  8. Ibn Tufail : tema aeg, elu ja koht islami-araabia filosoofia ajaloos / Haljand Udam

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    Udam, Haljand, 1936-2005

    2001-01-01

    Varem ilmunud järelsõnana raamatus: Elav Ärganu poeg. Tallinn : Olion, 1992. 12. sajandil Araabia Hispaanias elanud filosoof Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail. Tema põhiteosest, filosoofilisest jutustusest "Elav Ärganu poeg"

  9. Ibn Tufail : tema aeg, elu ja koht islami-araabia filosoofia ajaloos / Haljand Udam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Udam, Haljand, 1936-2005

    2001-01-01

    Varem ilmunud järelsõnana raamatus: Elav Ärganu poeg. Tallinn : Olion, 1992. 12. sajandil Araabia Hispaanias elanud filosoof Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail. Tema põhiteosest, filosoofilisest jutustusest "Elav Ärganu poeg"

  10. “When the class goes on too long, the Devil takes part in it”: adab al-muḥaddith according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ ash-Shahrazûrî (d. 643/1245

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    Jens Scheiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two chapters in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs (d. 643/1245 Muqaddima on the proper behaviour of teachers and students of ḥadîth (adab al-muḥaddith form the core of this study. Therein Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ advices the muḥaddithûn how to conduct a class of ḥadîth. For the students he offers moral guidelines, recommends a particular curriculum and gives practical pedagogical advice. The search for possible precursors led to the main argument of this study, i.e. that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ used ʿAbd al-Karîm as-Samʿânîʼs (d. 562/1166 work Adab al-imlâʾ wa-ʼl-istimlâʾ as a direct source. Although Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ modeled his Muqaddima after al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrîʼs (d. 405/1014 Kitâb maʿrifat ʿulûm al-ḥadîth there are – quite unexpectedly – only minor similarities in both works regarding issues of adab al-muḥaddith. Taking the adab al-muftî or adab al-qâḍî literature as a model, the article finally argues that simultaneously with the canonization of ḥadîth, Muslim scholars, in particular al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrî, proposed rules according to which ḥadîth had to be taught.

  11. La expedición de Abd Al-Malik ibn Qatan Al-Fihri a los Pirinaica iuga en el anónimo mozárabe de 754

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    Julia Montenegro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of an exhaustive study of a passage in the Chronicle of 754, which deals with the expedition by Abd Al-Malik lbn Qatan, Wali of Al-Andalus, to the region of the Pyrenees. We have come to the conclusion that this was in no way related to the well-known victory of Pelagius at Covadonga in the year 718. Rather, it indisputably concerns some incident that occurred in what we now call the Pyrenees and must be connected with the Walt's expedition against the Basques in year 115 of the Hegira (21 February 733 to 9 February 734, described by such Muslim authors as Ahmad Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Athir, Ibn Khaldun and Al-Maqqari.

  12. The Byzantines in Medieval Arabic Poetry: Abu Firas’ "Al-Rumiyyat" and the Poetic Responses of al-Qaffal and Ibn Hazm to Nicephore Phocas’ "Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna" (The Armenian Cursed Ode

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    Nizar F. HERMES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Up until the Crusades, it was al-Rūm who were universally seen by Arab writers and Arab poets in particular as the Other par excellence. Nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the sub-genre of Al-Rūmiyyat (poems about the Byzantines, namely as found in the Rūmiyyat of Abu Firas al-Hamdani(d.968, and in the poetic responses of al-Qaffal(d. 946 and Ibn Hazm(d. 1064 to what was described by several medieval Muslim chronicles as Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna (The Armenian Cursed Ode. By exploring the forgotten views of the Byzantines in medieval Arabic poetry, this article purports to demonstrate that contrary to the impression left after reading Edward Said’s groundbreaking Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient (1978 and other postcolonial studies, Orientals have not existed solely to be ‘orientalized’. Perhaps even before this came to be so, they too had ‘occidentalized’ their Euro-Christian Other(s in a way that mirrored in reverse the subject/object relationship described as Orientalism.

  13. Ibn Abi Ussaibea "Oyoun aI-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba" a selected review of this Index of Physicians and their Works; (from early Greeks to his time in Egypt).

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    Kotby, M Nasser; Wahba, Hassan; Mabrouk, Amr

    2010-12-01

    Muwaffaq-al-Deen abu-al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Abi Ussaibea (1203-1270) was born in Damascus. He started his brilliant career in his birth place then moved to Cairo where he worked and excelled for the rest of his life. His learning was intensified by the scholarly contacts of the intellectual leaders of the day. In this study we review The Index of Physicians-Oyoun al-Anbaa Fi Tabaqat al-Attiba--(Sources of Information in the Classes of Physicians) of ibn Abi Ussaibea.The biographies in this book do not just cover physicians only but also the learned people of his day whose knowledge and expertise covered medicine, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and botany. For this reason the book of ibn Abi Ussaibea represents an indispensable source of the scientific and philosophical achievements of the Arabic/Islamic civilization.

  14. Comparison of Lamiaceae medicinal uses in eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia and in Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium of Simple Medicaments (13th century CE).

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    El-Gharbaoui, Asmae; Benítez, Guillermo; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Merzouki, Abderrahmane

    2017-04-18

    Transmission of traditional knowledge over time and across culturally and historically related territories is an important topic in ethnopharmacology. Here, we contribute to this knowledge by analysing data on medicinal uses in two neighbouring areas of the Western Mediterranean in relation to a historical text that has been scarcely mentioned in historical studies despite its interest. This paper discusses the sharing of popular knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants between eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia (Spain), focusing on one of the most useful plant families in the Mediterranean area: Lamiaceae. Moreover, we used the classical work of Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE) The Compendium of Simple Medicaments and Foods as a basis to contrast the possible link of this information, analysing the influence of this historical text on current popular tradition of medicinal plant use in both territories. For data collection, we performed ethnobotanical field research in the eastern part of Morocco, recording current medicinal uses for the Lamiaceae. In addition, we systematically reviewed the ethnobotanical literature from eastern Andalusia, developing a database. We investigated the possible historical link of the shared uses and included in this database the information from Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium. To compare the similarity and diversity of the data, we used Jaccard's similarity index. Our field work provided ethnobotanical information for 14 Lamiaceae species with 95 medicinal uses, serving to treat 13 different pathological groups. Of the total uses recorded in Morocco, 30.5% were shared by eastern Andalusia and found in Ibn al-Baytar's work. There was a higher similarity when comparing current uses of the geographically close territories of eastern Morocco and eastern Andalucía (64%) than for eastern Morocco and this historical text (43%). On the other hand, coincidences between current uses in eastern Andalusia and the ones related in the Compendium

  15. Originality in Imitation: Two mu‘āraḍas by Ibn Darrāj al-Qasṭallī

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    Gruendler, Beatrice

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay explores the range and function of the emulation (mu‘āraḍa in al-Andalus, taking as examples two odes of Ibn Darrāj al-Qasṭallī (d. 421/1030, dedicated to his first patron al-Ḥājib al-Manrṣūr and his last patron al-Mundhir b. Yaḥyā of Saragossa. The first is modeled on an ode of Abū Nuwās and a declared poetic contest, the second a silent overwriting of al-Mutanabbī’s ode on the battle of al-Ḥadath, summoning it as “the vocabulary of a second higher power” to invert a celebration of military victory into one of a wedding feast. The ode acted as an ideological strategy to defend the patron’s peaceful diplomacy with Saragossa’s two Christian neighbors in order to form a coalition against a third Christian party, and it responded to criticism by some Muslim contemporaries. Both emulations show the considerable freedom Ibn Darrāj took in developing the themes of his subtexts.

    Este artículo analiza las variedades y la función de la imitación literaria (mu‘āraḍa en al-Andalus a partir de dos poemas que Ibn Darrāj al-Qasṭallī (m. 421/1030 dedicó a sus mecenas al-Ḥājib al-Manrṣūr y al-Mundhir b. Yaḥyā. El primero de ellos imita un poema de Abū Nuwās, en competición poética explícita con el mismo. El segundo es una imitación no reconocida como tal del poema de al-Mutanabbī sobre la batalla de al-Ḥadath, que se invoca como “vocabulario de un segundo poder más elevado” para convertir la celebración de una victoria militar en la de una boda. al-Qasṭallī utilizó este segundo poema como estrategia ideológica para defender la diplomacia pacífica que su mecenas mantenía con dos vecinos cristianos de Zaragoza con los que formaba una coalición contra una tercera facción cristiana. Con él respondía a la crítica de la que esta política era objeto entre ciertos musulmanes. Ambas imitaciones muestran la considerable libertad que Ibn Darrāj se tomó a la

  16. A critical edition of Ibn al-Haytham’s on the shape of the eclipse the first experimental study of the camera obscura

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    Raynaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the first critical edition of Ibn al-Haytham’s On the Shape of the Eclipse with English translation and commentary, which records the first scientific analysis of the camera obscura. On the Shape of the Eclipse includes pioneering research on the conditions of formation of the image, in a time deemed to be committed to aniconism. It also provides an early attempt to merge the two branches of Ancient optics—the theory of light and theory of vision. What perhaps most strongly characterizes this treatise is the close interaction of a geometric analysis of light and experimental reasoning. Ibn al-Haytham conducted his experiments in a systematic way by varying all that could be changed: the shape and size of the aperture, the focal length of the camera obscura, the distance and shape of the celestial bodies. This way, he achieved a thorough understanding. This work represents a decisive step in both the history of optics and the application of the experimental method that was just as effici...

  17. Una nueva fuente para la historia de la Sicilia islámica: un pasaje de al-Muqtabis V de Ibn Hayyān sobre la revuelta de Aḥmad b. Qarhab (300- 304/913-916

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    Mandalà, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Can a detail change the history of Islamic Sicily? The revolt of Ibn Qarhab is a well known issue that marks the island’s political transition from the Aghlabid sphere of influence to the nascent Fātimid caliphate in North Africa. Undoubtedly, the reconstruction of the revolt of Ibn Qarhab is based on a late and repetitive corpus of Arab-Islamic sources and, above all, on the irredentist and nineteenth century interpretation given by Michele Amari. The Andalusian source considered here, a passage from al-Muqtabis V of Ibn Ḥayyān, escaped from the mentioned historiographical networks as well as from the attention of current scholarship; it provides an opportunity to clarify some details and offer new interpretations of the event. The revolt of Ibn Qarhab can be interpreted as an informal quest for legitimacy obtained through alliances and contingencies that, unexpectedly, seems to move the island’s centre of gravity from the North African shore to the orbit of influence of the Umayyad emirate of al-Andalus¿Puede un detalle cambiar la historia de la Sicilia islámica? La revuelta de Ibn Qarhab es un tema bastante conocido que marca la transición política de la isla desde la esfera de influencia aglabí a la del naciente califato fātimí en el Norte de África. Sin duda, la reconstrucción de la revuelta de Ibn Qarhab se basa en un corpus tardío y repetitivo de fuentes arabo-islámicas y, sobre todo, en la interpretación irredentista y decimonónica propuesta por Michele Amari. La fuente andalusí aquí considerada, un pasaje de al-Muqtabis V de Ibn Ḥayyān, alejada tanto de las redes historiográficas antes mencionadas como de la atención de la investigación actual, brinda la posibilidad de aclarar algunos detalles y proporcionar nuevas lecturas del acontecimiento. La revuelta de Ibn Qarhab puede ser interpretada como una búsqueda informal de legitimidad dictada por alianzas y contingencias; de forma inesperada estas últimas

  18. Political theory of Ibn Khaldun

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    Vukoičić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khaldun represents one of the most important personalities in the history of Islamic thought, but also one of the greatest thinkers of the Middle Ages. His best known work, al-Muqaddimah, is one of the most original analyses of the process of historical evolution of a society, state and human civilization in general. The essence of this monumental work lies in the identification of social, economic and psychological reasons which contribute to the development, rise and fall of the human civilization and therefore fundamentally shape historical flows. Ibn Khaldun undoubtedly made a big contribution to the historical science, but it is also important to emphasize his contribution to other social sciences, such as sociology, politicology and economy. This great thinker represents a unique appereance in the Muslim history and culture. Just like he never had any predecessors among Arab writers, he also did not have any successors in his fileds of research.

  19. Kritik Ibn Rusyd Terhadap Pandangan Para Filsuf Tentang Ketuhanan

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    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Being indirect disciple of Aristotle, Ibn Rusyd mostly studied deeply in the area of philosophy, but he also criticized frequently the view of other Muslim philosophers. Ibn Rusyd’s critics in this case are in order to purify Aristotle’s philosophy from infiltration and distorted ideas. So then he could present the philosophy of Aristotle genuinely. In this article, the writer wishes to present the analysis of Ibn Rusyd on the views of Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina and Al-Ghazali. Among the philosophers except al-Ghazali, he criticized both two from their views on the existence of God through the theory of wajib al-wujud (necessary being and mumkin al-wujud (possible being. Ibnu Rusyd also rejected the theory on emanation of al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, because not derived from Aristotle. Ibn Rusyd concerned upon the al-Ghazalis Tahafut Al-Falasifah (Incoherence of the Philosophers not represented all philosophers views, but the views of philosophers on Neo-Platonic which destroys the thought of Aristotle. In this point Ibn Rusyd judges, that Al-Ghazali’s criticism is incoherence.

  20. Dualisme Pemikiran Sufistik Ibn Taymiyyah

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    Yunasril Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Ibn Taymiyyah, meski dikenal sebagai tokoh panutan radikalis salafi yang anti pembaharuan dan alergi tasawuf, ternyata merupakan inspirator kaum modernis dan juga seorang sufi. Bagaimana mungkin seorang yang anti tasawuf   juga adalah seorang aktivis tasawuf ? Bagaimana posisi Ibn Taymiyyah seharusnya dipetakan?  Bagaimana pula sikapnya yang terlihat kontradiktif ini dapat dijelasakan? Dengan mengkaji karya-karyanya dan mempertimbangkan pengalaman hidup Ibn Taymiyyah yang ditelisik melalui perspektif psikosufistik penulis akan menjawab persoalan tersebut. Tulisan ini menyatakan bahwa kritikan dan penolakannya atas jenis tasawuf tertentu (nazharī-falsafī didasarkan kerancuan dalam pemaknaan istilah dan paradigma yang berbeda dari objek yang dikritiknya. Ditunjukkan pula sikapnya menjelang kematian —dalam kondisi batin terkondisikan sedemikian rupa sehingga bukannya dipenuhi diskursus ilmiah, ia tenggelam dalam taqarub dan perhatian penuh kepada Allah dan mencapai puncak pengalaman sufistik, fana— kendatipun kontradiktif, tidak lain merupakan perkembangan dari kesadaran religiusnya.Kata kunci : radikalis salafi, dualisme, fiqh al-qulūb, neo-sufisme, anti tasawuf, ḥulūl, ittiḥād, waḥdat al-wujūd.Abstract : Ibn Taymiyya, despite being well-kown as a figure of salafi-radicalists which are anti-reformism and oppose tasawuf, in fact is an inspiring figure for some modernist Muslims and is a sufi. How could it be possible for someone who criticizes tasawuf to be a sufi? How should Ibn Taymiyya be placed correctly in this regard?  How could his contradictive attitude be explained? These questions will be discussed in paper through a careful study of his works and by investigating his life-experience from a psycho-sufistic perspective. This paper argues that his criticism to certain kind of tasawwuf, i.e., the naẓarī-falsafī, is often based on confusion in understanding terms and departs from different paradigm used by

  1. From Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq to Kitāb al-dawā’ir: Reconsidering Ibn al-Sīd al-Batalyawsī’s Philosophical Treatise

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    Eliyahu, Ayala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical treatise known as Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq is generally ascribed to the 12th century Andalusian author Ibn al-Sīd al-Batalyawsī, although this attribution is sometimes contested. This paper offers a new interpretation of the title, textual history, authorship, sources, and literary genre of this treatise, on the basis of new textual evidence, a reexamination of known evidence, and a comparison between the treatise and Batalyawsī’s works. The conclusions of this study are first, that Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq was not the treatise’s original title, and therefore it should be renamed Kitāb al-dawā’ir; second, that Kitāb al-dawā’ir was originally part of (one of the versions of Batalyawsī’s Kitāb al-masā’il; and third, that the textual and stylistic similarities between this treatise and Batalyawsī’s other works prove the authenticity of the treatise’s attribution to Batalyawsī. In addition, new findings regarding Batalyawsī’s use of formulas from the Rasā’il Ikhwān al-Safā, in Kitāb al-dawā’ir and Kitāb al-masā’il provide further evidence for the deep impact of the Ikhwān on Batalyawsī’s thought, as well as for the close connection between Kitāb al-dawā’ir and Kitāb al-masā’il. This connection is further highlighted according to the attribution of both treatises to the genre of questions and answers in Arabic literature. The evidence gathered in this paper supports the claim that Batalyawsī’s Kitāb al-dawā’ir should be seen as an integral part of his literary oeuvre, as well as of Andalusian philosophical literature in general.Generalmente el tratado filosófico conocido como Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq se asocia al autor andalusí del siglo XII Ibn al-Sid al-Batalyawsī, aunque esta atribución ha sido discutida en ocasiones. Este artículo ofrece una nueva interpretación del título, la historia del texto, la autoría, las fuentes e incluso del género literario al que se

  2. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

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    S. Mahdi Zarghani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the

  3. A Study of Muslim Philosophers’ Views about Rhythm and Rhyme (with emphasis on the works of Aristotle, al-Farabi, Averroes, Ibn Sina, Baghdadi, Khajeh Nasir and Ghartajeni

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    Dr. M. Zarghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of Muslim philosophers’ studies is allocated to music. They categorize music as a sub-branch of mathematical sciences and investigate it scientifically, not artistically. Al-Musighi al-Kabir by al-Farabi and Javame’ Elm al-Musighi by Ibn Sina are among the most important works in this regard. Under the general category of music, they also allocate a section to the music of poem and investigate it scientifically. Their ideas about the music of poem are similar to as well as different from the ideas of prosodists. This article aims to study their ideas about the music of poem briefly. The first section is allocated to the issue of rhythm in verbal arts and it is shown that our philosophers consider two kinds of rhythm: quantifiable and not quantifiable. The first one exists in poem and the second one is in non-poetic language. Also they define certain characteristics for each of these rhythms. Quantity, the equality of cadences, provoking admiration and having distant returns are the features of poetic rhythm, whereas regular join and separation, similar endings, symmetry of sentences with regard to length, agreement and similarity of symmetrical words regarding movements, pauses and numbers of such words, appropriate usage of music-creating devices such as puns, alliterations and parallelisms are among the features of non-poetic rhythms. The significance of rhythm in poem and its status is another issue investigated in this article and it is shown that music and mimesis are two necessary elements that poem is made simply by the presence of them and the fundamental matter in the music of poem is “proportion”. Also it is shown that such matter is the basis of meters and prosodies. Our investigation shows that musical sounds and poetic meters are following the same system. Under other issues such as “Tanghim” it is shown that, by creating such terms, philosophers try to show that the factor of sound is important in the formation

  4. El proceso de Ibn al-Jaṭīb. Apéndice: Epístola de al-Bunnāhī a Lisān al-dīn

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    Calero Secall, M. Isabel

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial of Ibn al-Khaṭīb has left its mark on history because of the personality of the accused. Most scholars in the past have thought that his accusation and subsequent trial on religious grounds were no more than excuses intended to bring about his death, as a trial for high treason would, for various reasons, not have been possible. For this he had to be accused of crimes against religion as this was the only sure way of mounting a successful case against him. The accusations analysed here are taken from a variety of sources including Al-Marqaba al- 'ulyā and the works of al-Maqqarī, some of which have not been translated before. We notice procedural irregularities in the course of the trial, but both in Granada and in Fez the focus is on the zindīq who is finally condemned to death.

    El proceso de Ibn al- Jaṭīb ha pasado a la historia debido a la personalidad del inculpado. La mayoría de las opiniones coinciden en declarar la acusación y el proceso como un simulacro para conseguir su muerte, pues la acusación de alta traición, por las circunstancias que incidieron en el caso, no iba a conseguir el objetivo propuesto. Por esta razón se buscaron otros motivos con que inculparle y que permitieran perseguirlo y condenarlo en cualquier parte del Islam, por eso estas acusaciones sólo podían responder a delitos de lesa religión. Y se encontraron. Las acusaciones que se analizan en este trabajo figuran en varios textos, en al-Marqaba al-'ulyà y en las obras de al-Maqqarī, algunos de ellos no traducidos hasta ahora. En el desarrollo de las actuaciones se observan irregularidades procesales, pero tanto en Granada como en Fez, la condena se centra en la figura del zindīq cuya sentencia final fue la pena de muerte.

  5. Al-Qāḍī al-Nu‘mān b. Muḥammad al-Maghribī (m. 363/974. Risālat Dhāt al-Bayān fī l-Radd ‘alā Ibn Qutayba or «The eloquent clarification for the refutation of Ibn Qutayba» (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim, Avraham

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Al-Qādī al-Nu,mān b. Muhammad was the most outstanding and prolific Fātimī scholar and the founder of Ismā,īlī jurisprudence. In his epistle “The eloquent clarification for the refutation of Ibn Qutayba”, still in manuscript, al-Nu,mān engaged in a heated atttack on Ibn Qutayba, who had lived a century earlier. The epistle was probably composed in the time of al-Mu´izz at the request of an anonymous tutor of the caliph’s sons. Al-Nu´mān’s purpose was to refute Ibn Qutayba’s assertion in the introduction to his famous Adab al-Kātib, acording to which it was enough for the kuttāb, the civil servants of the state, to memorize a number of simple legal formulas in order to perform their duties, without the need to learn the lengthy dissertations of the fuqahā’ or doctors of law. Al-Qādī al-Nu´mān, who was himself a famous faqīh, dedicates his epistle to proving that in fact without these long dissertations the law could not be properly applied. He refers to each legal formula mentioned by his oponent in Adab al-Kātib and shows how applications of the law should be based on the authority of the Imāms of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Prophet Muhammad. At the same time he refutes various Sunnite legal perspectives on these same issues.

    Al-Qādī al-Nu´mān b. Muhammad es el más destacado y prolífico de los estudiosos fatimíes y el fundador de la jurisprudencia ismā´īlí. En su epístola “La clarificación elocuente para la refutación de Ibn Qutayba”, todavía en manuscrito, al-Nu,mān se lanza a una polémica en contra de Ibn Qutayba, que había vivido un siglo antes. Es probable que la epístola fuera escrita en la época de al- Mu´izz a petición de un tutor anónimo de los hijos del califa. En ella, al-Nu´mān se propone refutar la afirmación de Ibn Qutaybba, incluida en la introducción de su famosa obra Adab al-Kātib, según la cual era

  6. Humor y excentricidad en Ṭabaqāt al-Šu‘arā’ al-muḥdaṯīn de Ibn al-Mu‘tazz

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    Garulo, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to call attention to this book by Ibn al-Mu‘tazz, sometimes neglected, emphasizing its worth as a literary work and as a source for the study of humour in Arabic literature. Ṭabaqāt al-shu‘arā’ al-muḥdathīn is a very curious repository of biographies of ‘Abbāsid poets, with especial attention to the least known among them, but with personalities that might give occasion to tell a good story about their wit or their folly. So we have, at the same time that we receive information about some very famous poets, a remarkable record full of empathy and humour with tales of madmen, profligate people and rogues and scoundrels boasting of their trades.

    Tanto la poesía de Ibn al-Mu‘tazz, como su reflexión teórica sobre el nuevo estilo de poetizar que se inicia con los poetas ‘abbāsíes, han atraído la atención de críticos e investigadores, por la serena armonía de sus versos y la potente visualidad de sus imágenes y metáforas, y, en el caso del Kitāb al-badī‘, por tratarse de la primera obra dedicada a las figuras y tropos que caracterizan la poesía de los poetas postomeyas. Sin embargo, su antología sobre los poetas muḥdaṯūn ha quedado relegada a la posición ancilar de repositorio de nombres de poetas, fundamentalmente menores, de la época ‘abbāsí. En este artículo intento una lectura menos utilitaria de las Ṭabaqāt al-Šu‘arā’ al-muḥdaṯīn para destacar su calidad como obra literaria y, sobre todo, su interés para la historia del humor en la literatura árabe, pues su autor refleja en ella su curiosidad por personajes excéntricos, ridículos o marginales, que sólo se salvan de la condena absoluta por su pasión por la poesía.

  7. Again on Maslama Ibn Qāsim al-Qurṭubī, the Ikhwān al-Ṣafā’ and Ibn Khaldūn: New Evidence from Two Manuscripts of Rutbat al-ḥakīm

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    Godefroid de Callataÿ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of previous studies about the reception of Rasā’il Ikhwān al-Ṣafā’ in al-Andalus, this paper argues that it was common among Andalusī scholars of the Middle Ages to credit the astronomer Maslama al-Majrīṭī (d. 395/1004 or shortly thereafter not only with the authorship of Rutbat al-ḥakīm and Ghāyat al-ḥakīm – now both correctly ascribed to Maslama Ibn Qāsim al-Qurṭubī (d. 353/964 – but also with the entire encyclopaedic corpus of the Rasā’il. The first part of this article seeks to explain the series of successive confusions by which these three works came to be identified as forming three steps of a philosophical ladder and how this trilogy then came to be attributed to the scientist al-Majrīṭī. The second part focuses on two biographical notes found on the title pages of two manuscripts of the as-yet-unedited Rutbat al-ḥakīm. In addition to providing supplementary evidence for the spread of this misconception among medieval scholars, these documents also offer valuable and sometimes unique information about the two Maslamas, their respective writings and entourages, as well as the widespread circulation of the Rasā’il across the Peninsula. The edition, translation and commentary of these two biographical notes are here provided for the first time.

  8. La mer, miroir de la légitimité du califat nasride. À propos du Khaṭrat al-ṭayf d’Ibn al-Khaṭîb (1347

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    Yann Dejugnat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Le Khaṭrat al-ṭayf fî riḥlat al-shitâ’ wa-l-ṣayf d’Ibn al-Khaṭîb (1347 est un ouvrage qui a été largement négligé par la plupart des études consacrées au genre du récit de voyage (riḥla. L’objectif de cet article est de faire apparaître, par l’approche de ce récit comme discours, la signification du voyage dans le royaume nasride de Grenade. Comme l’annonce le titre qui est une citation de la sourate CVI du Coran, Ibn al-Khaṭîb procéda à une coranisation de la riḥla en assimilant le cortège officiel du souverain Yûsuf I entre Grenade et Almeria au parcours des caravanes de Quraysh entre La Mekke et Ṭâ’if. Établissant un jeu de miroir entre les deux péninsules, Arabique et Ibérique, et renouant avec les origines de l’islam, le voyage fut conçu comme un instrument de légitimation. Dans cette construction symbolique, la mer apparaît comme l’espace privilégié de la manifestation des ambitions califales et des espoirs de revanche sur les chrétiens du pouvoir nasride.

  9. Ibn al-Ṣīd al-Baṭalyawsī (444/1052-521/1127: de los reinos de taifas a la época almorávide a través de la biografía de un ulema polifacético

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    Serrano, Delfina

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibn al-Ṣīd al-Baṭalyawsī (Badajoz 444/1052-Valencia 521/1127 is known mainly as a grammarian, a lexicographer and, though less so, as a philosopher. He was also a prominent traditionist with interests in jurisprudence and theology, and enjoyed a career as a court-poet and secretary. Virtually all of his works have survived. They were praised by medieval biographers and have attracted the attention of modem scholars, so that we have quite a number of critical editions and studies of them. By contrast, we have few data on Ibn al-Sīd's life, and those few are difficult to use. This is probably why there are so few studies devoted to his career, despite its importance to an understanding of his literary production. This article aims at filling the gap. I use biographical sources in order to establish Ibn al-Sīd's origins, education, career, pupils and writings. I also attempt to establish where Ibn al-Sīd lived, and when, in different parts of al-Andalus, in the changing political and cultural context following the Almoravid conquest. Finally I offer an assessment of Ibn al-Sīd's general contribution to Andalusī intellectual history.

    Ibn al-Sīd al-Baṭalyawsī (Badajoz 444/1052-Valencia 521/1127 es conocido básicamente por su actividad en el campo de la gramática y la lexicografía, y por sus incursiones en la filosofía. También destacó en la ciencia del hadiz, interesándose además por cuestiones jurídicas y teológicas. Su obra se ha conservado prácticamente completa. Es valorada positivamente por los biógrafos y el interés que ha despertado entre los investigadores modernos ha dado lugar a un buen número de ediciones críticas y estudios. Cuando un investigador se acerca por primera vez a la figura de Ibn al-Sīd comprueba, sin embargo, que los datos disponibles acerca de su vida son escasos y, en ocasiones, de difícil aprovechamiento, y piensa que probablemente a ello se deba la ausencia de un estudio monogr

  10. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  11. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IV. Transitional Type Ibn supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared data of the Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) 2010al and 2011hw. SN 2010al reaches an absolute magnitude at peak of M-R = -18.86 +/- 0.21. Its early light curve shows similarities with normal SNe Ib, with a rise to maximum slower than most SNe Ibn. The sp...

  12. Modeling the Transmission of al-Mubashshir Ibn Fātik’s Mukhtār al-Ḥikam in Medieval Europe: Some Initial Data-Driven Explorations

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    David Wrisley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the transmission of a mid-eleventh century Arabic compilation of Hellenic wisdom, al-Mubashshir Ibn Fātik’s Mukhtār al-Ḥikam wa-maḥāsin al-kalim, into medieval European languages. It documents new archival evidence for the scope of this textual tradition. The combination of digital textual and archival evidence provides important clues for building hypotheses for an expanded reception history of the Arabic text in Europe. Using corpora built in three languages—Castilian, Latin and French—it leverages stylometric analysis to explore the discursive communities in which the translations may have emerged and where they took on new meanings. The article puts medium-scale stylometry into practice in the field of comparative literature and translation studies for the exploration of large text collections, and suggests how quantitative methods could be deployed in translingual corpus-level literary research. It also argues for the use of stylometry at early stages of literary historical research to discover new paths of inquiry.

  13. Exégesis filosófica en las interpretaciones de Abraham ibn Ezrá al libro de Job

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    Gómez Aranda, Mariano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of Abraham Ibn Ezra's philosophical theories in his commentary on Job and how he uses them to interpret some biblical verses and to give a rational justification of the main question of this biblical book, namely, the sufferings of the rigtheous. In this article, I analyze how Ibn Ezra uses philosophical theories of his time, such as the origin of evil, the soul-body duality, and the problem of the limitation of the human knowledge, to explain some metaphors in the biblical text.Este artículo es un análisis de las teorías filosóficas utilizadas por Abraham ibn Ezrá en su comentario a Job para explicar el significado de algunos versículos bíblicos y dar razones filosóficas del problema central de este libro: el justo que sufre desgracias sin razón aparente. En él se analiza cómo este autor utiliza las teorías filosóficas de su tiempo sobre el origen del mal, la dualidad alma-cuerpo y el problema de la limitación del conocimiento humano para explicar algunos significados metafóricos del texto bíblico.

  14. ['The spirit has left the bottle': the medieval Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ: his medical work and his bizarre affiliation with twentieth-century spiritualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, N Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Arabic physician 'Abd al-Latĭf ibn Yŭsuf al-Baghdădĭ, lived at the crossroads of the twelfth and the thirteenth century. His unbridled curiosity and his unquenchable thirst for knowledge of any kind brought him to far-away countries and regions and put him in contact with all sorts and conditions of people. The great Egyptian famine of the years 1200-1202 enabled him to study and examine thousands of human cadavers and skeletons at first hand. This led to a new understanding of the anatomical structure of the human body, and rejected the more or less antiquated ideas of the Greek doctor Galen of Pergamum. However, 'Abd al-Latĭf's vision was granted only a short life. After his death, his discovery sank into oblivion and as a consequence it was never again mentioned in Arabic medical manuals. From then on the Arabic physicians once more referred to the anatomical data which were developed and taught by Galen. Relatively few specimens of his remaining medical work were preserved for posterity. However, his Book of the two advices (or: K. al-Nasĭhatain) is of the utmost importance as a source for the medical thinking and the medical treatment in the late twelfth and the early thirteenth century A.D. During the years following World War I, 'Abd al-Latĭf's name reappeared within the spiritualistic movement in England. He became known as Abduhl Latif the great Persian physician and acted as a control of mediums. Until the late sixties, he practised the art of healing as the head of a medical mission somewhere in the Spheres.

  15. Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Historical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, A S; Sarafian, N; von Gladiss, A; Unterberg, A W; Lanksch, W R

    2001-08-15

    Ibn Sina (often known by his last name in Latin, Avicenna; 980-1037 A.D.) was the most famous physician and philosopher of his time. His Canon of Medicine, one of the most famous books in the history of medicine, surveyed the entire medical knowledge available from ancient and Muslim sources and provided his own contributions. In this article the authors present a unique picture of the neurosurgical technique of Ibn Sina and briefly summarize his life and work.

  16. The sermons of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib at the confluence of the core Islamic teachings of the Qur’an and the oral, nature-based cultural ethos of seventh century Arabia

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    Qutbuddin, Tahera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sermons attributed to ‘Alī ibn Abī ���ālib (c. 600-661, first Shi‘a imam and fourth Sunni caliph promoted core Qur’anic doctrine and ethics through an aesthetic steeped in the oral, nature-based, poetic culture of seventh-century Arabia. Using traditional Arabian metaphors of camels, watering holes, and pithy, rhythmic, orality-grounded cadences, ‘Ali urged his audience to worship the One God, follow the guidance of His prophet Muhammad, shun worldliness, perform good deeds, and prepare for the imminent hereafter. Through a close reading of his most celebrated discourses, this paper explores these teachings and their religious and cultural underpinnings.

    Los sermones atribuidos a ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (c. 600-661, primer imam chií y cuarto califa suní fomentaron las doctrinas y la ética coránicas fundacionales mediante una estética oratoria, imbuida de la cultura poética oral basada en metáforas de la naturaleza, característica de la Arabia del siglo VII. ‘Ali utilizaba metáforas tradicionales de camellos y abrevaderos, junto con expresiones rítmicas y lacónicas llenas de cadencias de la oralidad, para instar a los oyentes a adorar al Dios único, seguir la dirección de su profeta Muhammad, rehuir las cosas mundanas, practicar las buenas obras y prepararse para la inminente vida en el más allá. A través de un análisis pormenorizado de sus discursos más célebres, este artículo explora dichas enseñanzas y sus bases religiosas y culturales.

  17. NARASI CINTA DAN KEINDAHAN DALAM BAHASA SUFI IBN ARABI

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    Ahmad Kholil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Arabi is the type of the mystical-muslim philosophy. He was known as the founder of an idea “wahdat al-wujud”, and his theory explained that cosmos was created by God from its one-necleus. So, in spite of its external aspects different and has variations, its essence just one. It mind there is God attribut in cosmos, and God is the essence of its share. The common of mystical muslim coveted the “kasyf” to understand Him, The Great Unity, God. In this case, Ibn Arabi connected it and love. Love, Ibn Arabi said, had to come into existence becaose of “jamal”, the beaty which God-loved and “ihsan”, the beautiful attitude to reach love of God.

  18. IBN ‘ARABI AND THE TRANSCENDENTAL UNITY OF RELIGIONS

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    Media Zainul Bahri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes Ibn ‘Arabi’s comprehensive views, captured in his important Futuhat and Fusus, on the concept of wahdat al-adyan, the discrepancy of beliefs, and the Shari’ah as well as its juncture and its unity. Elaborated explanation in this paper is expected to result in a true understanding of this crucial issue, particularly the concept of religious pluralism in the discourse of Islamic studies. Ibn Arabi’ extensively  discusses religion in the sense of the “ideal” versus “historical” or “esoteric” versus “the exoteric”. Ibn ‘Arabi concludes that the absolute unity of religions may only occur within spiritual, ideal, or transcendental realm (or “esoteric”, which is beyond the formal form of religions. Hence, the transcendental unity of religions cannot be found in the formal form of religions nor in the shari’ah.[Artikel ini mengulas pandangan Ibn ‘Arabi’ mengenai wahdat al-adyan seperti dijelaskan dalam dua bukunya; Futuhat dan Fusus, dan perbedaan dan kesamaan antara iman dan shariah. Diharapkan diskusi artikel ini berkontribusi dalam kajian pluralisme, utamanya dalam disiplin studi Islam. Dalam diskusinya, Ibn Arabi’  menjelaskan perbedaan ‘ideal’ dan ‘historikal’ atau antara ‘esoterik’ dan ‘eksoterik’. Ibn ‘Arabi berpendapat bahwa kemanunggalan agama-agama dapat dicapai melalui spiritualitas, ideal, atau dimensi transcendental (esoterik yang ada di luar tampilan formal agama-agama. Dengan kata lain, kemanunggalan tersebut tidak akan ditemukan pada shari’ah.

  19. ABÛ ISHÂQ IBRÂHÎM IBN MÛSÂ AL-SYÂTHIBÎ AND HIS OPINION ON THE DICHOTOMY OF ‘IBÂDÂT AND ‘ÂDÂT IN ISLAMIC LAW

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    Jamal Abdul Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abû Is­hâq Ibrâhîm ibn Mûsâ al-Syâthibî (d. 790/1388, or who is known as al-Syâthibî, is one of the most famous fuqahâ’ in Maliki sect. When he was living in Granada in the thirteenth century, he faced a wide scale of social, economic, and cultural changes. At the same time, the teaching and practice of tasawwuf influenced the tendency of  thinking of Islamic law. The big change supported him to formulate his philosophy of Islamic law. Mashlahah (mashâlih, as the main purpose of maqâshid al-syarî’ah, is the main concept of philosophy thinking in Islamic law that he built. The dichotomy of ‘ibâdât and ‘âdât contains the representation of fixed aspects which in one side is the teaching of worships (rites, and on the other side is the dynamic aspect from the Islamic law. ‘Ibâdât asked for a pure obedience from a human with the way has been specified by the God, while ‘âdât can receive any possible changes.Copyright (c 2015 by Al-Ihkam. All right reservedDOI: 10.19105/al-ihkam.v10i2.714  

  20. El capítulo sobre el Tasyīr en al-Bāriʻ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl y su traducción alfonsí

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    Díaz-Fajardo, Montse

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tasyīr or “prorogation”, is an astrological procedure with which the astrologer moves, in an imaginary way, an indicator in order to determine the celestial influences. Tasyīr was one of the astrologer’s fundamental tools for the casting of a horoscope. This paper analyzes the information in the chapter on Tasyīr in Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s (11th century book al-Bāri‘, concerning the methods, the techniques and the resources used. Its study highlights the channels through which science was transmitted and the ways in which the astrologer wrote his work using other sources, and stresses the importance of al-Bāri‘ in introducing new astrological knowledge from the East into the Maghrib and medieval Europe (knowledge that was used until the fifteenth century. The comparison of the chapter with its Castilian translation provides evidence of the procedures used by the translators of Alfonso X.El tasyīr o «prorrogación» es un procedimiento astrológico por el que se hace avanzar de forma imaginaria un indicador para conocer las influencias celestes. El tasyīr fue una de las herramientas fundamentales del astrólogo en el levantamiento de un horóscopo. Este artículo analiza la información que contiene el capítulo “Sobre el tasyīr” de la obra al-Bāri‘ de Ibn Abī-l-Riŷāl (siglo XI: los métodos, las técnicas y los recursos que utilizaba. Su estudio nos muestra las vías por las que la ciencia se transmitía, el modo en el que el astrólogo elaboraba su obra, la importancia del al-Bāri‘ como introductor en el Magreb y en la Europa medieval de fuentes y conocimientos nuevos importados de Oriente y la vigencia de su astrología hasta el siglo XV. El cotejo del capítulo mencionado con su traducción castellana nos da pruebas de la forma de trabajar de los traductores de Alfonso X.

  1. H. St. John Philby, Ibn Saud and Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    not start with a " tabula rasa ," but must take into account the situation as it already exists. One primary fact, which any practical solution must...Saudi Arabia is attempting to assert a leading role in negotiating the major issue within the Middle East by presenting a comprehensive Arab peace...conjunction with the role of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam. For that reason the first step is to review the advent of Muhammed ibn Abd al Wahhab and

  2. Perpetual creativity in the perfection of God: Ibn Taymiyya's Hadith commentary on God's creation of this world

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The course of the Islamic debate over the origin of the world through Ibn Rushd (d. 595/1198) is well known. Kalam theologians and al-Ghazali seek to prove the temporal origination of the world, while philosophers such as Ibn Sina argue for the world's eternal emanation from God. Ibn Rushd reasserts the world's eternity against al-Ghazali, portraying creation, however, not as emanation but as a perpetual process rooted in God's perfection. Almost completely unknown to Western-language scholar...

  3. The Almohad Mecca. Locating Igli and the Cave of Ibn Tūmart

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    Fromherz, Allen J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Igli was the Mecca of the Almohads. In the Cave of Igli Muḥammad Ibn Tūmart proclaimed the beginning of the Almohad movement in North Africa. Despite the obvious importance of Igli, there was little knowledge about the precise location of Igli or the famous cave of Ibn Tūmart on the map. This paper details the discovery of the small village of Igli 30 kilometers East of Tarūdant. The location of this modem village corresponds with Almohad Igli. Primary sources, oral testimony and physical remains are all evidence that modem Igli was the birthplace of Ibn Tūmart.

    Igli era La Meca de los Almohades. En la cueva de Igli Muḥammad Ibn Tūmart proclamó el principio del movimiento almohade en África del norte. A pesar de la importancia de Igli, no se conocía su localización exacta o de la cueva de Ibn Tūmart. Aquí se detalla el descubrimiento de la pequeña aldea de Igli 30 kilómetros al este de Tarūdant. La localización de esta aldea moderna parece corresponder con el Igli almohade. Las fuentes primarias, el testimonio oral y los restos físicos se aducen como evidencia de que el Igli moderno era el lugar de nacimiento de Ibn Tūmart.

  4. Le livre décisif sur les religions et les sectes d'Ibn Hazm : entre l'histoire du texte et la critique textuelle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaddouri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Ibn Hazm, an Andalusian polygraph (XI century), is the author of an important critical history of religions and sects called al-Fasl. In the first chapter, the author draws a critical review of modern research on this item. In the second chapter, he establishes a biography of Ibn Hazm studying the c

  5. Did Ibn Sina Observe the Transit of Venus of 1032 CE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    The Persian polymath Abu Ali ibn Sina (980--1037 CE), known to early Western sources as Avicenna, records that ``I say that I saw Venus as a spot on the surface of the sun''. This statement has been quoted, for example, by Nasir al Din al Tusi (1201--1274 CE). A Transit of Venus indeed took place during ibn Sina's life time, that is on 24 May 1032 CE. Did ibn Sina see this Transit or did he merely see a sunspot? The question was addressed by Bernard R. Goldstein in 1969 who concluded that ``this Transit may not have been visible where he lived''. Goldstein based his conclusion on the input provided by Brian G Marsden who in turn used mathematical tables prepared by J. Meeus in 1958. I have begun re-examination of the question by employing Fred Espenak's Transit predictions. Preliminary work shows that ibn Sina could indeed have obtained a glimpse of the Transit of Venus just before sunset from places like Isfahan or Hamadan. In other words, when ibn Sina said he saw Venus on the surface of the Sun, he probably meant it.

  6. Orígenes y evolución del lenguaje según el gramático y exegeta caraíta Abū l-Farağ Hārūn ibn al-Farağ

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    Gallego, María Ángeles

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abū l-Farağ Hārūn ibn al-Farağ is to be considered the main representative of the Karaite grammatical school that evolved in Palestine in the tenth and eleventh centuries CE. However, little is known of the contents of his works given the lack of complete editions of any of his grammatical treatises. Taking advantage of the fact that the first complete edition of one of his major works, al-Kitāb al-Kāfī (The Sufficient Book has been finished and is about to come out, I present in this article a selection and summary of his ideas with regard to the origin and evolution of language, as it appears in this treatise. Its study reveals in a meaningful way the racionalist approach that caracterised the Karaite movement.

    Abū l-Farağ Hārūn ibn al-Farağ es el máximo representante de la escuela gramatical caraíta que se desarrolló en Palestina entre los siglos X y XI. Los contenidos de sus obras, sin embargo, son poco conocidos por la falta de ediciones completas de sus tratados gramaticales. Aprovechando la finalización y próxima publicación de la primera edición completa de una de sus obras mayores, al-Kitāb al-Kāfī (= Libro Suficiente, presento en este artículo una selección y resumen de sus ideas en torno al origen y desarrollo del lenguaje según aparecen en este tratado. Su estudio revela de forma significativa el análisis racionalista que caracterizó al movimiento caraíta.

  7. Observaciones gramaticales en el comentario de Abraham Ibn Ezra a Lamentaciones

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    Ortega Monasterio, Mª Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the biblical commentaries of Abraham Ibn Ezra is the study of the Hebrew grammar and its characteristics. There we can find indeed many of the theories he had on the subject. Ibn Ezra includes remarks about the consonants, punctuation, morphology of verbs and nouns, etc., using several expressions which are characteristic of his own style. The present paper aims at analyzing the grammatical aspects of the commentary of Ibn Ezra on Lamentations, and at the same time comparing his theories with those of other Medieval commentators.

    Uno de los principales objetivos de Abraham Ibn Ezra en sus comentarios bíblicos es el estudio de la gramática hebrea y sus características. En sus comentarios podemos encontrar expuestas muchas de sus teorías acerca de este tema. A menudo hace observaciones acerca de las consonantes hebreas, de su vocalización, morfología, de verbos y nombres, etc., utilizando expresiones típicas de su estilo. En el presente trabajo se analizan los aspectos gramaticales del comentario de Ibn Ezra al libro de las Lamentaciones, intentando relacionar sus teorías con las de otros comentaristas medievales.

  8. El sabio total: Ibn Firnás

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Nacido en Ronda o en su Serranía, pero establecido en la sede del poder, la Córdoba de los emires omeyas, Ibn Firnás (muerto en 887 d. C.) fue un claro precedente del sabio renacentista; en efecto, al modo de Leonardo da Vinci, destacó en el cultivo de las ciencias, de las técnicas y de las humanidades. Conocido por sus intentos de volar con unas alas que él mismo se construyó, representa un primer modelo de sabio andalusí, que, tras asimilar las influencias que venían de la Bagdad abbasí, de...

  9. « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien » : l’ouvrage perdu d’Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān et les enjeux du cérémonial almohade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghouirgate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose de revenir sur un document aussi exceptionnel que méconnu. Il s’agit du résumé d’un ouvrage (maqāla, aujourd’hui perdu, intitulé « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien », et que l’on trouve dans le dictionnaire bio-bibliographique d’Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Cette maqāla fut rédigée, par un homme de lettres au service des Almohades, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān (m. 1231. C’est la seule source qui ait consigné des indications sur la conduite que devait adopter le souverain lors d’une cérémonie, en présence d’un prince étranger. À ce titre, on y trouve des renseignements essentiels sur le cérémonial almohade ainsi que sur les dilemmes que devaient résoudre le calife : d’un point de vue idéologique, il ne pouvait souffrir aucun autre pouvoir, mais l’impossibilité de mener des opérations d’envergure sur deux fronts à la fois l’amena à composer avec le roi du León. De même, c’est le seul document à avoir fait état d’une divergence de point de vue entre le calife et les intellectuels organiques du système, les Ṭalaba. Ce différend met en lumière des tensions latentes au sommet entre divers serviteurs de l’État, qui n’avaient pas la même forme de légitimité, ni tout à fait les mêmes intérêts.

  10. Structure study of the tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 by electron crystallography

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Daliang

    2011-12-01

    High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) has unique advantages for structural determination of nano-sized porous materials compared to X-ray diffraction, because it provides the important structure factor phase information which is lost in diffraction. Here we demonstrate the structure determination of the first tri-continuous mesoporous silica IBN-9 by electron crystallography. IBN-9 has a hexagonal unit cell with the space group P6 3/mcm and a = 88.4 , c = 84.3 . HRTEM images taken along three main directions, [0 0 1], [11̄0] and [1 0 0] were combined to reconstruct the 3D electrostatic potential map, from which the tri-continuous pore structure of IBN-9 was discovered. The different steps of structure determination of unknown mesoporous structures by electron crystallography are described in details. Similar procedures can also be applied for structure determination of other porous and nonporous crystalline materials. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Muslim Genius; Ibn Sina’s Effects on Cardiology

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    Sabri Onur Caglar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available  Ibn Sina (980-1037 was born in the village of Afshana, near Bukhara. Ibn Sina received his early education in his town and by the age of 10 he became a Quran Hafiz. He had exceptional intellectual skills. In some of his teenage years he lived in Anatolia. At the age of sixteen he dedicated all his efforts to learn medicine and when he was eighteen, he gained the status of a reputed physician. His synthesis of Islamic medicine, al Qanun reputed physician fi’l tibb (The Canon of Medicine, was the final authority on medical problems in the world for several centuries. His most significant medical works are the Qanun (Canon and a thesis on cardiac drugs”. The Canon of Medicine (Qanun: Law of Medicine is one of the most famous books in the history of medicine. This book is a five volume medical encyclopedia that was completed in 1025. The eleventh section of the third book primarily deals with different kinds of heart diseases, their effects, and treatment. It should be remembered that the Canon of Avicenna was written in early 11th century and it should be reviewed in the light of the state of knowledge concerning heart diseases and their treatment attained at that time. Researchers today have the advantage of highly advanced instruments which were not available to Ibn Sina 1000 years ago. That he wrote this section of the Canon in such detail and compiled a separate thesis on heart drugs are enough to prove that he had a clear understanding of the fatal character of heart diseases. He was a really scientific genius and medical practitioner. About 1000 years ago, he created many medical hypotheses and tried to discover unknown things related with humanity. Especially anatolian muslim researchers have to follow this way if they want to be succeeded or add some fantastic discoveries on science.

  12. Graphic Description: The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja\\'s Success in Description

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    جواد رنجبر

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphic Description:   The Mystery of Ibn Khafaja's Success in Description    Ali Bagher Taheriniya *  Javad Ranjbar **      Abstract Ibn Khafaja is one of the poets and men of letters in Spain. He is titled to Sanobari of Spain. He is one of the masters of description. Hence, the analysis of successful techniques he has used in the descriptive art could illuminate the way for others. Al-Taswir al-harfi (graphic description is a term which denotes the highest and most detailed poems. On this basis, the best descriptive poem is one which is closer to a painting. He has used some elements called conforming elements of description which contain: imagination, feeling, faculty, and dialogue as well as three other elements: to be inborn in description, enchanting nature and convenient life. This article is going to give an analysis of the reasons for Ibn Khafaja’s success in description and portrait making.   Key words: Ibn Khafaja, poetry, description, portrait   * Associate Professor, Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan E-mail: bTaheriniya@yahoo.com  ** M.A. in Arabic Language and Literature

  13. The Issue of Invocation in the Thought of Ibn Arabi and Mullasadra

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    A Arshad Riahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the highest divine issues, invocation has been always at the center of man’s attention and each person has paid attention to the meaning of invocation and the relative issues commensurate with his intrinsic poverty. Contemplation on the works of philosophers and mystics such as Mullasadra and Ibn Arabi foregrounds the importance of this issue in the view of the two thinkers. With his philosophical attitude, Mullasadra explains the significance of invocation, the conditions of its granting and influential factors in it, and Ibn Arabi has discussed this issue with his mystical taste in Fosus al-Hikam as well as other works. The expressing of poverty, humbleness and submission before God are common conditions for the granting of invocation in their views. According to them, the person’s intentional asking from God can lead to the acceptance of invocation. In the view of Mullasadra, the relation between invocation and “decree and destiny” as well as “cause and effect system” is one of the influential factors in the granting of invocation and this matter is absent in the works of Ibn Arabi. On the other hand, with his mystical taste, Ibn Arabi has proposed various kinds of divine gifts and stages of granting an issue not present in the works of Mullasadra.

  14. Atheroprotector role of the spleen based on the teaching of Avicenna (Ibn Sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazy, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Khodadoost, Mahmood; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazem, Esmaiel

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have proven atherosclerosis is an inflammatory immune disease. The spleen plays an important immune role in the human body. Splenectomy is often used in several clinical disorders; but recent studies have shown that splenectomy may be effective in the development of atheroma lesions. Ibn Sina or Avicenna was known as one of the greatest philosopher and physician in Islam and in Medicine. He is remembered for his masterpiece, The "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" or "Qanun of medicine". According to the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb", spleen as storage organ plays an important role in absorption and secretion of the black bile in the human body. Therefore any disruption in the function of the spleen can lead to various diseases such as atherosclerosis. Based on his description, it is clear that Ibn Sina first described the role of spleen in prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the Avicenna (Ibn Sina) aspect of atheroprotector role of the spleen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IBN KHALDUN’S THEORY OF TAXATION AND ITS RELEVANCE

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    Abdul AZIM ISLAHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khaldun, the North African versatile genius scholar of fourteenth century produced his famous work ‘al-Muqaddimah’ (the Introduction which is considered as one of the most sublime and intellectual achievements of the Middle Ages. It is a treasury of many sciences like history, psychology, sociology, geography, economics, political sciences,etc. He strongly argued in this book for low tax rate so that incentive to work is not killed and taxes are paid happily. His theory of taxation is an important contribution to economic thought. He is forerunner of the idea that high tax rates shrink the tax base because they reduce the economic activity. He is considered as the forerunner of Laffer’s curve. His ideas are comparable with those of supply-side economics that emphasized incentives and tax cuts as a means of economic growth.

  16. La ciencia del alma en IBN Bayya (Avempace

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    Lomba, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Não possui resumo em portugês El objetivo de este trabajo es la interpretación de del más importante aspecto de la filosofía de Ibn Bayya (Avempace a base de la lectura de su Kitab al nafs, primer comentario del De anima de Aristóteles en Occidente. Este estudio sobre el alma es, para Avempace, constituye la principal ciencia porque sin el análisis de la propia alma es imposible conocer el resto de las ciencias y del mundo. Este autor, en todas sus obras encentra el ideal del filósofo y del hombre sabio, sobre todo, en la progresiva desmaterialización de toda su vida. Este objetivo se obtiene mediante el transcendeer de tres formas de vida, concretamente, las formas materiales, el primer nivel espiritual y, por fin, el segundo nivel espiritual. La culminación de este itinerario es alcanzar el segundo nivel espiritual, concretamente, la unión con el Intelecto Agente mediante un misticismo espiritual o «amor Dei intellectualis». Los materiales básicos de esta filosofía están conteniddos en este comentario al aristotélico al De anima. $$bspa

  17. Divine Emanation As Cosmic Origin: Ibn Sînâ and His Critics

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    Syamsuddin Arif

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of cosmic beginning has always attracted considerable attention from serious thinkers past and present. Among many contesting theories that have emerged, that of emanation was appropriated by Muslim philosophers like Ibn Sînâ in order to reconcile the Aristotelian doctrine of the eternity of matter with the teaching of al-Qur’ân on the One Creator-God. According to this theory, the universe, which comprises a multitude of  entities, is generated from a transcendent Being, the One, that is unitary, through the medium of  a hierarchy of  immaterial substances. While the ultimate source is undiminished, the beings which are emanated are progressively less perfect as they are further removed from the first principle. The process is conceived as being atemporal and often compared to the efflux of light from a luminous body, or to water flowing from a spring. This metaphysical theory has enabled Ibn Sînâ to solve the vexed problem: given an eternally existing world and one eternally existing God, how can the two necessarily co-exist without having the perfect, simple unity of God destroyed by contact with the multiplicity of material things? The following essay delineates and evaluates both Ibn Sînâ’s arguments as well as the counter-arguments of  his critics.

  18. An Arabic report about supernova SN 1006 by Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Ehrig-Eggert, C.; Kunitzsch, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present here an Arabic report about supernova 1006 (SN 1006) written by the famous Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Lat. Avicenna, AD 980-1037), which was not discussed in astronomical literature before. The short observational report about a new star is part of Ibn Sina's book called al-Shifa', a work about philosophy including physics, astronomy, and meteorology. We present the Arabic text and our English translation. After a detailed discussion of the dating of the observation, we show that the text specifies that the transient celestial object was stationary and/or tail-less ("a star among the stars"), that it "remained for close to three months getting fainter and fainter until it disappeared", that it "threw out sparks", i.e. it was scintillating and very bright, and that the color changed with time. The information content is consistent with the other Arabic and non-Arabic reports about SN 1006. Hence, it is quite clear that Ibn Sina refers to SN 1006 in his report, given as an example for transient celestial objects in a discussion of Aristotle's "Meteorology". Given the wording and the description, e.g. for the color evolution, this report is independent from other reports known so far.

  19. An Arabic report about supernova SN 1006 by Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present here an Arabic report about supernova 1006 (SN 1006) written by the famous Arabic scholar Ibn Sina (Lat. Avicenna, AD 980-1037), which was not discussed in astronomical literature before. The short observational report about a new star is part of Ibn Sina's book called al-Shifa', a work about philosophy including physics, astronomy, and meteorology. We present the Arabic text and our English translation. After a detailed discussion of the dating of the observation, we show that the text specifies that the transient celestial object was stationary and/or tail-less ("a star among the stars"), that it "remained for close to three months getting fainter and fainter until it disappeared", that it "threw out sparks", i.e. it was scintillating and very bright, and that the color changed with time. The information content is consistent with the other Arabic and non-Arabic reports about SN 1006. Hence, it is quite clear that Ibn Sina refers to SN 1006 in his report, given as an example for transient celesti...

  20. The Epistemology Of Heart-Mind In The Spiritual Teachings Of Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi

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    Nikos Yiangou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Ibn ‘Arabi menawarkan kerangka pikir yang unik dalam menjelaskan struktur ilmu. Epistemologinya bersandar pada prinsip kesatuan wujud, dan bahwa semua pengetahuan adalah berasal dari Wujud yang dimiliki oleh Wujud melalui penampakan Dirinya. Manusia merupakan cermin dari penampakan Diri tersebut, yang di dalamnya terdapat satu fakultas sebagai pusat pengalaman manusia, yaitu hati (qalb. Melalui interaksi dengan pikiran, refleksi dan imajinasi, Ibn ‘Arabi menawarkan model epistemologi yang kokoh yang menjelaskan kerja pikiran dalam menciptakan keyakinan terhadap Tuhan. Ia (The Real hadir dalam tataran potensi tertinggi manusia, sebagaimana Ia hadir setiap saat dalam hati, pada kondisi yang disebut sebagai maqam yang tak bermaqam. Jika pendekatan post-modern sangat menekankan epistemologi yang memperkuat status multiplisitas ontologis mereka, ada paradigma yang berkembang yang mengusung visi kemanusiaan yang utuh melibatkan kesatuan tubuh, pikiran dan ruh. Epistemolgi Ibn ‘Arabi lah yang sanggup mewakili perkembangan ini dan merumuskan struktur yang abadi dan proses yang mencakup kecakapan manusia untuk sadar dan merasakan.Kata kunci : Kehadiran, Hati, Kesatuan wujud Abstract : Ibn ‘Arabi offers a unique framework for explaining the structures of knowledge. His epistemology is referenced within the Oneness of Being (wahdāt al-wujūd, and all knowledge is ultimately the knowledge that the Being has of Itself through Its own self-disclosure. The human form mirrors this self-disclosure, and within this form he situates the center of the human experience in the faculty of the heart (qalb. Through interactions with the faculties of mind, reflection and imagination, he provides a robust model for an epistemology that explains the workings of mind and the creation of the many beliefs about God. He intimates at the highest human potential which is the immediate perception of the Real as It appears to the heart in every moment, a

  1. L'educació al Regne Unit

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    Howard Glennerster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa los resultados de las políticas de educación del gobierno laborista británico entre 1997 y 2005. Tony Blair aseguró que su gobierno convertiría la educación en un asunto prioritario. La primera parte del estudio evalúa el grado de gasto educativo en comparación con el resto de la economía. Después de un descenso en el porcentaje de los ingresos nacionales dedicados a educación en los años previos al 2000, que obedecía a los planes de gasto anteriores de los conservadores, se produjo un incremento significativo del gasto. La segunda parte del estudio analiza el impacto del cambio de incentivos que las escuelas han experimentado en cuanto a los resultados escolares. Entre estos cambios hay la introducción de un plan de estudios nacional, el examen regular de los alumnos, la publicación de los resultados de estos exámenes por escuelas, la devolución a las escuelas de parte de los presupuestos y la flexibilización de la elección de escuela por parte de los padres, y la asignación de fondos en función de los alumnos como base de la financiación escolar. Todo eso ha llevado la escuela, en efecto, a una situación de quasi mercado. La tercera parte del estudio analiza la financiación de la educación superior. Después de corregir los fracasos iniciales de diseño de los programas, el nuevo patrón de financiación universitario en Inglaterra se ha convertido en un modelo único en Europa. El estudiante devuelve los créditos que haya utilizado para pagar las tasas y cubrir sus gastos cuando se ha licenciado, en función de los ingresos y mediante la declaración de renta. Los estudiantes procedentes de familias pobres reciben becas estatales que cubren tanto las matrículas como los gastos. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cette étude évalue les résultats des

  2. Ibn Ḥazm on Homosexuality. A case-study of Ẓāhirī legal Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang, Camilla

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the views of the teologian and legal scholar Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba (d. 456/1064 on homosexuality. Although reference is made to his literary work Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, which is rich in anecdotes on homoerotic attraction, the article focuses on Ibn Ḥazm's multivolume legal tract Kitāb al-Muḥallā, a work written from a Ẓāhirī, or literalist perspective. A step-by-step analysis of Ibn Hazm's legal reasoning on homosexuality, both male (liwāṭ and female (siḥāq is provided, and comparisons with the views of other jurist, especially Mālikis, are made. Unlike his Mālikī contemporaries, Ibn Ḥazm holds that homosexuality is not to be equated with fomication (zinā, which incurs the death penalty. Instead, he advocates a relatively mild punishment of up to ten lashes for homosexual practices, based upon his idiosyncratic interpretation of the revealed sources which is illustrated here. Although Ibn Ḥazm is believed by some modem authors to have had homosexual leanings himself, he categorically condemns sexual contacts between members of the same sex as immoral and sinful, and believes that homosexuals should be reformed.

    Este artículo discute las opiniones de Ibn Ḥazm de Córdoba (m. 456/1064 jurista y teólogo, acerca de la homosexualidad. Aunque se hace referencia a su obra literaria Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, rica en anécdotas sobre atracción homoerótica, el artículo se centra en su voluminosa obra legal zahirí Kitāb al-Muḥallā y analiza el razonamiento legal de Ibn Ḥazm sobre la homosexualidad tanto masculina (liwāf como femenina (siḥāq comparándola con la de otros juristas, en particular, malikíes. A diferencia de sus contemporáneos malikíes, Ibn Hazm mantiene que la homosexualidad no debe equipararse a la fornicación (zinā que incurre en la pena de muerte. Por el contrario, aboga por el relativamente suave

  3. Argumen Eksistensi Tuhan Dalam Metafisika Ibn Rusyd Dan St. Thomas Aquinas

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    Wardani Wardani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : To establish an argumentation for the existence of God is properly the most crucial as well as complicated effort in the life of religion and faith of human being. There are various approaches and methods have been applicated to reach it by theologians, thinkers, and scientists, including philosophers with their demonstrative-philosophical method. Some arguments which were initiated by Aristotle are ones of the most popular and have been adopted and improved as well by many thinkers and philosophers after him, some arguments which proposed by Ibn Rusyd and St. Thomas Aquinas with some modifications and improvisations are the best examples of it. In the case of elaboration and analysis toward those arguments for the existence of God, this article attempts to compare between metaphysical thought of Ibn Rushd (well-known in the West as Averroës and St. Thomas Aquinas. There is no doubt that both are Aristotelian in their philosophy. Therefore, to seek the similarities and differences, and to analyze the influence of Aristotle on their modes of thought, especially in argumentation for the existence of God, are an urgent point in the way to find more stronger and relevant arguments.Keywords: argument of creation (dalīl al-ikhtirā`, teleological argument (dalīl al-‘ināyah, unmoved mover, prime cause, influence, parallelism.Abstrak : Menggagas argumentasi tentang eksistensi Tuhan sejatinya merupakan upaya yang paling krusial sekaligus pelik dalam kehidupan beragama dan kepercayaan umat manusia. Berbagai pendekatan dan metode telah ditempuh untuk meraihnya oleh para teolog, pemikir, dan ilmuwan, termasuk para filsuf dengan pendekatan dan metode demonstratif-filosofisnya. Argumen-argumen yang diprakarsai oleh Aristoteles adalah diantara yang paling populer dan telah diadopsi serta dikembangkan oleh para pemikir dan filsuf setelahnya, tak terkecuali argumen-argumen yang Ibn Rusyd dan St. Thomas Aquinas kemukakan dengan segenap modifikasi

  4. Proses Pengambilan Keputusan dalam Perspektif Ibn Taimiyyah

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    Shobahussurur Shobahussurur

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the discourse of Islamic political study is the problem of decision-making process within the political order of a country. Does Islam follow a view of absolutism in the decision making process. How does representative institutions decision become a constitutional decision. What is the form of consultation can be done to get the best decision. Almost all forms of Islamic political thought agree to make syûrâ (consultation system, consulting as a tool to create a state decision. Yet, the debate is on the problems that can be decided or determined through the mechanism of the syûrâ. For Ibn Taymiyyah, people are the main owners of state power. Determination of choice for power players and the way of power are completely in the hands of the people. They are the owners of the leadership in general. They are entitled to elect and dismiss the leader, as they also decide the broad outlines of state policy that must be done by him. Moreover, the authority outlines is not on the leader, but on the whole people. However, the syûrâ is not like the promoted Western liberal democracy. It has its characteristics, traits and principles.

  5. A Mathematician Hussein Ryfky Tamani ibn Muhammad ibn Kyrym Ghazi »

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    M.A. Useinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to open up and make the analysis of the creative work of one of the outstanding scholar-mathematician in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th centuries whose origin was from the Crimean Khanate – Hussein Ryfky Tamani ibn Muhammad ibn Kyrym Ghazi. At the beginning of the 19th century, during 11 years, the scholar was a leader (bashkhoja of the Ground forces military-engineering school (Muhendishane-i berry-i Humayun in Istanbul. The article provides a review of translations made by Hussein Ryfky into the Ottoman language of European scientists’ works, as well as of his own research works on Geometry, Engineering and Military science, Astronomy, Geography, and other disciplines. The author also presents the textbooks having for centuries become the basic textbooks in the Ottoman Empire for learning exact sciences in the military educational institutions. The author provides the analysis of the pedagogical and public activity of the scientist during the period of reforms Nizam-i-Jedid, as well as the short description of his activities during the student years. Hussein Ryfky Tamani made a synthesis of Western and Ottoman approaches to the science. His works became the corner-stone in the foundation of Ottoman Mathematical science at the beginning of the 19th century.

  6. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    OpenAIRE

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-01-01

    La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una e...

  7. Ibn Khaldun: Economic Thought in the XIV Century

    OpenAIRE

    Puente-Ajovin, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Ibn Khadun, un historiador musulmán que decidió revisar de manera analítica los fundamentos de la historia, acaba describiendo ciertos componentes del proceso económico que deben ser tenidos en cuenta como parte de la historia del pensamiento económico. En esta disertación doy un exhaustivo repaso a las teorías derivadas de su análisis económico, que van desde los fundamentos de la división del trabajo a las causas del ciclo económico. Ibn Khadun, a Muslim historian who decided to review anal...

  8. Ibn Khaldūn’s Social Thought on Bedouin and Ḥaḍar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Pribadi

    2014-12-01

    [Melalui kerangka teori sosiologi modern serta metode penafsiran teks secara historis-sosiologis, penelitian ini berusaha untuk menjelaskan pemikiran sosial Ibn Khaldun tentang masyarakat badui dan ḥaḍar. Ide Ibnu Khaldun tentang masyarakat dapat dilihat pada konsepnya mengenai dua masyarakat ini beserta solidaritas sosial mereka, dengan karakteristik masing-masing. Masyarakat nomaden yang identik dengan masyarakat badui memiliki struktur sosial dan spesifisitas dengan kecenderungan pada kebajikan, ramah, dan keseragaman; sementara masyarakat ḥaḍar memiliki struktur dan kekhasan sosial seperti pluralis, pragmatis, dan hedonis. Dalam hal gaya hidup, masyarakat badui tampak lebih dinamis daripada ḥaḍar. Cara hidup masyarakat badui ditandai dengan terus berpindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lain, dan ini membuat komunitas ini cerdas dalam merumuskan visi, misi, program, dan sasaran yang ingin dicapai dalam hidup. Spesifisitas badui tercermin dalam kesiap-siagaan mereka, satu hal yang tidak terlihat dalam komunitas ḥaḍar. Sementara itu, dengan kemakmuranya, orang ḥaḍar sibuk dengan aktivitas perkotaan dan pembangunan masyarakat sipil. Ibn Khaldun telah berusaha untuk memahami manusia dan keberadaannya secara individu ataupun sosial melalui ‘ilm al-‘umrān. Metodologi sosialnya mencerminkan pandangannya secara keseluruhan melalui pengamatan realitas sosial secara komprehensif. Penulis berpendapat bahwa metodologi sosial Ibn Khaldun yang menggabungkan data dan fakta sosial dengan agama bisa menjadi referensi dan contoh pendekatan yang komprehensif. Ide penting Ibnu Khaldun lainnya adalah tentang perkembangan kecerdasan masyarakat yang meliputi tiga tahap: tamyīzī, tajrībī, dan naẓārī.

  9. Ibn Sab‘īn’s Sicilian Questions: the Text, its Sources, and their Historical Context

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    Akasoy, Anna Ayşe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sicilian Questions are the earliest preserved text of the philosopher and Sufi Ibn Sab‘īn of Murcia (c. 614/1217-668/1270. Even though the prologue of the text claims that it is a response to questions sent by Frederick II to the Arab world, it seems more likely that it was an introductory manual for Arab students of philosophy, dealing with four specific and controversial problems as a way of presenting general concepts of Aristotelian philosophy. This article analyses the structure and way of argumentation in the Sicilian Questions. Particular attention is being paid to the relationship between mysticism and philosophy and the sources of the text, above all the philosophical writings of Ibn Rushd. Ibn Sab‘īn and his Sicilian Questions are interpreted as reflecting the intellectual milieu of late Almohad Spain. The text might have been originally composed in a ṭalaba context, and it also reflects some of the key concerns of Almohad ideology.

    Las Cuestiones Sicilianas son el primer texto conservado del filósofo y sufí Ibn Sab‘īn de Murcia (c. 614/1217-668/1270. Aunque el prólogo del texto pretende que se trata de respuestas a preguntas mandadas por Federico II al mundo árabe, parece más probable que se trate de un manual introductorio para estudiantes árabes de filosofía, discutiendo cuatro problemas específicos y controvertidos como manera de presentar conceptos generales de la filosofía aristotélica. Este artículo analiza la estructura y la manera de argumentar en las Cuestiones Sicilianas. Dedica su atención en particular a la relación entre el Sufismo y la filosofía y a las fuentes del texto, sobre todo los textos filosóficos de Ibn Rušd. Interpreta a Ibn Sab‘īn y sus Cuestiones Sicilianas como un reflejo del ambiente intelectual en el Oeste del Mediterráneo durante los últimos años de los Almohades. El texto fue posiblemente compuesto en un contexto

  10. IBN TAYMIYYA’S FATWAS ON POLYGAMY IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

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    Mohamad Abdun Nasir

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses about the fatwa of Ibn Taymiyya on polygamy. It is well known that as one of the famous jurisconsults in the end of the thirteenth century, Ibn Taymiyya has dispensed many of his responses to Islamic legal cases arose in his time. This paper shows that although relatively an infrequent case posed to him, the issue of polygamy was discussed in such a great length in his book Majmu‘ Fatawa. That is why it is important according to the author to know why and what kind of problems related to the practice of polygamous marriage posed to this giant Muslim jurist. It is argued that Ibn Taymiyya tended not to view the practice of polygamy as a wrongdoing although it might lead to some negative excess in concern of its practice in Muslim society. Thus, in spite of some problems that might occur, such as injustice to women, neglecting or deserting to the wives, he does not invalidate the marriage as long as the husband can assure the fairness in distributing material supports. Beyond its substantive legal response, the fatwa of polygamy indicates the rareness of the cases arose in his time. This is true if compared to other problems, such as divorce, pervasively posed to Ibn Taymiyya for a response.

  11. MANUSIA DAN PENDIDIKAN MENURUT PEMIKIRAN IBN KHALDUN DAN JOHN DEWEY

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    T. Saiful Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the concept of human and Ibn Khaldun's ideas of education; to understand the concept of human and educational thought of John Dewey; to know the similarities and differences between the ideas of Ibn Khaldun and John Dewey on the concept of human and education. Various problems have been addressed through the library research method. The study produced several findings: First, human beings according to Ibn Khaldun as a creation of God with all the potential fitted to the five senses and intellect become intellect. The purpose of education opens the mind and maturity of the individual to the advancement of religious, industrial and social system. Material teaching is as educational planning. The method is to advocate phasing method, repetition, widya-tours and training (practice. Secondly, according to John Dewey man is a subject that has the ability, strength, personality, and existence who are capable of changing realities. The goal of education is only to gain happiness in the world life. The method of education is including problem solving, learning by doing and discipline. Third, the thought of Ibn Khaldun is much more religious because it is influenced by its control logic in religious knowledge, so that emphazises more on human spirituality in building civilization. While John Dewey is more radical and extreme, He proposed progressive education which strives against traditional teaching authority. Both Ibn Khaldūn dan Dewey are arise from inhuman socio-cultural environment and recognize the existence of human existence with nature and humanity impulse.

  12. Two Abbasid trials: Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal and Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq

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    Cooperson, Michael

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Ḥanbalī sources, the imam (d. 855 did not capitulate to the 'Abbāsid Inquisition. In modem times, a persuasive argument has been made that he must have done so; otherwise, he would never have been released. Yet a comparison of Ibn Ḥanbal's trial with that of Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq (d. 873 suggests that the `Abbāsid caliphs, when asked to judge suspected heretics, made their decisions based on reasons of state rather than dogmatic grounds. Against this background, the trial report of Ḥanbal b. Isḥāq can be read as a plausible account of why the caliph al-Mu'taṣim might have released Ibn Ḥanbal despite the latter's defiance of the Inquisition.

    Según las fuentes ḥanbalíes, el imām Ibn Ḥanbal (m. en 855 no capituló ante la inquisición 'abbāsí. En tiempos recientes, sin embargo, se tiende a pensar que sí debió capitular porque si no, nunca habría sido liberado. Sin embargo, una comparación del proceso de Ibn Ḥanbal con el de Ḥunayn b. Isḥāq (m. 873, indica que los califas 'abbāsíes, cuando tenían que juzgar a un sospechoso de herejía, lo hacían más bien basados en razones de estado que en motivos dogmáticos. En este contexto, en la narración del proceso recogido por Ḥanbal b. Isḥāq, puede leerse una explicación plausible de por qué el califa al-Mu'taṣim puede haber liberado a Ibn Ḥanbal a pesar de que éste desafiara a la Inquisición.

  13. The Comparison of Ibn Sina and Molla Sadra’s Views Concerning the Immateriality of the Imagination and its Relation to Bodily Resurrection

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    Abbas Yazdani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   One of the important issues which has differentiated Ibn Sina’s views from Sadra’s on psychology is the immateriality of imagination. Although Ibn Sina dealt with immateriality of imagination by scepticism in some of his writings such as al- Mobahesat, but on the basis of his philosophy, which considers intellect as simply perceiving general notions and ascribes any partial perception to material faculty, he dosenot belive in the immateriality of imagination. Hence, he states implicitly in his al-Najat that imaginative perception is material and not immaterial. In his booKs. al-Nafs men-al-Shefa he presents three different arguments for the materiality of imagination. In contrast, Sadra believes in the immateriality of imagination and argues for the immateriality of imagination in his varied writings. In his book. al-Shavahed al-Robobiyeh Sadra argues metaphysically for the bodily resurrection through the immateriality of imagination. He contends that nobody could argue metaphysically for bodily resurrection. The purpose of this paper is firstly, the comparision of Ibn Sina and Molla Sadra’s views concerning the immateriality of imagination and then to assess their arguments, and secondly, to assess Sadra’s arguments for the bodily resurrection through the immateriality of imagination. It is show that the truth of some of the arguments he presented are doubtfull.  

  14. La Urŷūza de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfuḏ: astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (I

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    Samsó, Julio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick revision of the available information on the life and works of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl (fl. Tunis ca. 996-1048 and an analysis of the contents of his Urjūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm which are compared to those of his better known Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī aḥkām al-nujūm. The conclusion is that both works are independent and that the Urjūza is not a summary of the Barī‘. The paper continues with biobibliographical data of the historian, mathematician and astrologer Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusanṭīnī (1339-1407, who is the author of a commentary of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s Urjūza dedicated to Abū Bakr b. Abī Mujāhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, vizier of the Merinid sultans Abū Fāris (1366-1372 and Abū Zayyān (1372-1374. The work was probably written during the latter’s brief reign and before 1375, the date in which the dedicatee was exiled to Majorca. The work continues with an analysis of the contents of the commentary, the sources quoted, the astrological techniques used both by Ibn Qunfudh and by Ibn Abī l-Rijāl, and the use by the commentator of a set of astronomical tables derived from the zīj of Ibn Isḥāq. We find, finally, a detailed commentary of the horoscopes contained in Ibn Qunfudh’s work which includes one corresponding to the vernal equinox of the year 571 AD, in which there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter which announced the arrival of Islam. There are eleven more horoscopes (two of them published previously which constitute an astrological history of Merinid Morocco between 1348 and 1366. Concerning the nine horoscopes analysed here, in six of them it has been possible to identify the subject or the event motivating the prediction, while three remain unidentified.

    Tras una rápida revisión de los escasos datos conocidos sobre la vida y la obra de Ibn Abī l-Riŷāl (fl. Túnez c. 996-1048, se analiza el contenido de su Urŷūza fī aḥkām al-nuŷūm compar

  15. Shaft line systems draw the line systems (Kawam Din Muhammad ibn Mohammed Hussein al-Husseini (رمح الخط في نظم رسم الخط نظم (قوام الدين محمد بن محمد حسين الحسيني

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    Qassim Raheem Hassan المدرس. قاسم رحيم حسن

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We pray For Allah For Aid and Praise be to Allah, and peace be upon Muhammad and The God of the good and virtuous, and companions Almentajabin. After A. Scientists in this science a lot of acronyms and shaft line one important condensed systems in line and spelling rules which was written by Mirza strength Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Husseini Saifi Qazwini Alhily. The flag line systems of healing morphological eyebrow. Finished their Isfahan years (1123 AH and explained disciple famous with Mawla Mohsen and Alnhoi Qazwini. He called his explanation (font calendar not only governing the organized aware the systems in all branches of knowledge Fenrah regulated in the account (Account Summary and (systems message astrolabe In fiqh (systems Includes index In praise (Ithnaa Ashraat in Madaih In ethics him Orjosp has Orjosp in jurisprudence has Orjosp in the statement has Orjosp in intonation has Orjosp modulated with Orjosp in equalizer and Altrajih name of justice and charity has Orjosp in census Quran and some rules of Quran has Orjosp in exchange has Orjosp has Orjosp in as he has a cabinet Saifi Qazwini has Alchukaat almonzomma and Nozim Zobdat Alssol with the statement in the science system.

  16. L'héritage spirituel d'Ibn Arabi

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    Abd as Sabour Turrini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Muhieddin Ibn Arabi reçut une éducation religieuse tant par ses oncles, qui embrassèrent la voie initiatique que par les maîtres spirituels qui lui autorisèrent et le dirigèrent ainsi dans cette retraite spirituelle, "khalwa", qui lui permit le dévoilement de la connaissance divine. Le comportement spirituel acquis par Ibn Arabi, à travers les enseignements des maîtres, peut être synthétisé dans la présence spirituelle scrupuleuse, dans la sollicitude, dans l’abandon confiant en Dieu et dans la pleine conscience que Dieu se révèle à tout instant.

  17. Ibn Imran's 10th century Treatise on Melancholy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Adel; Holtzman, Niki S; Akiskal, Hagop S; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2012-12-10

    Some see current views of mental illness, such as depression, as merely contemporary social constructions, with madness seen as a modernist break from medieval and ancient concepts. In contrast to these assumptions, here we describe one of the earliest texts on melancholia and mania, by Ibn Imran, an Arab physician of the 10th century. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neoplatonismo e Aristotelismo no hilemorfismo universal de IBN Gabirol (Avicebron

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    Macedo, Cecilia Cintra Cavaleiro de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a presença neoplatônica e aristotélica na metafisica de Ibn Gabirol. Para tanto, são confrontadas as teorias de Plotino e Gabirol, em alguns dos pontos principais, nos quais a semelhança já foi apontada: o primeiro princípio, o intermediário entre Deus e o mundo e a questão da matéria universal. Identificadas as diferenças entre as propostas daqueles autores quanto ao tratamento destas questões serão apresentadas brevemente algumas contribuições que podem ter sido provenientes das obras de Aristóteles, visando esclarecer a origem do tratamento a estes temas por Ibn Gabirol. Acreditamos que a obra de Ibn Gabirol deve ser estendida inserida em seu contexto histórico-filosófico, que primava por ver as doutrinas de Platão e Aristóteles, não como conflitantes, mas como complementares, bem como no sentido de sua compatibilização com o criacionismo abrahâmico que, no caso, obedece ao primado judaíco da dessemelhança radical entre Deus e a criação

  19. A Comparison between Concept of Tendency to Gloss Ibn Arabi and Meybodi Mystical Interpretations, a Comparative Study

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    Khayatian, Q

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muslim commentators on the basis of commitment to the appearances of various verses and hadith or conservative approach in interpreting the Word of God, in the mystical interpretation and gloss of verses, adopted a different stance. Manuscript, austerity and similarities, in some verses of the Quran is represents the suitable role of gloss in comprehend Inward verses. Among the interpretations of Qur'anic mystical interpretations centered, is gloss. This paper refers to the lexical meaning Transformation on gloss, the gloss of the concept in his Kashf al-Asrar Meybodi,Ibn Arabi’s Tafsire-Quran karimlkarim, and among these, because they disagreed with the gloss of the Quran full of idealism and takes the following gloss. Two commentators have offered their interpretations of the gloss, it is similar, although the gloss of Ibn Arabic Audacity seen, the gloss of the opinion that religion is Meybodi Ashari (Ahle Hadith, and there is no need to mention Arabic in the impetuosity of his much younger than his other works, especially Fosus Al Hekam. Mfsrnsbt opposed to the gloss of both revelations about the human intellect is the origin of which is described gloss. Thus, both philosophical and interpretive speakers opposed it as the true interpretation of their gloss and the gloss of the mystical Sufis are considered. Such a definition can be interpreted from two different interpretation of it is defined today. The modern definition of interpretation is rich in both gloss.

  20. A Comparison between Concept of Tendency to Gloss Ibn Arabi and Meybodi Mystical Interpretations, a Comparative Study

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    Yasaman Salmani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Muslim commentators on the basis of commitment to the appearances of various verses and hadith or conservative approach in interpreting the Word of God, in the mystical interpretation and gloss of verses, adopted a different stance. Manuscript, austerity and similarities, in some verses of the Quran is represents the suitable role of gloss in comprehend Inward verses. Among the interpretations of Qur'anic mystical interpretations centered, is gloss.   This paper refers to the lexical meaning Transformation on gloss , the gloss of the concept in his Kashf al-Asrar Meybodi,Ibn Arabi ’s Tafsire-Quran karim lkarim , and among these , because they disagreed with the gloss of the Quran full of idealism and takes the following gloss . Two commentators have offered their interpretations of the gloss , it is similar , although the gloss of Ibn Arabic Audacity seen , the gloss of the opinion that religion is Meybodi Ashari ( Ahle Hadith , and there is no need to mention Arabic in the impetuosity of his much younger than his other works , especially Fosus Al Hekam . Mfsrnsbt opposed to the gloss of both revelations about the human intellect is the origin of which is described gloss . Thus, both philosophical and interpretive speakers opposed it as the true interpretation of their gloss and the gloss of the mystical Sufis are considered . Such a definition can be interpreted from two different interpretation of it is defined today . The modern definition of interpretation is rich in both gloss .

  1. A Comparison between Concept of Tendency to Gloss Ibn Arabi and Meybodi Mystical Interpretations, a Comparative Study

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    Ghodratoolah Khayatian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   Muslim commentators on the basis of commitment to the appearances of various verses and hadith or conservative approach in interpreting the Word of God, in the mystical interpretation and gloss of verses, adopted a different stance. Manuscript, austerity and similarities, in some verses of the Quran is represents the suitable role of gloss in comprehend Inward verses. Among the interpretations of Qur'anic mystical interpretations centered, is gloss.   This paper refers to the lexical meaning Transformation on gloss , the gloss of the concept in his Kashf al-Asrar Meybodi,Ibn Arabi ’s Tafsire-Quran karim lkarim , and among these , because they disagreed with the gloss of the Quran full of idealism and takes the following gloss . Two commentators have offered their interpretations of the gloss , it is similar , although the gloss of Ibn Arabic Audacity seen , the gloss of the opinion that religion is Meybodi Ashari ( Ahle Hadith , and there is no need to mention Arabic in the impetuosity of his much younger than his other works , especially Fosus Al Hekam . Mfsrnsbt opposed to the gloss of both revelations about the human intellect is the origin of which is described gloss . Thus, both philosophical and interpretive speakers opposed it as the true interpretation of their gloss and the gloss of the mystical Sufis are considered . Such a definition can be interpreted from two different interpretation of it is defined today . The modern definition of interpretation is rich in both gloss .

  2. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna′s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

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    Rabie El-Said Abdel-Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb" of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037, is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina′s poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187 in the middle of the 12 th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17 th century. The study of the Krueger′s English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  3. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  4. STATUS HUKUM PEREMPUAN MENURUT IBN ḤĀZM DAN KEDUDUKANNYA DALAM KOMPILASI HUKUM ISLAM (KHI

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    M. Khoirul Hadi al-Asy’ari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study based on library research that discusses the legal status of women in the view of Ibn Ḥāzm. This study intends to answer three important questions; first, how the circumstances of the biography of Ibn Ḥāzm and socio-historical culture that surrounds his life; second, how the thought of Ibn Ḥāzm about the legal status of women; third, is there any thought of Ibn Ḥāzm relevance to the concept of gender in islamic law compilation (KHI. This research is expected to contribute at least in three points of view; first, examine the biography of Ibn Ḥāzm and educational history and culture surrounding his social life; second, describe Ibn Ḥāzm’s modern thinking with regard to the legal status of women; and third, discover the extent of the relevance of his thinking on gender discourse in KHI. Using istiṣḥāb, Ibn Hazm concludes that women and men have the same high legal status. This thought even beyond the perspective of gender, human rights, multiculturalism, pluralism and democracy that are still not familiar with Indonesian ulama’. This is among the arguments that claimed as the reason for the failure of the initiative of KHI Counter Legal Drafting (CLD.

  5. 75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application November 30, 2010. AGENCY... securities. Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL American Unit Trust (``AUL.... Applicants: c/o Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American...

  6. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  7. 75 FR 5132 - United States v. Cameron International Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Cameron International Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and.... Cameron Int'l Corp., et al., No. 09-cv-02165-RMC. On November 17, 2009, the United States filed a Complaint alleging that the proposed acquisition by Cameron International Corporation (``Cameron'') of NATCO...

  8. Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2013-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the traditional uses of saffron and its pharmacological activities as described by either Avicenna in Book II, Canon of Medicine (al-Qanun fi al-tib) or from recent scientific studies. Modern pharmacological findings on saffron are compared with those mentioned in Avicenna's monograph. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases as well as local references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, Avicenna and 'Ibn Sina'. Avicenna described various uses of saffron, including its use as an antidepressant, hypnotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, bronchodilatory, aphrodisiac, inducer of labour, emmenagogue and others. Most of these effects have been studied in modern pharmacology and are well documented. The pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents, including crocin, crocetin and safranal, are similar to those found in Avicenna's monograph. This review indicates that the evaluation of plants based on ethnobotanical information and ancient books may be a valuable approach to finding new biological activities and compounds.

  9. Management of stroke as described by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Karimi, Aliasghar; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2013-11-15

    Stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is caused by a disturbance of the blood supply to the brain and an accruing loss of brain function. The first recorded observations were in 2455 BC and it has been studied intensely by ancient physicians throughout history. In the early medieval period, Ibn Sina (980-1025 AD) called stroke sekteh and described it extensively. Some of Ibn Sina's definitions and his etiology of stroke are based on humoral theories and cannot be compared with medical current concepts, but most of his descriptions concur with current definitions. This review examines the definition and etiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, differential diagnosis, and interventions for stroke based on Ibn Sina's epic work, Canon of Medicine. The pharmacological effects of medicinal herbs suggested by Ibn Sina for stroke are examined in light of current knowledge. © 2013.

  10. Thinking about change: Ibn Khaldūn´s and his contemporaries Historical analysis and mentalities

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    Calasso, Giovanna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from Ibn Khaldūn´s thoughts as expressed in the Muqaddima on change in history, on the use of analogy and comparison as instruments to make it recognizable and on the imperativeness of historical writing in the face of the great phenomena of change, the article proposes a reflection on this theme in the light of the history of mentalities. Ibn Khaldūn´s theoretical thinking, but also his different attitudes in the face of the on-going transformations in the societies with which he was familiar, are therefore compared with the mental attitudes of some other categories of his contempo-rary scholars, with particular reference to 8th/14th century Egypt. For example, the authors of Kutub al-bidaʻ and pilgrimage guides reacted in different ways towards the changes they perceived in both the religious and non-religious customs of the Moslem society examined in the framework of the mentalities and transformations which marked the historical period in which he lived.

    [fr] A partir des idées sur les changements dans l´historie exprimées par Ibn Khaldūn dans Muqaddima à propos de l´usage de l´analogie et la comparaison comme instruments pour les rendre reconnaissables et sur le caractère impératif de l´ecriture historique face au grand phénomène du changement, l´article suivant propose une réflexion sur ce sujet du point de vue de l´historie des mentalites. La pensée theorique d´Ibn Khaldūn, mais aussi ses differentes attitudes vis-á-vis des transformations en cours des societés qu´il connaissait , sont donc comparées aux attitudes mentales sur d´autres catégories d´erutites contemporains. avec una référence particulière a l´Egypte du siècle VIII/XIV. Par exemple, les auteurs de Kutub al-bidaʻ et des guides de pèlerinage réagirent de manière différente à propos des changements qu´ils percevaient dans les habitudes aussi bien religieuses que non religieuses de la soci

  11. Ibn Hazm’s Literalism: A Critique of Islamic Legal Theory (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra, Adam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Hazm’s insistence that the Qur’an and Sunna be interpreted literally has frequently lead modern scholars to conclude that he is a conservative or dogmatic thinker. In fact, he is neither. Ibn Hazm’s Zahirism emphasizes the limited scope of Islamic law and attempts to curtail the claims made by Muslim jurists to speak on behalf of God’s law. This method leads him to support rationalism, individualism, and anti-clericalism. Ibn Hazm argues in favor of these principles consistently in his works on Islamic legal theory, including the text al-Nubdha al-kafiya fi usuLa figure historique d’Ibn ‘Abbâs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Comerro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Abdallâh b. ‘Abbâs est l’une des hautes figures du savoir islamique constitué au premier siècle. Les diverses notices biographiques qui lui ont été consacrées dans les sources sunnites en témoignent à travers le portrait lisse et monochrome du Compagnon et du savant. Cependant, un autre portrait nous a été conservé, celui d’un homme partisan, au cœur de la mêlée qui oppose les différents clans de Quraysh dans la lutte pour le pouvoir. La figure dessinée par l’ouvrage édité sous le titre Akhbâr al-Dawla l-‘Abbâsiyya (ou quelques autres ouvrages du même genre échappe en grande partie à l’exemplum déshistoricisé des traditionnistes. Cet autre point de vue ne donne nullement à croire que l’auteur anonyme des ADA nous fournit une image plus authentiquement historique d’Ibn ‘Abbâs, mais il vient contredire la vision des religieux, ou celle des anthropologues, qui s’attachent à gommer l’accidentel dans le portrait stéréotypé. Certes, l’homme de chair et d’os, l’individu Ibn ‘Abbâs, nous échappe définitivement, mais sa figure historique peut-être pas. On peut, en effet, se demander si dans les informations rapportées par certains akhbâr, et qui relèvent de la recréation littéraire, ne se dissimule pas aussi la démarche réflexive de l’historien qui met en scène des faits en leur fournissant une explication. À la différence des traditionnistes qui ne se risquent dans le conflit que de façon allusive ou feutrée, les historiographes et leurs informateurs, des hommes souvent non répertoriés parce qu’ils n’appartiennent pas aux cercles de la riwâya, ne dissimulent pas les enjeux d’ordre historique. Quelques exemples empruntés aux ADA en sont donnés.

  12. Konsep Hati Menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryandi Ryandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam khazanah sufi, hati atau qalb adalah salah satu term sentral yang dibahas secara mendalam. Karena bagi sufi, hati adalah entitas metafisik (latifah rabbaniyyah ruhaniyyah yang dengannya manusia dapat mencapai ma’arifatullah dan mengetahui rahasia-rahasia-Nya. Salah satu sufi klasik yang mengkaji hati secara mendalam adalah Abu ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Basyar al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi (w 320 H. Ia mengkonsepsikan hati sebagai entitas metafisik universal yang terkandung di dalamnya tingkatan-tingkatan batin (maqamat al-qalb, yaitu: sadr, qalb, fu’ad, dan lubb. Pemetaan ini dimunculkan sesuai dengan fungsi linguistiknya dan penggunaannya dalam al-Qur’an dan Hadis Nabi SAW. Tiap-tiap tingkatan batin tersebut berkaitan dengan tingkatan pengetahuan, keilmuan, spiritual, dan jiwa manusia. Kaitan tersebut menunjukan bahwa qalb merupakan eksistensi ruhani manusia (al-kainunah al-ruhiyyah, yang berfungsi sebagai instrumen penyempurna bagi manusia (al-jihaz al-mutakamil li al-insan yang meliputi seluruh kekuatan dan potensi manusia: ruhani, ‘aqliyah, dan kehendak, di mana manusia dengannya dapat merasa, berpikir, mengetahui, bahkan dapat mencapai ma’rifatullah dan dekat dengan-Nya.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SLUDGE OF IBN ZIAD CONSTANTINE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT FOR ITS LANDSPREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASSILA CHEURFI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the content of metals elements in the sludge of Ibn Ziad sewage treatment plant of Constantine in order to preserve its quality for subsequent use in agriculture. The use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to identify the following constituents in this mud: Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb. These elements represent 49.82 % of the total mass of the sludge. The elements present with regulated content limit are chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. They occur respectively with the following concentrations: 0.27 mg·g-1, 0.48 mg·g-1, 0.11 mg·g-1, 0.35 mg·g-1 and 2.70 mg·g-1. We have achieved an extraction for evaluating the concentration of the dissolved nitrate ions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD, and pH. The nitrate ions were transformed into sodium paranitrosalicylate to be dosed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy at 420 nm. The concentration measured was 0.12 mg·g-1. The measuring of the COD issued a value of 0.45 mg·g-1. pH was 7.1.

  14. Traducción y estudio del "Matla" de Ibn Yuzavy: sobre rasgos y características del caballo

    OpenAIRE

    Sobredo Galanes, Teresa Isabel

    2015-01-01

    El resumen de esta Tesis Doctoral contiene tres partes: 1) Ibn Yuzayy, su entorno histórico-intelectual, 2) el análisis del Matla, 3) Conclusiones. 1) El autor que nos ocupa Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Yuzayy (723-810¿?/1323-1408¿?), pertenecía a una ilustre familia de jurisconsultos, los Banu Yuzayy al-Kalbi de la élite intelectual granadina, ss. XIV-XV, cuyos antepasados procedían de Jaén, tras la de caída del imperio almorávide, y su padre Abu l-Qasim b. Yuzayy (m. 741/1340) fue un célebre ju...

  15. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

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    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una esclava de la princesa. Eso dio rabia a la última. Movido también por los celos, Ibn Zaydún dedicó una epístola satírica al visir Ibn Abdús, que estaba enamorado de Wallada. Tal hecho también irritó a la princesa. A pesar de tener amantes y admiradores, Wallada murió sin casarse al  día 2 de safar de 480 (o 484 de la Híjira pasando los ochenta años Me han llamado la atención el carácter tan culto, independiente y liberal de aquella mujer, su relación amorosa con Ibn Zaydún que no acabó felizmente y los muchos años que vivió sin casasre. Parece que la vida de la princesa hispano-musulmana llamó también la atención de muchos escritores árabes y españoles. Prueba de ello son varias obras literarias escritas en árabe y en español sobre Wallada e Ibn Zaydún. Por consiguiente, me resulta muy interesante realizar un estudio comparativo sobre este tema averiguando si, o no, la diferencia de culturas influiría en las opiniones  de los autores sobre la vida sentimental de aquella poetisa cordobesa.

  16. Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Summer students and professor from the United Arab Emirates - from left to right : Alya Ali Binghurair, Shaikha Al Kalbani, Professor Chafia Hejase de Trad, Mariam Al Hassani, Aminah Al Abdouli.

  17. The isometric extension of “into” mappings on unit spheres of AL-spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show that if V0 is an isometric mapping from the unit sphere of an AL-space onto the unit sphere of a Banach space E, then V0 can be extended to a linear isometry defined on the whole space.

  18. Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Evidence for Two Spectral Subclasses

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Valenti, Stefano; McCully, Curtis; Howell, D Andrew; Johansson, Joel; Sollerman, Jesper; Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Cao, Yi; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey; Corsi, Alessandra; Duggan, Gina; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Fox, Ori D; Fremling, Christoffer; Horesh, Assaf; Karamehmetoglu, Emir; Kasliwal, Mansi; Marion, G H; Ofek, Eran; Sand, David; Taddia, Francesco; Zheng, WeiKang; Fraser, Morgan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Inserra, Cosimo; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Smartt, Stephen; Smith, Ken W; Sullivan, Mark; Surace, Jason; Wozniak, Przemek

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. We report optical observations of six new Type Ibn supernovae: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects in the literature to 22. We also report new data, including a near-infrared spectrum, on the Type Ibn SN 2015U. In order to characterize the class as a whole, we analyze the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full Type Ibn sample. We find that, despite the expectation that CSM interaction would generate a heterogeneous set of light curves, as seen in Type IIn supernovae, most Type Ibn light curves are quite similar in shape, declining at rates around 0.1 mag/day during the first month after maximum light. Earl...

  19. Utilization of Enzyme-Immobilized Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers (IBN-4 in Prodrug-Activated Cancer Theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bau-Yen Hung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be stabilized in nanochannels through the formation of covalent imine bonds. This strategy was used to protect HRP from immune exclusion, degradation and denaturation under biological conditions. Furthermore, immobilization of HRP in the nanochannels of IBN-4 nanomaterials exhibited good functional stability upon repetitive use and long-term storage (60 days at 4 °C. The generation of functionalized and HRP-immobilized nanomaterials was further verified using various characterization techniques. The possibility of using HRP-encapsulated IBN-4 materials in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by evaluating their ability to convert a prodrug (indole-3- acetic acid (IAA into cytotoxic radicals, which triggered tumor cell apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT-29 cell line cells. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay revealed that cells could be exposed to the IBN-4 nanocomposites without damaging their membranes, confirming apoptotic cell death. In summary, we demonstrated the potential of utilizing large porous mesoporous silica nanomaterials (IBN-4 as enzyme carriers for prodrug therapy.

  1. Criticism of Epic Language in Ibn Hessam Khusfis Khavaranname

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    اصغر شهبازی

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this type of criticism, the main elements that a critic takes into consideration are rhythm and rhyme, vocabulary, syntax and word order, and forms of imagination. In the standard epic language, i.e. Shahname, all these elements help the typical literary epic and recall thought epical contents, but in some epic works after Ferdowsi, it is seen that the main epical elements have been separated from context and have made the epic language oscillate and even have made it similar to lyric language. In order to find out this issue, we decided to review the main elements of epic language in a secondary epic, i.e. Ibn Hessam Khusfis Khavaranname. In this review, it has been specified that the poet has been nearly successful in using most elements of epic language including side rhymes, epic vocabulary, syntax and a fluent epic language, although unreal imaginary content has influenced the poet's work, and as a result non-epic vocabulary and combinations have been imposed on him, and this fact has kept his language away from the sound standard epic language.

  2. Ibn Sina's (Avicenna) Contributions in the Treatment of Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaiel; Ardjmand, Abolfazl; Mohammadian, Hashem; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

    2012-01-01

    Modern medicine owes much to the endeavours and contributions made by the ancients that are unfortunately anonymous or even neglected intentionally today. This study was done to give attention to "the ancient golden times", as the author believes it deserves the nomination, to give credit to the manner our ancient physicians and masters practiced medicine and managed traumas in particular in a way that remains still unrivalled. Undoubtedly such masters as Galen of Pergamon, Hippocrates, Paul of Aegina and Avicenna paved the road for the so-called modern medicine and trauma surgery. Focus of this study is on Ibn Sina or Avicenna as the westerners call him and his methods in handling traumas of any kind and with any severity in the eleventh century based on the teachings handed down to him from the ancients; but he was not a mere imitator. What made him Avicenna was his genius talent in arranging the puzzles in such a way that was not even imagined by the others.

  3. Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Valenti, Stefano; McCully, Curtis; Howell, D. Andrew; Johansson, Joel; Sollerman, Jesper; Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Cao, Yi; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Corsi, Alessandra; Duggan, Gina; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.; Fremling, Christoffer; Horesh, Assaf; Karamehmetoglu, Emir; Kasliwal, Mansi; Marion, G. H.; Ofek, Eran; Sand, David; Taddia, Francesco; Zheng, WeiKang; Fraser, Morgan; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Inserra, Cosimo; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Smartt, Stephen; Smith, Ken W.; Sullivan, Mark; Surace, Jason; Woźniak, Przemek

    2017-02-01

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material (CSM). We report optical observations of six new SNe Ibn: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects in the literature to 22. We also report new data, including a near-infrared spectrum, on the Type Ibn SN 2015U. In order to characterize the class as a whole, we analyze the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full Type Ibn sample. We find that, despite the expectation that CSM interaction would generate a heterogeneous set of light curves, as seen in SNe IIn, most Type Ibn light curves are quite similar in shape, declining at rates around 0.1 mag day‑1 during the first month after maximum light, with a few significant exceptions. Early spectra of SNe Ibn come in at least two varieties, one that shows narrow P Cygni lines and another dominated by broader emission lines, both around maximum light, which may be an indication of differences in the state of the progenitor system at the time of explosion. Alternatively, the spectral diversity could arise from viewing-angle effects or merely from a lack of early spectroscopic coverage. Together, the relative light curve homogeneity and narrow spectral features suggest that the CSM consists of a spatially confined shell of helium surrounded by a less dense extended wind.

  4. Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Valenti, Stefano; McCully, Curtis; Howell, D. Andrew; Johansson, Joel; Sollerman, Jesper; Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Cao, Yi; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey; Corsi, Alessandra; Duggan, Gina; Elias-Rosa, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material (CSM). We report optical observations of six new SNe Ibn: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects i...

  5. Ibn Jaldún: Pensamiento Económico En El S. XIV

    OpenAIRE

    Puente-Ajovin, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Ibn Khadun, un historiador musulmán que decidió revisar de manera analítica los fundamentos de la historia, acaba describiendo ciertos componentes del proceso económico que deben ser tenidos en cuenta como parte de la historia del pensamiento económico. En esta disertación doy un exhaustivo repaso a las teorías derivadas de su análisis económico, que van desde los fundamentos de la división del trabajo a las causas del ciclo económico. Ibn Khadun, a Muslim historian who decided to review ...

  6. El uso de la métrica árabe en la obra Ben Tĕhillim de Samuel Ibn Nagrela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Delgado, José

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and to explain the variants of the metrical repertory recorded in the collection Ben Tehillim by Semuel Ibn Nagrela using medieval theories ( ͑ilm al- ͑arūḍ. Therefore this analysis casts aside traditional manuals or studies devoted to medieval Hebrew metrics, whether modern or medieval, because my goal is to show the use of this metrics in its original context as reflected in medieval Arab manuals.El objetivo de este estudio es identificar y explicar cada una de las variantes métricas registradas en la colección Ben Tĕhillim de Samuel Ibn Nagrela desde la preceptiva clásica ( ͑ilm al- ͑arūḍ. La siguiente exposición de hechos se aparta de la que puede encontrarse en los manuales o estudios de métrica hebrea medieval tradicionales, ya sean modernos o medievales, y lo que se pretende es mostrar esta métrica en su forma y contexto original tal cual se aprecia en los manuales árabes medievales.

  7. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed... Columbia in United States of America, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. and Live Nation, Inc... Nation, Inc. would substantially lessen competition in primary ticketing in the United States and...

  8. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final... Macmillan in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC), which was filed in the... for the Southern District of New York UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. APPLE, INC., et...

  9. Controlled synthesis of the tricontinuous mesoporous material IBN-9 and its carbon and platinum derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-08-23

    Controlled synthesis of mesoporous materials with ultracomplicated pore configurations is of great importance for both fundamental research of nanostructures and the development of novel applications. IBN-9, which is the only tricontinuous mesoporous silica with three sets of interpenetrating three-dimensional channel systems, appears to be an excellent model mesophase for such study. The extensive study of synthesis space diagrams proves mesophase transition among the cylindrical MCM-41, tricontinuous IBN-9 and bicontinuous MCM-48, and also allows a more precise control of phase-pure synthesis. On the other hand, rational design of structure-directing agents offers a possibility to extend the synthesis conditions of IBN-9, as well as tailor its pore size. Moreover, an unprecedented helical structure consisting of twisted 3-fold interwoven mesoporous channels is reported here for the first time. The unique tricontinuous mesostructure of IBN-9 has been well-replicated by other functional materials (e.g., carbon and platinum) via a "hard- templating" synthesis route. The obtained carbon material possesses large surface area (∼1900 m2/g), high pore volume (1.56 cm 3/g), and remarkable gas adsorption capability at both cryogenic temperatures and room temperature. The platinum material has an ordered mesostructure composed of highly oriented nanocrystals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. [Usāma ibn Munqidh. Õpetlike näidete raamat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    Tutvustus: Usāma ibn Munqidh. Õpetlike näidete raamat : Araabia rüütli mälestused / araabia k. tõlkinud ja kommenteerinud Üllar Peterson. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2015. (Bibliotheca Asiatica)

  11. A comparative study of the concept of imaginationfrom the view points of Ibn-e-Arabi and Mowlana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فرزانه علوی زاده

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most Sufis believe that world of imagination is a world intermediating between pure intelligences and physical phenomena, a world in which spirits are embodied and bodies are immaterial. Mohyedin-e-Ibn-e-Arabi is one of the philosophers who have dealt with this concept. In his view, the concept of imagination is expanded considering his view about Oneness of Being and his special treatment of entities other than God. Imagination, to him, is no longer a mere intermediary between pure intelligences and physical phenomena. According to Ibn-e-Arabi, any thing that bears truth is imagination. Mowlana has also dealt with imagination and its qualities in the Mathnavi. Although the concept of imagination in Mowlana’s Mathnavi is not exactly similar to Ibn-e-Arabi’s notion, this paper tries to show the resemblances. Keywords: imagination, truth, world of ideas, Ibn-e-Arabi, Mowlana

  12. Natural Treatments for Fissure in Ano Used by Traditional Persian Scholars, Razi (Rhazes) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Ali Reza

    2016-06-08

    Most cases of chronic fissure do not respond to medical treatment. Razi and Ibn Sina were 2 of the best-known scientists of ancient Persia. The purpose of this study was to find out new scientific evidence in modern medicine about their recommendations, in order to find certain clues to conduct useful researches in the future. First, treatments of anal fissure mentioned by Razi and Ibn Sina were reviewed. Then, literature search was made in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Management of anal fissure according to Razi's and Ibn Sina's practices is done based on 3 interventions: lifestyle modifications, drug treatments, and manual procedures. Almost all remedies suggested by Razi and Ibn Sina have shown their effects on fissure in ano via several mechanisms of action in many in vitro and in vivo studies; Still there is lack of human studies on the subject. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Short- and long-term outcomes of AL amyloidosis patients admitted into intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinault, Damien; Canet, Emmanuel; Huart, Antoine; Jaccard, Arnaud; Ribes, David; Lavayssiere, Laurence; Venot, Marion; Cointault, Olivier; Roussel, Murielle; Nogier, Marie-Béatrice; Pichereau, Claire; Lemiale, Virginie; Arnulf, Bertrand; Attal, Michel; Chauveau, Dominique; Azoulay, Elie; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare and threatening condition that may require intensive care because of amyloid deposit-related organ dysfunction or therapy-related adverse events. Although new multiple myeloma drugs have dramatically improved outcomes in AL amyloidosis, the outcomes of AL patients admitted into intensive care units (ICUs) remain largely unknown. Admission has been often restricted to patients with low Mayo Clinic staging and/or with a complete or very good immunological response at admission. In a retrospective multicentre cohort of 66 adult AL (n = 52) or AA (n = 14) amyloidosis patients, with similar causes of admission to an ICU, the 28-d and 6-month survival rates of AA patients were significantly higher compared to AL patients (93% vs. 60%, P = 0·03; 71% vs. 45%, P = 0·02, respectively). In AL patients, the simplified Index of Gravity Score (IGS2) was the only independent predictive factor for death by day 28, whereas the Mayo-Clinic classification stage had no influence. In Cox's multivariate regression model, only cardiac arrest and on-going chemotherapy at ICU admission significantly predicted death at 6 months. Short-term outcomes of AL patients admitted into an ICU were mainly related to the severity of the acute medical condition, whereas on-going chemotherapy for active amyloidosis impacted on long-term outcomes.

  14. Yunus, Abu'l-Hasan ibn (950-1009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Egypt, calculated trigonometric functions for use in astronomy and wrote an astronomical handbook, al-Zij al-Hakimi al-kabir, the Great Tables of Caliph al-Hakim, which contained observations made by Yunus, including 30 lunar eclipses used by SIMON NEWCOMB in his lunar theory. Yunus was also an astrologer, predicting the date of his own death in seven days' time. He made prepa...

  15. IBN-BATTUTA, GEOGRAFIA DE VIAGENS, CARSTE E SUBTERRÂNEOS SAGRADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to address, under a new approach, the contributions of Ibn-Battuta to the development of certain areas of geography, especially the anthropogenic use of karst as well as the cultural use of caves. Noteworthy to mention is that, most likely, the geographers from medieval Islam were a kind of missing “bridge” in the evolution of geographical thought among the ancient Greeks and the precursors of the great European classical schools in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Thus, this article presents an alternative approach to the work of Ibn-Battuta not only for the study of travel literature but also to the study of karstology.

  16. Bond population analysis on combination of favorable growth unit of Al(OH)3 crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The quantum chemical calculation on four representative combination modes of the favorable growth unit Al6(OH)18(H2O)6of Al(OH)3 crystals and the single unit were calculated. On the base of the prior investigation, and from the point of view of bond population and net atomic charge, the relationships between the combination mode of the favorable growth unit and the relative intensity of chemical bond of the systems were discussed. The quantum chemistry calculations were performed at RB3LYP/6-31G and RHF/6-31G levels by ab initio and DFT methods respectively. From the point of view of bond population, it can be preliminarily presumed that the interatomic bond force of the system with side-face-combination-B mode is weaker to a certain extent. From the point of view of the net charge, when the combination mode is obverse-face-combination-D, the interatomic bond force will be enhanced.

  17. [Use of mobile applications by interns at Ibn-Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Mouddene, Naima; Bouhaji, Mouna; Benloubir, Dalal; Serhier, Zineb; Bennani Othmani, Mohammed

    2017-04-27

    Introduction: Mobile applications are now increasingly used by trainee and practising physicians due to the wide range of applications available in the field of healthcare and their ease of use. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency and describe the use of these applications by interns at Ibn-Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in December 2014 on a sample of Ibn-Rochd interns. Participants from multiple disciplines and medical specialties completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: One hundred and thirteen interns participated in the study with a 94.2% response rate: 95% of these interns had a smartphone and 85.2% had at least one healthcare mobile applications with an average of 3.57 applications per interns (SD = 3.14). Interns used these applications at least once a day and the most frequently downloaded applications were those devoted to diagnosis and patient care (61%). No statistically significant correlation was observed between the number of applications and the intern’s specialty, the type of operating system used or the intern’s gender. Conclusion: The use of healthcare mobile applications and the support they provide to Ibn-Rochd interns allowed an assessment of the importance of these new tools in medical training and practice. However, supervision and support by seniors are essential in view of the risks involved.

  18. A New Analysis of Salaamaan and Absaal\\'s Story by Honein-e Ibn-e Iss-haq Based on the Archetypes of Jungian Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam Rozatian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Salaamaan and Absaal is a mysterious story that has been being passed around with several narratives and versions. Jaami has composed a poem based on one of these narratives by the Hanin-e Ibn-e Iss-haq, translated from Greek to Arabic in the third Hijri century ( 9th century A.D.. His interpretations of the story’s mystical secrets had occupied the minds of so many commentators such as “Khajeh Nassir-e Toosi”. Jaami, based on this philosophical interpretation by Khajeh Nassir, offered a rather mystical but short interpretation of the mysteries of this story at the end of his poem. In this article, we intend to provide a different analysis of the mysteries of this story based on the ancient frameworks discussed in Jung’s psychology. Karl Gustav Jung was the founder of the Psychoanalysis and archetypal criticism who combined his psychological perspectives with Hermetic, Gnostic, and the Indian notions. Since the original story is Greek, an Indian influence on the story is conceivable and the ancient frameworks of Jung in analyzing the mysteries will be very revealing .

  19. iPTF13beo: The Double-Peaked Light Curve of a Type Ibn Supernova Discovered Shortly after Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbikov, Evgeny; Ofek, Eran O; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Nugent, Peter E; Chotard, Nicolas; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Cao, Yi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer; Tal, David; Arcavi, Iair; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Cenko, S Bradley; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ibn (SN 2006jc-like) supernova iPTF13beo. Detected by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory on 2013 May 19.39, ~3 hours after the estimated explosion time, iPTF13beo is the youngest and the most distant (430 Mpc) Type Ibn event ever observed. Type Ibn events are rare, and their early evolution, both photometric and spectroscopic, has not been studied yet. The iPTF13beo light curve is consistent with light curves of other Type Ibn SNe and with light curves of fast Type Ic events, but with a slightly faster rise-time of two days. In addition, the iPTF13beo light curve exhibits a double-peak structure separated by 9 days, not observed before in any Type Ibn SN. Low-resolution spectra were obtained during the two peaks of the iPTF13beo light curve. The spectrum taken during the rising stage (2.4 days after the estimated explosion time) is featureless and similar to early spectra of SNe Ic-BL. The spectrum obtained during the declining ...

  20. İbn Haldun’un Siyaset Teorisi Ve Siyasal Sistem Sınıflandırması Political Theory And Politic System Classification Of Ibn Khaldun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇİFTÇİ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The past of the scientific works of administration methods is quiteold. The struggle of finding out the best one by examining politicalsystems comperatively were not only limited with the past. It has beencarried on until today. As well as the works that have been performed inWest since the Ancient Greek Period, The Islamic World have submittedmany precious works in aforementioned topic. One of those whosubmitted precious works for political theory and politic systemclassification was Ibn Khaldun. He, with the light of his experience andobservations as someone who have taken part in politic life itself, hasexamined politic systems that could have been considered as beyondfrom his era. While the politic system classification has decreased tominimum with the theoratic thought came into prominence in themiddle age of the west, In Islamic World, Researching the politicalsystems which have been submitted by Ibn Khaldun without dependingon the absolute theoratic thoughts keeps this essay valuable. In thisrespect, the very place of Ibn Khaldun in social sciences is consideredprimarily. Afterward, The concepts of State, Relationship andPresidency-Estate which are irrevocable for his politic theory areelaborated. Finally, Politic system classification of Ibn Khaldun, Thebasic contect, is studied generaly. Ibn Khaldun bisects them astheoratic based system and Estate based system whilke secting politicalsystems. He also generalizes Estate based policy in two main topics asabsolute estate and politic estate. What Ibn Khaldun named andidealized administration method as a theoratic based policy isCaliphate or Imamate. Yönetim şekilleri ile ilgili bilimsel çalışmaların geçmişi oldukça eskidir. Siyasal sistemleri karşılaştırmalı şekilde inceleyerek en iyisini bulma çabası sadece geçmişle sınırlı kalmamış günümüze kadar da devam edegelmiştir. En iyi yönetimin nasıl olması gerektiği üzerine Antik Yunan döneminden itibaren Bat

  1. Diseño del puente Abbas Ibn Firnás sobre el río Guadalquivir en Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinojosa, I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work for the New Access to the Cordoba Airport includes the construction of the Abbas Ibn Firnas Bridge to cross the Guadalquivir River. This cable-stayed bridge has two spans of 132.50 m each, and three approach spans on the right bank that add 100 meters to its length. The most important and singular aspect of the structure is the design of the mixed concrete and steel arches that open into two hexagonal tubes braced from the central pier to the abutments and the arrangement of the struts made up of closed cables in the form of a “Y” creating a spatial structure of great slenderness and stiffness, a three-dimensional structure that contains the traffic within, and dignifies the urban space over the Guadalquivir River.Las obras del Nuevo Acceso al Aeropuerto de Córdoba incluyen la construcción del Puente Abbas Ibn Firnás para salvar el cauce del río Guadalquivir. Se trata de un puente arco atirantado de dos vanos, con 132,50 m de luz cada uno con tres vanos de aproximación por la margen derecha que suman una longitud de 100 metros. El aspecto más relevante y singular de la estructura es el diseño de los arcos mixtos, que se abren en dos tubos hexagonales arriostrados, desde la pila central hacia los estribos, y la disposición de tirantes constituidos por cables cerrados en forma de “Y” que permite que se consiga una estructura espacial, un objeto tridimensional de gran esbeltez y rigidez, que acoge en su interior la circulación viaria, y dignifica el espacio urbano sobre el Guadalquivir.

  2. The prevalence of group A streptococcal throat carriage in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K P; Ameen, A S; Nsanze, H; Bin-Othman, S; Mustafa, N

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the carrier rate of group A beta haemolytic streptococci in school children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. One thousand and two randomly selected school children aged 5-7 years had their throats swabbed twice for both culture and direct antigen detection of group A streptococci. One hundred and fourteen children (11.3%) had both a positive antigen and culture test, while 216 (21.6%) had antigen-positive tests only and 16 (1.5%) had a positive culture only. Thus, the combination of culture and antigen detection revealed a carrier rate of 35.4% in the children examined. We conclude that in an affluent but isolated desert area on the Tropic of Cancer, group A streptococcal carriage rate is high. Antigen detection is superior to culture techniques in asymptomatic carrier studies.

  3. Determinants of Diabetes and Hypertension Control in Ambulatory Healthcare in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa M. Baynouna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available bjectives: This study aims to study determinants for the control of diabetes and hypertension in Al Ain Ambulatory Healthcare patients. Method: This is a cross sectional observational study of patients attending ambulatory healthcare centers in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates in 2009. From a yearly audit evaluating the care of patients with diabetes and hypertension, the determinants for improved diabetes and hypertension outcomes were identified from a total of 512 patients and its association with glycemic and blood pressure control were studied. Results: From all variables studied, only the clinic where the patient was treated helped predict both improved blood sugar and blood pressure control. For patients with diabetes, poor control the year before (p<0.001, the number of chronic disease clinic visits (p=0.042 and triglyceride levels (p=0.007 predicted worse control of diabetes. A predictor of poor control of blood pressure (p<0.001 for patients with hypertension was poor control of blood pressure in the year before. Conclusion: In this population, the healthcare system and the team played major roles as determinants in the control of patient’s diabetes and blood pressure more than any of the other factors examined.

  4. La obra astrológica de Abraham Ibn Ezra en dos códices castellanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz de la Maza, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we offer a study and a commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra’s astrological works that have been preserved in two old Spanish manuscripts translated from Hebrew in a late medieval converso environment.

    En el presente artículo ofrecemos un estudio y comentario de las obras astrológicas de Abraham Ibn Ezra que han sido preservadas en dos manuscritos en castellano traducidos del hebreo en un entorno converso a finales de la Baja Edad Media.

  5. The Psycholinguistic Theories in the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldūn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shehu Abdussalam

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of psycholinguistic theories found in the Muqaddimah shows the breadth of Ibn Khaldūn's understanding of human behaviour, including language behaviour. His views on the influence of change on human habits, the relationship between language, knowledge and perception, and on the influence of constant repetition on language acquisition are, with minor modifications, valid even in the contemporary period. The causes he described for language corruption and the limitation of non-Arabs in learning Arabic are still worth examining.

  6. [Hospital solid waste: quantification. Bacteriological analyses--case of hospital Ibn Sina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Meriem; Belkhadir, Rachid; Benzakour, Mohammed; Idrissi, Larbi; Khadri, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    Hospital waste represent, by their nature and their constitution, a big threat to health in the intra and extra hospital area. and a source of pollution for the environment. A 12-day campaign of weighing of the waste produced by the hospital Ibn Sina of Rabat-Morocco should an average of 1.75 kg/bed/day. In order to identify the hospital pathogenic germs as well as their sensitivities to antibiotics, some bacteriological analyses have been done on the percolat waste of this hospital. The results of these analyses put in evidence the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and their resistance to some antibiotics.

  7. A personal perspective on individual and group: Comparative cultural observations with a focus on Ibn Khaldun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George Katsiaficas

    2014-04-01

    As the Islamic world declined in the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun wrote the Muqaddimah, a massive philosophical work in which he sought scientific grounds for a universal analysis of human beings. By seeking a global history of humanity, one that was not derived from the particular history of any one group, he was able to offer insight into the importance of group solidarity, assabiyeh. In this essay, I discuss the dynamics between autonomous individuality and group identity and offer some cultural comparisons to illustrate more general insights.

  8. RE-THINKING OTHER CLAIMANTS TO PROPHETHOOD: the Case of Umayya ibn Abi Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the domination of the prophethood of Muhammad in the narrative of the seventh century of the Arabian Peninsula presented by both Muslim and Western scholars. There were many other claimants to prophethood, who are ignored in Muslim and Western sources. In this vein, this article deals with Umayya ibn Abi Salt, a poet who claimed prophethood. Umayya’s short biography, collections of his poems (diwan and , and examples of his poems are discussed. Keywords: prophethood, qur’an, Umayya, revelation, sira, diwan.

  9. SN 2015U: a rapidly evolving and luminous Type Ibn supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivvers, Isaac; Zheng, Wei Kang; Mauerhan, Jon; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kumar, Sahana

    2016-09-01

    Supernova (SN) 2015U (also known as PSN J07285387+3349106) was discovered in NGC 2388 on 2015 Feb. 11. A rapidly evolving and luminous event, it showed effectively hydrogen-free spectra dominated by relatively narrow helium P-Cygni spectral features and it was classified as an SN Ibn. In this paper, we present photometric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric observations of SN 2015U, including a Keck/DEIMOS spectrum (resolution ≈5000) which fully resolves the optical emission and absorption features. We find that SN 2015U is best understood via models of shock breakout from extended and dense circumstellar material (CSM), likely created by a history of mass-loss from the progenitor with an extreme outburst within ˜1-2 yr of core collapse (but we do not detect any outburst in our archival imaging of NGC 2388). We argue that the high luminosity of SN 2015U was powered not through 56Ni decay but via the deposition of kinetic energy into the ejecta/CSM shock interface. Though our analysis is hampered by strong host-galaxy dust obscuration (which likely exhibits multiple components), our data set makes SN 2015U one of the best-studied Type Ibn SNe and provides a bridge of understanding to other rapidly fading transients, both luminous and relatively faint.

  10. 77 FR 51048 - United States et al. v. Verizon Communications Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...; COX COMMUNICATIONS, INC., 1400 Lake Hearn Drive, Atlanta, GA 30319, and BRIGHT HOUSE NETWORKS, LLC, 5000 Campuswood Drive, East Syracuse, NY 13057, Defendants. ] COMPLAINT The United States of America... data services (e.g., texting and Internet access) provided over a radio network and allow customers...

  11. 75 FR 37651 - United States et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. et al.; Public Comments and Response on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... East Restaurant, Inc., LIVE-FI Technologies, Inc., Kenneth de Anda, Chris Cantz, Joe Carlson, Don... the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18.\\2\\ Simultaneously, the United States filed a Competitive Impact... the venue to sell tickets at its box office. The primary ticketing company provides the technology...

  12. Konsep Qiyas Dan Ad Dalil Dalam Istimbat Hukum Ibn Hazm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Haika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibnu Hazm is a distinguished Moslem leader who really holds fast to the nash. That is why, he critics hard the other Moslem leaders who take the rationality role in establishing a regulation. In his point of view, Islamic law comes from Allah SWT which is clearly written in Al Qur’an and Sunnah, and implemented consensusily by all Moslems. Ijma’ basically should based on the the nash of Quran because there no ijma’ without following the nash. So that, Ibnu Hazm states that there are three sources of the law as main base of implementing the law. Ibnu Hazm refuses the qiyas as source of the law. In term of his refuse of the qiyas, Ibun Hazm promotes a new perspective in responding the comtemporer problems that they are not found in the nash explicitely. The thought was known as ad dalil.Then, the concept of ad dalil is considered as one of the sources of in the Islamic law that there is no different to the qiyas used by other Moslem leaders previously.

  13. The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra Being a Summary of His Book al-Hikmah al-Muta’aliyah fi al-Asfar al-‘Aqliyyah al-Arba’ah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The depiction of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy could be best out by referring to his magnum opus, al-Hikmah al-Muta’aliyah, usually referred to as al-Asfar alArba’ah. The book contains almost all aspect of philosophy such as theory of essence and existence, subtance, movement, time, world order, knowledge, intellect and the likes. In addition, being Muslim peripatetic, he also gives special interest on the demonstrating the concept of God and eschatology. The summary below could hopefully be instrumental for paying particular interest in further studying Mulla Sadra thought for academic pusposes. The point interest, however, is to be found in his repudiation againts Ibn Sina’s concept of Essence and Existence. Whereas Ibn Sina vindicates the essence rather than existence, Sadra gives priority to existence rather than essence. Not only has Mulla Sadra differed from Ibn Sina and other Muslim peripatetic on the issue of essence and existance, but also on the problem of substance, movement, time.

  14. Persian Gulf Security: The United States and Oman, The Gulf Cooperation Council, and Western Allied Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hamud Al Bu Said; Minister of the Sultan’s Affairs. - Fahr ibn Taimur Al Bu Said; Deputy Prime Minister for Security and Defense Affairs. - Sayyid...Cornell University Press, 1980), p’ 777. 3Sydney Nettleton Fisher, The Middle East, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1979), p. 497. 4Ralph H. Magnus

  15. Information of “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” by ad-Dimashqi about the Turkic Tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Ilyasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduced into academic circulation information of such a historical source as “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” (Excerpts of Time on the Marvels of the Land and Sea on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. The material of the study is drawn from this source. Main scientific result of this work was the source’s translation into Russian accompanied by scientific comments. Sheikh Shams al-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad Abu Talib al-Ansari al-Sufi al-Dimashqi was the author of this work. Some scholars have mistakenly confuse him with another chronicler named Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn Fadlallah al-Omari al-Dimashqi. There is a widespread misconception that while writing on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes al-Dimashqi used the data of such an author as Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Ansari al-Qutub al-Warraq al-Vatvat, also known as Ahmad al-Tini. After had studying the manuscripts of al-Tini and al-Dimashqi, we did not notice the connection between these two authors regarding their information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. After had studying the information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak, we put forward the theory that 16 ethnonyms previously identified as Kipchak clans, are actually the etnonyms of eight Kipchak clans and eight Turkic tribes. The article also contains the extraction from “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” regarding the geography of Dasht-i Kipchak and the countries inhabited by the Turks. The following data are unique in this source: 1. The text describes such rivers as Ceyhun (Amu Darya, Seyhun (Syr Darya, Itil (Volga, as well as Khorezm and Khazar Seas (Aral and Caspian Seas. 2. Additionally, this text lists the following Turkic peoples: al-Kharlukhiya (Karluks, al-Khirgaziya (Kyrgyz, al-Kaymakiya (Kimaks, al-Guzziya (Oguz, al-Bazhanakiya (Pechenegs, al-Tuguzguziya (Uighurs, al-Khulkhiya (?, al

  16. Rising bacterial resistance to common antibiotics in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, M R; Tariq, W U-Z; Hassanein, A A

    2011-06-01

    There is a dearth of local information in Al Amin, United Arab Emirates about antibiotic resistance patterns. In this retrospective study in a tertiary referral hospital, antibiotic susceptibility results were analysed over the 5-year period 2004-08 and compared with a previous study in the same hospital during 1999-2002. Staphylococcus aureus showed a significant decrease in sensitivity to oxacillin from 95.0% in the period 1999-2002 to 84.4% in 2008. Sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp. to imipenem dropped from 99.0% in 2004 to only 32.5% in 2008. During the same period, almost half of Escherichia coli isolates developed resistance to cefotoxime. Significant reductions in sensitivity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa between 1999 and 2008 were found for almost all the antibiotics tested. Klebsiella spp. did not show any significant change in resistance to any of the tested antibiotics. Serious efforts are needed to reduce the risk of the spread of resistant strains of bacteria.

  17. Pediatric and youth traffic-collision injuries in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grivna

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the mechanism of road traffic collisions (RTC, use of safety devices, and outcome of hospitalized pediatric and youth RTC injured patients so as to give recommendations regarding prevention of pediatric RTC injuries. METHODS: All RTC injured children and youth (0-19-year-olds who were admitted to Al Ain City's two major trauma centers or who died after arrival to these centers were prospectively studied from April 2006 to October 2007. Demography of patients, road-user and vehicle types, crash mechanism, usage of safety devices, injured body regions, injury severity, Revised Trauma Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 245 patients were studied, 69% were vehicle occupants, 15% pedestrians, 9% motorcyclists and 5% bicyclists. 79% were males and 67% UAE citizens. The most common mechanism of RTC was rollover of vehicle (37% followed by front impact collision (32%. 32 (13% of vehicle occupants were ejected from car. 63% of ejected occupants and 70% of motorcyclists sustained head injuries. Only 2% (3/170 vehicle passengers used seatbelts and 13% (3/23 motorcyclists a helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Male drivers and UAE nationals were at high risk of RTC as drivers and as motorcyclists. Ejection rate was high because safety restraint use was extremely low in our community. More education and law enforcement focusing especially on car/booster seat use is needed.

  18. 76 FR 35017 - United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... alone''); United States v. Mid-Am. Dairymen, Inc., 1977-1 Trade Cas. (CCH)11 61,508, at 71,980 (W.D. Mo... available to health-care providers.'' Without access to the profitable sources of business in the health... United Regional's total patient volume.'' Without access to the most profitable segment of the health...

  19. 76 FR 81528 - United States v. Exelon Corporation, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... turbine, wind turbine, steam turbine, combustion turbine, or combined cycle) to transform the energy in... efficient coal-fired steam turbine units--have relatively low operating costs. ``Peaking'' units--which... steam turbine units--have costs lower than those of peaking units but higher than those of...

  20. Idaaratu al Wahdah al Namthiyah li at Tathwiri al Tarbiyah al Islamiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danusiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Islam, through the Quran, proclaims that its mission includes the teachings to the whole universe, Everything in the universe is maintained by Islam, and none of the symptoms are ignored. The revelations also include the traditions of the Prophet that are authentic (shahih and good (hasan in quality. Both the Quran and maqbulah hadiths are accepted by Muslims on the basis of faith. When some experts of UIN Walisongo from various disciplines try to understand the sacred words of these two resources, their understanding continues, reaching the paradigm of the unity of science which essentially unites the normative, social, and natural sciences. The effect of this paradigm has brought up an issue for the author. Is there any hadiths or Prophetic traditions that can be used as a grand theory in the management disciplines of Islamic education.To address this issue, the authors conducted a literature research with the title Development of Islamic Education Management Module. Sources of data were focused on nine books of Hadiths : Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Turmudzi, Sunan an-Nasai, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan ad-Darimi, Muwatta Malik, and Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the form of digital data Lidwa Reader Software Book 9 Imam Hadith. The findings of the study stated that the meaning of the word Rabb includes: creating, nurturing, maintaining, teaching, educating, and organizing. Thus, in an academic term, the word Rabb implies a manager or leader. Meanwhile, in the concept of comprehensive manager it contains at least 14 nomenclature denotations: planning, responsibility, organization, coordination, system of employee payroll, learning, resources, humanity, principle of making it easier for the manager to the employee, motivated to achieve optimal performance, preventing unproductivity, education participation, institutional costs, monitoring, and evaluation system. Each nomenclature has numerous hadiths that could serve

  1. Islām al-kāfir fī ḥāl al-khuṭba: concerning the conversion of “infidels” to Islam during the Muslim Friday sermon in Mamluk Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Linda G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibn al-Ḥājj al-‘Abdarī a Maliki jurist in Mamluk Cairo, denounced a religious “innovation” (bid‘a that had apparently become current in fourteenthcentury Egypt: “Infidels” would interrupt the Muslim Friday sermon in order to profess or reiterate their conversion to Islam before the entire congregation. Ibn al-Ḥājj urged preachers not to tolerate such interruptions under any circumstances, a posture that seems at odd with Mamluk policy of inducing such conversions especially among the Coptic community. The Maliki jurist’s legal arguments furnish new insights into the hitherto unexplored role of the Friday liturgical sermon in the conversion to Islam. This article will explain the legal basis of Ibn al-Ḥājj’s opposition to this practice, propose some explanations for the motivations behind the would-be convert’s interruption of the sermon, and relate this phenomenon to the historical context of tense Muslim-Christian relations in fourteenth-century Mamluk Egypt.

    Ibn al-Ḥaŷŷ al-‘Abdarī, un jurista malikí en el Cairo mameluco, denunció una “innovación religiosa” (bid‘a que se extendió en el Egipto del siglo XIV. Los “infieles” interrumpían el sermón del viernes, aparentemente, para proclamar o reiterar su conversión al Islam ante la congregación. Ibn al-Ḥaŷŷ instó a los predicadores a no tolerar dichas interrupciones bajo ninguna circunstancia –postura que parece contradecir a la política impuesta por los mamelucos de forzar la conversión de los infieles, sobre todo de los procedentes de la comunidad copta. Los argumentos legales de Ibn al-Ḥaŷŷ arrojan nueva luz sobre el papel, hasta entonces ignorado por los estudiosos, del sermón del viernes en la conversión al islam. El artículo analiza las bases jurídicas de la oposición manifestada por Ibn al-Ḥaŷŷ hacia esta práctica, explica los posibles motivos que indujeron a los conversos a interrumpir el serm

  2. Fabrication of the tricontinuous mesoporous IBN-9 structure with surfactant CTAB

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-12-13

    IBN-9 is the first tricontinuous mesoporous material, consisting of three identical interpenetrating channels that are separated by a single continuous silica wall. It was originally synthesized using a specially designed surfactant as template. The need of special surfactant in the synthesis inhibits extensive investigation of this novel structure and its applications. We demonstrate in this study that such a complicated tricontinuous mesostructure can also be fabricated from the most common and commercially available surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the help of polar organic additives, e.g., n-butanol. The role of n-butanol is to finely tune the surface curvature of the organic/inorganic interface during the cooperative self-assembly process. Electron microscopic techniques are employed to identify different mesostructures from the mixture. This study reveals the possibility of discovering unprecedented mesostructures from conventional surfactant-water- silicates systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Determinant of The Poverty in The Moslem Countries: Ibn Khaldun Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Paisal Putra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This current paper examined the determinant of the poverty in the OIC countries. Our empirical model was based on Ibn Khaldun development model that emphasizes several aspects, namely: the country's wealth (proxied by GDP per capita, the role of government (proxied by health and education expenditures, human resources (proxied by HDI, sharia (proxied by corruption perception index, development (proxied by investment, and justice (proxied by Gini index. We used panel data model consisting nine OIC countries over 2003-2012. This study verified that GDP per capita significantly contribute to the reduction of poverty in the OIC countries. We also found that unemployment (as a control variable encountered a role in triggering poverty in OIC countries. Meanwhile, it found that education expenditure, Gini index, HDI, and Corruption Perception Index found no significant effect on poverty. DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3130 

  4. Ibn Arabi et Jean de la Croix deux poètes mystiques

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    Dr Azouz Ali Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frappée du sceau de l’universel, l’expérience mystique ne cesse de soulever des interrogations à la fois sur ses fondements (ses assises théoriques, spirituelles et culturelles et sur les différentes voies qui lui permettent de s’inscrire dans l’ordre des choses comme un phénomène social inéluctable soutenu par des penseurs, des artistes, des femmes et des hommes de Lettres exceptionnels. Dans notre article, nous nous intéressons à deux grandes figures du mysticisme : Ibn Arabi (560/1165 - 638/1240 et Jean de la Croix (1542/1591. A la lumière d’une étude stylistique à visée comparative de deux de leurs compositions poétiques, que nous situons dans une plus large perspective (historico-sociale, nous montrons comment le même désir (concept sur lequel un détour lacanien s’impose de Dieu s’exprime, Chez Ibn Arabi, par le moyen d’une écriture de l’entre-deux qui se singularise par un enchevêtrement structuré des dimensions philosophique et littéraire. Tout comme chez Jean de la Croix, par une écriture poétique d’un lyrisme qui, avec une rare subtilité, entretient une forme d’équivocité constitutive du discours exprimant l’amour divin avec le langage de l’amour profane.

  5. Technical and structural reading on ode Alraieah of Omar ibn Abi Rabieah and its emotional characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article examines the famous Rbheah ode of Omar ibn Abi With The aim of finding The Structural form and some nice features. Knowing that this ods is the most famous and longest ode of Omar and there is in it the most characteristic of his poetry in the storied format which includes elements of the short story with its modern sense and depicts a happy life of The Umayyad period particularly those aspects that relate to women. And from this perspective has become the registered office of the poet's life and Reflection for his inner emotions. The formation of discussion like the following: Discussion Started With the introduction of what it should be noted Based on the announce new version.Then Addressed in this fifth issues and termination: 1.the main Thoughts and ideas in the Ode and its position and the way in which the poet has written ode.2.The Storied Level and dialog in theOde.3.The music in the ode and role of its weighs.4.The imaging level of the Ode in reflection for the Hejaz life. 5. Structural level of the Ode and its emotional aspects. in the end, The Paper achieved some conclusions, such as: the most remarkable is that Ibn Rbia is Sensory and womanish school leader that could link the Old dialogue Soul to Our contemporary world with poeticlyrics and dialogue Fiction.He is first real poet that granted to lyric poem the numerous technical features such as storytelling and dialogue and simplifying weights to singing.and this ode became famous for High precision in the selection of words.

  6. Al-Farabi dan Filsafat Kenabian

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    Qosim Nursheha Dzulhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengulas pemikiran al-Farabi tentang konsep kenabian dalam Islam. Masalah berawal dari adanya pemikiran yang menolak konsep kenabian pada umumnya dan kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW khususnya. Sebagaimana yang dilontarkan oleh Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Ruwandi. Ia mengatakan bahwa nabi sebenarnya tidak diperlukan manusia karena Tuhan telah mengaruniakan akal kepada manusia tanpa terkecuali. Dengan akal ini, manusia dapat mengetahui Tuhan beserta segala nikmat Nya dan dapat pula mengetahui perbuatan baik dan buruk, menerima suruhan dan larangan-Nya. Dengan demikian, nabi dengan segala fungsinya tidak diperlukan lagi. Bahkan, kitab suci pun tidak berguna untuk dibaca. Lebih berguna membaca buku filsafat Epicurus, Plato, Aristoteles, dan buku astronomi, logika, serta obat-obatan. Hal ini tentunya bertolak belakang dengan yang diajarkan dalam Islam. Beriman kepada nabi nabi merupakan hal inti dalam ajaran agama ini. Atas dasar itu al-Farabi bereaksi keras. Baginya, pandangan Ibn al-Ruwandi di atas tidak dapat dibenarkan, khususnya dari sisi akidah Islam. Sebagai al-Mu‘allim al-Tsani (Guru Kedua, karena prestasinya dalam menjelaskan dan mengulas-ulang filsafat Aristoteles, al-Farabi mengkritik secara sistematik pandangan menyimpang al-Ruwandi di atas.

  7. Modern Dönem Nesih Tartışmaları ve İbn Kesîr’in Neshe Yaklaşımı / Discussions of Naskh (Abrogation in Modern Studies and Ibn Kathīr’s Perception of Naskh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abrogation (naskh is one of the controversial themes of Islamic studies, especially in later period that of principle of exegesis (uṣūl al-tafsīr. However, the recent studies on abrogation (naskh do not offer a comprehensive analysis on the concept. In fact, the problem of naskh (abrogation is in need of a systematic and holistic approach, which would only be possible with a detailed study on how the concept of abrogation (naskh is understood in Islamic interpretive tradition (tafsīr. With this purpose in mind, this article intends to examine two points regarding the term abrogation: first, the article will offer a analytical reflection on the diverse views of naskh, and then it will highlight how Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373 understood and applied this term to his hermeneutical framework. By doing so, the present study aims to show Ibn Kathīr’s position in Islamic interpretive tradition on the matter of naskh. The key conclusion of this study is that although Ibn Kathīr is one of the representatives of the traditional riwayah (sound transmission through a chain of exegetes exegesis, he advances his interpretive hermeneutics with multiple aspects that also involves dirayah (personal opinion exegesis (tafsīr. SUMMARY The problem of naskh (abrogation is one of the most important and controversial themes of science and principle of exegesis (ʿilm wan a-l uṣūl al-tafsīr in Islamic tradition. In order to understand naskh, which is claimed to be occurred in the Qur’ānic text, it is necessary to involve the time of the revelation of the Qur’ān. An analysis of this period reveals that first Muslims regard the naskh as a natural process of the revelation and do not dispute over this matter. In other words, the controversial theme naskh is perceived by first addresses of the Qur’ān as a hermeneutical characteristic of the Qur’ānic revelation. Therefore, naskh was not considered as a controversial concept and debated its origins based on

  8. Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Octahedral Porous Material Unit Formed by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ti-6Al-4V octahedral porous material unit is designed to calculate its load. In this paper, ANSYS is adopted for the load simulation of the unit. And a simplified model of dimensional theoretical calculation is established, by which the analytical equation of the fracture load is obtained and the calculation of the load of Ti-6Al-4V is completed. Moreover, selective laser melting is adopted in processing the Ti-6Al-4V porous material unit. The experimental value of fracture load of this material is obtained through compression experiment. The results show that the simulation curves approximate the variation tendency of the elastic deformation of the compression curves; the curves of theoretical calculation approximate the general variation tendency; and the experimental value of fracture load is very close to the theoretical value. Therefore, the theoretical prediction accuracy of fracture load is high, which lays the foundation for the mechanical properties of the octahedral porous material.

  9. Microhardness of structure units in the ternary Ti-rich Ti-Si-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanova, M.; Tretyachenko, L. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Problem Materialovedeniya; Soroka, A.; Stakhov, D.

    1998-06-01

    The microhardness of the constituents (transformed {beta}-Ti, Z and eutectic ({beta} + Z)) was measured for Ti-rich Ti-Si-Al alloys. It depends both on the aluminium content in the alloy as well as on the character of mutual substitution of the atoms in the phases at the boundaries of the homogeneity ranges. The results are discussed on the basis of the Ti-rich part of the Ti-Si-Al phase diagram. (orig.) 2 refs.

  10. 75 FR 76026 - United States v. Graftech International Ltd., Et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ....'' United States v. Microsoft Corp., 56 F.3d 1448, 1461 (D.C. Cir. 1995); see generally United States v. SBC... require that the remedies perfectly match the alleged violations.'' SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 17... remedies for the alleged harms.'' SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 17; Republic Serv., 2010 U.S....

  11. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  12. Límites legales del concubinato: normas y tabúes en la esclavitud sexual según la Bidāya de Ibn Rušd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Puente, Cristina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Concubinage is a kind of relationship between a man and a woman whose legal implications have been discussed and regulated by all Islamic legal schools. Norms of both religious and juridical nature regulate the relationship between a man and his concubine, in relation to several factors: sexual and family taboos, the slave condition of the concubine, the man’s obligations in regard to the individuals under his surveillance, etc. The goal of this paper is to investigate which are the limits of concubinage according to Mālikī legal doctrine, with special focus on cases in which marriage and concubinage show parallels. The basis for this study is the treatise on comparative law Bidāyat al-mujtahid, by Ibn Rushd (Averroes.

    El concubinato es una relación con consecuencias legales discutidas y reguladas por todas las escuelas jurídicas islámicas. Las relaciones entre un hombre y su concubina están limitadas por distintas normas de carácter jurídico-religioso, que tienen que ver con diferentes factores: tabúes sexuales y familiares, el estatus de esclava de la concubina, las obligaciones del hombre respecto a los individuos que hay bajo su guarda, etc. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar cuáles son los límites del concubinato según los establece la doctrina legal mālikí, prestando especial atención a los casos en que las relaciones de matrimonio o concubinato se asemejan o difuminan. El estudio se lleva a cabo a través del tratado de derecho comparado de Ibn Rušd (Averroes, Bidāyat al-muŷtahid.

  13. Application of Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry in Architectural Conservation: the Mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam of Oran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerch, I.; Takarli, B.; Mahmoudi, R.; Tellai, S.; Chadli, D.

    2016-10-01

    Studies on the architectural heritage can now be supported by three-dimensional reconstruction of actual buildings. The 3D digital model can be an effective medium for documenting the current state of historic buildings but also to create a resource for researchers who conduct their analysis on historical evolution. Architectural photogrammetry has its own specifications in relation to other photogrammetric applications, however it meets these expectations. The traditional approach requires the use of metric cameras but with the development of computational techniques, this requirement is overcome and opens the way for the use of non-metric camera. The use of the shots that is no longer restricted to the parallel configuration of bundles, the images may be convergent, horizontal or oblique. Combining and modelling several cameras increasingly powerful in resolution and stability, has great scope and the same workflow can be used in varied applications. ISPRS and ICOMOS created CIPA because they both believe that a monument can be restored and protected only when it has been fully measured and documented and when its development has been documented several times, i.e. monitored, also with respect to its environment, and stored in proper heritage information and management systems. In this paper the 3D modelling of an important cultural site using terrestrial photogrammetric techniques for architectural preservation is presented. The site is the mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam, Built in 1880 at the initiative of Simon Kanoui, also known as the Great Synagogue of Oran was inaugurated in 1918 only. It was one of the largest and most beautiful synagogues in North Africa. It was built with stone imported from Jerusalem. This place of worship became in 1975 the mosque of Abdullah Ibn Salam who was a rich Jew of Medina who was converted to Islam. The structure is modelled using 321 oriented photos taken in five series of shots that cover all the façade and the interior of

  14. The role of institutions in driving economic change: Comparing the thoughts of Ibn Khaldūn and Douglass C. North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniza Khalid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares various elements of Ibn Khaldūn’s and Douglass C. North’s thoughts on the role of institutions in influencing or forcing economic change. There are a number of interesting similarities in ideas, thoughts, approaches, and methodologies, which prove that New Institutional Economics may actually mirror much of (and can benefit from Ibn Khaldūn’s fourteenth century ideas than was previously thought. Both Ibn Khaldūn’s continuum of badāwah to ḥaḍārah and North’s theory on changes from informal to formal institutions lead to the same fundamental conclusions: (i change is incremental as it is a result in small cumulative changes in the cost-benefit outcomes of the market agents over time, and therefore (ii economic performance inevitably depends on the existence and effectiveness of formal institutions that alter those outcomes. It is also noted that ‘aṣabiyyah or group feeling, another cornerstone of Ibn Khaldūn’s thought, corresponds perfectly to North’s treatise that social cohesion and institutional efficiency are more important than the amount of resource endowment in bringing about economic development and change. In addition, Ibn Khaldūn’s views on the government’s commercial activities are reviewed in the study in light of North’s transaction costs and property rights framework.  

  15. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

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    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  16. MUDHARABAH PERSPEKTIF AVERROES (Studi Analisis Kitab Bidayat al-Mujtahid Wa Nihayat al-Muqtashid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mukti Thabrani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini akan menganalisa pemikiran Ibn Rusyd (Averroes, seorang pemikir, filosof, dan ulama besar asal Spanyol yang hidup pada 1126 – 1198 M, tentang konsep mudharabah dalam bidang fikih muamalah yang tertuang dalam karya monumentalnya yang terkenal sampai sekarang, Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa Nihayat al-Muqtashid. Pemikiran beliau dalam bidang ini ternyata masih sangat relevan dengan konteks kekinian, utamanya dalam bidang keuangan dan perbankan Islam secara umum yang diadaptasi oleh negara-negara “Islam” seperti Malaysia, Pakistan, dan Indonesia.

  17. The possible detection of a binary companion to a Type Ibn supernova progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Maund, J R; Mattila, S; Itagaki, K; Boles, T

    2016-01-01

    We present late-time observations of the site of the Type Ibn supernova (SN) 2006jc acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. A faint blue source is recovered at the SN position with brightness $m_{F435W}=26.76\\pm0.20$, $m_{F555W}=26.60\\pm0.23$ and $m_{F625W} = 26.32\\pm0.19$ mags, although there is no detection in a contemporaneous narrow-band $\\mathrm{H\\alpha}$ image. The spectral energy distribution of the late-time source is well fit by a stellar-like spectrum ($\\log T_{eff} > 3.7$ and $\\log L / L_{\\odot} > 4$) subject to only a small degree of reddening consistent with that estimated for SN~2006jc itself at early-times. The lack of further outbursts after the explosion of SN~2006jc suggests that the precursor outburst originated from the progenitor. The possibility of the source being a compact host cluster is ruled out on the basis of the source's faintness, however the possibility that the late-time source maybe an unresolved light echo originating in a shell or sphere of pre...

  18. SN 2015U: A Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Type Ibn Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Shivvers, Isaac; Mauerhan, Jon; Kleiser, Io K W; Kelly, Patrick L; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Graham, Melissa L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kumar, Sahana; Van Dyk, Schuyler D

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) 2015U (also known as PSN J07285387+3349106) was discovered in NGC 2388 on 2015 Feb. 11. A rapidly evolving and luminous event, it showed hydrogen-free spectra dominated by relatively narrow helium P-Cygni spectral features and it was classified as a SN Ibn. In this paper we present photometric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric observations of SN 2015U, including a Keck/DEIMOS spectrum (resolution $\\approx 5000$) which fully resolves the optical emission and absorption features. We find that SN 2015U is best understood via models of shock breakout from extended and dense circumstellar material (CSM), likely created by a history of mass loss from the progenitor with an extreme outburst within $\\sim$1-2 yr of core collapse (but we do not detect any outburst in our archival imaging of NGC 2388). We argue that the high luminosity of SN 2015U was powered not through $^{56}$Ni decay but via the deposition of kinetic energy into the ejecta/CSM shock interface, and we place an upper limit on the a...

  19. İbni Haldun’un Gözüyle Kamu Maliyesi Yaklaşımı(Public Finance Approach From Ibn Khauldan’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin CANDAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khauldan who is Middle ages Islam-Arab philosophers, with his scientific personality, observations and ideas has affected his era and, has maintained his importance even in present. Ibn Khauldan who is known as “Historian, philosopher, sociologist, economist, politician scientist” to have Ibn Khauldan’s own peculiar philosophical and economic point of views. Ibn Khaldun has mentioned significantly at his named “Muqaddimah” scientific point of views; abaout social, political, economical, fiscal events and, to among the relations. Ibn Khaldun has examined historical events within the correspondence between cause and effect and has tried to get some deductions about communities. Ibn Khaldun has claimed knowing history the opinion which has been “necessity” to analyze from several perspective bir çok açıdan society events. In this study, by examining historical period of time when Ibn Khaldun had lived, Ibn Kahldun’s point of view to public finance had been displayed.

  20. Ground-water exploration in Al Marj area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, T.G.; Haddor, Yousef

    1963-01-01

    The present report, based largely on fieldwork during 1959-61, describes the results of reconnaissance hydrogeologic studies and exploratory drilling to evaluate the general water-bearing properties of the rocks and the availability of groundwater supplies for irrigation, stock, and village uses in Al Marj area. These studies and the drilling were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Operations Mission of the International Cooperation Administration. Al Marj area, located in the Province of Cyrenaica on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, contains a land area of about 6,770 square kilometers. Along the Mediterranean shore is a narrow coastal plain that rises evenly to the base of an escarpment that forms the seaward front of an undulating plateau known as. Al Jabal al Akhgiar. The climate is semiarid; seasonal rainfall occurs during the winter months. Owing to orographic effects, the rainfall is somewhat higher in the Jabal than in the coastal plain. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 250 millimeters in the coastal plain to 450 millimeters on the Jabal. All the streams (wadis) of the area are ephemeral and flow only in response to heavy rains of the winter season. From a drainage divide on the Jabal some streams flow north and northwest toward the sea and the others, south and southeast to the interior desert. Solution features, such as limestone sink holes, are common in the coastal plain and a large solution depression occurs near Al Marj. The rocks of A1 Marj area consist predominantly of limestone and some sandstone and shale; they range from Cretaceous to Miocene age. On the coastal plain Miocene limestone is locally mantled by Quaternary alluvial, beach and lagoonal deposits. The Miocene and older beds have a regional southerly dip. These rocks are broken by northeast-trending normal faults in the coastal and inland escarpments. The ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in fractures, bedding planes, and solution openings in the

  1. Calculated surface electrostatic potentials of molecular sieve models containing SiO4, AlO4, and PO4 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, M E; Murray, J S; Politzer, P

    1994-09-01

    Surface electrostatic potentials have been computed at the ab initio HF/STO-5G* level for two model systems: a fragment of a zeolite channel wall; and a fragment composed of SiO4, AlO4 and PO4 units. The potential above the SiO4 network is negative everywhere, despite these units commonly being regarded as electrically neutral. In marked contrast, the AlO4 and PO4 units introduce strongly negative and positive regions, respectively, giving rise to a much more heterogeneous surface potential.

  2. The Sīmiyā’ in Al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Coullaut Cordero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sīmiyā’ is an Arabic word that uses to be translated as ‘white magic’ or ‘natural magic’. In fact, the so-called “science of al-Sīmiyā’” is a kind of magic well known in the Arab world since the Middle Ages. In this paper, after a short revision of the different etymologies suggested for this word, we discuss the definitions given to the this magical science by classic authors, namely Šhihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (s. XIII, Ibn Jaldūn (s. XIV and Hāyŷī Jalīfa (s. XVII, remarking the differences in their definitions.After that, we analyze the meaning, basic concepts and practice of the sīmiyā’ in al-Andalus, as exposed in the book entitled Kanz al-‘ulūm wa-l-durr al-manzūm, written by the sufi author Muhammad b. ‘Alī Ibn Tūmart al-Andalusī (s. XIII- XIV, what lead us to relatesufism with the practice of occult sciences in the Islamic world.

  3. Haematology and biochemistry values of captive sand cats (Felis margarita) in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Arshad Toosy; Judith Howlett; Ahmed Saker; John Kagira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the haematology and biochemistry values of apparently healthy captive sand cats kept in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, United Arab Emirates, with a view to establishing baseline values.Methods:Blood was collected from the femoral vein using aseptic techniques, kept in a cool box and sent to laboratory for analysis. The blood was analysed for haematological and biochemical values using veterinary hematology and chemistry analysers (ABX ABC Vet, Horiba ABX SAS Montpellier, France). Results: Haematological values were within the normal ranges recorded in domestic cats and there was no statistical difference between values found in males and females. Aspartate aminotransferase values were higher (P0.05) between males and females values.Conclusions:Our results present reference ranges for haematology and biochemistry parameters in captive sand cats. These values will be important for diagnosis of various diseases and monitoring of treatments.

  4. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IX. SN 2014av, and characterization of Type Ibn SNe

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Ciabattari, F; Bersier, D; Mazzali, P A; Gao, X; Xu, Z; Zhang, J -J; Tokuoka, S; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Harutyunyan, A; Huang, F; Miluzio, M; Mo, J; Ochner, P; Tartaglia, L; Terreran, G; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the Type Ibn supernova (SN) 2014av, discovered by the Xingming Observatory Sky Survey. A stringent pre-discovery detection limit indicates that the object was discovered soon after core-collapse. A prompt follow-up campaign arranged by amateur astronomers allows us to monitor the rising phase (lasting 10.6 days) and to accurately estimate the epoch of the maximum light, on 2014 April 23 (JD = 2456771.1 +- 1.2). The absolute magnitude of the SN at the maximum light is M(R) = -19.76 +- 0.16. The post-peak light curve shows an initial fast decline lasting about 3 weeks, and is followed by a slower decline in all bands until the end of the monitoring campaign. The spectra are initially characterized by a hot continuum. Later on, the temperature declines and a number of lines become prominent mostly in emission. In particular, later spectra are dominated by strong and narrow emission features of He I typical of Type Ibn supernovae (SNe), although there is clear evid...

  5. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian.

  6. Comment on "Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States," by Satish C. Gupta et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Patrick; Stevens, John R.; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Kelly, Sara A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper "Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States" by Satish C. Gupta, Andrew C. Kessler, Melinda K. Brown, and Francis Zvomuya (hereafter referred to as Gupta et al.) purports to evaluate "the relative importance of changes in precipitation and LULC (land use, land cover) on streamflow in 29 Hydrologic Unit Code 008 watersheds in the Upper Midwestern United States." However, as we report here, the approach used by Gupta et al. is wholly inadequate for making such an evaluation. Gupta et al. use strong language to criticize other studies and imply a level of certainty that goes well beyond, and in some cases is entirely unsupported by, the results they have presented. We take this opportunity to point out several critical flaws in their study.

  7. Reply to comment by Schottler et al. on "Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Kessler, Andrew C.; Brown, Melinda K.; Schuh, William M.

    2016-08-01

    In their comments, Schottler et al. (doi:10.1002/2015WR018482) raised concerns about our technique for deciphering climate and land use land cover (LULC) change impacts on streamflow in the upper Midwestern United States. In this reply, we further explain the underpinnings of our statistical technique and point out criticism on the procedures that Schottler et al. (doi:10.1002/2015WR018482; doi:10.1002/hyp.9738) used in their comment.

  8. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam Menurut Abid al-Jabiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Al-Jabiri’s thought renewal project focuses on epistemological critics on scientific traditional framework of Arab-Islam. This is done by analyzing sociopolitical background of the formulation process and structure of Arab-Islam’s logical reasoning, and the entire structural working mechanism of Arab’s logical reasoning. According to Al-Jabiri, Arab’s logical reasoning can be classified into three, i.e. bayani, Irfani and burhani. Bayani is a pure Arab’s logical reasoning as it is motivated by cognitive factor to interpret religious texts. Irfani becomes an alternative epistemology for bayani in providing convincing conclusions. While Burhani, is logical reasoning based on rationality. However, even though the Arab’s logical reasoning could be distinguished into those three, Al-Jabiri observes the domination of bayani on others, thus, the text and traditional authorities are always dominating Arab-Islam civilization. Consequently, Arabic Civilization is not creative-productive or poor in concepts and theories. The solution AlJabiri proposes is to apply critism spirit that have been developed in AndalusiaMaghrib, i.e. empirical rationale presented by Ibn Hazm and Al-Syatibi in Fiqh, Ibnu Ruysd in Philosophy, Ibnu Khaldun in sociology, and Ibn Madha alQurthubi in Arabic grammatical renewal.

  9. Infectious peritonitis profile in peritoneal dialysis at Ibn Sina University Hospital: a 6-year data report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekaoui S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samira Bekaoui, Intissar Haddiya, Maria Slimani Houti, Fatima Zahra Berkchi, Fatima Ezaitouni, Naima Ouzeddoun, Rabia Bayahia, Loubna Benamar Department of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Renal Transplantation, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco Background: Infectious peritonitis (IP is the most common complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of IP and to determine its clinical, biological, and evolutive characteristics. Patients and methods: We conducted a five year, five months retrospective study from July 2006 to December 2011. All patients on peritoneal dialysis that have been followed on PD for a minimum of 3 months and who presented IP during follow-up were included. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results: The 76 episodes of IP were identified in 36 patients. The peritonitis rate (months × patients/peritonitis, as calculated by the Registre de Dialyse Péritonéale de Langue Française (RDPLF Registry [French peritoneal dialysis registry] in December 2011, was 18.59. Time to occurrence of peritonitis from the start of peritoneal exchange was 15.44±10 months. The mean age of our patients was 49.1±16.8 years [10–80]: the youngest patient's age was 10, while the oldest was 80 years old (male to female: sex ratio M/F=1,66. Also, 22% of our patients were diabetic. The mean follow-up in PD was 22.6±14 months. Abdominal pain was present in 79% of the cases. Fever and vomiting were noted in 42% and 38% of cases, respectively. The C-reactive protein rate was elevated in 77% of cases, and leukocytosis was found in 27% of cases. Bacteriological proof was present in 73.68% of cases. Gram-positive cocci were involved in 56.6% of microbiologically proven IP cases. Gram-negative bacilli were represented in 37.7%. The outcome was favorable in 89.4%. The PD catheter was removed in 2.63% of the cases. In addition, 7.89% of our patients were transferred to hemodialysis. Discussion: The

  10. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam menurut ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faishol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The project of ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s thoughts has become epistemological critic to traditional frame of Islam-Arab knowledge through analyzing socio-political background on the logic of Arab formulation. According to Al-Jâbirî, the logic of Arabic thought could be devised into three methods: bayâni, ‘irfâni and burhâni. Therefore, the structure of Islam-Arab culture has occurred based on: (1 authoritative texts—because the logic of Arab is exceedingly based on religious texts, (2 authoritative salaf, that is, focused on ‘ulama’s considerations, and (3 authoritative permissivism along with anti-causality (sult}ah at-tajwîz al-lâsababiyyah. Hence, Arabic culture becomes unproductive, poor of concept and theory. As a solution, Al-Jâbirî invites to contextualize the spirit of critic such as rational-empiricism of Ibn H{azm and al-Shât}ibî on fiqh, Ibn Rushd on philosophy, Ibn Khaldûn on sociology, etc. This article will probe specifically about ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s reform thought. Al-Jâbirî’s thinking distinctiveness lies in the epistemological critique conducted on the science that develops in the Arab-Islamic civilization. The epistemological critique becomes a realm of science that not much attention, especially by Muslim thinkers. Al-Jâbirî’s epistemological critique offers to the Muslim world an attempt to reconstruct the building of reason-epistemic knowledge to keep pace and change its Islamic world towards the progress of civilization.

  11. «Its Maṭla‘ and Ḫarja are Twofold in Function»: Form and Content in Ibn Quzmān’s «Zajal 59» and «138» / "Maṭla‘ y Ḫarja tienen doble función": forma y contenido en los zéjeles «59» and «138» de Ibn Quzmān

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Monroe

    2011-04-01

    theologians, and which had heavily influenced literary authors long before the time of Ibn Quzmān. (6 Finally, it is concluded that, in this instance, the tension between the surface and hidden meaning of the text is a means of allowing the author to adopt a critical stance toward the society in which he lives. RESUMEN. Este artículo comienza por contrastar brevemente los objetivos de aquellos tratados de poesía y retórica compuestos en griego, latín y árabe durante la Antigüedad y el periodo medieval, por un lado, con los objetivos de la crítica literaria moderna y post-romántica, por otro, para subrayar el hecho de que los tratados premodernos tenían como propósito principal aquel de enseñar a los estudiantes cómo escribir, y corregir sus errores. Como tal, eran mayoritariamente prescriptivos, y no pueden ser de gran utilidad para el propósito de la crítica literaria moderna, que es ampliamente descriptiva e interpretativa en su enfoque. A pesar de este hecho obvio, en la actualidad se han aplicado erróneamente métodos premodernos en el estudio de la poesía árabe. Este artículo prosigue discutiendo el papel y la función del ‘estribillo inicial’ o maṭla‘ así como la ‘salida’ o jarŷa en la poesía estrófica arábigo-andalusí, señalando que la función de estos dos elementos es esencialmente musical, pues surge de la tradición oral. A partir de aquí, el artículo analiza dos zéjeles del ilustre poeta arábigo-andalusí Ibn Quzmān. Estos poemas muestran un rasgo inusual: cada uno se vale de un único e idéntico texto, que se repite textualmente al comienzo y al final del poema, ambos como su maṭla‘ y como su jarŷa. Se sugiere, por tanto, que este paralelismo temático que enmarca el poema encierra un patrón interno basado en la composición circular, una técnica organizativa de la cual el poeta bien podría haber sido consciente. La forma que toma este patrón, no obstante, presenta ciertas ambigüedades y contradicciones

  12. Vitality and chemistry of roots of red spruce in forest floors of stands with a gradient of soil Al/Ca ratios in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, P.M.; Vogt, K.; Vogt, D.; Holifield, Q.; Tilley, J.; Lawrence, G.; David, M.

    2003-01-01

    Number of living root tips per branch, percent dead roots, percent mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal morphotype, response of woody roots to wounding and colonization by fungi, and concentrations of starch, soluble sugars, phenols, percent C and N and C/N ratio, and Al Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and P were measured for 2 consecutive years in roots of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in stands in the northeastern United States (nine in 1993 and two additional in 1994) dominated by red spruce and with a gradient of forest floor exchangeable Al/Ca ratios. Root vitality was measured for nonwoody and coarse woody roots; chemical variables were measured for nonwoody (<1 mm), fine woody (1 to <2 mm), and coarse woody (2 to <5 mm) roots. There were significant differences among sites for all variables, particularly in 1993, although few were related to the Al/Ca ratio gradient. Percent mycorrhizae decreased, while some morphotypes increased or decreased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. In nonwoody roots, N increased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. Most sampled trees appeared to be in good or fair health, suggesting that an adverse response of these root variables to high Al concentrations may be apparent only after a significant change in crown health.

  13. Functional anatomy of the spine by Avicenna in his eleventh century treatise Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canons of Medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sait; Acar, Feridun; Mertol, Tansu; Arda, M Nuri

    2003-06-01

    The history of spinal surgery is an important part of the spine-related sciences. The development of treatment strategies for spine-related disorders is acquired from the Western literature. In this article, an Eastern physician, Ibn Sina, who is known as Avicenna in the West, and his treatise, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (the Canons of Medicine), are presented. Eight chapters of this book regarding the functional neuroanatomy of the spine were reviewed and are presented to give insight into the development of the understanding of spinal anatomy and biomechanics.

  14. Rhodamine 6G hydrazone bearing thiophene unit: A highly sensitive and selective off-on fluorescent chemosensor for Al3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Na; Mao, Pan-Dong; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Jia, Lei; Xu, Zhou-Qing

    2016-10-01

    A rhodamine derivative (R1) has been synthesized by a hydrazone formation of rhodamine 6G hydrazide with 3-methylthiophene-2-carbaldehyde, which exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity as an "off-on" fluorescent sensor toward Al3+ in water containing media. The binding process was confirmed by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence measurements, mass spectroscopy and DFT calculation. The probe functions by Al3+ induced hydrolytic cleavage of the imine-bond to produce an intense rhodamine-based emission. To test the practical use of the probe, the determination of Al3+ in real water samples was also evaluated.

  15. Dirasah Fiqhiyyah Lihadits “Bai’atain fi Bai’ah” fi Manzur al-Iqtisad al-Islami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Rasyid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hadits is one source of Islamic Law. There are contracts which are forbidden is Islamic Law. One of that forbidden contracts is two sales in one contract (bay’atayn fi bay’ahor s}afqatayn fi s}afqah. There are narrations of the Ahadith which forbids this type of contract. The paper discusses the authenticity of these narrations and its legal meaning. According to the science of Hadits that daif (weak Hadith could not be considered as valid source of law. There are three narrations related to this topic i.e. through Abu Hurayrah, Amru ibn Shuaib and Ibn Mas’ud. The Prophet (pbh has forbidden two sales in one contract. This Hadits is generally considered as Sahih hence some transactions which come under this type are deemed as void. Muslim scholars have different opinion with regard to the meaning of this Hadits. There are some forms of contract which are forbidden is Islamic Law such as 1.  Bay’ al-ienah, 2.Bay’ al-Kali’ bil Kali’ and Bay’ al-Taqsit or Ta’jil (on deferred payment. This paper is an effort to shed the light on these types of contract referring to the opinions of Muslim intellectuals from different school of thought (Hanafite, Shafiite, Malikite and Hanbalite with some conclusion et the end.

  16. Al-Akhawayni and the early descriptions of meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Sedighi, Mahsa; Zargaran, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Abubakr Rabi-ibn Ahmad Akhawayni Bukhari, also known as Al-Akhawayni, was a Persian physician who lived in the Near East during an age in which medical knowledge blossomed in the Islamic world. This era, the "Islamic Golden Age," extended from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD. During his lifetime as a physician, Al-Akhawayni was famous for his expertise in medicine, including disorders that would be considered neurological today. In his extant book Hidayat al-Muta`allemin fi al-Tibb [A Scholar's Guide to Medicine], he provided an early description of what is probably meningitis. He illustrated the membranes surrounding the brain tissue in detail and described manifestations resulting from their inflammation.

  17. Ibn ·Khaldun's Social History%伊本·赫勒敦的社会历史观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅

    2011-01-01

    Ibn ·Khaldun was the last Arab philosophers in the medieval,who was a world significance of scholars.He opened up a new scientific history philosophy,he thought the human society had certain rules to follow,human society and civilization were in permanent%伊本·赫勒敦是中世纪最后一位阿拉伯哲学家,是一位具有世界意义的学者。他开创了一门新的科学历史哲学,他认为人类社会有规律可循,人类社会和文明处于永久的发展之中,研究历史必须遵循历史规律。作为阿拉伯哲学家,他是伊斯兰教的信仰者,但其历史观中却带有明显的历史唯物主义倾向。

  18. The "Prince of Medicine": Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh and the foundations of the western pharmaceutical tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Paula

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines three medieval pharmaceutical treatises purportedly authored by Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh (anglicized to John Mesue) and traces their immense influence on the development of pharmacy in early modem Europe and the Hispanic world. Despite the importance of these works throughout the early modern period, Mesue is relatively unknown in the history of pharmacy and medicine, and his exact identity remains unclear. This essay argues that "Mesue" was most likely a pseudonym used by an unknown author of the Latin West and that the three works were crafted to meet the demands of the developing "medical marketplace" of late thirteenth-century Europe, where the manuscripts first appeared. At the same time, however, as the Arabic reference of the pseudonym suggests, these treatises were clearly products of the medieval Islamic world, including many innovations that would provide the basis for the theory and practice of pharmacy for centuries and arguably formed part of the artisanal epistemological influence on the Scientific Revolution.

  19. 76 FR 68210 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... is entitled to deference in crafting its antitrust settlements.\\2\\ See generally United States v... Defendants have contracts executed for the required investments at the time Court enters the Judgment, the...

  20. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs SRAM unit and voltage level shifter using fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghe, Chen; Xuefeng, Zheng; Jincheng, Zhang; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2016-05-01

    A GaN-based E/D mode direct-couple logic 6 transistors SRAM unit and a voltage level shifter were designed and fabricated. E-mode and D-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were integrated in one wafer using fluorine plasma treatment and using a moderate AlGaN barrier layer heterojunction structure. The 6 transistors SRAM unit consists of two symmetrical E/D mode inverters and two E-mode switch HEMTs. The output low and high voltage of the SRAM unit are 0.95 and 0.07 V at a voltage supply of 1 V. The voltage level shifter lowers the supply voltage using four Ni-AlGaN Schottky diodes in a series at a positive supply voltage of 6 V and a negative supply voltage of -6 V. By controlling the states of inverter modules of the level shifter in turn, the level shifter offers two channel voltage outputs of -0.5 and -5 V. The flip voltage of the level shifter is 0.76 V. Both the SRAM unit and voltage shifter operate correctly, demonstrating the promising potential for GaN-based E/D mode digital and analog integrated circuits. Several considerations are proposed to avoid the influence of threshold voltage degradation of D-mode and E-mode HEMT on the operation of the circuit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334002), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201206), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0915).

  1. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    provides a cost effective means to protect the nation’s interest while maintaining a deterrent posture through global power projection. The United...Preemptive Deployment of Assets  Phased Deployment of Assets  Surge of Supplies and Services  Logistics Posture Disaster Lifecycle Response Phase...necessary shelter and hygienic resources 21 required to prevent the loss of life from exposure to the elements or unsanitary conditions. B. INDONESIAN

  2. Nanocluster model of intermetallic compounds with giant unit cells: beta, beta'-Mg(2)Al(3) polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatov, Vladislav A; Ilyushin, Gregory D; Proserpio, Davide M

    2010-02-15

    A novel method for the computational description of intermetallics as an assembly of nanoclusters was improved and applied to extremely complicated crystal structures of beta, beta'-Mg(2)Al(3) polymorphs. Using the TOPOS program package that implements the method, we separated two types of two-shell primary nanoclusters A, A1, A2, and B consisting of 57-63 atoms that completely compose the structures of the polymorphs. The nanocluster model interprets structural disordering in beta-Mg(2)Al(3): the disordered atoms form the inner shell of the nanocluster A, while the outer shells of all nanoclusters are preserved. The self-assembly of the beta, beta'-Mg(2)Al(3) crystal structures was considered within the hierarchical scheme: 0D primary polyhedral clusters (coordination polyhedra) --> 0D two-shell primary nanoclusters A, A1, A2, or B --> 0D supracluster-precursor AB(2) --> 1D primary chain --> 2D microlayer --> 3D microframework. The self-assembly scheme proves the similarity of beta, beta'-Mg(2)Al(3) to other extremely complicated Samson's phases, NaCd(2) and ZrZn(22); the spatial arrangement of the centers of nanoclusters in these structures as well as the topology of the corresponding network conform to the Laves phase MgCu(2). Using the TOPOS procedure of searching for finite fragments in infinite nets we found that nanocluster B is a typical fragment of intermetallic compounds: it exists in intermetallics belonging to 42 Pearson classes. The nanocluster A was found only in two Pearson classes: cF464 and hP238, while the nanoclusters A1 and A2 occur in beta'-Mg(2)Al(3) only. Thus, the nanoclusters A, A1, and A2 can be considered as "determinants" of the corresponding structures.

  3. Ragib - al - Isfahani's Approach to Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin B O S T A N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical Islamic Moral Philosopher was influenced by old Greek philosophy. The conceptual infrastructure of Islamic Moral Philo sophy is based on the old Greek philosophy. Especially Platon and Aristotle influenced Islamic moralists. Their classification of virtues and soul powers holds important place in Islamic morality. Particularly Ibn Miskawayh and other Islamic ethicists have adopted this classification. Ragıb al - Isfahânî was one of them. But he was able to combine both the philosophy and religious sources. He adopted the classical philosophical classification but he also benefited from the religious sources while constituting the morality. His balanced approach is hold very important places in the Islamic morality.

  4. The concept of lifestyle factors, based on the teaching of avicenna (ibn sina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopani, Rasool; Emtiazy, Majid

    2015-01-01

    According to the definition stated in the beginning of the "Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb" (the Qanun of Medicine); medicine is a science, from which one learns the states of the human body; health and disease and what causes them, in order to preserve good health when it exists, and restore it when it is lacking. Based on this issue, Avicenna believes that medical science belongs to all human without any limitation, and maintenance of health is one of its prime objectives. He states that many disorders are related to errors in the 6 factors, which are essential for maintaining health and preventing diseases. Avicenna described these six essential factors (lifestyle factors) in his masterpiece, Qanun of Medicine, as "Asbab-e-Settah-e-Zaruriah." Based on the teaching of Avicenna, the first step for maintaining health and approaches to treatment is modification of lifestyle factors, including of nutrition, physical activity, etc.

  5. Check-up and follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma in the department of nuclear medicine at Ibn Sina hospital Rabat; Bilan et surveillance des carcinomes papillaire et vesiculaire de la thyroide dans le service de medecine nucleaire de l'hopital Ibn Sina de Rabat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rais Aouad, N.; Ghfir, I.; Guerrouj, H.; Fellah, S.; Rahali, J.; Ksyar, R.; Missoum, F.; Bssis, A.; Azrak, S. [CHU Ibn Sina, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-10-15

    In the department of nuclear medicine at Ibn Sina university hospital. Thyroid carcinoma follow-up strategy has been modified and includes cervical ultrasonography and thyroglobulin measurement. The role of radio-iodine scanning in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is decreasing. Papillary and follicular carcinoma have good prognosis but late metastases exist and can lead to death. A lifelong follow-up is therefore mandatory. The main goal of follow-up is to detect earlier persistent or recurrent disease. (authors)

  6. Effects of combination modes of favorable growth unit of Al(OH)3 crystals precipitating on Van der Waals and chemical bond force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zheng-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; LI Jie

    2005-01-01

    The dipole moment, total energy, atomic charge, orbital population and orbital energy of four representative combination models of the favorable growth unit Al6 (OH)18 (H2O)6 of Al(OH)3 crystals precipitating are calculated by ab initio at RHF/STO-3G, RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G levels and DFT at RB3LYP/STO-3G, RB3LYP/3-21G, RB3LYP/6-31G levels with Dipole & Sphere solvent model. The effect of various combination models on Van der Waals force is analyzed using dipole moment and molecular radius, and that on chemical bond force is analyzed using total energy, orbital population and orbital energy.

  7. 76 FR 70067 - Taxpayers and Ratepayers United, et al.; Environmental Impacts of Severe Reactor and Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... identifies the ADAMS accession numbers for each PRM. In addition, the following table provides the specific... Docket Nos. ADAMS Accession No. affected Gene Stilp, on behalf of Taxpayers PRM-51-14 ML112430559 Bell Bend. and Ratepayers United. Diane Curran, on behalf of San PRM-51-15 ML11236A322 Diablo Canyon....

  8. 77 FR 44271 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... publishers in the United States (``Publisher Defendants'') restrained competition in the sale of electronic...://goodereader.com/blog/electronic-readers/how-will-the-microsoft-surface-tablet-function-as-an-e-reader . \\7... picture not hypercritically, nor with a microscope, but with an artist's reducing glass''). See...

  9. 75 FR 53985 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al., Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ..., core physics, and neutronic capability of the NGF LFAs in the PVNGS, Unit 3 reactor core. The thermal...-coolant accident (LOCA) and non-LOCA criteria, mechanical design, thermal hydraulic, seismic, core physics..., which the licensee commits to being due October 30, 2010, shall include thermal hydraulic...

  10. Process analysis of electricity generation for vehicle powertrains with methanol as energy carrier and fuel-cells as energy conversion units; Verfahrensanalyse der Stromerzeugung fuer Fahrzeugantriebe mit Methanol als Energietraeger und Brennstoffzellen als Energieumwandlungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzer, R.; Hoehlein, B.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrogen-powered low-temperature fuel cells (PEFC) are the energy conversion units in vehicles with methanol as energy carrier and a powertrain consisting of the following main units: Methanol reformer (H{sub 2}-production) including catalytic converter, gas treatment, PEFC with peripheral units, electric motor with electric controllers and gearbox. The process engineering analysis is based on a simulation model (PRO/II, SIMSCI) and describes the energy and water management as a function of different assumptions as well as operating and ambient conditions for net electricity generation in a PEFC-powered powertrain. In particular, it presents an approach for balancing both water recovery (PEFC) and the use of water for the methanol reforming process as well as for the humidification of the PEFC. The overall balances present an optimized energy management including the peripheral air compression for the PEFC and the special emission options as compared with conventional powertrains (internal combustion engines). (orig.) [Deutsch] Wasserstoffbetriebene Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzellen (PEFC) sind Energieumwandlungseinheiten in einem Fahrzeugantrieb mit Methanol als Energietraeger bestehend aus: Methanol-Reformer mit Katalyt-Konverter zur H{sub 2}-Erzeugung, Gasnachbehandlung, PEFC mit peripheren Einheiten, Elektromotor und Getriebe. Die vorgestellte Prozessanalyse basiert auf einem Simulationsmodell (PRO/II, SIMSCI) und beschreibt das Energie- und Wassermanagement als Funktion verschiedener Annahmen, Betriebszustaende und Umgebungsbedingungen fuer die Netto-Stromerzeugung in einem Antrieb mit PEFC. Insbesondere wird die Situation der Wassererzeugung (PEFC) einerseits und der Wassernutzung fuer den Reformer und die PEFC-Befeuchtung andererseits dargestellt. Die Gesamtbilanz zeigt das Energiemanagement einschliesslich der Luftkompression fuer die Kathodenluft der PEFC wie auch die besonderen Emissionsvorteile im Vergleich zu konventionellen Antrieben mit

  11. Diseño del puente Abbas Ibn Firnás sobre el río Guadalquivir en Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The work for the New Access to the Cordoba Airport includes the construction of the Abbas Ibn Firnas Bridge to cross the Guadalquivir River. This cable-stayed bridge has two spans of 132.50 m each, and three approach spans on the right bank that add 100 meters to its length. The most important and singular aspect of the structure is the design of the mixed concrete and steel arches that open into two hexagonal tubes braced from the central pier to the abutments and the arrangement of the stru...

  12. The Killing of Anwar al Awlaki: How the United States Lost a Crucial Battle in the War of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Awlaki was an agricultural economics student at New Mexico State University. The family moved to Nebraska while Nasser pursued a doctorate at the...Colorado State University, graduating in 1994 with a degree in civil engineering. While at Colorado State, he was president of the Muslim Student ...Washington DC’s go- to Muslim sources, considered a moderate Islamic voice with positive views of the United States and the West who did not shy away from

  13. Melihat Sekilas Imam Fakhral-Din al-Razi (544-606 H/1149-1209 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Malik Marpaung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fakhr al-Din al-Razi adalah seorang pemikir klasik yang terpercaya. Pengetahuan nya meliputi berbagai disiplin ilmu, seperti teologi, tafsir, hukum, bahasa, sastra, tasawuf, filsafat, kedokteran, fisika, astronomi, astrologi, matematika, dan lain-lain. Dalam hal fikih, al-Razi bermazhab Syafi’i, dalam filsafat terpengaruh Muhammad Zakaria al Razi dan Ibn Sina, sedang dalam hal fisika mengikuti jejak Abual-Barakat al-Baghdadi. Tidak berbeda dengan filosof yang anti-Aristotelian sebelumnya, al-Razi mencoba menyelaraskan agama dan filsafat rasional. Keunggulan al-Razi di berbagai bidang ini belum banyak digali sehingga menjadi tambahan bagi khazanah keilmuan Islam. Artikel ini hendak memaparkan beberapa pemikiran-pemikiran Fakhr al-Din al-Razi yang berkenaan dengan kalam, filsafat, fikih, dan ilmu pengetahuan lain yang dapat ditemukan dalam karya-karyanya yang sudah diterbitkan. Dengan harapan, artikel ini dapat berguna untuk lebih mengenalkan pemikiran-pemikirannya yang masih menunggu untuk dieksplorasi lebih serius.

  14. Availability and chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in the United Arab Emirates of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andrew D; Walton, Richard I; Myers, Kathryn A; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the availability and chemical composition of potentially lead-toxic traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") in six of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Thus of especial interest was the percentage of the purchased samples that contained the toxic element lead. A total of 53 observably different kohl samples were found to be available overall in the six emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al-Quwain, Ras Al-Khaimah, and Fujairah. It was found that 19 of these samples had been previously analyzed by us in studies covering Oman, Abu Dhabi (city), and Egypt (Cairo). The techniques of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the remaining 34 samples. Overall, for the 53 kohl samples, it was found that 20 (38%) contained a lead compound (galena, PbS) as the main component. The other main components were found to be one of the following: amorphous carbon, calcite/aragonite (CaCO3), goethite (FeO(OH)), hematite (Fe2O3), sassolite (H3BO3), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2), or zincite (ZnO).

  15. Concept Mapping as an Instrument for Evaluating an Instruction Unit on Holography (Concept Maps als Evaluierungsinstrumente einer Unterrichtseinheit zur Holographie)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E; Horn, Martin Erik; Mikelskis, Helmut F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its amazing three-dimensional effects, holography is a very motivating, yet very demanding subject for physics classes at the upper level in school. For this reason an instruction unit on holography that supplement holographic experiments with computer-supported work sessions and a simulation program was developed. The effects of the lessons on holography were determined by a pre-post-test design. In addition to videotaping the lessons, knowledge and motivational tests as well as student interviews, students were asked to prepare concept maps, which were used to track processes of model construction. The way this knowledge was applied largely depends on the students' understanding of models. In particular it was shown that the participating students' demonstrated capacity for distinguishing between the different models of light is of great importance. Only students with a developed capacity for distinguishing between models are able to reason in an problem-oriented manner. They recognize the limits of ...

  16. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VIII. PSN J07285387+3349106, a highly reddened supernova Ibn

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Terreran, G; Taubenberger, S; Noebauer, U M; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Ciabattari, F; Dennefeld, M; Dimai, A; Ishida, E E O; Harutyunyan, A; Leonini, S; Ochner, P; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric observations for the Type Ibn supernova (SN) dubbed PSN J07285387+3349106. Using data provided by amateur astronomers, we monitored the photometric rise of the SN to maximum light, occurred on 2015 February 18.8 UT (JD(max,V) = 2457072.0 +- 0.8). PSN J07285387+3349106 exploded in the inner region of an infrared luminous galaxy, and is the most reddened SN Ibn discovered so far. We apply multiple methods to derive the total reddening to the SN, and determine a total colour excess E(B-V)(tot) = 0.99 +- 0.48 mag. Accounting for the reddening correction, which is affected by a large uncertainty, we estimate a peak absolute magnitude of M(V) = -20.30 +- 1.50. The spectra are dominated by continuum emission at early phases, and He I lines with narrow P-Cygni profiles are detected. We also identify weak Fe III and N II features. All these lines show an absorption component which is blue-shifted by about 900-1000 km/s. The spectra also show relatively broad He I line wings wit...

  17. Books I and IV of Kūshyār ibn Labbān's Jāmic Zīj: An Arabic Astronomical Handbook by an Eleventh-Century Iranian Scholar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, M.

    2006-01-01

    Kushyar ibn Labban was an Iranian astronomer and mathematician who was active around 1000 A.D. His major astronomical work was a Zij [astronomical handbook with tables], called the Jami` Zij [the Comprehensive Zij]. It is written in Arabic, the scientific language in the Islamic territories in Kushy

  18. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  19. Keter Malkhut (Coroa Real e a mística filosófica de Ibn Gabirol (Keter Malkhut (Kingly Crown and the philosophical mysticism of Ibn Gabirol - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p728

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    Cecilia Cintra Cavaleiro de Macedo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Gabirol foi um poeta e filósofo judeu espanhol que viveu no século XI. Sua filosofia racional, redigida em árabe, parece ser completamente desvinculada de sua poesia religiosa hebraica, considerada mística. Alguns estudiosos entendem que entre mística e filosofia existe um antagonismo insuperável. Redigido no período de formulação da Kabbalah, o poema Keter Malkhut, pela estreita relação que seu conteúdo mantém com alguns elementos filosóficos usados pelo autor, foi freqüentemente interpretado como mera alegoria estética para o sistema metafísico desenvolvido em sua obra filosófica Fons Vitae. Este artigo visa oferecer uma reflexão introdutória sobre a mística judaica e, à luz desta, analisar a primeira parte do poema frente ao modelo metafísico apresentado no Fons Vitae. A partir de uma discussão sobre linguagem e simbolismo, surge a idéia de que tanto a poesia religiosa quanto a filosofia racional de Ibn Gabirol sejam frutos de uma única intuição inicial, inspirada na especulação mística milenar sobre o Trono da Glória (Merkabah, mas nos quais já podemos entrever certos elementos neoplatônicos que caracterizarão o novo modelo da Kabbalah. Palavras-chave: Kabbalah.Trono da Glória. Ibn Gabirol. Neoplatonismo. Mística Judaica.   Abstract Ibn Gabirol was a Jewish Spanish poet and philosopher that lived in the 11th century. His rational philosophy written in Arabic seems to be completely disconnected with his Hebrew religious poetry, considered as mystical. Some scholars believe that there is an insuperable antagonism between mysticism and philosophy. Composed during the formative period of the Kabbalah, the poem Keter Malkhut was repeatedly seen as a mere aesthetic allegory of the metaphysical system developed in his philosophical work Fons Vitae, due to the close relation that its contents hold with some philosophical elements. This paper aims to offer an introductory reflection about Jewish mysticism and

  20. Seyahatnamelerde Hadîs Kültürü: İbn Battûta Örneği Hadith Culture in Travelogues: The Case of Ibn Battuta

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    Yunus MACİT

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Books of Travels are one of the most important sources of Islamichistory and religious life; because they have important functions interms of their transport of the historical, geographical and socio-culturalcharacteristics of a certain time to the present day.Travelling is also an important tradition in Islamic culture;because of travelling is a good way to expand the horizons of knowledgeand experience.As it’s known, Ibn Battuta also known as Shams ad-Din (1304–1368 or 1369, was a Berber Muslim Moroccan explorer, known for hisextensive travels, accounts of which were published in the Rihla. Over aperiod of thirty years, he visited most of the known Islamic world as wellas many non-Muslim lands; his journeys including trips to North Africa,West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, and tothe Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, and China in the East, adistance surpassing threefold his near-contemporary Marco Polo.For this reason Ibn Battuta is considered one of thegreatest travelers of all time.As a devout person Ibn Battuta during his travels tried to learn allof the characteristics of religious and religious organizations whereverhe went and established close contacts with religious people andorganizations, also visited sacred-religious authorities and besides gaveplace to the hadith narrations about this places in his book. In histravelogues, which help as to understand the medieval Islamicgeography his time period, as well as information on socio-cultural andeconomical life of Muslim communities, reflections of Muslim civilizationand sunnah and hadiths of Prophet Muhammad to the religious andgeneral public life and religious persons had narrated. For this reason,İbn Battuta’s works are one of the important sources in terms of hadithand sunnah in studies. Seyahatnameler, İslam tarihi ve dini yaşamı açısından en önemli kaynaklar arasındadır. Bu nedensiz değildir; çünkü seyahatnameler, bir d

  1. O pensamento crítico na proposta historiográfica de Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406: o caso da Surat da aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Senko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Inserido no campo das discussões sobre a teoria da historiografia medieval, o presente estudo tem por base uma análise do pensamento crítico defendido pelo erudito muçulmano Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406, em sua obra Muqaddimah, no que se refere ao trabalho do historiador em sua investigação do passado. Propomos, assim, averiguar o pensamento historiográfico de Khaldun, avaliando um possível resgate aos clássicos gregos e sua proposta metodológica, através de um caso específico em seu trabalho: o momento no qual o autor reflete sobre uma passagem do livro sagrado Alcorão, a Surat da Aurora, a qual, segundo ele, estava sendo mal interpretada por historiadores e comentadores da época.

  2. A Comparative Study: Self-Realization in Twentieth-Century Western Thought, Ibn e Arabi's Idea, and Theatre of The Absurd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahee Hadaegh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following humans' struggles to achieve a better under¬standing of the self throughout major historical periods, the idea of the quest for a whole self is once more rekindled in the anxiety-laden atmosphere of the twentieth century. However, unlike the previous approaches, the twentieth century reflection of the notion of the quest for self-realization is paradoxically revealed in a new model of struggle which inclines more toward spiritual search. This inward struggle manifests itself through connecting the ego to the unconscious world, in line with the theories of Freud and Jung. The similarity which exists between Jung's psychic state and the Sufis' mystical world defined by Ibn e Arabi, makes it possible to reconsider the seemingly nihilist readings of the quest for self-realization of the twentieth century absurd thoughts in a positive way

  3. Un hindú en la sinagoga: un personaje paradójico en la 'Iggeret ha-musar de Ibn Falaquera

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    Salvatierra Ossorio, Aurora

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes one of the main characters of the 'Iggeret ha-musar by Shem Tov ibn Falaquera: the Hindu master. In the text this figure shows himself as a strangeand controversial wise man by his words and, especially, by his behaviour. He is used by the author to teach ethical concepts well-known in the didactics literature of the thirteenthcentury; but he also offers messages that could be considered inusual in a Jewish context.This circumstance makes necessary to ask us about his function with in the treatise and the values that the author defends through him. This analysis will contribute to illuminate Falaquera’s thought as well as the socio-cultural climate of his time..Se estudia en este artículo a uno de los protagonistas de la 'Iggeret ha-musar de Šem Tob ibn Falaquera: el maestro hindú. Este personaje se revela en el texto como un sabio extraño y controvertido por sus palabras y, sobre todo, por su conducta. A través de él se enseñan principios universales bien conocidos en las colecciones de castigos del siglo XIII; pero también actúa como portador de mensajes que resultan llamativos en un contexto judío y que hacen necesario interrogarse acerca de su función en la obra y los valores que a través de él el autor defiende. Su análisis contribuye a iluminar el pensamiento de Falaquera así como el clima socio-cultural de su tiempo.

  4. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy.

  5. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter, United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P McKay

    Full Text Available Salt flats (sabkha are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers.

  6. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter), United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Rask, Jon C.; Detweiler, Angela M.; Bebout, Brad M.; Everroad, R. Craig; Lee, Jackson Z.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Mayer, Marisa H.; Caraballo, Adrian A. L.; Kapili, Bennett; Al-Awar, Meshgan; Al-Farraj, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Salt flats (sabkha) are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter) in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers. PMID:26982497

  7. An Unusual Inverted Saline Microbial Mat Community in an Interdune Sabkha in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter), United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P; Rask, Jon C; Detweiler, Angela M; Bebout, Brad M; Everroad, R Craig; Lee, Jackson Z; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Mayer, Marisa H; Caraballo, Adrian A L; Kapili, Bennett; Al-Awar, Meshgan; Al-Farraj, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Salt flats (sabkha) are a recognized habitat for microbial life in desert environments and as analogs of habitats for possible life on Mars. Here we report on the physical setting and microbiology of interdune sabkhas among the large dunes in the Rub' al Khali (the Empty Quarter) in Liwa Oasis, United Arab Emirates. The salt flats, composed of gypsum and halite, are moistened by relatively fresh ground water. The result is a salinity gradient that is inverted compared to most salt flat communities with the hypersaline layer at the top and freshwater layers below. We describe and characterize a rich photosynthetically-based microbial ecosystem that is protected from the arid outside environment by a translucent salt crust. Gases collected from sediments under shallow ponds in the sabkha contain methane in concentrations as high as 3400 ppm. The salt crust could preserve biomarkers and other evidence for life in the salt after it dries out. Chloride-filled depressions have been identified on Mars and although surface flow of water is unlikely on Mars today, ground water is possible. Such a near surface system with modern groundwater flowing under ancient salt deposits could be present on Mars and could be accessed by surface rovers.

  8. Corrientes Del Pensamiento En Al-Andalús

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montada, Josep Puig

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Três tendências principais do pensamento islâmico - a teologia racional, a filosofia e o sufismo - desenvolveram-se na Península Ibérica durante o domínio árabe. Todas elas tiveram origem do leste islâmico e incorporaram pensadores judeus que viviam em al-Andalus. As relações entre essas tendências foram por vezes conflituosas; mas também foram positivas no caso de pensadores que procuraram harmonizar a filosofia e o sufismo (Avempace e Ibn Tufail ou a filosofia e a teologia racional (Averróis e Maimônides

  9. De l’interférence linguistique et culturelle dans les pays du Maghreb et de l’Andalousie d’après l’œuvre du médecin Ibn Zohr (Avenzoer)

    OpenAIRE

    Yayouche, Djaafar

    2017-01-01

    La problématique de l’interférence linguistique et culturelle est en rapport direct avec la question de l’emprunt linguistique aussi bien pour la langue arabe que pour n’importe quelle langue. La langue arabe a fait l’objet de débats controversés, à dominante doctrinale et intellectuelle, voire idéologique, de la part des théologiens musulmans (fuqahâ et mufassirîn). La démarche singulière d’Ibn Zohr (Avenzoer), le célèbre médecin andalou, proche d’Ibn Rochd, par rapport aux autres savants de...

  10. Cuatro efemérides matemáticas a la sombra de los griegos Thābit ibn Qurra, Gerolamo Cardano, Pierre de Fermat y las Disquisitiones de Gauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Guardeño, Antonio J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Usando como hilo conductor la recuperación y superación del legado matemático -y científico- griego, se analizarán en esta colaboración cuatro importantes efemérides matemáticas: la muerte de Thābit ibn Qurra (901, los nacimientos de Gerolamo Cardano (1501 y Pierre de Fermat (1601 y la publicación de las Disquisitiones Arithmeticae de Karl F. Gauss (1801. Con esta perspectiva, consideraremos las contribuciones de Thābit al primer renacimiento de la ciencia y filosofía griegas que se produjo a partir del siglo VIH de manos de los árabes. Gerolamo Cardano aparecerá como actor de otro Renacimiento -este lo solemos escribir con mayúscula-: el italiano; que en este caso culminó con la recuperación para la Europa Occidental de la matemática, filosofía y ciencia griegas, además del arte. La figura de Pierre de Fermat se mostrará decisiva en la creación durante el siglo XVII de las dos herramientas matemáticas que suponen, tras dos mil años de historia, la superación conceptual y operativa de la matemática griega: la geometría analítica y el cálculo diferencial. Aunque en otra medida que Thābit, Cardano y Fermat, las Disquisitiones también pueden conectarse con el espíritu del mundo griego; fue, de hecho, el mismo Gauss quien lo invocó para darle realce y significado a uno de los principales resultados de su libro -el estudio de los polígonos regulares que admiten ser construidos con regla y compás-: «Es ciertamente atónito que nada nuevo se haya añadido a esta teoría desde los tiempos de Euclides hace ya 2.000 años».

  11. La qualité bien rare de Sâlih Ibn Yahyâ parmi les historiens orientaux au Moyen Âge: Écrire l'histoire des émirs Buhtur en utilisant les archives familiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Moukarzel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sâlih Ibn Yahyâ, à la différence des chroniqueurs du xive et du xve siècle, a consacré son œuvre à écrire l’histoire de sa famille. Cet ouvrage est très important car il est fondé dans sa plus grande partie sur des archives familiales conservées par les émirs Buhtur qui ont régné sur une région du Mont Liban appelée al-Gharb.Ces archives comprennent des pièces officielles, des lettres patentes, des acts d’iqṭâ‛, des décrets, des ordres, que les émirs Buhtur ont reçus, soit de la cour d’Égypte, soit de celle de Damas, soit encore des Mongols ou des Francs.Ces pièces d’archives couvrent une période allant du xiie jusqu’au xive siècle. Leur présentation et leur analyse fournissent des informations très intéressantes sur l’usage et les règles de la rédaction dans les chancelleries des sultans zinghîdes, ayyûbîdes et des premiers sultans mamelouks.

  12. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - VII. The metamorphosis of ASASSN-15ed from a narrow line Type Ibn to a normal Type Ib Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Elias-Rosa, N; Bersier, D; Hosseinzadeh, G; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Noebauer, U M; Taubenberger, S; Tomasella, L; Kochanek, C S; Falco, E; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Benetti, S; Brimacombe, J; Cappellaro, E; Danilet, A B; Dong, Subo; Fernandez, J M; Goss, N; Granata, V; Harutyunyan, A; Holoien, T W -S; Ishida, E E O; Kiyota, S; Krannich, G; Nicholls, B; Ochner, P; Pojmanski, G; Shappee, B J; Simonian, G V; Stanek, K Z; Starrfield, S; Szczygiel, D; Tartaglia, L; Terreran, G; Thompson, T A; Turatto, M; Wagner, R M; Wiethoff, W S; Wilber, A; Wozniak, P R

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the spectroscopic and photometric monitoring campaign of ASASSN-15ed. The transient was discovered quite young by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). Amateur astronomers allowed us to sample the photometric SN evolution around maximum light, which we estimate to have occurred on JD = 2457087.4 +- 0.6 in the r-band. Its apparent r-band magnitude at maximum was r = 16.91 +- 0.10, providing an absolute magnitude M(r) ~ -20.04 +- 0.20, which is slightly more luminous than the typical magnitudes estimated for Type Ibn SNe. The post-peak evolution was well monitored, and the decline rate (being in most bands around 0.1 mag/d during the first 25 d after maximum) is marginally slower than the average decline rates of SNe Ibn during the same time interval. The object was initially classified as a Type Ibn SN because early-time spectra were characterized by a blue continuum with superimposed narrow P-Cygni lines of He I, suggesting the presence of a slowly moving (1200-1500 ...

  13. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  14. Network Formation by Condensed Tetrahedral [Au3Al] Units in Na2Au3Al: Crystal and Electronic Structure, Spectroscopic Investigations, and Physical Properties of an Ordered Ternary Auride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Frank; Benndorf, Christopher; Zhang, Yuemei; Bartsch, Manfred; Zacharias, Helmut; Fokwa, Boniface P T; Eckert, Hellmut; Janka, Oliver

    2017-02-20

    Na2Au3Al, the first experimentally prepared compound in the ternary Na-Au-Al system, crystallizes in the cubic crystal system with space group P4132 (a = 771.42(2) pm). It can be described as a P-centered ternary ordered variant of the F-centered Laves phase MgCu2 and is isostructural to Mo3Al2C. A phase width was found for the series Na2Au4-xAlx allowing a successive substitution of Au by Al. The primitive structure forms for x ≥ 0.5. Na2Au3Al is diamagnetic at room temperature but metallic in nature, as seen from susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements. Band structure calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the metallic nature of the title compound as states are found at the Fermi level of the DOS, along with its "auride" character. (23)Na and (27)Al solid-state-NMR investigations show the existence of both a disordered (x = 0.5 and 0.75) and a fully ordered (x = 1.0) representative within this series. Both COHP and Bader charge analyses suggest the presence of strong Au-Al interactions forming an anionic [Au3Al](δ-) network, with the Na cations occupying the cavities.

  15. Decline and decadence in Iraq and Syria after the age of Avicenna? 'Abd al-Latīf al-Baghdādī (1162-1231) between myth and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, N Peter; Pormann, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    'Abd al-Latīf al-Baghdādī's (d. 1231) work Book of the Two Pieces of Advice (Kitāb al Nasīhatayn) challenges the idea that Islamic medicine declined after the twelfth century AD. Moreover, it offers some interesting insights into the social history of medicine. 'Abd al-Latīf advocated using the framework of Greek medical epistemology to criticize the rationalist physicians of his day; he argued that female and itinerant practitioners, relying on experience, were superior to some rationalists. He lambasted contemporaneous medical education because it put too much faith in a restricted number of textbooks such as the Canon by Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna, d. 1037) or imperfect abridgments.

  16. Reply to comment by Belmont et al. on "Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Kessler, Andrew C.; Brown, Melinda K.; Schuh, William M.

    2016-09-01

    The reply addresses concerns raised by Belmont et al. (2016) on Gupta et al. (2015) through additional analysis of streamflow versus precipitation relationships for the Whetstone and the Redwood Rivers and with data on available soil moisture in prechange and postchange periods in the Cottonwood River watershed.

  17. Reply to comment by Foufoula-Georgiou et al. on "Climate and agricultural land use change impacts on streamflow in the upper midwestern United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Kessler, Andrew C.; Brown, Melinda K.; Schuh, William M.

    2016-09-01

    This reply addresses concerns raised by Foufoula-Georgiou et al. (2016) on Gupta et al. (2015) through additional regression analysis of streamflow and base flow and with description of the water quality conditions in the Minnesota River prior to European settlements in 1850s.

  18. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  19. The authenticity of the letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ to ‘Abd al-Malik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilferd Madelung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called first letter of Ibn Ibâḍ was long considered in modern scholarship as an authentic letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ, the reputed founder of the Ibâḍiyya sect, to the Umayyad caliph ‘Abd al-Malik. This was questioned first by John Wilkinson and then by Michael Cook in his book on Early Muslim Theology, who proposed that the letter was written rather by Jâbir b. Zayd to the Muhallabid amîr ‘Abd al-Malik b. al-Muhallab. In his recent book on Ibadism, John Wilkinson has argued that the letter was addressed to ‘Abd al-Malik, the son of the caliph ‘Umar II, and that Jâbir b. Zayd could not have been its author. It will be argued in this paper that the letter is an authentic letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ addressed to the son of ‘Umar II. Ibn Ibâḍ was not the founder of the Ibâḍiyya sect, but rather a contemporary and rival of Abû ‘Ubayda Muslim b. Abî Karîma.

  20. [Skin grafting in the treatment of hand burns sequelae in relation to 152 cases. Report from Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Ibn Sina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mazouz, S; Fejjal, N; Hafidi, J; Cherkab, L; Mejjati, H; Belfqih, R; Gharib, N; Abbassi, A

    2010-03-31

    La main est fréquemment exposée aux brûlures, entraînant des séquelles esthétiques et fonctionnelles. Le traitement de ces séquelles est surtout chirurgical et consiste en la greffe de peau, dont le type dépend de la localisation de la brûlure et du type des séquelles. Dans ce travail rétrospectif, nous rapportons une série de 152 cas de brûlures des mains colligés au service de chirurgie plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina de Rabat sur une période de dix ans, allant de 1998 à 2007. Les indications thérapeutiques dépendent du type de séquelles et de la localisation de la brûlure. En tout, 97 patients ont bénéficié d'une greffe cutanée, dont 76% par greffe de peau totale, 21% par greffe de peau demi-épaisse et 3% par peau fine. Les séquelles des brûlures des mains posent un problème thérapeutique majeur, malgré la diversité des procédés chirurgicaux, d'où l'intérêt de la prévention.

  1. The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun and the Specificity of the Social Structure of a Nomad Society (through the Example of Traditional Kazakh Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaiy I. Orazbayeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the issue of the organization of the social subsystem of the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads. To this end, the author examines the specificity of the social structure of a nomad society through the example of traditional Kazakh society within the context of Ibn Khaldun’s concept of “asabiyyah” developed in his work entitled “Muqaddimah” (“An Introduction” or “A Book on the Nature of Social Life”. The author’s primary object of study is the theoretical and methodological conceptualization of the aspect under study, providing an insight into the specificity of the organization of internal mechanisms in the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads, and trying to expound various phenomena in its development. In a related move, the authors, based on a selection of their own parameters of historical measurements, without any attempts to force a fit with accepted standards, venture to explain the specificity of the patterns of development characteristic of a local type of the civilization of Eurasian steppe nomads.

  2. Abū Bakr Muhammad al-Rāzī's (Rhazes) medical works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Bernburg, L

    1994-01-01

    A-Rāzī (Rhazes, with variants, in Medieval Latin), Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā' (al-Rayy, close to modern Teherān, Irān, A.D. 865-925), is rightly considered one of the greatest medical practitioners and writers in the period between Galen and the renaissance reemergence of medicine as an empirical discipline (apart from his ranking as one of the most original and independent-minded philosophers of Islām). The following biobibliographical survey - in the format of an encyclopaedia article - will focus on those of his medical works which either had the greatest impact on posterity and/or attest most solidly to al-Rāzī's outstanding combination of textual scholarship and clinical observation, outstanding at least with reference to the horizon of his culture.

  3. “Who Began This Art? From Whence Did It Emerge?”: A Hermetic Frame Story on the Origins of Alchemy in Pseudo-Ibn Waḥshīya’s The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Braun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the context of a Hermetic frame story in the pseudepigraphical alchemical treatise The Book of the Ziziphus Tree of the Furthest Boundary (Kitāb Sidrat almuntahā. The treatise is attributed to a prominent figure in the Arabic occult sciences, Abū Bakr b. Waḥshīya (fl. first half of the 4th/10th century. It was written in the form of a dialogue between the protagonist, Ibn Waḥshīya, and an alchemist from the Islamic West, al-Maghribī al-Qamarī. The last section of the introductory dialogue between these two characters consists of a frame story on the origins of alchemy and a legend of discovery (Fundlegende that introduces a cosmogony and an allegorical depiction of the process of transmutation. Both the frame story and the legend of discovery abound in Hermetic motifs and topoi known from other Greek and Arabic alchemical treatises. The exposition of the different prevailing theories on the beginnings of alchemy reflects, moreover, historical phenomena, such as the Graeco-Arabic translation movement and the shu‘ūbīya controversy. Consistent with the literary tradition of the Arabic Hermetica, Ancient Egypt emerges in this treatise as the cradle of alchemy; however, I suggest that more than merely literary convention, such evocations express a genuine fascination with Ancient Egypt and its surviving material culture. In this respect, the littleknown genre of Arabic books on hidden treasure might shed new light on common Hermetic narratives and their circulation in Arabic occult literature.

  4. Zn13(CrxAl1-x)27 (x = 0.34-0.37): a new intermetallic phase containing icosahedra as building units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Han, Mi-Kyung; Miller, Gordon J.

    2011-03-13

    The title compounds Zn{sub 13}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 27} (x = 0.34-0.37) were obtained by melting the pure elements at 923 K, and followed by a heat treatment at 723 K in a tantalum container. According to single crystal structural analysis, the title compounds crystallize in the rhombohedral system, adopting a new structure type (R-3m, a = 7.5971(8), c = 36.816(6), for crystal I). Single crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals a statistical mixing of Cr/Al in their crystallographic positions. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction as well as energy dispersive X-ray analyses suggested the title phase to have a narrow homogeneity range. The substructure of Zn{sub 13}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 27} shows close resemblance with the Mn{sub 3}Al{sub 10} structure type. A bonding analysis, through crystal orbital Hamiltonian populations (COHPs), of 'Cr{sub 9}Al{sub 18}Zn{sub 13}' as a representative composition indicated that both homo- and heteronuclear interactions are important for the stability of this new phase.

  5. EL VIAJE DE IBN BATTUTA A EGIPTO EN 1326. LAS CIUDADES DE ALEJANDRÍA Y E L CAIRO. DATOS PARA LA HISTORIA Y LA GEOGRAFÍA DE LA EDAD MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Espinar Moreno

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El viaje realizado por Ibn Battuta a Egipto en 1326,  junto a otras visitas de este importante viajero, nos ha permitido obtener una serie de datos sobre la vida de los hombres que vivían en aque- llas tierras. Las descripciones de ciudades como Alejandría y El Cairo, además de otras poblaciones mas pequeiías, permiten conocer los caminos mas transitados, situación política, social y económica, monumentos más destacados, historia, personajes de la cultura, costumbres, tradiciones, leyendas, fiestas, papel del río  Nilo, productos industriales y de alimentación, precios, etc. En definitiva, este viajero nos ofrece una descripcion detallada de las tierras egipcias a mediados del siglo XIV.Palabras clave:Ibn Battuta; Viajeros de la Edad Media; Ciudades de Alejandría y  El Cairo; Civilización y cultura de la Edad Media;Résumé:Le voyage réalisé par Ibn Battuta llÉgypte en 1326, pres de d'autres visites de cet important voyageur, il nous a permis d'obtenir une série de notices sur la vie des hommes qu'ils vivaient dans ces terres. Les descriptions de villes cornme Alexandrie et Le Caire, en plus de d'autres populations mais petites, ils permettent de connaitre les chemins mais passés, situation politique, sociale et économique,monuments plus remarquables, historie, personnages de la culture, coutumes, traditions, légendes, fetes, papier du fleuve Nilo, produits industriels et d'alimentation, prix, etc. En définitive, ce voyageur nous offre une description détaillée des terres égyptiennes vers le milieu du siecle XIV.Mots Clé:Ibn Battuta; Voyageurs du Moyen Age; Villes d'Alexandrie et Le Caire; Civilisation et culture du Moyen Age;Abstract:The trip carried out by Ibn Battuta to Egypt in 1326, together with other visits of this important traveler, has allowed us to obtain a series of data about the life of the men living in those lands. The descriptions of cities like Alexandria and Cairo, besides other smalles populations

  6. L’école musulmane algérienne de Ibn Bâdîs dans les années 1930, de l’alphabétisation de tous comme enjeu politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Courreye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Le mouvement d’éducation de l’Association des Oulémas Musulmans Algériens, et de son chef de file Ibn Bâdîs en particulier, s’est caractérisé dans les années 1930 par le développement d’écoles enseignant les sciences religieuses associées aux sciences profanes élémentaires. La défense de l’enseignement de la langue arabe et de l’islam en contexte colonial a donné une dimension éminemment politique à l’action des Oulémas, qui arrive à son paroxysme en 1938 lorsque le gouvernement français promulgue un décret visant les écoles coraniques en Algérie, décret contre lequel Ibn Bâdîs a organisé la lutte. S’il sert la diffusion des conceptions religieuses de l’Association des Oulémas (l’iṣlâḥ, c’est aussi dans le but de fédérer les musulmans algériens par une culture commune qu’est pensé l’enseignement de Ibn Bâdîs, dans un sens large allant de la madrasa au nâdî (le cercle et de la troupe théâtrale au club sportif. Il s’adresse ainsi à tous les publics, enfants et adultes, issus de catégories sociales diverses – contrairement à la vision élitiste qui lui est souvent attribuée – dans le but de former (au sens d’éduquer mais aussi de constituer la umma musulmane algérienne.

  7. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALS and their families in areas affected by Hurricane Harvey. Learn More The ALS Association Disaster Relief Fund ... ALS and their families in areas affected by Hurricane Harvey. Learn More Our Mission To discover treatments and ...

  8. The Book of Nabataean Agriculture within the Agronomical Tradition of al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travaglia, Pinella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Book of Nabataean Agriculture (translated into Arabic in the 10th century from Syriac sources dating back to between the 3rd and the 5th centuries A.D. contains both agronomical and magical elements. In the Arabic tradition, these elements of the text are presented as separate aspects; however, in the original text, the practice of metamorphosis is clearly placed within the realm of natural sciences. This refutes the theory that the Book of Nabataean Agriculture represents the origin of the connection between agriculture and magic in certain agronomical texts from al-Andalus, such as al-Ṭighnarī and Ibn al-‘Awwām.

    El Libro de la Agricultura Nabatea (traducido al árabe en el siglo X a partir de materiales siríacos que se remontan a los siglos III-V d.C. contiene elementos agronómicos y mágicos a la vez. En la tradición árabe de este texto tales aspectos se presentan separados, mientras que en la propia obra queda clara la interpretación de todas las prácticas de transformaciones dentro de las ciencias de la naturaleza. El trabajo finaliza con la teoría de que el Libro de la Agricultura Nabatea puede ser el origen de la conexión entre agricultura y magia en algunos agrónomos andalusíes como al-Ṭignarī y Ibn al-‘Awwām.

  9. pH-Triggered Controllable Release of Silver-Indole-3 Acetic Acid Complexes from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (IBN-4) for Effectively Killing Malignant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthati, Yaswanth; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Lin, Shi-Xiang; Weng, Ching-Feng; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-06

    An efficient approach for the antimicrobial agent delivery specifically at acidic pH has been proposed. At the outset, functionalized mesoporous nanoparticles (NPs) were examined to verify the success of synthesis while considering the structural properties by various characterizations. The NPs were immobilized with silver-indole-3 acetic acid hydrazide (IAAH-Ag) complexes via a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond, which functioned as a model drug. When the transitional metal complexes with IBN-4-IAAH-Ag were exposed to acidic pH (near pH 5.0), the silver ions were preferentially released (70%) in a controlled manner up to 12 h by pH-sensitive denial of hydrazone bonds. In contrary, a low drug release (about 25%) was seen in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) demonstrating the pH sensitive release of this drug. Furthermore, the antibacterial efficacy of this unique structured sample was tested against the planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with field emission scanning electron microscope in turn measuring the growth curves, formation of lethal reactive oxygen species, protein leakage, and DNA damage. The synthesized pH-sensitive IAAH-Ag complex was found to have high antimicrobial efficacy against multidrug resistant clinical isolates both in planktonic and biofilm states. Going forward, the synthesized nanoconjugates proved a good in vivo efficacy in treating the bacterial infection of mice. These new metal complex-conjugated NPs through a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond opened up a new avenue for the design and synthesis of the next generation antibacterial agents, which would act as an alternative to antibiotics.

  10. P. Mackay on Conformism, Non-Conformism and Anti-Conformism in the Culture of the United States, ed. by A. Balasopoulos et al.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Conformism, Non-Conformism and Anti-Conformism in the Culture of the United States. European Views of the United States. Vol. 1. Eds. Antonis Balasopoulos, Gesa Mackenthun and Theodora Tsimpouki. Heidelberg: Universitätverlag, 2008. pp. 330. ISBN 978-3-8253-5479-4.   This volume comes out of the 2006 EAAS Conference hosted by the University of Cyprus. The book explores expressions of conformism, non-conformism, and anti-conformism in American culture from the nineteenth century to the presen...

  11. P. Mackay on Conformism, Non-Conformism and Anti-Conformism in the Culture of the United States, ed. by A. Balasopoulos et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Conformism, Non-Conformism and Anti-Conformism in the Culture of the United States. European Views of the United States. Vol. 1. Eds. Antonis Balasopoulos, Gesa Mackenthun and Theodora Tsimpouki. Heidelberg: Universitätverlag, 2008. pp. 330. ISBN 978-3-8253-5479-4.  This volume comes out of the 2006 EAAS Conference hosted by the University of Cyprus. The book explores expressions of conformism, non-conformism, and anti-conformism in American culture from the nineteenth century to the present....

  12. Labor trajectories of Farm workers in South Florida in the United States of America Trayectorias laborales de trabajadores del campo al sur del estado de la Florida en Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Correa García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a brief section of a larger study. It shows some observations about labor trajectories of migrant farm workers in some agricultural areas in South Florida in the United States of America. Basically, this paper seeks to illustrate about processes of cultural and labor integration in this particular group of workers.El siguiente artículo es la continuación de una investigación mayor y en el se plasman algunas reflexiones sobre el análisis de trayectorias laborales de trabajadores del campo migrantes en áreas de producción agrícola al sur del estado de la Florida en Estados Unidos. Básicamente, en el texto se busca ilustrar sobre las características cambiantes de las trayectorias laborales de los migrantes, al momento de participar en una sociedad diversa y fragmentada laboralmente como la sociedad norteamericana.

  13. Reply to Comment Clement et al.: (Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments [1] on our paper [2]. We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...

  14. Le concept de wihdat el wujud chez Ibn Tophaïl et Moïse de Narbonne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmadjid Aboura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous allons essayer d’aborder la question de l’Altérité et de spiritualité levant quelques voiles sur cette question de l’Unité de l’existence vue sous l’angle de l’Altérité. Nous irons de la simple étymologie à la redéfinition de l’Altérité dans le domaine de la théosophie, puis dépassant le conflit Alter - Ego nous conclurons notre exposé sur la grande problématique de l’Altérité : repenser l’Altérité qui longtemps fut considérée de l’exclusivité des sciences anthropologiques.

  15. 《伊本·白图泰游记》所反映的伊斯兰慈善济贫活动%Islamic Charity and Poverty Relief Reflected in Ibn Batutta's Travels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾

    2011-01-01

    《伊本·白图泰游记》中有很多关于伊斯兰慈善救济的描述,主要有伊本·白图泰本人的慈善活动、他沿途所遇到的各种慷慨施舍者和慈善机构,真实全面地反映了伊斯兰社会传统的贫困观念和济贫体系的特征和实施情况,及其在维护社会秩序、发展穆斯林社团、建立公正和谐穆斯林社会过程中的积极作用。%In Ibn Battuta's Travels,there contained many descriptions about Islamic charities and poverty relief,mainly about Ibn Battuta's charitable activities,various generous almsgivers and charities,which reflected the characteristics and practice of the traditional ideas and poverty relief system in Islamic societies,and their active role in maintaining the social order,developing the Muslim communities and build equitable and harmonious Muslim societies.

  16. Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritskij, V.G. [VNIPIET, S.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system `corrosion products (Me{sub n}O{sub m}; Me(OH){sub k})) - water (H{sub 2}O) - gas (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction` in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear `post-transitional` process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

  17. Effect of AlGaInP-LED Arrays Units Side-Reflection on Light Output Efficiency%AlGaInP-LED微阵列单元侧反射对出光效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包兴臻; 梁静秋; 梁中翥; 田超; 秦余欣; 王维彪

    2013-01-01

    LED微阵列器件具有体积小、分辨率高、寿命长及耗能低等突出特点.出光效率是该器件的一项重要参数,文中对以AlGaInP外延片为基片的LED微阵列器件的出光效率进行了理论及实验研究.器件的像素周期设计为100 μm×100μm,发光单元间的上隔离沟槽宽度为20 μm、深度为25 μm,将在600~650 nm波段具有高反射率的均匀掺单晶硅纳米颗粒的聚酰亚胺作为复合材料来填充上隔离沟槽,将侧面出射的光反射到上表面,实现了相邻两个发光单元之间的光学和电学隔离.分析计算表明,通过填充硅纳米颗粒/聚酰亚胺复合膜材料,使每个发光单元侧面出射光的16.695%反射回窗口层,提高了出光效率.这项研究将有助于提高LED微阵列器件的出光效率.

  18. Dosage de la 25 OH vitamine D: expérience du laboratoire central de biochimie clinique du Centre Hospitalier Ibn Sina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handor, Najat; Elalami, Sanae; Bouabdellah, Mounya; Srifi, Abdelatif; Esselmani, Hicham; Benchekroun, Laila; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2014-01-01

    La connaissance de la physiologie de la vitamine D a considérablement progressé ces dernières années, la faisant passer de simple vitamine à tropisme purement phosphocalcique et osseux à celui d'hormone jouant un rôle crucial dans de nombreux mécanismes physiologiques et dont le déficit est impliqué dans plusieurs pathologies. Nous présentons, dans ce travail, l'expérience du laboratoire central de biochimie dans le dosage de la 25 OH vitamine D. Enquête descriptive exhaustive portant sur les dosages de la 25 OH vitamine D effectués chez 350 patients du Centre Hospitalier Ibn Sina (CHIS). La méthode adoptée est un dosage immunologique par chimiluminescence sur microparticules réalisés sur l'auto-analyseur ARCHITECT 8200 (ABBOTT®) pendant une période de six mois (du 01 Juin 2011 au 31 Decembre 2011). Quatre vingt et onze pourcent des patients présentent une hypovitaminose. En effet 76,6% des patients souffrent d'une insuffisance en vitamine D, 12,3% de carence vitaminique et 2,6% d'ostéomalacie. L'hypovitaminose est associée dans 92,18% des cas à une normocalcémie, dans 76,87% des cas à une Hyperparathormone, dans 92,81% à des troubles thyroïdiens et dans 97,5% à une insuffisance rénale. Par ailleurs aucune relation statistiquement significative n'est établie entre l'hypovitaminose et le diabète. A la lumière des implications des hypovitaminoses dans plusieurs pathologies ou dans leurs complications et au vu du nombre élevé de patients présentant un déficit en vitamine D, il paraît judicieux d'envisager une étude épidémiologique sur le statut en vitamine D dans la population marocaine comme outil préventif avant d'élargir le dosage de ce marqueur biologique en vue d'une éventuelle supplémentation. PMID:25374649

  19. Les complications chirurgicales de la transplantation rénale à partir du donneur vivant: expérience du CHU Ibn Sina de Rabat

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    Intissar Haddiya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: La transplantation rénale (TR est actuellement considérée comme un traitement de choix de l’insuffisance rénale chronique terminale (IRCT. Ses résultats se sont améliorés au cours des dernières années. Cependant, les complications chirurgicales demeurent graves car elles touchent un rein unique et surviennent sur un terrain fragilisé par l’insuffisance rénale et l’immunosuppression. L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer la fréquence des complications chirurgicales lors de l’activité de TR au CHU Ibn Sina de Rabat, et de dégager les facteurs ayant influé l’apparition de ces complications. METHODES: Étude rétrospective des patients transplantés rénaux à partir de donneurs vivants apparentés (DVA de Juin 1999 à Décembre 2008 dans notre centre hospitalo-universitaire. Nous avons recensé les caractéristiques propres au receveur, au prélèvement, au donneur ainsi qu’au greffon. Les complications chirurgicales ont été colligées ainsi que leur prise en charge et évolution. RESULTATS: Soixante sept dossiers ont été analysés avec un suivi moyen de 55 +/- 28 mois. 38 complications chirurgicales ont été recensées : sténose des artères rénales (38,7%, lymphocèle (21%, hématome (12,7%, thrombose vasculaire (7,8%, reflux vésico-urétéral (4,8%, rupture du greffon (3,2%, calcul (1 cas, éventration (1 cas, L’analyse statistique de notre série n’a pas mis en évidence de facteurs de risque significatifs semblant influer sur l’incidence des complications chirurgicales. CONCLUSION: La morbidité liée aux complications chirurgicales de la TR reste élevée nécessitant un diagnostic et un traitement adéquat afin d’éviter les répercussions sur la survie des patients et des greffons.

  20. A forensic hypothesis for the mystery of al-Hasan's death in the 7th century: Mercury(I) chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nicole; Golas, Mitchell; Raafat, Cyrus L; Mousavi, Aliyar

    2016-07-01

    The puzzle of a mysterious death in the Middle Ages has been hypothesized in terms of contemporary forensic legal and scientific methods. That al-Hasan ibn-'Ali died in 669 aged just 45 has been forensically analyzed based on written sources that dictate eyewitness accounts of historical events. The report of the contemporaneous poisoning of another individual who resided under the same household as al-Hasan's and experienced similar, yet non-lethal, symptoms has served as the beginning of the analysis. In light of ancient (medieval) documents and through using mineralogical, medical, and chemical facts, it has been hypothesized that mineral calomel (mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2) from a certain region in the Byzantine Empire (present-day western Turkey) was the substance primarily responsible for the murder of al-Hasan.

  1. A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS ON THE GENEOLOGY AND THE TEACHING OF BULUGH AL-MARAM IN PESANTREN AL-MUNAWWIR KRAPYAK YOGYAKARTA INDONESIA

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    Marhumah Marhumah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the history of the teachings (kitab of Bulugh al-Maram as they have developed in the pesantren tradition. It became popular in Indonesia since Indonesian Islam is generally of the Sunni-Syafi’i school. Aside from being influenced by the different streams of Islam that have made their way to Indonesia, Islamic scholars who have studied or worked in the Mecca and return to Indonesia with new knowledge continue to spread the teachings of the Syafi’i school of thought. The reputation of Ibn Hajar has been brought back by Indonesian Islamic scholars who have been to the Middle East. The effect of this movement of Islamic renewal has put pressure on the Al Quran and the Sunnah. There are three methods used in studying the kitab at the Pesantren Al-Munawwir in Krapyak. Firstly, the lecture method, which is a method practiced in most of the areas of study in this pesantren. Secondly, the question-answer method, in which the Kiai/Nyai invites santri to comment and ask questions about matters they do not yet understand. Thirdly, assignments method, in which one student is given the task of reading the Kitab Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam aloud, and when a section is complete the other students give their interpretation of the text one by one.

  2. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  3. Phylogenetic congruence of Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the United States based on sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeographical relationships of available Sarcocystis neurona isolates from different localities in the United States. All 13 Sarcocystis isolates from different hosts were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses using two published DNA markers (25/396 and 33/54). The 334 bp sequence of the 25/396 marker of these isolates and Besnoitia darlingi, B. bennetti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and minimum evolution (ME) methods based on the sequences of the 25/396 marker of the 13 Sarcocystis isolates obtained in this study and sequences of 10 related isolates from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees revealed a close relatedness among S. neurona isolates in the US (nucleotide sequence diversity neurona into two separate groups: a northern US group and a Southern US group. These findings suggest a correlation between grouping of the isolates and geographical segregation and were consistent with a genetic bottleneck hypothesis during opossum colonisation of North America. These data do not support either the view of S. neurona as a single super-species or its division into multiple subspecies.

  4. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands.

  5. Contribution of radio-iodine 131 in the treatment of Grave's Basedow disease in the department of nuclear medicine of Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat; Apport de l'iode 131 dans le traitement de la maladie de Basedow dans le service de medecine nucleaire de l'hopital Ibn Sina de Rabat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbodj, M.; Amjad, I. [Faculte de Medecine de Dakar, Lab. de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Guerrouj, H.; Ben Rais, N.A. [Hopital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-10-15

    One hundred and twenty-nine Grave's Basedow diseases in any gender and variable age patients, coming from several cities of Morocco, were randomized in a study of radio-iodine treatment who took place at the nuclear medicine department of Ibn Sina Hospital (Rabat, Morocco) during the period (from January 2001 to December 2008). The radio-iodine treatment was a first, second or third option and radio-iodine activities delivered varied (from 222 to 555 MBq 6 to 15 mCi) according to the age, the thyroid volume, the degree of hyperthyroidism and socio-economical situation. The high amounts of {sup 131}I were reserved especially to the patients who live far and whose socio-economic level is low with an aim of quickly obtaining an easily controllable state of hypothyroidism by a substitute treatment. The results showed that: (1) 57.36% of patients reverted to euthyroidism (n = 74) with a patient having received two {sup 131}I cures. The second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure; (2) 34.88% passed in hypothyroidism (n = 45) with three patients having received two cures of {sup 131}I, the second cure was justified by recurrence of hyperthyroidism after the first cure in two patients and by the persistence of the hyperthyroidism after the first cure for the third patient. The average time of passage in hypothyroidism was 4.5 months; (3) 7.76% had remained in hyperthyroidism after the radioactive iodine treatment. Finally, 92.24% of our patients treated by radioactive iodine had passed in euthyroidism or hypothyroidism against 7.76% whose hyperthyroidism had persisted or occurred. (authors)

  6. Metode Kritis Al-Shawkânî dalam Kitab Nayl Al-Awţâr

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    Zainuddin Zainuddin MZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many sources for the study of Hadîth and the science of law and legal arrangements (al-ahkâm wa al-mawâ‘ id, Kitâb Muntaqâ al-Akhbâr by Majd al-Dîn Abd al-Salâm bin Abdullah bin Qâsim better known as Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 652 H is one of the most important. This book has been commented by al-Shawkânî in a book called Nayl al-Awţâr where he employs the following methods. First, elaborating and commenting not of all hadiths but some them in each chapter of the book. Second, describing the narrators of the hadîths, their quality and personality. Third, providing the literal meaning of the hadîths he commented. Fourth, explaining the grammatical position of the vocabularies of the hadîth. Fifth, highlighting the use and benefit of the hadîth. Sixth, explaining the views of various ulama on a hadith. Seventh, extrapolating the legal rules of the hadîth using the dictums of the uşûl al-fiqh. This paper is designed to discuss this. It holds that in providing the commentary of the hadith, al-Shawkânî begins with the issue of how it was narrated (takhrîj, and ends up with extrapolating rules that may be learnt from it. The paper also believes that al-Shawkânî is an objective scholar, who worked in the elaboration and commentary of the hadîths just for the sake of knowledge. The fact that he often offers a commentary against the legal position of his own school of thought indicates that al-Shawkânî a person of academic integrity. The methods that he employs and the spirit behind his determination to provide commentary, all point to one thing of particular importance, that al-Shawkânî is immune of fanaticism and imitation.

  7. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires majeures après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale au CHU Ibn Sina, Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awab, Almahdi; Elahmadi, Brahim; Lamkinsi, Tarik; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'incidence des complications respiratoires postopératoires (CRPO) reste très diversement appréciées selon les critères diagnostiques retenues dans les différentes études, ce qui la fait varier de 5 à plus de 50%. Les CRPO majeurs après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale sont responsables d'une grande morbi-mortalité pouvant aller jusqu’à 36%, d'une durée d'hospitalisation et d'un coût plus importants. Ainsi dans l'optique d'améliorer notre prise en charge périopératoire de la chirurgie de l'aorte, nous avons décidé de mener une étude pour dresser le profil épidémiologique et déterminer les facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires dans notre contexte Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective du mois de Janvier 2007 au mois de décembre 2011 portant sur l'ensemble des patients opérés pour pathologie aortique au bloc opératoire central de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Maroc. Résultats Cent vingt cinq patients ont été inclus dans notre étude, 24 patients ont été opérés pour anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale et 101 patients pour lésion occlusive aortoiliaque. Dans notre série 22 malades soit 17,6% ont présenté une complication respiratoire majeure avec, une reventilation dans 4,8% des cas, une difficulté de sevrage de la ventilation artificielle dans 3,2% des cas, une pneumopathie dans 4% des cas, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigue (SDRA) dans 4% des cas et une nécessité de fibroaspiration bronchique dans 1,6% des cas. En analyse univariée: l’âge, la présence d'une BPCO avec dyspnée stade 3 ou 4, la présence d'une anomalie à l'EFR préopératoire, la présence d'un stade avancé (III ou IV) de LOAI et la reprise chirurgicale étaient statistiquement associés à la survenue d'une complication respiratoire postopératoire. En analyse multivariée, seule une anomalie à l'EFR en préopératoire constituait un facteur de risque indépendant de survenue d'une complication

  8. La préservation du capital vasculaire au CHU Ibn Sina de Rabat-Maroc: rôle de l’infirmier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattar, Tarik; Bezzaz, Aicha; Abdellaoui, Khalil; Lamchahab, Fatima Ezzahra; Benamar, Loubna; Ezaitouni, Fatima; Hassam, Badredine; Bayahia, Rabia; Ouzeddoun, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tout patient ayant une maladie chronique nécessitant des prélèvements sanguins répétés ou des traitements par voie veineuse ou susceptible d’évoluer vers l’insuffisance rénale chronique, doit bénéficier d’une stratégie de préservation de son réseau veineux. Le but de ce travail etait de déterminer le rôle de l’infirmier dans la protection du réseau veineux superficiel. Méthodes Etude transversale réalisée au mois d’Avril 2010 à l’hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat ayant intéressée les infirmiers exerçant dans différents services prenant en charge des patients ayant des pathologies rénales chroniques ou une maladie générale susceptible de se compliquer d’atteinte rénale. Résultats Parmi les 80 infirmiers sollicités, 66 ont complété le questionnaire avec un âge moyen de 42,7 ±11ans et un sex-ratio à 0,7. L’ancienneté moyenne en soins était de 227,7 ± 116,7 mois. 37 % des infirmiers n’étaient pas informés sur la préservation du capital veineux. Le membre supérieur droit était ponctionné dans 92,3% des cas. Le site de ponction le plus utilisé était le dos de la main dans 84,6 % des cas. La dilatation des veines par le réchauffement était notée dans 63,3% des cas, par passage d’alcool dans 54,5% des cas et l’emploi du garrot était retrouvé dans 95,5% des cas. Les venojects étaient de 18 gauge dans 18,2 % des cas et de 21 gauge dans 81,8% des cas. Les intranules étaient de 18 gauge dans 78,8% des cas et de 20 gauge dans 21,2 % des cas. Durant les six derniers mois avant l’étude, les complications au niveau du site de ponction étaient notées dans 41 % des cas. Conclusion L’information et l’éducation du personnel paramédical sont obligatoires ainsi que l’utilisation des cathéters veineux de petit calibre afin d’assurer cette protection. PMID:22593793

  9. Sirr al-khalīqa and its influence in the Arabic and Persianate world: ‘Awn b. al-Mundhir’s commentary and its unknown Persian translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karimi Zanjani Asl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Islamic period, Apollonius of Tyana (c. 15-100 CE was well known both as “Lord of the Talismans” (ṣāḥib al-ṭilasmāt and as a Neo-Pythagorean-Hermetic philosopher. In his Kitāb al-Aḥjār, Jābir b. Ḥayyān cites “the Muslim advocates of Apollonius” (aṣḥāb Balīnās al-Islāmīyūn. The reference shows that Apollonius’ most prominent work, Sirr alkhalīqa, was already famous in the Arabicspeaking world from very early on. This article gives an overview of citations of Apollonius in Islamic sources from different fields and of the works generally attributed to him. Furthermore, I review Sirr al-khalīqa, its influences on the Jābirian works and its reception in the Ismā‘īlī tradition. This article additionally discusses an Arabic commentary of Sirr al-khalīqa by ‘Awn b. al-Mundhir (4th/10th century, which is extant in a unique manuscript, and its hitherto unknown Persian translation. This Persian translation covers parts of Ibn al-Mundhir’s work not available in the Arabic excerpt and is therefore an important source for the history of Islamic alchemy. An edition of the Persian translation is given as an appendix.

  10. On pains of the kidney and the bladder in Kitāb al-Tajārib by Rhazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciduman, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (865-925), known in the West as Rhazes, was one of the pioneer figures of the golden age of Islamic science and medicine during the middle ages. Kiṭab al-Ḥāwī fī al-Ṭibb (Liber Continens), Kitāb al-Ṭibb al-Manṣūrī (Liber Medicinalis ad Almansorem) and Kitāb al-Judarī wa al-Ḥaṣba (Liber de Pestilentia) are his very well-known works in medicine. One of his books Kitāb al-Tajārib (The Book of Experiences/The Casebook), was written in Arabic and one of its copies is Ahmed III, Nr. 1975 manuscript in Topkapı Palace Library in Istanbul. A physician, Ali Munshi of Bursa, translated Kitāb al-Tajārib into Turkish in the 18th century and Hamidiye, Nr. 1013; Veliyuddin Efendi, Nr. 2487 and orum, Nr. 2909 manuscripts are the copies of its Turkish translation in different libraries in Turkey. Both the book and its Turkish translation contain 31 chapters; 30 of them concerning diseases from head to heel and the last one on pharmaceutics. The 21st chapter, fī awjā' al-kulā wa al-mathāna wa al-bāh, of Kitāb al-Tajārib is on pains of the kidney, and the bladder, and coitus. Evaluation and presentation of the cases in this chapter regarding the kidney and the bladder are the aims of this report.

  11. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... of cardholders. Defendants, who achieved these necessities early in the history of the industry, obtained substantial early mover advantages over prospective subsequent entrants. Successful subsequent... position we were in during the downturn of the early 1990's. At that time our card and merchant pricing...

  12. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... overall picture not hypercritically, nor with a microscope, but with an artist's reducing glass''); see... is addressed in part by an electronic service Visa offers and MasterCard will soon offer. 1. Steering... Purpose Cards is limited. RILA sought an ``electronic means to identify the Types of Visa and...

  13. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... competitive issue facing Dean in a September 2008 speech to Dean's top executives: 26. ``Every one of you has... them coming at us again at not to mention the rest of the market.'' In 2009, after receiving reports of... fragmented.'' In handwritten notes he wrote in preparation for his speech to Dean's senior management, and...

  14. Istanbul: ajalukku kivistunud loodus / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2013-01-01

    Reiskiri Istanbulist: kirjanik Orhan Pamukist, õpetlasest Ibn al-Haytham'ist, Otomani impeeriumi peaastronoom Taqi al-Din Mohammed ibn Ma'ruf'ist ning teistest Istanbuli mõjutanud inimestest ja sündmustest

  15. Istanbul: ajalukku kivistunud loodus / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2013-01-01

    Reiskiri Istanbulist: kirjanik Orhan Pamukist, õpetlasest Ibn al-Haytham'ist, Otomani impeeriumi peaastronoom Taqi al-Din Mohammed ibn Ma'ruf'ist ning teistest Istanbuli mõjutanud inimestest ja sündmustest

  16. Modes of Ijtihad in the Judgements of the Khulafa al- Rashidun

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    Muhammad Yousuf Faruqi

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Ijtihad literally means ‘exertion’. Defined by the fuqaha' as the endeavour of the qualified jurist to discover the legal injunctions of the shari'ah, it is accepted as a valid source of law. The early fuqaha' such as Ibn Abi Layla, Abu Hanifah, and Malik b. Anas use the term ijtihad in a broad sense of al-ra'y, considered opinion or sound judgement. The fuqaha' generally apply various methods of ijtihad only when it becomes absolutely necessary to do so. In the areas dealing with 'ibadat or huquq Allah, there is generally no need to apply the secondary sources of law, particularly in regard to the basic principles of Islam. However, social and political problems lend themselves to continual application of ijtihad. To keep pace with development in the social, political, legal and economic fields it was felt necessary that a corresponding and more sophisticated development of the principle of ijtihad should take place. Thus the new modes of ijtihad like qiyas, istihsan, al-masalih al-mursalah, and istidlal, came into existence to cope with problems faced by the jurists...

  17. Metode Abû Dâwud dalam Menulis al-Sunan

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    Ma'sum Ma'sum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author will reveal one of the prominent figures who have long been through the mill of hadith more over the quality of his knowledge in this field does not need to worry about, Abû Dâwud made a large contribution which includes hadith of the prophet in the his book. This study on the book of hadith methodology writing is owned by Abû Dâwud hadith have found some result of hadîth da‘îf that contained therein. the indication of hadîth da‘îf loading (also mawdû‘ according to Ibn al-Jawzî version in the Sunan Abî Dâwud does not reduce the degree of grandeur this al-Sunan. It can be seen on his prudence take a hadith and judging what source the hadith comes from objectively, the existence of hadîth da‘îf in al-Sunan is not based in his negligence and careless, but there is the element of intent. This is because he hold on the rule, it is better to use h}adîth da‘îf the one person’s opinion.

  18. 21 January 2008 - Vice-President of the Human Rights Commission Z. Muhsin Al Hussein, Ambassador to United Nations A. Attar and their delegation from Saudi Arabia, visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Technical Coordinator M. Nessi.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    21 January 2008 - Vice-President of the Human Rights Commission Z. Muhsin Al Hussein, Ambassador to United Nations A. Attar and their delegation from Saudi Arabia, visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Technical Coordinator M. Nessi.

  19. Dos textos astrológicos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay al-Bargeloní

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    Sela, Shlomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this article is to translate, scrutinize the contents and reveal the sources of two Hebrew astrological texts embedded in the commentary on Sefer Yeṣirah composed by Yehudah ben Barzilay, the leading Rabbinic authority in Barcelona in the first half of the 12th century. The first text arises great interest because it incorporates the first ever known horoscopic chart written in Hebrew. The second text includes a miscellany of cosmological and astrological theories. The analysis of both fragments reveals the reception of astrological texts by Jewish intellectuals in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast with Abraham bar Ḥiyya and Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, who epitomize a renovating trend couching into a Hebrew mold various aspects of Greek and Arabic science, Ben Barzilay embodies a conservative trend which exclusively relies on Jewish astrological and scientific sources.Este artículo tiene como principal propósito traducir, estudiar los contenidos y descubrir las fuentes de dos textos astrológicos hebreos conservados en el comentario al Sefer Yeṣirá de Yehudá ben Barzilay, la principal autoridad rabínica de Barcelona en las primeras décadas del siglo XII. El primer texto despierta gran interés porque incorpora el primer horóscopo documentado escrito en lengua hebrea conocido. El segundo texto incorpora una miscelánea de teorías cosmológicas y astrológicas. El análisis de ambos fragmentos revela un caso especial de recepción de fuentes astrológicas y científicas por intelectuales judíos en la península Ibérica. En claro contraste con Abraham bar Ḥiyya y Abraham Ibn 'Ezra, que encarnan una corriente renovadora orientada a verter al hebreo diversos aspectos de la astrología y ciencia griega y árabe, Yehudá ben Barzilay representa una modalidad conservadora inclinada a la utilización de fuentes astrológicas y científicas de autores exclusivamente judíos.

  20. DEBATE ENTRE NIVELES ARTIFICIALES Y UNIDADES ESTRATIGRÁFICAS: EL ENTIERRO HUMANO POSTERIOR AL FUERTE SANCTI SPIRITUS (1527-1529, PUERTO GABOTO (SANTA FE / Artificial levels vs. stratigraphic units: the human burial subsequent to Sancti Spiritus Fort (15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio y análisis de un entierro humano hallado dentro del alcance del proyecto de investigación del Fuerte Sancti Spiritus, en la localidad de Puerto Gaboto (provincia de Santa Fe. La recuperación del mismo se realizó en el año 2010, mediante la metodología de excavación por niveles artificiales. Dentro del marco del proyecto, a partir del año 2010, con la incorporación del equipo de arqueólogos pertenecientes a la Universidad del País Vasco se aplica una nueva metodología de intervención en el campo: excavación en extensión (open area por unidades estratigráficas. Este trabajo consta de una primera parte, en donde se presenta la recuperación de los restos óseos por niveles artificiales y su curaduría, así como, la clasificación y descripción de los materiales asociados al entierro. En una segunda etapa, se presenta la secuencia histórica del sitio determinada por las excavaciones estratigráficas y su relación con el entierro. A esto se le agrega el proceso de trabajo seguido para integrar el entierro dentro de la secuencia estratigráfica y para poder señalar a cuál de las fases de la secuencia histórica pertenece. Palabras clave: Esqueleto humano; Niveles artificiales; Unidades estratigráficas; Siglo XVI; Nordeste argentino   Abstract This study analyses a human burial found within the excavations of the Fort Sancti Spiritus (Puerto Gaboto, province of Santa Fe. Artificial levels excavation methodology was used to recover it in 2010. Subsequently a new excavation methodology was applied, open area through stratigraphic units. The recovery and treatment of the bones by artificial levels is initially presented, as well as the classification and description of materials linked to the burial. Secondly the historical sequence of the site deduced by the stratigraphic excavations and its relationship to the burial is provided. Additionally the process followed to integrate the burial into the

  1. AL Amyloidosis

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    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  2. MENYINGKAP HUBUNGAN AGAMA DAN FILSAFAT: MERENDA KESESATAN FILSAFAT AL-GHAZALI, MERESPONS KETERHUBUNGAN FILSAFAT DAN AGAMA IBNU RUSYD

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    Mas'udi Mas'udi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY (Searching the Fallacy Philosophy of  al-Ghazali, Responding the Connection between Philosophy and Religion of  Ibn Rushd. Philosophy and religion are considered as the two entities as if  different. Religion is indicated on revelation as the primary foundation and affiliated to the principles of  normativity. Meanwhile, the philosophy is more leaning on the principles of rationality embodies the values of divinity rububiyyah in the historical domain. Necessarily, the two aspects above adhere to the principles of  various viewpoints. From these points, both of  them want to achieve the ultimate truth in interpreting the texts of  the Lord that is still abstract. Textuality and contextuality become the important determinants ultimately carried by the two segments of  thought. The originality of  religious doctrine becomes an important aspect which was presented by al-Ghazali in order to confront the world of philosophy-laden fiction. Philosophy and religion in the view of  al-Ghazali are the two different entities and existences. Meanwhile, Ibn Rushd struggled to establish the two entities and the existences of  this ijtihad which become an aspect that can be integrated. Both are struggling to find the truth. keywords: Philosophy, Religion, Theology, Logic, Confusion,. Filsafat dan agama dinilai sebagai dua entitas yang “seakan-akan” berbeda. Agama lebih berindikasi pada wahyu sebagai landasan primernya dan berafiliasi pada prinsip-prinsip normativitas. Sementara itu, filsafat yang lebih berhaluan pada prinsip-prinsip rasionalitas mewujudkan nilai-nilai ketuhanan rububiyyah dalam domain historis. Secara niscaya, kedua aspek di atas menganut prinsip-prinsip sudut pandang angle yang bervariasi. Dari variasi sudut pandang keduanya ingin mencapai suatu kebenaran hakiki dalam menafsirkan teks-teks Tuhan yang masih bersifat absrak. Tekstualitas dan kontekstualitas menjadi dua determinasi

  3. Il maestro Thâbit ibn Qurra e la teologia di Metafisica Lambda nella Baghdâd del IX secolo

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    Cecilia Martini Bonadeo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La ricezione araba della filosofia greca si caratterizza per il tentativo di rendere compatibile l'eredità ellenica con la rivelazione coranica. Assimilata alla teologia di al-Kindi e trasposta nel ruolo di scienza universale, la metafisica così concepita rappresenta il presupposto da cui muoverà Avicenna.

  4. Translation of Rhetoric in Arabic Preposition in The Text of Al-Qur’an

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    Azman Che Mat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Preposition was a word that completes the meaning of the verb and noun in the sentence structure of Arabic. The use of prepositions in Arabic was truly significant in understanding the Arabic text, especially holy texts. The question was why prepositions were used in sentences such, whereas the other joints could also give the same meaning? Article presented an analysis of syntax-semantics of prepositions في Fi and علىcAla in al-Quran al-Karim across science of Arabic rhetoric (Balagha. Data were restricted to partial phrase في الضلال and على الهدى ever discussed by Ibn Athir. There are 29 places in the Quran that mention في الضلال and 6 points for على الهدى. Critical analysis based on the discipline of linguistics is expected to expose the use of prepositions in Arabic from the precision and beauty of the Arabic language itself. Summary of the study suggest that research on elements of the rhetoric says that other reasonable tasks highlighted in subsequent studies. 

  5. Dificuldades vivenciadas pela equipe multiprofissional na unidade de terapia intensiva Dificultades vividas por el grupo de atención al paciente en la unidad de tratamiento intensivo Difficulties experienced by the patient care team at the intensive care unit

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    Maria Abadia Leite

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de caso com uma abordagem interpretativa, cujo objetivo foi identificar as dificuldades vivenciadas pela equipe multiprofissional que atua na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Os dados foram coletados por meio de observações participantes e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com médicos, enfermeiros e auxiliares de enfermagem. Por meio da análise de dados, foram identificadas as categorias: cuidar em terapia intensiva - "é difícil lidar com a morte e informar a família", e cuidar em terapia intensiva - "a falta de recursos materiais e o difícil trabalho em equipe". As dificuldades relatadas estão relacionadas ao contato com os familiares, com o lidar com a morte, com a falta de recursos materiais e, especialmente, com o relacionamento entre os membros da equipe. Os resultados evidenciaram a necessidade de que a equipe promova momentos para reflexão e discussão acerca dos aspectos técnicos, científicos e éticos referentes ao cuidado tanto dos pacientes críticos quanto de seus familiares, tendo em vista a melhoria da qualidade do atendimento e do relacionamento interpessoal.La finalidad de este estudio de caso interpretativo fue identificar las dificultades vividas por un equipo de profesionales que actúa en una Unidad de Tratamiento Intensivo. La compilación de datos fue realizada a través de observación participante y entrevistas semi-estructuradas llevadas a cabo con médicos, enfermeros y auxiliares de enfermería. El análisis reveló las siguientes categorías: cuidar en el tratamiento intensivo: "la ardua tarea de lidiar con la muerte y informar a la familia del paciente" y cuidar en el tratamiento intensivo: "la escasez de recursos materiales y la dificultad de trabajar en equipo". Las dificultades mencionadas se refieren al contacto con la familia, al afrontamiento de la muerte, a la falta de recursos materiales y especialmente a la relación entre los integrantes del equipo. Por consiguiente, el equipo

  6. Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

    2004-11-15

    formulation of a controller feedback multivariable is presented, designed with the combination of the technologies of fuzzy logic and neural networks with the purpose of improving the control of speed, power and temperature of the UTG. This proposed control is used in conjunction with the scheme of conventional control of the existent UTG, to integrate a strategy of control hybrid feedback. The control feedback is compound for a fuzzy inference system of multiple entrances and a left exit designed with entrance data and exit of the plant. The controller feed forward is compound for conventional controllers type PI in this type of units. With this strategy, the controller feedback provides a bigger contribution in the control sign the effort of the conventional controllers' PI control and the strong interaction that it exists among them diminishing. The controllers PI feed forward contribute a smaller control sign used for fine adjustments in the control sign. [Spanish] La demanda de energia electrica en Mexico ha obligado al sector electrico a estar en una busqueda constante de metodos y sistemas que, entre otros objetivos, mejoren continuamente la operacion de las centrales generadoras de energia electrica. Como parte de su mision, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha promovido y apoyado la investigacion aplicada y el desarrollo tecnologico para mejorar los indices de seguridad, disponibilidad, confiabilidad, eficiencia y durabilidad de centrales generadoras mediante el desarrollo y la implantacion de grandes sistemas digitales de informacion y control. En la actualidad, dentro del esquema de generacion de energia electrica, las unidades turbogas (UTG) representan 7% de la generacion del sector electrico nacional [1]. Estas unidades se han convertido en el modo dominante de la nueva generacion electrica en los EE.UU, ya sea en ciclo simple o combinado. Lo anterior, es atribuible al menor costo de instalacion por kilowatt generado, a los programas de

  7. Intent of Study on the Use of a Dual Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) in Conjunction with a Tactical Grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Navigation and Mapping in Unknown, Non-Global Positioning System (GPS), Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-05

    Zofia Starzyk a. REPORT UNCLASSIFIED b. ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED UL 19 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code ...Navigation ( SITAN ) [2][3]. 5 Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center In the 1990s, the complementary nature of GPS to an IMU was quickly realized...ft AGL 14 Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center IV. DUAL ALS SIMULATION Software for the Dual ALS algorithm was written in MATLAB ™ and

  8. Adaptação cultural e validação para a língua portuguesa da Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Adaptación cultural y validación al idioma português del Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU Cultural adaptation and validation for the portuguese language of the Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, realizar a adaptação cultural e validar a escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU para a língua portuguesa. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o método descritivo de validação de instrumentos de medida, baseado nas etapas propostas por Guillemin et al. A análise da confiabilidade foi realizada por meio dos testes e retestes e da consistência interna. Na validação clínica, participaram 163 pais de recém-nascidos internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse ficaram em torno de 0,70 mostrando boa estabilidade entre as duas avaliações. A análise fatorial pelo método de componentes principais utilizou os mesmos critérios da escala original, com rotação Varimax, com grau de variância adequado de 57,9%. Os maiores níveis de estresse dos pais foram obtidos na subescala "alteração do papel de pais". CONCLUSÃO: A PSS:NICU na versão em português é uma ferramenta válida e confiável para avaliação do estresse de pais com filho internado na UTIN.OBJETIVO: Traducir, realizar la adaptación cultural y validar la escala Parental Stress Scale:Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS:NICU al idioma portugués. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el método descriptivo de validación de instrumentos de medida, basado en las etapas propuestas por Guillemin et al. El análisis de la confiabilidad fue realizado por medio de los tests y retests y de la consistencia interna. En la validación clínica, participaron 163 padres de recién nacidos internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN. RESULTADOS: Los coeficientes de correlación intraclase quedaron alrededor de 0,70 mostrando buena estabilidad entre las dos evaluaciones El análisis factorial por el método de componentes principales utilizó los mismos criterios de la escala original, con rotación Varimax, con grado de varianza adecuado de 57,9%. Los mayores niveles de estrés de

  9. Aristoteles ve İbn Hazm'a Göre Kategoriai ve Pros Ti / According To Aristotle And Ibn Hazm Categories And Relation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Kategori, önermede yüklemi gösteren kavramdır. Aristote-les'in mantık üzerine yaptığı çalışmalarını içeren Organon adlı eser-lerinin ilki kategoriler üzerinedir. Kategoriler varlığın en genel yük-lemleridir. Ancak birinci kategorinin ana üyeleri, Aristoteles'in öğre-tisine göre hiçbir zaman gerçek anlamda yüklemler olmayıp özneler olan bireysel tözlerdir. Bireysel tözler tanımda zatın varlığını dikkate alan bir tanımı gerektirir. Bu bakış realizmin de temel hareket noktasıdır. İslam düşün...

  10. Las genealogías de cAbd al-Mu'min, primer califa almohade

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    Fierro, Maribel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Almohad caliphs claimed that agnatically they belonged to the Arab tribe of Quraysh. Qays cAylān does not include the tribe of Qurayš, with which the Mu'minids claimed to be linked cognatically. According to the classical doctrine of the caliphate, to be found for example in Ibn Hazm, the caliphs should belong to Quraysh through their paternal lineage. In this article, the advantages of a Qaysi genealogy (with a long tradition among the Berber populations of North Africa for the Mu'minid caliphs are analyzed. Among those advantages there are the links that such genealogy established with the Arab tribes of Sulaym and Hilāl, crucial elements in the Mu'minid army, and with the pre-Islamic Arab Prophet Khālid b. Sinīn al-cAbsī (descendants of whom appear in connection with the episode of the Berber rebellion of the Kāhina.

    Los califas almohades afirmaron pertenecer a la tribu árabe de Qays cAylān por descendencia agnática. Qays cAylān no incluye a la tribu de Qurayš, con la que los mu'miníes afirmaban estar emparentados por línea materna. Según la doctrina clásica del califato, recogida por ejemplo por Ibn Hazm, los califas deben ser qurayšíes por línea paterna. En este artículo se analizan las ventajas que ofrecía a los califas mu'miníes esa ascendencia qaysí, de larga tradición entre las poblaciones beréberes del Norte de África. Entre esas ventajas se cuentan la vinculación de parentesco con las tribus árabes de Sulaym y Hilāl, elementos fundamentales del ejército mu'miní, y con el profeta árabe pre-islámico Jālid b. Sinān al-cAbsī (descendientes de este último aparecen en estrecha relación con el episodio de la rebelión beréber de la Kāhina.

  11. El lugar del Iṣlāḥ al-Maŷisṭī de Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ en la llamada «rebelión andalusí contra la astronomía ptolemaica»

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    Bellver Martínez, José

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jābir b. Aflaḥ al-Ishbīlī, known as Geber filius Afflay Hispalensis in medieval Western Europe, was a mathematician and theoretical astronomer who most probably flourished in Seville during the first quarter of the 12th century. Jābir b. Aflaḥ was a leading figure in medieval astronomy thanks to the Iṣlāḥ al-Majisṭī, his magnum opus, which was translated into Latin and Hebrew. With his Iṣlāḥ al-Majisṭī, Jābir b. Aflaḥ intended to rewrite the Almagest and introduced some corrections to it. In his important paper «The Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy» published in 1984, the renowned scholar A.I. Sabra drew attention to a group of Andalusian philosophers who where contemporaries of Jābir b. Aflaḥ or flourished shortly after him, such as Ibn Bājja (d. 537/1138, Ibn Ṭufayl (d. 581/1185, Ibn Rushd (d. 595/1198, Maimonides (d. 601/1204 and al-Biṭrūjī(fl. 596/1200. Sabra stressed their cosmological criticisms of the astronomical models described in the Almagest arising from the lack of consistency of Ptolemy’s models with Aristotle’s physics. The purpose of this paper is to describe Jābir b. Aflaḥ’s criticisms of Ptolemy in order to consider whether he should be placed among the members of the Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy. The final conclusion is that Jābir b. Aflaḥ’s criticisms are not themselves cosmological — although they may have cosmological implications — but of a completely technical mathematical nature. He should not, therefore, be placed among the members of the Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy.

    Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ al-Išbīlī, conocido como Geber filius Afflay Hispalensis en la Europa medieval, fue un matemático y astrónomo teórico que probablemente floreció en Sevilla durante el primer cuarto del s. XII. Ŷābir b. Aflaḥ es un astrónomo medieval importante gracias a su obra

  12. Holomorphic Spaces in the Unit Ball of

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    Augusto Guadalupe Miss Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the and vector spaces of holomorphic functions defined in the unit ball of , generalizing previous work like Ouyang et al. (1998, Stroethoff (1989, and Choa et al. (1992. Likewise, we characterize those spaces in terms of harmonic majorants as a generalization of Arellano et al. (2000.

  13. Cuidado de enfermagem à criança vítima de violência sexual atendida em unidade de emergência hospitalar Cuidado de la enfermería al niño víctima de violencia sexual atendido en unidad de emergencia hospitalaria Nursing care for sexually abused children in hospital emergency units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Oliveira Santos Woiski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: conhecer como a equipe de enfermagem percebe o cuidado efetivado à criança que sofreu violência sexual ao ser atendida em unidade de emergência hospitalar e especificar, a partir das expressões da equipe de enfermagem, as características que compõem o cuidado de enfermagem em unidade de emergência hospitalar à criança que sofreu violência sexual. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa, pelo método exploratório-descritivo, utilizando a entrevista semiestruturada com 11 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem de uma unidade de emergência hospitalar. Resultados: pela análise de conteúdo de Bardin (1991, foram compreendidas três Unidades de Contexto e seis Unidades de Significação que revelam a percepção da equipe de enfermagem ao cuidar da criança vítima de violência sexual em unidade de emergência hospitalar. Conclusões: a equipe percebe que o cuidado vai além da técnica, envolvendo o emocional da criança, equipe e família. Percebeu-se o cuidado humanizado, porém sem a sistematização da assistência por meio do processo de enfermagem.Objetivos: Conocer cómo el equipo de enfermería percibe el cuidado destinado al niño victima de violencia sexual al ser atendido en una unidad de emergencia hospitalaria y especificar, a partir de las expresiones del equipo de enfermería, las características que conforman el cuidado de enfermería en una unidad de emergencia hospitalaria destinadas al niño que sufrió violencia sexual. Métodos: investigación cualitativa, a través del método exploratorio descriptivo: aplicó la entrevista semiestructurada con 11 profesionales del equipo de enfermería de una unidad de emergencia hospitalaria. Resultados: a través del análisis de contenido de Bardin (1991 se contemplaron tres Unidades de Contexto y seis Unidades de Significación que revelan la percepción del equipo de enfermería al cuidar del niño víctima de violencia sexual en una unidad de emergencia hospitalaria

  14. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    weaponry, antiaircraft missiles) and explosives, first aid, topography ; and lectures by jihadi preachers.9 Given that al-Libi was originally groomed in...antiaircraft guns, explosives, grenades and topography . See “Embassy Bombing Documents Offer Window into al Qaeda Operations,” Intelwire, 15 January 2011...was the commander of the military operations in al-Qa`ida. `Abdallah Sa`id was killed by an U.S. drone airstrike in North Waziristan in mid

  15. Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment for the Ravines and Beach Area Study areas of the Surplus Operable Unit, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, Volume 3 - BRA Text and BRA Appendices A-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-13

    oC 2 S ^ ^ ^ Ö o "> •* ■<*• m °i o CM _ © "> *-• coriv^tnM«M«c»)Mc»»c»i>nc»icnPicnc,iC’nviin« coro ...97 QST Fort Sheridan Chien, L., et al. 1968. " Infantile gastroenteritis due to water with high sulfate content," Can. Med. Assoc. J., 99:102-104...o>o--ooro>oo»*o>oo «- CM ’ ’ «- CM • CM m O CM «- ■» CM i ■ O «- «- CM rO -O ’ ■ -- *- co ro m ocomCMir»«- corO ’ in-^^Sr-i-ssrx)^ l«H0|il(\\linKI

  16. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  17. Experiencias de la instauración de normas relativas al contenido de plomo en aire y el agua, en los Estados Unidos de América Establishing lead in air and water standards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Davis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Estados Unidos de América se ha logrado una disminución de la exposición a plomo de la población en general, gracias al establecimiento de diversas normas. En este artículo se destaca parte de los conocimientos adquiridos a través de la experiencia obtenida en este país en materia de plomo, en particular respecto al aire y al agua. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales es la posibilidad de contar con una base científica sólidamente establecida y claramente entendida, a partir de la cual se tomarán las medidas correspondientes. Los efectos secundarios de ciertas normas concernientes al aire ponen de manifiesto de qué manera los esfuerzos orientados a solucionar un problema pueden aportar beneficios en otras áreas, si bien pueden surgir consecuencias no deseadas, debido a la falta de previsión y de evaluación. Asimismo, en este documento se discuten las diferencias entre los enfoques centralizados y los descentralizados para el manejo de la exposición a plomo.Lead regulations and standards have resulted in a lower exposure to lead in the general population of the United States of America. This paper highlights some of the know-how developed through lead-containing experiences, particularly regarding lead content in air and water. The availability of a solid and clear scientific knowledge is central to the success of these policies. Collateral effects of some air-related standards show the extent to which problem-oriented efforts may be beneficial in other areas, inasmuch as they may have untoward consequences if careful planning and evaluation are not considered. Finally, this paper presents a discussion of the differences between centralized and decentralized approaches to lead exposure control.

  18. Supreme Court of the United States Syllabus: Runyon et ux., dba Bobbe's School v. McCrary et al. Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. No. 75-62. Argued April 26, 1976--Decided June 25, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the full text of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Runyon et ux., dba Bobbe's School v. McCrary et al., as written by Justice Stewart. Also included are separate concurring opinions written by Justice Powell and Justice Stevens and a dissenting opinion written by Justice White, as well as a syllabus that summarizes the…

  19. Al-Nb对700℃发电机组转子用GH706合金组织和拉伸性能的影响%Effect of Al-Nb on Structure and Tensile Properties of Alloy GH706 for Rotor of 700 ℃ Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白亚冠; 聂义宏; 朱怀沈; 赵帅; 殷福星

    2013-01-01

    试验的GH706合金(/%:0.034C、16.10Cr、41.13Ni、1.64Ti、2.93Nb、0.39Al)和改进型合金(/%:0.027C、16.30Cr、1.79Ti、2.05 Nb、1.21Al)由200 kg真空感应炉熔炼并重熔成150 kg ESR锭,1 180℃16 h均匀化处理后锻成Φ15 mm棒材,并经980℃3h,4 K/min冷至820℃℃2~10h,空冷,720℃℃ 16 h炉冷热处理.结果表明,提高合金中的Al含量和降低Nb含量可促使γ'相析出;通过调整二级固溶处理的时间可控制η相析出,使合金具有良好的强塑性,在室温抗拉强度TS 1 200 MPa的水平下使断面收缩率接近30%.改进型合金在二级固溶处理为820℃2h时,700℃抗拉强度为908 MPa,断面收缩率达54.8%.

  20. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALS Neurons' broken machinery piles up in ALS Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica Dormant viral genes may awaken to ... Dementia Information Page Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Muscular Dystrophy Information Page Myasthenia ...

  2. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  3. Multi-variable neural-fuzzy control applied to the control of speed, power and temperature of turbo-gas units; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de unidades turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura O, Victor O; De Lara J, Salvador C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Alvarado M, Victor M [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Gas turbines (GT) are high risk systems that operate at high velocities, temperatures and pressures. These conditions establish very strict requirements for the control system, reason why it is required a high automation level to obtain a safe and profitable operation. The control system of the turbo-gas units (TGU) is based on conventional control algorithms of type PI. This control scheme is destined for regulation and rejection of disturbance tasks, and not to follow reference points. All the controllers act on a single valve control, which represents a strong interaction between them. An alternative to treat this interaction and to improve the performance of the turbo-gas unit is the use of intelligent control techniques, adopting a pre-feedback scheme. The feedback control and the pre-feedback one are combined so that the first one assures the regulation around the operation points (for example, the synchronism velocity) and the second, provides the pursuit of the demanded trajectories established by the system. [Spanish] Las turbinas de gas (TG) son sistemas de alto riesgo que operan a altas velocidades, temperaturas y presiones. Estas condiciones establecen requerimientos muy estrictos para el sistema de control, por lo que se requiere en alto nivel de automatizacion para lograr una operacion segura y rentable. El sistema de control de las unidades turbogas (UTG) esta basado en algoritmos de control convencionales del tipo PI. Este esquema de control es destinado para tareas de regulacion y rechazo a perturbaciones, y no para seguimiento de puntos de referencia. Todos los controladores actuan sobre una sola valvula de control, lo que representa una fuerte interaccion entre los mismos. Una alternativa para tratar esta interaccion y mejorar el desempeno de la unidad turbogas es el empleo de tecnicas de control inteligente, adoptando un esquema retro-prealimentado. El control retroalimentado y el prealimentado se combinan para que el primero asegure la

  4. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  5. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  6. Toxoplasmosis in Sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates and Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Pas, An; Rajendran, C; Kwok, O C H; Ferreira, L R; Martins, J; Hebel, C; Hammer, S; Su, C

    2010-09-20

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid found in sand and stone deserts ranging from the north of Africa to Asia, with the Arabian Peninsula as its centre of distribution. The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recently recognized as one of the causes of this mortality. In the present study, one 18-month-old Sand cat (FM019) died of acute toxoplasmosis-associated hepatitis and pneumonitis acquired after birth; Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in histological sections which reacted with T. gondii polyclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry (IHC). T. gondii DNA was found by PCR of extracted DNA from liver and lung tissues of this cat. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in serum examined in 1:1600 dilution in the modified agglutination test (MAT); its 2-year-old cage mate seroconverted (MAT titer 1:3200) at the same time. Another Sand cat (FM017) was euthanized because of ill health when 3 years old; its MAT titer was >1:3200, and T. gondii tissue cysts were found in brain, heart, ocular muscles and skeletal muscle, confirmed by IHC. Viable T. gondii was isolated by bioassays in mice inoculated with tissues of another chronically infected Sand cat (FM002); T. gondii was not found in histological sections of this cat. T. gondii antibodies were found in several species of animals tested, notably in 49 of 57 wild felids at BCEAW. A 7-year-old Sand cat (3657) from Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Doha, State of Qatar died of acute visceral toxoplasmosis with demonstrable T. gondii tachyzoites by IHC, and T. gondii DNA by PCR, and a MAT titer of >3200. T. gondii antibodies were found in 21 of 27 of wild felids at AWWP. PCR-RFLP genotyping at 10 genetic loci revealed that these T. gondii isolates from Sand cat (FM002 and FM019) at BCEAW have an atypical genotype, which was previously reported in T

  7. Andesita Cerro Bola: Nueva unidad vinculada al magmatismo mioceno de la Cordillera de Olivares, San Juan, Argentina (30°35´S; 69°30´O Cerro Bola Andesite: New unit linked to the Miocene magmatism of the Olivares Cordillera, San Juan (30°35' S ; 68°30' W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Wetten

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se halla en la zona de Tocota, inmediatamente al este de la Cordillera de Olivares, en el borde oriental de la Cordillera Frontal, provincia de San Juan. En ella se encuentran unidades ígneas y sedimentarias del ciclo gondwánico, las que fueron intruidas y cubiertas en relación discordante por cuerpos subvolcánicos y volcánicos asignados anteriormente al ciclo ándico en sentido amplio, los cuales constituyen el principal objeto del presente estudio. Estos cuerpos han sido mapeados a fin de poder caracterizarlos adecuadamente, en el contexto estratigráfico de la región. Los afloramientos de interés han sido reconocidos en el cerro Bola y alrededores, donde se observan distribuidos irregularmente, cubriendo un área superior a 5 km². Las rocas, de coloración gris clara y composición andesítica - fenoandesítica, presentan estructuras de domo y colada. Estos afloramientos serían correlacionables con la unidad volcánica Pircas (Mioceno, la que aflora al oeste, y conformarían un evento magmático posterior al de pórfidos de diferente composición situados tanto en el arroyo Chita como en el cerro Divisadero. La extensión del área involucrada, la uniformidad litológica, el bajo grado de alteración y una edad radimétrica obtenida por el método K/Ar, fueron considerados para proponer a estas volcanitas como una unidad litoestratigráfica de edad miocena superior, con la denominación de Andesita Cerro Bola.The study area is located in the region of Tocota Creek, close to the Cordillera Olivares, eastern border of the Frontal Range, San Juan province. In this place, igneous and sedimentary units belonging to the Gondwanic cycle, were recognized. These units were intruded and unconformably covered by subvolcanic and volcanic bodies, which were commonly referred to the Tertiary or Andean cycle. The study of these bodies is the main proposal of this work. These bodies had been mapped in order to characterize them

  8. Reforms in triple talaq in the personal laws of Muslim states and the Pakistani legal system: Continuity versus change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the reforms carried out in some of the Muslim states regarding the issue of triple divorce in one session. According to a majority of Sunni jurists, pronouncing the word ‘talaq’ three times in succession, equates with three ‘talaqs’. On the contrary, according to Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn al-Qiyam, and the Shi‘a Imamiyah, three pronouncements of the word talaq in one session equals only one talaq. Most Arab, as well as many Muslim states such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, Kuwait, Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, have, while formulating their own laws, followed Ibn Taimiyah’s and Ibn al-Qiyam’s positions on this issue. In this regard, Sri Lanka’s Marriage and Divorce (Muslim Act, 1951, as amended up to 2006, seems to be the most ideal legislation on triple talaq. In Pakistan, the Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961, has abolished triple talaq, as the procedure laid down in section 7 is largely applicable to one or two pronouncements only and excludes three pronouncements. Furthermore, some portions of section 7 are in clear contravention of the dictates of Islamic law, which adds to this precarious section’s peculiarity. The superior courts in Pakistan and Bangladesh have not been consistent in interpreting the law on this important subject, while on the other hand, some Indian High Courts have treated triple talaq as invalid.

  9. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  10. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  11. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  12. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  13. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  14. The Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis AlHakam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Xie, Gary; Bhotika,Smriti S.; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell,Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Green, Lance D.; Han, Cliff S.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk,A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, LeePhilip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders,Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson,Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Paul; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widelyused as a biopesticide (3). Here we report the finished, annotated genomesequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by theUnited Nations Special Commission (2).

  15. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fon Abi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ∞3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

  16. Ogunsile et al (18)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The effects of time and the volume of extract to silver salt solution were investigated on the ... agar well diffusion method. XRD analysis ... attributed to their large surface area to volume ratio (Cho et al., 2005; Mittal et al., 2013). Synthetically ...

  17. Gezondheid als marketinginstrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, van de L.P.L.; Berg, van den I.

    2008-01-01

    Is biologisch voedsel beter dan gangbaar? Hoe hard zijn de bewijzen daarvoor? En hoe sterk moet het bewijs zijn voordat je het als claim op een product mag zetten? In dit Biokennis bericht een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke conclusies en de mogelijkheden om biologisch te promoten als beter, neer

  18. Alles is al uitgevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDe voordelen van vrijhandel zijn zeer beperkt, al-thans als we de empirische schattingen van vooraanstaande economen en internationale organisaties mogen geloven. Zo worden de voordelen van liberalisatie voor de Europese Unie geraamd op ongeveer 0,5% van het bnp 1. De door het IMF gescha

  19. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  20. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  1. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  2. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  3. Volver al desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi...

  4. The Haram al-Sharīf collection of Arabic legal documents in Jerusalem: a Mamlūk court archive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the corpus of 900 documents in the Mamlūk Haram al-Šarīf collection from the angle of archival storage. The vast majority of these documents are linked to the Jerusalem judge Šaraf al-Dīn ,Īsā b. Ġānim and to his period in office between the years 793/1391 and 797/1395. The sample of surviving documents, primarily estate inventories but also a few documents from other areas of the law within the qādī’s competence, contradicts the assumption that the Haram corpus is a systematically compiled archive of qādī records. Court certifications of real-estate sales and further transactions that are preserved for other periods within the Haram corpus are totally absent for this particular period. There is, moreover, an abundant number of documents concerning financial transactions in institutions over which the judge had jurisdiction. The necrology of the contemporary chronicler Ibn Hiğğī (d. 816/1413 opens an interesting perspective to explain the selection of documents relating to Šaraf al-Dīn, who was involved in a massive corruption case.

    Este artículo analiza el corpus de 900 documentos del Haram al-Šarīf desde la perspectiva de la conservación de archivos. En su mayoría, estos documentos están relacionados con el juez de Jerusalén Šaraf al-Dīn ʻĪsā b. Gānim y con el periodo en el que se mantuvo en el cargo, entre 793/1391 y 797/1395. La muestra de documentos estudiada, sobre todo inventarios de bienes, pero también documentos relacionados con otras áreas del derecho que pertenecen a la competencia del qādī, contradicen la hipótesis de que los documentos del corpus del Haram al-Šarīf son registros del tribunal compilados sistemáticamente en un archivo. Los certificados judiciales sobre ventas de bienes inmuebles y otras transacciones que se han conservado de otros periodos en el corpus no aparecen precisamente para el periodo que va entre los años 793/1391 y

  5. Tussentijds Toetsen als Leerstrategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, April). Tussentijds toetsen als Leerstrategie [Testing as Learning Strategy]. Presentation at the Miniconference on Assessment from the Mastersprogram Educational Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  6. Ileke et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    extracts of the stem bark are commonly used to treat malaria and ... 2013). Aqueous extracts of the leaf and stem bark ... Ileke et al.: Toxicological and Histopathological Effects of Cheese Wood ..... to reduced production of the metabolic product.

  7. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... 98. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  9. Ismail et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ... pumps selection as well as provide necessary information for water, hydraulics, mechanical and .... The analysis of hydraulic and design ... design; Tay et al. ...... Energetical optimization of water ... Wood D J,1981 Algorithms for pipe network.

  10. Analyzing Al Qaedaism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hua

    2008-01-01

    Three major events are responsible for the rampancy today of Al Qaedaism, the doctrine of Al Qaeda, an Islam extremist organization. They are: the Anti-Soviet Afghanistan War for the birth of the group; the September 11 terrorist attacks for the spread of its extremist demagogy and the war on terror for its branches networking into alliances worldwide.Al Qaedaism aims at driving away Western forces on the Moslem lands, overthrowing local Pro-West regimes, destroying Israel and setting up a Caliphate empire. Its rampancy has resulted from a combination of diverse factors at work under specific historical conditions rather an inevitable outcome of the growth of the Islam religion.As an ideological weapon for launching Jihad to oust Western influence and topple local regimes, Al Qaedaism reflects an extremist portrayal of modern Islam society, politics, economy and culture.

  11. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  12. Trauer als Biografiegenerator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Heidemarie

    2008-01-01

    Der Tod eines Alter Ego erweist sich für Trauernde als gravierende Kontingenzerfahrung. Sie vermag das individuelle Selbstverständnis in umfassender Weise zu erschüttern, wobei sich Trauer als Schmerz von unvergleichlicher Intensität und Tiefe konstituiert. Die emotionale Erfahrung wird hierbei – nach Maßgabe psychologischer und therapeutischer Vorstellungen – zum Ausgangspunkt und zum Maßstab individueller Selbstvergewisserung. Diese Auffassung von Trauer korrespondiert mit einer allgemeinen...

  13. Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

    2015-01-01

    The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

  14. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  15. The crystal structure of {gamma}-AlD{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, H.W. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller N-2027 (Norway); Brown, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Jensen, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Graetz, J. [Department of Energy Sciences and Technologies, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Reilly, J.J. [Department of Energy Sciences and Technologies, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hauback, B.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller N-2027 (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.hauback@ife.no

    2007-08-30

    {gamma}-AlD{sub 3} was synthesized from LiAlD{sub 4} and AlCl{sub 3} via thermal decomposition of aluminum hydride etherate in presence of excess LiAlD{sub 4}. {gamma}-AlD{sub 3} was determined by powder neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction to crystallize in the space group Pnnm. The orthorhombic structure has unit-cell dimensions a = 7.3360(3) A, b = 5.3672(2) A and c = 5.7562(1) A, and it consists of both corner- and edge-sharing AlD{sub 6} octahedra where each hydrogen is shared between two octahedra. The average Al-D distances in octahedra with edge-sharing is 1.706 A and in the octahedra with only corner-sharing 1.719 A.

  16. Development of a PI fuzzy-neural control of two freedom degrees, applied to the velocity control of a turbo-gas unit; Desarrollo de un control PI neurodifuso no lineal de dos grados de libertad, aplicado al control de velocidad de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo C, Luis; Garduno R, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Marmol M, Enrique Q [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas has developed and implemented control systems in power stations with turbo gas unit (TGU) and of combined cycle power plants in which it has been detected several necessities and opportunities of technological development. One of most important is the improvement of the strategies of velocity control, power and temperature of the TGU, in order to obtain a safer and profitable operation. Since these units demand a strict and greater number of control requirements, because they are characterized by operating at temperatures, pressures and velocities higher than those of another type of units. An alternative to improve the control strategies of the TGU is the use of other control structures and the use of control techniques with diffuse logic, which can surpass the disadvantages of the conventional control. Due to the former, the reliability requirements of the TGU to get on line without fault, when required, have remarkably increased. The frequent accomplishment of starts, synchronization, load takings and shut-downs in a successful way and in automatic form, strongly depend on the capacities of the control system. During the starting, the main task of the control system consists of accelerating to the turbo-generator from the turn-shaft velocity to the nominal velocity according to a predefined acceleration pattern. The velocity control generates the control actions to accelerate the turbo-generator in a safe way that avoids the occurrence of instabilities of the working fluid, vibration discharges and resonances, high temperatures and combustion instabilities, and in addition, in the minimum of time, with fuel saving and preserving the useful life of the turbo-generator. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas ha desarrollado e implantado sistemas de control en centrales con unidad turbo gas (UTG) y centrales de ciclo combinado en las que se ha detectado varias necesidades y oportunidades de desarrollo

  17. Parametric Analysis of Tensile Properties of Bimodal Al Alloys by Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.L. Zhanga; S. Li; S.R. Nutt

    2009-01-01

    An axisymmetrical unit cell model was used to represent a bimodal Al alloy that was composed of both nano-grained (NG) and coarse-grained (CG) aluminum. Effects of microstructural and materials parameters on tensile properties of bimodal Al alloy were investigated by finite element method (FEM). The parameters analyzed included aspect ratios of CG Al and the unit cell, volume fraction of CG Al (VFCG), and yield strength and strain hardening exponent of CG Al. Aspect ratios of CG Al and the unit cell have no significant influence on tensile stress-strain response of the bimodal Al alloy. This phenomenon derives from the similarity in elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion between CG Al and NG Al. Conversely, tensile properties of bimodal Al alloy are extremely sensitive to VFCG, yield strength and strain hardening exponent of CG Al.Specifically, as VFCG increases, both yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the bimodal Al alloy decreases, while uniform strain of bimodal Al alloy increases. In addition, an increase in yield strength of CG Al results in an increase in both yield stress and UTS of bimodal Al alloy and a decrease in uniform strain of bimodal Al alloy. The lower capability in lowering the increase of stress concentration in NG Al due to a higher yield strength of CG Al causes the lower uniform strain of the bimodal Al alloy. When strain hardening exponent of CG Al increases, 0.2% yield stress, UT5, and uniform strain of the bimodal Al alloy increases. This can be attributed to the increased work-hardening ability of CG Al with a higher strain hardening exponent.

  18. Cuidando al adulto y al anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucero López Díaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir, desde el ámbito universitario, la experiencia en la aplicación de la Teoría del Déficit de Autocuidado (TDAC con la población adulta y anciana. Se explican los procesos y resultados desde la preparación docente, la conformación de la asignatura, hasta el desarrollo de la experiencia práctica en el ámbito hospitalario y de la vida cotidiana. La experiencia muestra la adecuación de la TDAC para abordar el cuidado de esta población y la necesidad de desarrollar otros estudios al respecto.

  19. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Möglichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu können für alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstverständliche Prämisse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenüber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befähigung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Ergänzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfächern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Darüber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgeführten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  20. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  1. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  2. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  3. Der Glaube als Erkenntnisquelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hartwig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.

  4. Amayo et al (11)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    the samples were mineralised by microwave-assisted acid digestion and analysed using ICP-MS. The results ... Midwestern United States. .... comparing the Sum (A – D) with the Total concentration of arsenic determined in solid tissue sample.

  5. Adeniji et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words:Dioscorea rotundata; TAS-ELISA; yield loss;Yam mosaic virus(YMV) genus ... naturally transmitted through infected planting ... were obtained from the Tissue Culture Unit of the ..... Diseases of Casssava, Yams, Sweet potato.

  6. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  7. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Burgos Zuleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La medicina al basarse generalmente en la clínica, correlacionaexámenes complementarios y organiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento, es una disciplina donde es imprescindible saber recolectar, analizar, interpretar y concretar una respuesta adecuada, es así que la información que se recibe es esencial para el desempeño médico.La certeza es una realidad que se da en algunas situaciones y enotras las probabilidades establecen conclusiones. Lo normal muchas veces se define sobre la base de criterios estadísticos, basados en riesgos poblacionales que no necesariamente se aplican al caso boliviano.

  8. Selbstkritik als wissenschaftliches Projekt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scholand

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wallner kritisiert die aktuelle feministische Darstellung der rund 30jährigen Geschichte der Mädchenarbeit als „Legendenbildung“ (S. 9: Sie verkürze und verschweige im Interesse einer Selbst-Heroisierung und sei daher ideologisch. Als eine derjenigen, die seit zwanzig Jahren feministische Mädchenarbeit und -politik betreibt, arbeitet die Autorin damit auch ihre eigenen (Nicht-Bezugnahmen kritisch auf. Ihr grundlegendes Interesse ist es, eine aus ihrer Sicht erforderliche Neupositionierung der Mädchenarbeit in der Jugendhilfe im Zeitalter von Gender Mainstreaming zu befördern.

  9. The light of the world astronomy in Al-Andalus

    CERN Document Server

    Ibn Nahmias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This book contains an edition--with an extensive introduction, translation and commentary--of The Light of the World, a text on theoretical astronomy by Joseph Ibn Nahmias, composed in Judeo-Arabic around 1400 C.E. in the Iberian Peninsula. As the only text on theoretical astronomy written by a Jew in any variety of Arabic, this work is evidence for a continuing relationship between Jewish and Islamic thought in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. The text's most lasting effect may have been exerted via its passage to Renaissance Italy, where it influenced scholars at the Univer

  10. [Bioethical views of Abu Bakr Al-Razi (Rhazes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasymov, A I

    2006-01-01

    Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, who is known in Europe as Razes, was born in 865 year in Ree city. A lot of his books were translated in Latin; his books have served as guidance for physicians during centuries. However, "the book about spiritual medicine" is the most popular. In this book in details presented ethical views of the scientist. The book discusses about the significance improving spiritual quality of person. In his meaning of "spiritual medicine" is seen a synonym to the notion-"medical ethics".

  11. 76 FR 41757 - Mahan Airways, et al.; Modification of Temporary Denial Order To Add Zarand Aviation as a Denied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    .../Gatewick Aviation Services, G#22 Dubai Airport Free Zone, P.O. Box 393754, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and P.O. Box 52404, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Mohamed Abdulla Alqaz Building, Al Maktoum Street, Al Rigga, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Pejman Mahmood Kosarayanifard, a/k/a Kosarian Fard, P.O....

  12. MEMORE AL AMIKO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osmo; BULLER

    1999-01-01

    Skuis min la novajo, ke mia amiko kajkolego Dai Song’en forlais nin por iam. Lakruela fatalo foriris lin, kiam li ankoraǚ estismeze de sia laboro, plena de planoj kaj tiel ju-ha. Kun muta senpovo ni devas subii al lasenkompata trudo de la sorto, kvankam la men-so ribelas kaj rifuzas kredi ke ipovas esti vero.

  13. Ongelijkheid als beleidsvraagstuk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilterdink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Op het hoogtepunt van de hype rond het ongelijkheidsonder­zoek van Piketty presenteerde de WRR zijn verkenningHoe ongelijk is Nederland? Voor de onafhankelijke denktank is stelling nemen in een politiek vraagstuk als dat van ongelijkheid best ingewikkeld.

  14. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  15. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...

  16. Abraham Kuyper als theoloog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Velema

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Men zou in Nederland de herdenking van Kuypers honderdvijftigste geboortedag hebben kunnen aangrijpen als een gelegenheid om diens theologie en diens levenswerk in kerk en samenleving te evalueren. Niemand kan ontkennen dat er in genoemde publicaties iets van een evaluatie is te vinden.

  17. ahadzie et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    3Department of Computer Science, KNUST, Kumasi ... competencies relating to achieving the standard ... Brill et al., (2006) using a web- ... practical application of the core competencies .... culties and delays, poor coordination and com- ..... for subjective judgment and hence creating .... Ghana (Technical Document). Accra ...

  18. Aderoju et al (18)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The digital aeromagnetic data were processed to produce total magnetic intensity and .... filters to TMI-RTE data as outlined by Stone et al. (2004). ... 2D-forward modeling of some ... primarily an image-based recognition of patterns, trends ...

  19. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the processes leading to cell death. Using both animal models and cell culture systems, scientists are trying to determine how and why ALS-causing gene mutations lead to the destruction of neurons. These animal models include fruit flies, zebrafish, and rodents. Initially, ...

  20. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  1. A Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal possibilitando novas práticas no cuidado ao recém-nascido La Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal posibilitando nuevas prácticas en el cuidado al recién nacido The Neonatal Intensive Care Units giving new practices to newborns care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa

    2011-06-01

    profesionales de salud revelan que desde los primordios de la UTIN, existía preocupación con el cuidado sensible, humanizado e individualizado al recién nacido.A qualitative research with a socio-historical approach. The aim is to understand how the established practices of the newborn Intensive Care Units Neonatal (ICUN in Florianopolis, Brazil, in the 1980's. The study's context was the Child's Hospital Joana de Gusmão. The interviewed for this research were health professionals that had a role in the ICUN implantation. Data analysis was performed using the genealogical method proposed by Foucault. Four discursive groups were identified: Many children won with that; It was learned how to care of newborns; A more scientific view to assistance was lacking; Sensitive, humanized and individualized care. The establishment of a specific unit directed to the newborns resulted in a reduction in the neonatal mortality and scientific knowledge acquisition. The health professionals' speeches reveal that since the beginning of the ICUN, a concern with the sensible, humanized and individualized care with the newborn was present.

  2. Calculation of interaction of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 on Al4C3 (001) Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段少飞; 陈秀敏; 杨斌; 郁青春; 徐宝强; 刘大春

    2015-01-01

    To make sure the intermediate products of the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 process, such as Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, and the interaction of AlCl, AlCl2, AlCl3 with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, respectively, thermodynamic analyses were used to study the chloride reaction production of them under the vacuum situation. The stable structures and electronic properties of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 adsorbed on Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 were calculated by first-principles calculations by the CASTEP module in the Materials Studio program. The results show that the AlCl3 and AlCl2 molecules have decomposed on the plane of Al4C3 (001), while there are no obvious decomposition of AlCl3 and AlCl2 on Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes. The adsorption of AlCl on the Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes is stronger than that on the Al4C3(001) plane. The interaction strength of AlCl3, as well as AlCl2, with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 is in the sequence of Al4CO4Al2CO>Al4C3.

  3. A primeira visita ao filho internado na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal: percepção dos pais Primera visita al hijo internado en unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal: percepción de los padres The first visit to a child in the neonatal intensive care unit: parents perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayna Trombini Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar os sentimentos, experiências e expectativas dos pais durante a primeira visita ao filho internado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN. Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa realizado na UTIN de um hospital de ensino de Maringá-PR. Foram entrevistados nove mães e um pai. Os dados foram coletados na segunda quinzena de junho de 2010, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, posteriormente analisadas por meio do referencial de análise de conteúdo de Bardin. As categorias temáticas desprendidas dos depoimentos foram: Anseios antes da primeira visita ao filho; Vivenciando a primeira visita; e Lidando com as informações. Os resultados encontrados ampliam a compreensão dos sentimentos e das necessidades dos pais na primeira visita ao filho internado na UTIN e possibilitaram a reflexão sobre intervenções de enfermagem que possam amenizar as implicações negativas desse período situacional do ciclo de vida.Este estudio tuvo el objetivo de identificar los sentimientos, experiencias y expectativas de los padres durante la primera visita al hijo hospitalizado en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN. Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo realizado en la UTIN de un hospital de enseñanza de Maringá-PR. Fueron entrevistados nueve madres y un padre. Los datos fueron recogidos en la segunda quincena de junio de 2010, por medio de entrevistas seme estructuradas, analizadas por medio del referencial de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Las categorías temáticas desprendidas de las declaraciones fueron: Anhelos antes de la primera visita al hijo; Viviendo la primera visita; y Lidiando con las informaciones. Los resultados encontrados amplían la comprensión de los sentimientos y de las necesidades de los padres en la primera visita al hijo internado en la UTIN y posibilitó la reflexión sobre intervenciones de enfermería que puedan amenizar las implicaciones negativas de

  4. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  5. Characteristic coordination structure around Nd Ions in sol-gel-derived Nd-Al-codoped silica glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Fuji; Kajihara, Koichi; Kaneko, Ken; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-07-24

    Al codoping can improve the poor solubility of rare-earth ions in silica glasses. However, the mechanism is not well understood. The coordination structure around Nd ions in sol-gel-derived Nd-Al-codoped silica glasses with different Al content was investigated by optical and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. Both tetrahedral AlO4 and octahedral AlO6 units were observed around Nd ions as ligands. The average total number of these two types of ligands for each Nd(3+) ion was ∼ 2 irrespective of Al content and was larger by 1-2 orders of magnitude than that calculated for a uniform distribution of codopant ions (∼ 0.08-0.25). With increasing Al content, AlO4 units disappeared and AlO6 units became dominant. The preferential coordination of AlOx (x = 4, 6) units to Nd ions enabled the amount of Al necessary to dissolve Nd ions uniformly in silica glass at a relatively low temperature of 1150-1200 °C to be minimized, and the conversion of AlO4 units to AlO6 units around Nd ions caused the asymmetry of the crystal field at the Nd sites to increase and the site-to-site distribution to decrease.

  6. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al{sub 10}O{sub 3}N{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banno, Hiroki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Funahashi, Shiro [Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Asaka, Toru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Hirosaki, Naoto [Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Fukuda, Koichiro, E-mail: fukuda.koichiro@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al{sub 10}O{sub 3}N{sub 8}) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm{sup 3}. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R{sub wp}=6.97%, S (=R{sub wp}/R{sub e})=1.68, R{sub p}=5.45%, R{sub B}=5.13% and R{sub F}=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N){sub 6}] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N){sub 4}] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n{sub O}+n{sub T}) with n{sub O}/(n{sub O}+n{sub T}). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n{sub O} and n{sub T} are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds.

  7. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. Derecho al desarrollo y globalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vita, Juan

    2014-01-01

    La presente disertación, que he intitulado Derecho al Desarrollo y Globalidad, consta de cuatropuntos principales:I. El derecho al desarrollo en el contexto de los derechos humanosII. La noción del derecho al desarrolloIII. El derecho al desarrollo en el marco de las llamadas generaciones de derechos humanosIV. El derecho al desarrollo y la aldea globalPalabras clave: derechos humanos, Derecho Natural, Derecho Positivo, sociedad global.

  9. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin

  10. Measurement of 26Al for atmospheric and climate research and the potential of 26Al/ 10Be ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, M.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Wagenbach, D.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E. M.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of the paired cosmogenic radionuclides 26Al and 10Be in environmental samples has potential applications in atmospheric and climate research. For this study, we report the first measurements of the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosol samples from sites in Europe and Antarctica performed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). These initial results show that the 26Al/10Be atomic ratio in tropospheric aerosols averages 1.78 × 10-3 and does not vary significantly between the different locations. We also report results of systematic investigations of the ionization and detection efficiency which we performed to improve the measurement precision for 26Al by AMS. Maximum detection efficiencies of up to 9 × 10-4 (in units of 26Al atoms detected/initial) were achieved for chemically pure Al2O3, while for atmospheric samples we reached efficiencies of up to 2.2 × 10-4.

  11. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  12. Del crimen al amor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Osorio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo ofrece un análisis de la adaptación al cine de la novela La Virgen de los sicarios de Fernando Vallejo que hace Barbet Schroeder en el año 2000. Se demuestra cómo, a través de un sutil proceso de supresión, atenuación y/o realce de elementos fundamentales a la novela, esta adaptación resulta en un filme en el que se advierte un proyecto ético-estético diferente al del texto original y en algunos aspectos opuesto a este. Ello a pesar de que los contenidos diegéticos son bastante similares. Gracias a este proceso, el filme resulta menos abrumador que la novela.

  13. Religion als soziale Deutungspraxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lingen-Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: During the last decades, the topos religion transformed into a powerful category of difference, which is also relevant for educationsystems and settings. Religion as a tool to differentiate between subjects is linked with power and dominance and, thus,with ideas about the constructed identities of “the other”. With this respects, religion functions as a code to define in- andexclusions and mark “the other”, e.g. “the Muslim” in predominantly Christian societies in Europe. Critical theories on racismenable to recognize, describe and define these practices and their effects. They can provide a useful tool to question and challengeintercultural and interreligious educational approaches which potentially reproduce and, thus, strengthen cultural/religiousdifferentiations. DEUTSCH: Die Differenz- und Heterogenitätskategorie Religion hat sich in den letzten Jahren im europäischen und auch deutschsprachigenDiskursraum zu einer medial, wissenschaftlich und politisch wirkmächtigen Kategorie entwickelt. Dabei zeigt sich Religion sowohlals soziale Unterscheidungspraxis (auch in pädagogischen Arrangements, als auch als Mittel zur Identifikation und Charakterisierungbestimmter Gruppen und Individuen als religiöse Subjekte. Religion stellt in diesem Zusammenhang einen Zugehörigkeitscodedar, mit dem Personen als natio-ethno-kulturell Andere markiert werden, wie die Markierung von MuslimInnen durchAngehörige der mehrheitlich christlichen Dominanzgesellschaft zeigt. Rassismuskritische Ansätze ermöglichen es zumeist eherimplizit an Rassekonstruktionen anschließende Unterscheidungen zu erkennen und zu beschreiben, den Bedingungen ihres Wirksamwerdensnachzugehen sowie ihre Konsequenzen zu bestimmen. Eine rassismuskritische und migrationspädagogisch informierteReligionspädagogik ermöglicht AkteurInnen, weniger auf gewaltvolle Unterscheidungspraxen angewiesen zu sein undalternative Veränderungs- und Handlungsmöglichkeiten zu

  14. Carta al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  15. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  16. [Uses of Algae and Mosses in medicinal manuscripts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa; Cobanoğlu, Gülşah

    In this study medicinal uses of Algae and Mosses are investigated in manuscripts of Ibn-i Baytar (Ibn al Baithar), Ibn-i Sina (Avicenna), Huneyn bin Ishak (Joannitus), Dioscorides and Plinius. Ulva lactuca and Fucus sp. have been identified according to the descriptions given in these manuscripts. It is designated that the Arabic term "Tuhlub" occupies both the meanings of any algal species and Lemna minor of Spermatophyta.

  17. Thermodynamic properties and mixing thermodynamic parameters of Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Cu-Al metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鉴

    2004-01-01

    Application of equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated on the basis of the coexistence theory of metallic melts in Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-A1 and Cu-Al melts leads to fruitful results that not only the evaluated mass action concentrations agree well with the measured activities, but also the calculated mixing thermodynamic parameters are quite coincident with the experimental values. Moreover, the calculated mass action concentrations strictly obey the mass action law. The evaluated mixing thermodynamic parameters have very fine regularity: the mixing free energy is composed of standard free formation energies of all compounds and chemical potentials of all structural units at equilibrium; the mixing enthalpy consists of standard formation enthalpies of all compounds; the mixing entropy is composed of standard entropies of all compounds and configuration entropies of all structural units at equilibrium. As the equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated are widely applicable to metallic melts involving compound formation, they can be used as the second practical criterion to determine whether thermodynamic models of metallic melts are correctly formulated.

  18. Factors associated with adherence to antihypertensive treatment in a primary care unit Factores asociados con la adhesión al tratamiento antihipertensivo en unidad de salud Fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo em unidade básica de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Simonia Demoner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the adherence of patients to antihypertensive treatment conducted in a Primary Care Unit (PCU, as well as the related factors of low adherence to this therapy. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive exploratory study of hypertensive patients interviewed in a PCU, using the Morisky-Green Test for assessing adherence or nonadherence with antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: A prevalence of 64% of patients who were nonadherent to antihypertensive therapy was identified, and this was significantly related to the variables of: age, occupation, obesity, lack of other chronic disease, lack of employment, continuous use of prescription drugs, misunderstanding of the medical recommendations, and ignorance of the name of antihypertensive medication use. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence (64% of patients nonadherent to therapy, that was significantly associated with users who were: in the youngest age group, working, and presenting with overweight or obesity.OBJETIVOS: Analizar la adhesión de pacientes al tratamiento anti-hipertensivo realizado en una Unidad Básica de Salud (UBS, así como los factores relacionados a la baja adhesión a esa terapia. MÉTODOS: Estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, exploratoria descritiva realizado con una muestra de 150 pacientes hipertensos entrevistados en una UBS, utilizándose el Test de Morisky-Green para la evaluación de la adhesión o no al tratamiento anti-hipertensivo. RESULTADOS: Fue identificada una prevalencia del 64% de pacientes no adherentes a la terapia anti-hipertensiva que estuvo significativamente asociada a las variables: grupo etáreo, ocupación, obesidad, ausencia de otra enfermedad crónica, falta de empleo de medicamentos de uso contínuo, incomprensión de las recomendaciones médicas y el desconocimiento del nombre del medicamento anti-hipertensivo utilizado. CONCLUSIÓN: Se constato una elevada prevalencia del 64% de pacientes no adherentes a la terapia que, fue

  19. Reflexiones al finalizar la «Década de las Naciones Unidas de Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible 2005–2014»: referencias ambientales en los Grados de la UNED y aportación de la Geografía a la EDS = Reflections at the end of the ‘United Nations Dec...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª del Pilar Borderías Uribeondo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Las Naciones Unidas propusieron que en la década 2005–2014 se promoviera un cambio en la educación para conseguir un futuro sostenible, cuyos resultados han sido valorados positivamente en la declaración de la Conferencia Mundial de la UNESCO sobre Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible, celebrada en Aichi-Nagoya en noviembre de 2014. En el ámbito universitario español, en el año 2005, la Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas (CRUE se sumó a este objetivo general de la década «integrar los valores inherentes al desarrollo sostenible en todos los aspectos del aprendizaje para motivar cambios de comportamiento que permitan una sociedad más sostenible y justa para todos», mediante la aprobación de las directrices para la Sostenibilización Curricular. En el ámbito geográfico, la Comisión sobre Educación Geográfica Internacional también se sumaba a la proclamada por la ONU «Década de las Naciones Unidas de Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible 2005–2014» con la Declaración de Lucerna 2007 sobre «Educación Geográfica para el Desarrollo Sostenible», confirmando así su compromiso con este objetivo y ampliando otras declaraciones anteriores, realizadas para impulsar el conocimiento del entorno mediante la educación geográfica. Con estas premisas, al finalizar esta década que ha querido impulsar la educación ambiental en todos los niveles de la enseñanza, en este artículo se hace un breve seguimiento de las referencias a la sostenibilidad ambiental en los objetivos y en las competencias generales y específicas que se expresan en los estudios de Grado en la UNED, con el fin de observar la repercusión que ha tenido esta iniciativa hasta el momento en esta universidad, y se reflexiona sobre las relaciones entre geografía, educación geográfica y desarrollo sostenible.The United Nations established the decade of 2005–2014 to promote the education for a sustainable future. The

  20. La Psychologie Soufie Selon Sadr Al-Din Qûnawî: Les Bases Fondamentales de l’Evolution de la Personnalité Soufie Selon Qûnawî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibrahim IŞITAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La psychologie soufie – qui se concentre sur les attitudes et les comportements des soufis – est un domaine nouveau qui pourra contribuer à la psychologie moderne du fait de sa dimension spirituelle. De par le passé, les disciplines religieuses et spirituelles s’occupaient de la santé mentale et de l’évolution de la personnalité. Aujourd’hui, ce rôle est désormais dévolu aux psychologues et aux psychiatres. Certains d’entre-eux ont commencé aussi à profiter, dans leurs études et applications, de la littérature et applications religieuses et spirituelles. Ils s’intéressent plus particulièrement à la littérature soufie et utilisent les réflexions et applications des soufis dans leurs traitements thérapeutiques. Nous avons examiné dans le présent article les bases fondamentales de l’évolution de la personnalité soufie d’après Sadr al-Dîn Qunawî, un soufi du 13ème siècle et de la tradition d’Ibn ‘Arabî. Nous avons ainsi essayé d’étudier les bases métaphysiques et psychologiques de la structure de la personnalité soufie et les effets de ces bases dans les attitudes et comportements humains.

  1. Rheocasting Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girot, F.A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J.M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    A development status account is given for the rheocasting method of Al-alloy matrix/SiC-whisker composites, which involves the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of 8-15 vol pct of whiskers through the stirring of the semisolid matrix melt while retaining sufficient fluidity for casting. Both 1-, 3-, and 6-mm fibers of Nicalon SiC and and SiC whisker reinforcements have been experimentally investigated, with attention to the characterization of the resulting microstructures and the effects of fiber-matrix interactions. A thin silica layer is found at the whisker surface. 7 references.

  2. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  3. El culto al pixel

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gómez, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Podemos considerar el retrogaming como el culto a las plataformas antiguas y sus respectivos videojuegos, tanto de ordenador como de las consolas de 8-bits. Este artículo trata de hacer una aproximación de carácter etnográfico sobre el fenómeno del retrogaming. Podemos considerar a este colectivo como un “fandom” al uso, que posee actividades de carácter colectivo, publicaciones digitales y en papel, y convenciones en las que se venden los juegos, las consolas y hardware. Retrogaming can b...

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Muscular Dystrophy Association (www.mda.org) The Les Turner ALS Foundation (www.lesturnerals.org) Back to Top ... als. Back to Top Why was incidence (new cases of ALS) not provided in the report? Date of diagnosis is needed to calculate incidence. ...

  5. Processo de trabalho da enfermeira que atua em puericultura nas unidades de saúde da família Proceso de trabajo de la enfermera que trabaja en el cuidado al niño en las unidades de salud de la Work process of the nurse who works in child care in family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dantas de Assis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tratou-se de uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi analisar o processo de trabalho da enfermeira nas ações de puericultura em unidades de saúde da família. Os sujeitos foram enfermeiras e a coleta dos dados empíricos foi realizada por meio da observação participante e de entrevista. A análise dos dados seguiu os fundamentos da análise temática. Os resultados revelam que a organização do processo de trabalho das enfermeiras permanece centrada em procedimentos com uma oferta de assistência baseada na doença, demonstrando entraves à prática da puericultura na atenção básica em saúdeSe trató de una investigación de abordaje cualitativo, cuyo objetivo fue analizar el proceso de trabajo de la enfermera en las acciones de cuidado al niño en unidades de salud de la familia. Los sujetos fueron enfermeros. La recogida de datos empíricos se realizó por medio de la observación participante y de entrevistas. El análisis de datos siguió los fundamentos del análisis temático. Los resultados revelan que la organización del proceso de trabajo de las enfermeras permanece, aún, centrada en procedimientos con una oferta de asistencia basada en la enfermedad del usuario, demostrando obstáculos a la práctica de la puericultura en la atención básica en saludThis is a qualitative research, which purpose was to analyse the working process of nurse in child care actions in family health units. Nurses are the subjects and empirical data was achieved by the means of participant observation, and interviews. Data analysis followed thematic analysis fundaments. Results reveal that working process organization of nurses still remains centered in proceedings with an offert of assistance based in client illness, showing obstacles to puericulture practice in health basic attention

  6. Cognitive impairment in ALS patients and validation of the Spanish version of the ALS-CBS test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon-Sans, Janina; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi; Reñé, Ramon; Rico, Imma; Gámez, Cristina; Paipa, Andres; Povedano, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS) and investigate behavioural/cognitive impairment in our ALS patients. We enrolled 50 patients with definite or probable ALS, evaluated by the Motor Neuron Disease Unit (using El Escorial criteria) and Dementia Unit, and assessed with the Spanish ALS-CBS. The patients' cognitive/behavioural status was classified according to current criteria. Patients were classified into each diagnostic category: ALS-no impairment, 36%; ALS-mild cognitive impairment, 34%; ALS-mild behavioural impairment, 6%; ALS-mild cognitive/behavioural impairment, 12%; ALS-frontotemporal dementia, 12%. Cognitive impairment was more common in bulbar (90.9%) than spinal (48.7%) forms (p CBS was validated. Performance to differentiate normal vs. impaired individuals was: 1) cognition (cut-off 15; AUC, 84.7%): sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 62%, positive predictive value 75.8%, negative predictive value 76.5%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 36; AUC, 83.3%): sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 74.3%, positive predictive value 61%, negative predictive value 96.3%. Performance to differentiate between patients with and without dementia: 1) cognition (cut-off 8; AUC, 87.3%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 31.3%, negative predictive value 97.1%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 35; AUC, 80.9%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value 25%, negative predictive value 96.7%. In conclusion, cognitive impairment is common in ALS patients, particularly in bulbar forms. The Spanish version of the ALS-CBS is useful for screening cognitive/behavioural impairment in this population.

  7. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  8. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  9. Modeling neuronal vulnerability in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

    2014-08-20

    Using computational models of motor neuron ion fluxes, firing properties, and energy requirements, Le Masson et al. (2014) reveal how local imbalances in energy homeostasis may self-amplify and contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS.

  10. AL-SIYAQ FI TARJAMAH KITAB AL-LUGHAH AL-'ARABIYAH ILA AL-LUGHAH AL-INDUNISIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Zuliati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the translation of 53 poems in Tata Bahasa Arab book written by Chatibul Umam, et al. in view of the context theory. This study was based on a contextual translation theory that the understanding the right and proper context of Arabic texts translated into Indonesian plays an important role in determining the quality of a translation that is easily understood, contextual and functional. The qualitative data were read using the linguistic approach and critical translation. This study concluded that the translation work of Chatibul Umam, et al. tended to be literal not based on the complete understanding of the context, internal context (linguistic context and socio-cultural context of the texts. The role of the external context of the texts is less utilized in the translation process of poetry (nazham, so that the translation of the book is neither communicative nor functional.

  11. The Jaad (Grandfather) Letters an Al Qaeda Worldview Through the Eyes of a Terrorist Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    them died before they reached Palestine. The rest were killed in battle. In 1187, Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub ( Saladin ), the heroic Sunni Sultan of...was among the primary Christian leaders of the Third Crusade.750 Saladin led the fierce Muslim opposition. In contrast to the monstrous Christian...crusaders, Saladin did not maim, kill, or retaliate against those he defeated. Even Christian chroniclers agree that he acted with chivalry in

  12. [Retrospective study of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in patients infected with HIV in the infectious diseases unit of university hospital of Casablanca, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollo, I; Marih, L; El Fane, M; Es-Sebbani, M; Sodqi, M; Oulad Lahsen, A; Chakib, A; El Kadioui, F; Hamdani, A; El Mabrouki, M J; Soussi Abdallaoui, M; Karima, Z; Hassoune, S; Maaroufi, A; Marhoum El Filali, K

    2016-12-01

    To report the cases of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis and to describe the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcomes of patients. Retrospective study of 43 patients infected with HIV admitted from January first 2010 to June 30th 2015 in the infectious disease unit of UHC Ibn Rochd, for neuromeningeal cryptococcus. The mean frequency of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in patients infected with HIV was 1.4%. The mean age was 39 years and a sex ratio of 1.38. The mean CD4 count was 70 cells/mm(3). The diagnosis of HIV was revealed by neuromeningeal cryptococcus in 77% of cases. Fifteen days interval was reported between the first symptom and hospital admission. Headache (77%) was the most represented clinical sign. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed hypoglycorachy (67%), hyperproteinorachy (65%) and lymphocytosis (63%). Chinese ink direct examination for Cryptococcus neoformans in CSF was positive in 86% of cases and all cases were positive after culture on Sabouraud's medium. Patients were treated with monotherapy amphotericin B (42%) or fluconazole (28%) and bitherapy amphotéricine B/fluconazole (28%). Fatal evolution was observed in 60% of cases. Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis remains a severe opportunistic infection in HIV patients with a heavy mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  14. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... ... were made. Keywords: Total factor productivity, Convergence, Panel Unit Root. .... variable or labour quality variable. Mankiw et al [31] ... America are increasing in their economic growth rate ... This line of argument centers.

  15. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Maldonado Romero

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, 01 de Agosto de 1990
    Señores
    Miembros del Consejo Editorial
    Academia Nacional de Medicina
    E.S.D.

    Señores doctores:

    Con toda consideración y respeto me permito agregar algunas anotaciones al escrito del Académico Alberto Cárdenas Escobar, aparecido en el No. 22 de Medicina, para destacar algunos aspectos de la personalidad del doctor Alberto Schweitzer galardonado con el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

    A los 30 años de edad tomó una decisión dramática: Estudiar Medicina para trabajaren el África Ecuatorial. Cuando terminó sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades tropicales y sus prácticas hospitaLarias, partió para el Gabon al pequeño pueblo de Lambarené. La tarea era desconsoladora; La atención médica había que prestarla al aire libre; iba con su esposa, como enfermera y amanuense, y no se encontraba ni un intérprete, ni un ayudante. Cuando le llegaron la medicina y el equipaje hubo que acomodarlos en un viejo gallinero abandonado; el calor era insoportable y le venían enfermos de varias millas a la redonda, a pie o en Canoas.

    Las enfermedades más difundidas eran Malaria, Disentería, estreptococias y la más mortífera, la Tripanosomiasis Gambiense, para la que empezaban a llegar medicinas nuevas eficaces y las medidas preventivas como el suministro de agua potable y enmallado de ventanas impedían muchas contaminaciones.

    Pero la que causaba mayores dificultades y trabajo era la Mycobacteriasis Anestesiante, incurable, de difícil diagnóstico, afectando a varios miembros de la misma familia, de aspecto horripilante, con complicaciones neuríticas muy dolorosas, frecuente ceguera, e invalideces y procesos erisepelatososacrotéricos, que exigían acompañante para el cambio y lavado de vendas y suministro de alimentos.

    A menos de un año de

  16. Unit Circles and Inverse Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Azael

    2014-01-01

    Historical accounts of trigonometry refer to the works of many Indian and Arab astronomers on the origin of the trigonometric functions as we know them now, in particular Abu al-Wafa (ca. 980 CE), who determined and named all known trigonometric functions from segments constructed on a regular circle and later on a unit circle (Moussa 2011;…

  17. High efficiency tandem organic light-emitting devices with Al/WO3/Au interconnecting layer

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An interconnecting layer of Al (2 nm)/WO3 (3 nm)/Au (16 nm) was studied for application in tandem organic light-emitting devices. It can be seen that the Al/WO3/Au structure plays the role of an excellent interconnecting layer. The introduction of WO3 in the connection unit significantly improves the device efficiency as compared to the case of Al/Au. Thus, the current efficiency of the two-unit tandem devices is enhanced by two factors with respect to the one-unit devices. The green two-u...

  18. SYNTHESIS OF HIGH SILICA CHA ZEOLITES WITH CONTROLLED Si/Al RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites with the CHA topology have been synthesized with Si/Al ratios ranging from 15 to 133. ICP-AES analysis shows that the Si/Al ratio in the material is close to linearly related to the Si/Al ratio in the reaction mixture, while powder XRD shows that the unit cell parameters decrease with increasing Si/Al ratio. The difference between the unit cell parameters for the as-synthesized and the calcined samples show that the structure directing agent sterically hinders the contraction in the ...

  19. "Francisco Maestas et al. v. George H. Shone et al.": Mexican American Resistance to School Segregation in the Hispano Homeland, 1912-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben; Guzmán, Gonzalo; Hanson, Jarrod

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this article argue that the "Francisco Maestas et al. vs. George H. Shone et al." (1914) case is one of the earliest Mexican American challenges to school segregation in the United States. Unidentified for over a century, the lawsuit took place in southern Colorado, a region of the nation where Mexican Americans have deep…

  20. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  1. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  2. 78 FR 54691 - American General Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... COMMISSION American General Life Insurance Company, et al. August 29, 2013, AGENCY: The Securities and... Life Insurance Company (``American General''), The United States Life Insurance Company in the City of New York (``US Life'') (each, an ``Insurance Company'' and together, the ``Insurance Companies''),...

  3. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  4. Kirchengeschichte als Ketzergeschichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lanwerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die katholische Theologin Daniela Müller spricht am Ende ihres Buches von der „Notwendigkeit der Ketzerei“ und begründet diesen Gedanken wie folgt: „‚Ketzer‘ und ‚Ketzerinnen‘ sind die dunklen Geschwister, ohne die man nicht so wäre wie man ist, die man deshalb so bekämpft, weil sie solch starke Gefühle mit uns teilen, weil sie die gleichen Eltern, den gleichen Ursprung haben wie wir und das gleiche Ziel: zur Familie Gottes zu gehören"; die Kirche als „Hüterin der Glaubenswahrheit“ solle daher die „Ketzergeschichte […] in den immerwährenden Prozess der Wahrheitsfindung“ einbeziehen (S. 233 f.. In diesen Prozess will auch die Autorin mit ihrer Studie eingreifen, und zwar am Beispiel der Katharerinnen, deren Geschichte sie für den Zeitraum von 1143 bis 1275 rekonstruiert; sie verfolgt das fragwürdige Ziel, die Geschichte der Katharerinnen im Modus einer emotionalen und identifikatorischen „Aneignung“ dem „eigenen Leben, der eigenen Sinngebung, der eigenen Verarbeitung“ integrieren zu wollen (S. 15.

  5. The attitudes of nurses from an intensive care unit in the face of errors: an approach in light of bioethics Postura de los enfermeros de una unidad de terapia intensiva frente al error: un abordaje utilizando referenciales bioéticos Postura dos enfermeiros de uma unidade de terapia intensiva frente ao erro: uma abordagem à luz dos referenciais bioéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pires Coli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the attitudes of nurses concerning the occurrence of errors in nursing procedures carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU based on the bioethics framework. This descriptive study with qualitative approach was carried out with 14 nurses from a private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results were analyzed according to Bardin’s proposal of content analysis. The resulting themes were: acknowledging one’s fallibility; acknowledging and reporting errors; hiding errors. The nurses’ reports are based on considerations through the lens of bioethics: taking responsibility for an error implies acknowledging one’s own vulnerabilities; acknowledging an error with responsibility implies ethical conditions in the relationships among those involved; and errors are in the context of a particular environment. This study enables re-thinking nursing practice based on bioethics, resorting to the analysis of errors focusing on the relationships between those involved.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar, a partir de referenciales de la bioética, la postura de los enfermeros delante de la ocurrencia de errores en procedimientos de enfermería, en una unidad de terapia intensiva (UTI. Se trata de investigación descriptiva, bajo abordaje cualitativo, realizado con 14 enfermeros de una UTI, en un hospital privado de Sao Paulo. El análisis de los resultados fue realizado según la propuesta de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Los resultados evidenciados fueron: reconociendo ser falible, reconociendo y comunicando el error, y omitiendo el error. Los relatos de los enfermeros formaron la base para las consideraciones apuntadas a la luz de los referenciales bioéticos; la responsabilidad delante del error supone el reconocimiento de las propias vulnerabilidades, asumir el error con responsabilidad supone condiciones éticas en las relaciones entre las personas envueltas y el error tiene un ambiente. Este estudio propicia

  6. Condition of cleanliness of surfaces close to patients in an intensive care unit Condiciones de limpieza de superficies próximas al paciente en una unidad de terapia intensiva Condições de limpeza de superfícies próximas ao paciente, em uma unidade de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface cleaning is a well-known control procedure against the dissemination of microorganisms in the hospital environment. This prospective study, carried out in an intensive care unit over the course of 14 days, describes the cleaning/disinfection conditions of four surfaces near patients. In total, 100 assessments of the surfaces were carried out after they were cleaned. Three methods were used to evaluate cleanliness: a visual inspection, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP bioluminescence assay and testing for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA. Respectively, 20%, 80% and 16% of the assessments by the visual method, ATP and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus/MRSA failed. There were statistically significant differences (pLa limpieza de las superficies es reconocidamente una medida de control de la diseminación de microorganismos en el ambiente hospitalario. Este estudio prospectivo, realizado en una unidad de terapia intensiva, durante 14 días, tuvo como objetivo describir las condiciones de limpieza/desinfección de cuatro superficies próximas al paciente. Cien evaluaciones de las superficies fueron realizadas después del proceso de limpieza. Se utilizaron tres métodos para evaluar la limpieza: inspección visual, adenosín trifosfato (ATP bioluminiscencia y presencia de Staphylococcus aureus/MSRA. Respectivamente, 20%, 80% y 16% de las evaluaciones por los métodos: visual, ATP y presencia de Staphylococcus aureus/MSRA, fueron consideradas reprobadas. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (pA limpeza das superfícies é reconhecidamente medida de controle da disseminação de microrganismos no ambiente hospitalar. Este estudo prospectivo, realizado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, durante 14 dias, teve como objetivo descrever as condições de limpeza/desinfecção de quatro superfícies próximas do paciente. Cem avaliações das superfícies foram realizadas ap

  7. Pearls of Prophetic Biography upon Ibn Abid Rabá Al-Andalusi | لآلئ السيرة النبوية في عقد ابن عبد ربه الأندلسي

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khazal Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    ... النبوية الشريفة في أدبيات أهل الأندلس وتوضيح أبرز أبواب المؤلف العقد الفريد ومكانة الأحاديث النبوية الشريفة في محاوره حول الحكم والمثل العليا من خلال خوضه مبادئ العلم...

  8. Crystal structure of novel compounds in the systems Zr-Cu-Al, Mo-Pd-Al and partial phase equilibria in the Mo-Pd-Al system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Atta U; Rogl, P; Giester, G

    2012-02-28

    The crystal structures of three Al-rich compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry: τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) (x = 0.067); τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) and τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144). τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) adopts a unique structure type (space group Pbcm; lattice parameters a = 0.78153(2), b = 1.02643(3) and c = 0.86098(2) nm), which can be conceived as a superstructure of the Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) type. Whereas Mo-atoms occupy the 4d site, Pd(2) occupies the 4c site, Al and Pd(1) atoms randomly share the 4d position and the rest of the positions are fully occupied by Al. A Bärnighausen tree documents the crystallographic group-subgroup relation between the structure types of Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) and τ(1). τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) has been confirmed to crystallize with the ThMn(12) type (space group I4/mmm; lattice parameters a = 0.85243(2) and c = 0.50862(3) nm). In total, 4 crystallographic sites were defined, out of which, Zr occupies site 2a, the 8f site is fully occupied by Cu, the 8i site is entirely occupied by Al, but the 8j site turned out to comprise a random mixture of Cu and Al atoms. The compound τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144) crystallizes in a unique structure type (space group P4/nmm; lattice parameters a = 0.40275(3) and c = 1.17688(4) nm) which exhibits full atom order but a vacancy (14.4%) on the 2c site, shared with Cu atoms. τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) is a superstructure of Cu with an arrangement of three unit cells of Cu in the direction of the c-axis. A Bärnighausen tree documents this relationship. The ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) type (n = 3) is part of a series of structures which follow this building principle: Cu (n = 1), TiAl(3) (n = 2), τ(5)-TiNi(2-x)Al(5) (n = 4), HfGa(2) (n = 6) and Cu(3)Pd (n = 7). A partial isothermal section for the Al-rich part of the Mo-Pd-Al system at 860 °C has been established with two ternary compounds τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) and τ(2) (unknown structure). The

  9. Infrared and MAS NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Al18B4O33

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The IR spectrum and 11B and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of Al18B4O33 are presented and discussed in relation to the possible existence of boron atoms substituting for aluminum atoms. TheIR spectrum shows that the strong vibrations of the BO3 groups are present in the 1 500~1 200em-1 region, and very weak bands of BO4 units are present in the region from 1 000 to 1 100cm-1. 11B MAS NMR spectrum indicates that the strong signal for BO3 units appears in the region from δ +5 to δ +20, and the very weak signal for BO4 units is at about δ-1, while 27AlMAS NMR spectrum shows five peaks at about δ +62, +42. 1, +14,-4.7 and-6.4, originating from AlO4, AlO4, A1O5, AlO6 and AlO6, respectively. These results reveal that there areminor BO4 units in Al18B4O33, indicating that a small amount of B atoms substitute for Al atomsin the 4-fold coordination.

  10. STURCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND QUANTUM CHEMISTRY CALCULATION OF Al-DOPED BORON CARBIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Structural characteristics, chemical bonds and thermoelectric properties of Al-doped boron carbides are studied through calculations of various structural unit models by using a self-consistent-field discrete variation Xα method. The calculations show that Al atom doped in boron carbide is in preference to substituting B or C atoms on the end of boron carbide chain, and then may occupy interstitial sites, but it is difficult for Al to substitute B or C atom in the centers of the chain or in the icosahedra. A representative structural unit containing an Al atom is [C-B-Al]ε+-[B11C]ε-, while the structural unit without Al is [C-B-B(C)]ε--[B11C]ε+, and the coexistence of these two different structural units makes the electrical conductivity increased. As the covalent bond of Al-B or Al-C is weaker than that of B-B or B-C, the thermal conductivity decreases when Al is added into boron carbides. With the electrical conductivity increasing and the thermal conductivity decreases, Al doping has significant effect on thermoelectric properties of boron carbides.

  11. Porosity of porous Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two porosity models of porous Al alloys with different pore types (ball and polygon shape) were established. The experimental results coincide well with theoretical computations. The porosity of Al alloys (Prc) consists of three parts, porosity caused by preform particles (Prp), additional porosity (Pra), and porosity caused by solidification shrinkage (Prs). Prp is the main part of Prc while Pra is the key for fabricating porous Al alloys successfully in spite of its little contribution to Prc.

  12. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    www.carleton.ca/cciss/res_docs/itac/gendron_e.pdf; Internet. 26Muhammad Abd al-salam Faraj, Al-Farīdah al-Ghā’ibah, trans. Johannes J.G. Jansen and... Theo Van Gogh.91 Hoffman also supports the idea proposed by other experts like Benjamin Orbach and Keith Blanchard of the Congressional Research...religious intolerance over cartoons in Danish newspapers, the assassination of Theo Van Goeh, and increasing discontent among disassociated Muslim

  13. Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarra, E. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es; Apinaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Superior, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pierna, A.R. [Chemical Engineering and Environmental Department, UPV/EHU, Box 1379, 20008 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO{sub 3} stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference ({delta}a) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary.

  14. Interfacial characterization of Al-Al thermocompression bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, N., E-mail: nishantmalik1987@gmail.com [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1032, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); SINTEF ICT, Department of Microsystems and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Carvalho, P. A. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Department of Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Poppe, E. [SINTEF ICT, Department of Microsystems and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Finstad, T. G. [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1032, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-05-28

    Interfaces formed by Al-Al thermocompression bonding were studied by the transmission electron microscopy. Si wafer pairs having patterned bonding frames were bonded using Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} as intermediate bonding media. A bond force of 36 or 60 kN at bonding temperatures ranging from 400–550 °C was applied for a duration of 60 min. Differences in the bonded interfaces of 200 μm wide sealing frames were investigated. It was observed that the interface had voids for bonding with 36 kN at 400 °C for Al deposited both on Si and on SiO{sub 2}. However, the dicing yield was 33% for Al on Si and 98% for Al on SiO{sub 2}, attesting for the higher quality of the latter bonds. Both a bond force of 60 kN applied at 400 °C and a bond force of 36 kN applied at 550 °C resulted in completely bonded frames with dicing yields of, respectively, 100% and 96%. A high density of long dislocations in the Al grains was observed for the 60 kN case, while the higher temperature resulted in grain boundary rotation away from the original Al-Al interface towards more stable configurations. Possible bonding mechanisms and reasons for the large difference in bonding quality of the Al films deposited on Si or SiO{sub 2} are discussed.

  15. Dissolution of rare-earth clusters in SiO2 by Al codoping: A microscopic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic model for the incorporation of Er2O3 units in silica codoped with Al2O3 is presented. The model assumes that Er clustering is counteracted by the formation of Er-Al complexes in which each Er ion provides valence compensation for three substitutional Al ions. These complexes are inv...

  16. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  17. Compositional analysis of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauko, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Zheng, C. L.; Glanvill, S. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Zhu, Y.; Etheridge, J., E-mail: joanne.etheridge@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, C. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Munshi, A. M.; Fimland, B. O. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate a method for compositional mapping of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As heterostructures with high accuracy and unit cell spatial resolution using quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The method is low dose relative to spectroscopic methods and insensitive to the effective source size and higher order lens aberrations. We apply the method to study the spatial variation in Al concentration in cross-sectioned GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires and quantify the concentration in the Al-rich radial band and the AlGaAs shell segments.

  18. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  19. Explosive destruction of 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The γ -ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of 26Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic ^{26} Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of ^{26} Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on ^{26} Al, such as (n,p) and (n, α , have among the largest impacts on the total ^{26} Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of ^{26} Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n_TOF at CERN with an ^{26} Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the ^{26} Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  20. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  1. 81 - 87 Iwuala et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    given to patients suffering from kidney diseases. (Okujagu et al., 2006). ... management of rheumatism has been documented. (Ikewuchi et al . ... such as light, water as well as salinity are important variables ..... Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60: 324- ... Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 11: 117-118. Sofowora, A.

  2. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  3. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger;

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS.......This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  4. Role of Ti doping and Al and B vacancies in the dehydrogenation of Al(BH₄)₃

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANI CHOUDHURI; ARUP MAHATA; KUBER SINGH RAWAT; BISWARUP PATHAK

    2016-10-01

    Metal borohydrides such as Al(BH₄)₃ is thermodynamically very stable but has weak dehydrogenation property. In contrast, Ti(BH₄)₃ has less stability (25◦C) but excellent dehydrogenation property. Hence, we have studied Ti-doped aluminium borohydride systems in order to improve the dehydrogenation property. Our density functional studies (DOS and pDOS) show that Ti interacts more strongly with the BH₄ unit and such strong interaction weakens the B-H bond and improves the dehydrogenation property. Ti-doped Al(BH₄)₃ system improves the overall stability due to the formation of a stronger Ti-B bond. Our study on defects in Al(BH₄)₃ suggests that B-defect system has the best dehydrogenation property compared to the pure and Ti-doped Al(BH₄)₃ systems.

  5. The Effect of Al on the Compressibility of Silicate Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. J.; Kubo, A.; Yoshino, T.; Koga, K. T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Experimental data on compressibility of aluminous silicate perovskite show widely disparate results. Several studies show that Al causes a dramatic increase in compressibility1-3, while another study indicates a mild decrease in compressibility4. Here we report new results for the effect of Al on the room-temperature compressibility of perovskite using in situ X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell from 30 to 100 GPa. We studied compressibility of perovskite in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 in compositions with 0 to 25 mol% Al. Perovskite was synthesized from starting glasses using laser-heating in the DAC, with KBr as a pressure medium. Diffraction patterns were obtained using monochromatic radiation and an imaging plate detector at beamline BL10XU, SPring8, Japan. Addition of Al into the perovskite structure causes systematic increases in orthorhombic distortion and unit cell volume at ambient conditions (V0). Compression of the perovskite unit cell is anisotropic, with the a axis about 25% and 3% more compressive than the b and c axes, respectively. The magnitude of orthorhombic distortion increases with pressure, but aluminous perovskite remains stable to at least 100 GPa. Our results show that Al causes only a mild increase in compressibility, with the bulk modulus (K0) decreasing at a rate of 0.7 GPa/0.01 XAl. This increase in compressibility is consistent with recent ab initio calculations if Al mixes into both the 6- and 8-coordinated sites by coupled substitution5, where 2 Al3+ = Mg2+ + Si4+. Our results together with those of [4] indicate that this substitution mechanism predominates throughout the lower mantle. Previous mineralogic models indicating the upper and lower mantle are compositionally similar in terms of major elements remain effectively unchanged because solution of 5 mol% Al into perovskite has a minor effect on density. 1. Zhang & Weidner (1999). Science 284, 782-784. 2. Kubo et al. (2000) Proc. Jap. Acad. 76B, 103-107. 3. Daniel et al

  6. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  7. La lapidación como castigo de las relaciones sexuales no legales (zinā en el seno de la escuela Mālikí: doctrina, práctica legal y actitudes individuales frente al delito (ss. XI y XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Ruano, Delfina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maliki jurist Ibn Rushd al-Jadd (d.520/1126 issued a fatwā regarding stoning as a punishment for zinā (unlawful sexual relations. This article examines this fatwā, focusing on three problems: 1 the scarcity of references to implementation of stoning as a punishment for zinā in the pre-modem period, 2 the generally contradictory attitude of pre-modem Muslim jurists, who stressed the validity of stoning as a punishment for zinā but also called for a strict observance of the law, a factor that made it almost impossible to implement, and 3 the importance of the legal opinions offered by pre-modern fuqahā' with regard to contemporary discussions on stoning.

    Partiendo del análisis de una fetua en la que se plantea la posibilidad de condenar a la lapidación a una mujer acusada de haber mantenido relaciones sexuales ilícitas con un hombre, se analiza la doctrina legal sobre zinā de Ibn Rušd el abuelo (m. 520/1126, uno de los juristas mālikíes más relevantes de todos los tiempos. El análisis de esta doctrina conduce a una reflexión acerca de tres cuestiones: 1 la escasez de referencias a la aplicación del castigo de lapidación en el período pre-moderno, 2 la actitud contradictoria de los juristas musulmanes de ese mismo período, los cuales, por una parte sostienen la vigencia del castigo y por otra parte insisten en el respeto escrupuloso de una doctrina que hace que sea prácticamente imposible aplicarlo y 3 la vigencia del corpus de opiniones creado por estos juristas en los debates contemporáneos acerca de la práctica de la lapidación.

  8. MAHARATA AL-ISTIQBAL FI AL-KITAB AL-MADRASI BI AL-MADRASAH AL-TSANAWIYAH AL-ISLAMIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qadhafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the contents of listening and reading skills in the Arabic textbook “Durus al-Lughah al-Arabiyah.” This study was conducted qualitatively and employed a descriptive analysis technique. The population was the Arabic textbook which applied 2013 Curriculum for the tenth graders at the Islamic senior high schools. Data collection procedures involved making the checklist, analyzing the contents of the textbook, coding, tabulating data, and concluding. The research found both listening and reading skill materials in the textbook was sufficient according to Abd al-Rahman al-Fauzan. However, there were still some weaknesses. There were no introductory materials about the sound and the introduction of the long and short vowels. In addition, the CD/recording was unavailable for listening. Lastly, there was no picture in each title to help students’ comprehension. But, the content of listening and reading skills in the textbook were relevant to 2013 Curriculum for Arabic language subject.

  9. The Linguistic Technique of Parallelism in Al-Ahwas Al-Ansari’s Poetry: A Stylistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah’d Ahmad Al-halhooli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parallelism is one of the most conspicuous stylistic techniques that are marked by the receiver's ear, and it also has an excellent musical rhythm. Al-Ahwas[1] thoroughly familiarizes readers with an entire host of parallelistic arrangements in his poetry, which makes the semantic units a rich material for the aesthetic study. The present study presents the most beautiful uses of all varieties of parallelism in a corpus of Al-Ahwas's poetry, as the reader of his poetry would never miss observing the many images of parallelism based on semantic concordance, as well as the parallelism that appears in one line, or in a stanza, based on structural concordance, in addition to the parallelism formed by the morphological rhythm which is based on the repetition of a morphological derivative formulae. Al-Ahwas did not suffice himself with the similar morphological formulae to achieve rhythm, but he also aimed at the parallelism achieved by repetition, which falls into several patterns. They can be included in one verse line, or within a number lines conforming to one idea, but with different contexts. The second pattern of repetition in terms of rhythm and structure is Epanaphora, or Epanalepsis: which is a repetitive structure based on inserting a word at the beginning of the speech and then repeating the same word at the end of the speech. Al-Ahwas achieved a high rhythmical harmony using parallelism besides a semantic goal by deliberately intensifying parallel words and functioning units in a network revolving around the dominant idea. This study hopes to pave the way for future avenues of studies in poetry under the category of stylistics.  [1]. The poet Al-Ahwas Al-Ansari. He is Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Asim bin Thabit al-Ansari, one of the Umayyad poets, died in Damascus in 105 AH / 723 AD. He was called Al-Ahwas for a tightness in his eye. He is an Islamic satire poet.

  10. Missing lynx and trophic cascades in food webs: A reply to Ripple et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Mark Hebblewhite; Joel Berger

    2012-01-01

    Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations in the contiguous United States through indirect species interactions. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed 2 key trophic linkages connecting wolf restoration with lynx recovery. First, recovering...

  11. Three-phonon stimulated Raman scattering in an orthorhombic LuAlO3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskii, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been revealed in a LuAlO3 crystal upon stationary picosecond laser excitation. All recorded Stokes and anti-Stokes χ(3)-nonlinear laser components are attributed to three SRS-promoting A g vibrational modes of its octahedral anionic units (AlO3)-3.

  12. Quantum dots formed in InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramkin, D. S.; Rumynin, K. M.; Bakarov, A. K.; Kolotovkina, D. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Shamirzaev, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure of new self-assembled InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs quantum dots grown by molecularbeam epitaxy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The theoretical calculations of the energy spectrum of the quantum dots have been supplemented by the experimental data on the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Deposition of 1.5 ML of InSb or AlSb on the AlAs surface carried out in the regime of atomic-layer epitaxy leads to the formation of pseudomorphically strained quantum dots composed of InAlSbAs and AlSbAs alloys, respectively. The quantum dots can have the type-I and type-II energy spectra depending on the composition of the alloy. The ground hole state in the quantum dot belongs to the heavy-hole band and the localization energy of holes is much higher than that of electrons. The ground electron state in the type-I quantum dots belongs to the indirect X XY valley of the conduction band of the alloy. The ground electron state in the type-II quantum dots belongs to the indirect X valley of the conduction band of the AlAs matrix.

  13. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en niños que consultaron al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín Diciembre 1 de 1998-marzo 6 de 1999 Risk factors for accidents in children that consulted to the emergency unit of San Vicente de Púl Children's Hospital of Medellín, Colombia. December 1, 1998 - March 6, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Mesa Restrepo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio descriptivo prospectivo para identificar los factores de riesgo para accidentes en los niños menores de 12 años que consultaron por esta causa al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín, desde diciembre 1 de 1998 hasta marzo 6 de 1999. Se compararon dichos factores durante un período de vacaciones escolares y uno de actividad académica de igual duración. Se trabajó con 1.185 pacientes. La distribución por sexo fue: 771 niños (65% y 414 niñas (35%; el 76,9% (912 pacientes procedían de Medellín y su área metropolitana. El lugar del accidente fue como sigue: en la calle 582 niños (49%; en el hogar 496 niños (41,9%, en la escuela 32 niños (2,7% y en otros sitios 75 niños (6,3%. Se encontraban solos en el momento del accidente 199 niños (16,8%, con otros niños 512 (43,2% y con adultos 474 (40%. El principal tipo de accidente fue el mecánico en 1.077 casos (90,9%; 740 niños sufrieron caídas lo que representó el 62,5% de todos los accidentes. El accidente por vehículos de motor representó el 10,3% (123 casos. El trauma fue leve en 1.128 niños (95,2%. La letalidad fue del 0,7% (8 niños, especialmente por trauma craneoencefálico debido a accidentes de tránsito y heridas por arma de fuego. El trauma fue más grave en los menores de 2 años. Se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la frecuencia de traumas entre el período de vacaciones y el académico, con más accidentes durante las vacaciones. Se recomienda iniciar programas de prevención de accidentes especialmente en el hogar, dirigidos a los padres y cuidadores de los menores, con énfasis en las etapas de desarrollo de los niños y los riesgos para los diferentes tipos de accidentes. A prospective descriptive study was made to identify the factors of risk for accidents in children smaller than 12 years that consulted for this cause to the Emergency Unit of San Vicente de Paul Children´s Hospital of Medellin, from December 1 of 1998 until

  14. Generation of the ECP database (ECP02.DAT) at the beginning of the cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde; Generacion de la base ECP (ECP02.DAT) al inicio del ciclo 1 de la Unidad 1 de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    In order to carrying out a comparison among the results provided for the Program of Estimate of the ECP Critical Position and the Shutdown/Startup produced in the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, it was generated the base of the ECP program, following the outlines settled down in the Procedure 'Generation of ECP Database for Laguna Verde' (IT.SN/DFR 074). Next the data sheets filled when being generated the ECP02.DAT database at the beginning of the cycle are provided. In the IT.SN/DFR 079 report 'Adjustment and Preliminary Evaluation of the Predictions of Criticity of the ECP Program with Reported Data of Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, the results of the comparison among the estimates of the ECP program using the ECP02.DAT with the real data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde are presented. (Author)

  15. Validation of a new version of software for monitoring the core of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde Unit 2, at the end of Cycle 10; Validacion de una nueva version del software para monitoreo del nucleo de la Central Laguna Verde Unidad 2, al final del Ciclo 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, G.; Calleros, G.; Mata, F. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: gabriel.hernandez05@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    This work shows the differences observed in thermal limits established in the technical specifications of operation, among the new software, installed at the end of Cycle 10 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, and the old software that was installed from the beginning of the cycle. The methodology allowed to validate the new software during the coast down stage, before finishing the cycle, for what could be used as tool during the shutdown of Unit 2 at the end of Cycle 10. (Author)

  16. Al3+-induced vesicle formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium laurate [Al(OOCC11H23)3] was synthesized as a surfactant, which can dissolve in micellar solution of a zwitterionic surfactant, tetradecycldimethylamine oxide (C14DMAO). The phase behavior of the mixtures of Al(OOCC11H23)3 and C14DMAO in water was studied and birefringent Lα-phase was observed. The birefringent Lα-phase consists of vesicles that were demonstrated by Polarizer and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) micrographs. Al3+-coordinated vesicles could be used as templating-precursor, providing a vesicle-route for preparation of inorganic nanoscale particles.

  17. Melt Processing and Characterization of Al-SiC Nanocomposite, Al, and Mg Foam Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Nabawy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, metallic foams of Al, Mg and an Al-SiC nanocomposite (MMNC have been fabricated using a new manufacturing technique by employing melt infiltration assisted with an electromagnetic force. The aim of this investigation was to study and to develop a reliable manufacturing technique consisting of different types of metallic foams. In this technique, an electromagnetic force was used to assist the infiltration of Al-SiC slurry and of pure liquid metal into a leachable pattern of NaCl, thus providing perfect cellular structures with micro-sized porosities. A high frequency induction coil unit equipped with a vacuum chamber and a hydraulic press was used to manufacture the foam materials. Microstructures of the produced foam materials were explored by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM. The mechanical behavior of the manufactured foams was investigated by applying compression testing. The results indicate a high applicability of the new technique in producing metallic foams of pure metals and of a metal matrix nanocomposite . The produced foam materials displayed isotropic cellular structures with excellent compressive behaviors. Microstructure measurements indicate that the average pore size and strut thickness that can be achieved are in the ranges of 100–500 μm and 50–100 μm, respectively. The produced foam of the Al-SiC nanocomposite material provided the highest strength of 50 MPa prior to the densification stage, which equates to 25 times, and 10 times higher than the strength levels that were obtained by Al, and Mg foams, respectively.

  18. AlN synthesis on AlN/SiC template using Li-Al-N solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangawa, Yoshihiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kakimoto, Koichi [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    We investigated the possibility of AlN synthesis using Li-Al-N solvent. In this work, Li-Al-N solvent was obtained by heating a mixture composed of Al and Li{sub 3}N. First, we studied the relationship between Al/Li{sub 3}N composition of the initial mixture and shape of obtained crystal. The results showed that polyhedral crystals instead of needle-like crystals were obtained under an Al-rich condition, i.e., 4/3<Al/Li{sub 3}N<4/1. Next, we performed AlN synthesis on an AlN/SiC template under an Al-rich condition. The results suggested that a large AlN single-phase region was formed by using the template. The possibility of growth of bulk AlN using Li-Al-N solvent was shown by the present investigations. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Oke et al (3).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    The study revealed that flow in pipe network analysis varied with the method. ... Figure 2a: Global Sanitation Coverage Trends in urban and Rural Areas, 1990 – 2011 (JMP, 2013; Oke et al., ...... WaterResouces Management.28: 2012- 2034.

  20. 39 - 45_Maikai et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and high mortality (Anosa, 1983; Allam et al., 2011; .... Values obtained are expressed as mean ± SEM. .... weight and haematological parameters in ... Trypanosoma brucei infection in deer mice .... rates and liver pathology of Trypanosoma.

  1. EKSKURSO AL CANGYAN-MONTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verkita; de; Li; Shijun

    1999-01-01

    La Pekina Esperanto-Asocio preskaǚ sta-rigis tradicion organizi ekskurson printempe kajaǚtune. En la pasinta jaro, ni ekskursis al In-terna Mongolio kaj habis agrablajn renkontiojnkun geesperantistoj en Huhehot kaj Baotou. i-

  2. Obituaries: Zainab al-Ghazali

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matt Horton

    2005-01-01

    An obituary for Zainab al-Ghazali, an outspoken advocate of shariah law and an ally of the underground Muslim Brotherhood who founded her own organization, the Muslim Women's Association in 1937, is presented...

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  5. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  6. First principles calculations of formation energies and elastic constants of inclusions α-Al2O3, MgO and AlN in aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuanchun; Xiao, Zhengbing; Yang, Chuge; Reng, Xianwei

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the formation energies and elastic constants of α-Al2O3, MgO and AlN in both rock salt (cubic) and wurtzite (hexagonal) structures were investigated by first principles calculations. The results show that the formation energy being -17.8, -6.3, -3.06 and -3.46 eV/formula unit for α-Al2O3, MgO, AlN (rock salt) and AlN (wurtzite). It suggests that in the ground state, α-Al2O3 is relatively more stable than MgO and AlN. The elastic properties for a polycrystalline in the ground state were calculated with the obtained elastic constants, the elastic properties reveal the rock salt structure AlN is the hardest particles among all the inclusions, and all of these inclusions are classified as brittle materials, which is detrimental to the ductile nature of aluminum matrix. The calculated anisotropy index shows that the AlN (wurtzite) and α-Al2O3 have a lower degree of anisotropy compared with MgO and AlN (rock salt). The calculated results are in good agreement with the values of experimental and other works.

  7. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Ce3(Ni/Al/Ga11—A New Phase with the La3Al11 Structure Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Janka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Ce3(Ni/Al/Ga11 were obtained from an Al flux reaction. Single crystals of the title compound crystallizing in the orthorhombic space group Immm (No. 71, Z = 2 with a = 436.38(14, b = 1004.5(3 and c = 1293.4(4 pm. This is a standardized unit cell of the previously published La3Al11 structure type. Wavelength dispersive microprobe provides the composition of Ce3.11(1Ni0.03(1Al8.95(1Ga1.90(1. Single crystal refinement provides the composition Ce3Ni0.08Al9.13Ga1.78 with substitution of the Ni and Ga on the Al1 and Al4 sites with the Al2 and Al3 solely occupied by Al. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic ordering with TN = 4.8 K and there is no evidence for a ferromagnetic ordering that has been reported for Ce3Al11. The effective magnetic moment was found to be μeff = 1.9μB/Ce, which is lower than the expected value for trivalent Ce (2.54μB/Ce.

  8. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  9. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  10. Patterning the two dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by structured Al capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Wang, P.; Luan, Z. Z.; Shi, Y. J.; Jiang, S. W.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an approach for patterning a quasi-two dimensional electron gas (q-2DEG) at the interface of LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) utilizing a structured Al capping layer. The capping of Al enables the formation of q-2DEG at the interface of 1-3 unit cells (uc) of LAO on STO, which was originally insulating before capping. The properties of the q-2DEG induced by the Al capping layer are essentially the same as those of q-2DEG without Al. Therefore, we can pattern q-2DEG by simply patterning the Al film on LAO (2 or 3 uc)/STO using a one-step liftoff process. Our approach circumvents the difficulty of direct patterning of oxide materials and provides a simple and robust patterning method for future device applications based on complex oxide interfaces.

  11. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  12. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine......" protocol was directed toward improving ICU environment between 10pm and 6am. Noise levels during control and intervention nights were recorded. Patients on mechanical ventilation and able to give consent were eligible for the study. We monitored sleep by PSG.The standard (American Association of Sleep...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...

  13. Hot-electron real-space transfer and longitudinal transport in dual AlGaN/AlN/{AlGaN/GaN} channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šermukšnis, E.; Liberis, J.; Matulionis, A.; Avrutin, V.; Ferreyra, R.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-03-01

    Real-space transfer of hot electrons is studied in dual-channel GaN-based heterostructure operated at or near plasmon-optical phonon resonance in order to attain a high electron drift velocity at high current densities. For this study, pulsed electric field is applied in the channel plane of a nominally undoped Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/{Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN} structure with a composite channel of Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN, where the electrons with a sheet density of 1.4 × 1013 cm-2, estimated from the Hall effect measurements, are confined. The equilibrium electrons are situated predominantly in the Al0.15Ga0.85N layer as confirmed by capacitance-voltage experiment and Schrödinger-Poisson modelling. The main peak of the electron density per unit volume decreases as more electrons occupy the GaN layer at high electric fields. The associated decrease in the plasma frequency induces the plasmon-assisted decay of non-equilibrium optical phonons (hot phonons) confirmed by the decrease in the measured hot-phonon lifetime from 0.95 ps at low electric fields down below 200 fs at fields of E \\gt 4 kV cm-1 as the plasmon-optical phonon resonance is approached. The onset of real-space transfer is resolved from microwave noise measurements: this source of noise dominates for E \\gt 8 kV cm-1. In this range of fields, the longitudinal current exceeds the values measured for a mono channel reference Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN structure. The results are explained in terms of the ultrafast decay of hot phonons and reduced alloy scattering caused by the real-space transfer in the composite channel.

  14. Two Development Theories: Ibn-I-Khaldoun and Wallerstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atousa, Amirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Each day, many different people in different societies are striving within their daily work to advance society. Every society needs to create ideas for further development and in order to become recognised as developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how different cultures at different times created similar ideas and theories to…

  15. SATIRE IN THE CREATION OF SOKHIB IBN ABBOD

    OpenAIRE

    Хомидиён, Хикматшох

    2014-01-01

    Статья посвящена литературному творчеству прославленного везиря династии Буидов ибн Аббода, более известного под именем Сохиба, сведущего, кроме литературы, в исламских преданиях, истории, грамматике, интересовавшегося математической астрономией и логикой. Автор анализирует особенности сатирических стихотворений Сохиба ибн Аббода. Утверждается, что знаменитый везирь в отличие от других поэтов в своих сатирах не использовал ненормативную лексику, больше полагаясь на своё виртуозное владение ис...

  16. Ibn ???azm o el misterio de la belleza

    OpenAIRE

    Lomba Fuentes, Joaqu??n

    1989-01-01

    S??crates, en el di??logo plat??nico Ripias Mayor en que discute con Hipias sobre qu?? sea la belleza, termina rindi??ndose ante el tema diciendo: "En todo caso, Hipias, hay un provecho que creo haber sacado de nuestra conversaci??n: el comprender mejor el proverbio aquel que dice que 'lo bello es dif??cil'. En efecto, el tema de la belleza, del arte, de lo est??tico ha sido tocado por todas las culturas y por todos los pensamientos; y, sin embargo, todav??a no sabemos qu?? sea eso de l...

  17. [The physician of II Bayezid's period: Giyas ibn Muhammed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A H

    1999-01-01

    In the middle of the XV. century, the Ottoman Empire was an powerful government all the Turc and Islam geography. Many wises and students who belong to the Turc's world came here. Isfahanli Giyas b. Muhammed is one of these scientists. He finished education in his country and then he came. Amasya and he took lessons from Sabuncuoğlu about medical information and he returned back to his country. He wrote a medical book which named Mir'atü's-Sihha and he dedicated to Ottoman's sultan II. Bayezid. In this book's within, there was a poem who exalted the II. Bayezid.

  18. Ibn Sina, Abu Ali [known as Avicenna] (980-1037)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Islamic philosopher and scientist, born in Kharmaithen, near Bukhara (now Uzbekistan). Avicenna's life was marked by swings of fortune, from physician and favored scholar of a Samanid prince, to peripatetic country doctor when the Samanid regime fell. He became court physician in Hamadan (Iran), where he was for a time imprisoned as a political prisoner. He ended his life in a peaceful, contem...

  19. Two Development Theories: Ibn-I-Khaldoun and Wallerstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atousa, Amirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Each day, many different people in different societies are striving within their daily work to advance society. Every society needs to create ideas for further development and in order to become recognised as developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how different cultures at different times created similar ideas and theories to…

  20. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, S. K., E-mail: syadav@lanl.gov, E-mail: yadav.satyesh@gmail.com, E-mail: xyliu@lanl.gov; Liu, X.-Y., E-mail: syadav@lanl.gov, E-mail: yadav.satyesh@gmail.com, E-mail: xyliu@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, J. [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. The formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamically driven process.

  1. The Legality of al-Qaeda’s Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    reference to the enemies of Islam, specifically the United States, cites “their disregard for all taboos, and disrespect for the customs of wars and...pictures of me on the Internet holding his head.”102 In another case, al-Qaeda in the Maghreb (northwest Africa) kidnapped four European tourists in...the Republic of Mali in January 2009. These tourists included two women, a Swiss man named Werner Greiner, and a British man named Edwin Dyer. The

  2. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  3. SIMULATIVE INVESTIGATION OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN NiAl ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Using embedded atom potentials and molecular static relaxation method or Monte Carlo relaxation method, the grain boundary atomic structures of a series of [100], [110] and [111] symmetric tilt grain boundaries in NiAl with different geometrical indexes and compositions were studied. The grain boundary energies, grain boundary cohesive energies and point defects formation energies at the grain boundary were calculated. The results show that the grain boundaries of NiAl alloy have a periodic unit structure. Grain boundary energies of Al rich grain boundary is very high, but the cohesive energies are lower than those of others. The interaction of point defects and grain boundaries shows that grain boundaries incline to absorb point defects to decrease their orders and to relax the distortions caused by point defects. The boundary atomic structures relaxed by Monte Carlo method show that the disorder of them, grain boundary energies and cohesive energies increase with increasing temperature.

  4. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  5. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Die im 18. Jahnhundert an der Nordwestküste Katars entstandene Handelsstadt Al Zubarah bildet den Forschungsschwerpunkt des Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Projects (QIAH), das die Universität Kopenhagen in Zusammenarbeit mit der Katarischen Museumsbehörde (QMA) seit 2009 durchführt. Neben...... der archäologischen Erforschung der Stadtanlage und ihrer Elemente, stehen die Erhaltung und Präsentation des Fundortes und seiner Bauten von Anfang an ebenfalls im Fokus der Arbeiten. Auf Grundlage der Projektarbeit wurde 2011 der Antrag auf Aufnahme von Al Zubarah in die Weltkulturerbe eingereicht....... Die Stadtanlage ist ein einzigartiges Beispiel für eine planmäßig angelegte Stadt mit allen typischen Elementen einer orientalischen Stadt: Souq, Moschee, Hofhausquartiere und turmbewehrter Stadtmauer. Die Blütezeit von Al Zubarah währte nur gut 50 Jahre. 1811 wurde sie bereits wieder zerstört. Einige...

  6. PENDIDIKAN MENURUT AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education reform efforts typically begin with a conceptual perspective before implementation. Thus, developing Islamic education usually begins with a study of a figure and his educational thought. And one of the most influential figures whose thought which has Sufi religious pattern has dominated educational thinking atmosphere over the centuries since his death. The purpose of education according to al-Ghazali was to get closer to Allah. He came with a view that the most noble job is to educate: to become a teacher. Al-Ghazali advised that his students, in the learning process, aim to become scientists who could disseminate their knowledge for the sake of humanity values. Keywords: Al-Ghazali, Thought, Islamic Education.

  7. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

  8. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  9. Superconductivity in Al/Al2O3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Metastable superconductivity at Tc ≈ 65 K has been observed in Al foil subjected to special oxidation process, according to the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed during the oxidation process between metallic aluminum and its oxide.

  10. Fenomenologi Niat : Antara al-Ghazali dan al-Sayuthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiburrahman Mujiburrahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolusionist and functionalist approaches to religion are generally considered less sympathetic if not antipathy to religious phenomena. This is why, some western scholars propose another approach to study religion called ‘phenomenological’ approach. There have been a number of phenomenological studies of religion, but mostly not of  Islam. This article tries to fill in the gap by describing and analyzing the Islamic conception of intention (niyyah developed by al-Sayuthi and al-Ghazali. As a jurist, al-Sayuthi explores different formal rules on niyyah in Islamic jurisprudence, while al-Ghazali as a Sufi, tries to deepen the meaning of niyyah in relation to one’s sincerity to God. Apart from this difference, both conceptions of niyya indicate that as believers, Muslims always attempt to live in the sacred space and time, and make their speech and deed sacred based on the niyyah. Thus, niyya is the very basis of Muslim religious life.

  11. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  12. La neuroplasticidad aplicada al deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Me decidí a realizar la siguiente ponencia, para analizar y reconocer la importancia que implica el trabajo cognitivo en el entrenamiento deportivo. El abordaje que efectuaré, está enfocado en el desarrollo del entrenamiento cognitivo, su fundamento y el desarrollo de la neuroplasticidad. Analizaré el concepto de neuroplasticidad y neurogénesis como base al sustento teórico de la neurociencia aplicada al deporte. También remarcaré diversas metodologías prácticas, con su fundamento teóri...

  13. De la contingencia al destino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller, Agnes

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

  14. Al-Qaeda Since 911

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Alia

    2012-01-01

    Seconds after smiling at her local MP and shaking his hand, Roshonara Choudhry plunged a knife into his stomach. The attack on Stephen Timms in May 2010 was not the most high profile assault inspired by al- Qaeda, nor was it fatal. It did, however, offer a commentary on the changing nature of the terrorist threat since 9/11, al-Qaeda’s major impact on international relations as well as its major failure, and the intimate, perhaps inevitable, connection between the two.

  15. La neuroplasticidad aplicada al deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Me decidí a realizar la siguiente ponencia, para analizar y reconocer la importancia que implica el trabajo cognitivo en el entrenamiento deportivo. El abordaje que efectuaré, está enfocado en el desarrollo del entrenamiento cognitivo, su fundamento y el desarrollo de la neuroplasticidad. Analizaré el concepto de neuroplasticidad y neurogénesis como base al sustento teórico de la neurociencia aplicada al deporte. También remarcaré diversas metodologías prácticas, con su fundamento teóri...

  16. Drogodependencia y derecho al honor

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner Navarro, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    Resulta frecuente hoy la divulgación de la drogodependencia de algunos personajes públicos en los medios que se dedican a la información social. Acudiendo a la jurisprudencia más reciente en la materia, el artículo analiza el habitual conflicto entre el derecho al honor y el derecho a la libertad de información; identifica los criterios actualmente vigentes en la protección del derecho al honor y señala el límite que la libertad de información nunca puede traspasar en la revela...

  17. Risk factors for accidents in children that consulted to the emergency unit of San Vicente de Púl Children's Hospital of Medellín, Colombia. December 1, 1998 - March 6, 1999 Factores de riesgo de accidentes en niños que consultaron al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín Diciembre 1 de 1998-marzo 6 de 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Correa Escobar; Humberto Ramírez Gómez; Claudia Mónica Neira Velásquez; Diana Patricia Medina Mesa; Olga Francisca Salazar Blanco; María Beatriz Mesa Restrepo

    2001-01-01

    A prospective descriptive study was made to identify the factors of risk for accidents in children smaller than 12 years that consulted for this cause to the Emergency Unit of San Vicente de Paul Children´s Hospital of Medellin, from December 1 of 1998 until March 6 of 1999. These factors were compared during a period of school vacations and one of academic activity of same duration. We included 1.185 patients. The distribution for sex was: 771 children (65%) and 414 girls (35%); 912 patients...

  18. Influence of High Temperature Creep upon the Structure of ß-NiAl and ß-NiAl(Fe) Single Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui

    2002-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise quantitatively the influence of high temperature creep upon the structure of ß-NiAl and ß-NiAl(Fe) single crystals. A non-destructive procedure is established following the classic line of X-ray structure analysis, namely controlling the chemical composition with the electron probe microanalysis, determining the unit cell contents from the combined lattice parameter and mass density measurements, and refining the structure parameters accordi...

  19. Double-bridge bonding of aluminium and hydrogen in the crystal structure of gamma-AlH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yartys, Volodymyr A; Denys, Roman V; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Frommen, Christoph; Fichtner, Maximilian; Bulychev, Boris M; Emerich, Hermann

    2007-02-19

    Aluminum trihydride (alane) is one of the most promising among the prospective solid hydrogen-storage materials, with a high gravimetric and volumetric density of hydrogen. In the present work, the alane, crystallizing in the gamma-AlH3 polymorphic modification, was synthesized and then structurally characterized by means of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. This study revealed that gamma-AlH3 crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell (space group Pnnm, a = 5.3806(1) A, b = 7.3555(2) A, c = 5.77509(5) A). The crystal structure of gamma-AlH3 contains two types of AlH6 octahedra as the building blocks. The Al-H bond distances in the structure vary in the range of 1.66-1.79 A. A prominent feature of the crystal structure is the formation of the bifurcated double-bridge bonds, Al-2H-Al, in addition to the normal bridge bonds, Al-H-Al. This former feature has not been previously reported for Al-containing hydrides so far. The geometry of the double-bridge bond shows formation of short Al-Al (2.606 A) and Al-H (1.68-1.70 A) bonds compared to the Al-Al distances in Al metal (2.86 A) and Al-H distances for Al atoms involved in the formation of normal bridge bonds (1.769-1.784 A). The crystal structure of gamma-AlH3 contains large cavities between the AlH6 octahedra. As a consequence, the density is 11% less than for alpha-AlH3.

  20. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT AND THE CASES OF MUAMMAR AL-GADDAFI, SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI AND ABDULLAH AL-SENUSSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Marcussi Pontes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Criminal Court (ICC is the international organization created through the Rome Statute in order to judge the main international cases of crimes that are under its jurisdiction. Even tough is an in independent organization and therefore not a part of the United Nations (UN system, it is strictly related to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC, who has addressed the situation in Libya to the Court in 2011 through the Resolution 1970. From that moment on, the ICC analyzed the cases of Muammar Al-Gaddafi, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi, who were high authorities in the previous Libyan regime. Therefore, this article aims to demonstrate the context of creation of the International Criminal Court and the forces involved on it as well as the situation in Libya and how the judgment of its formers leaders were related to the ICC. The focus is to highlight the importance of the Court and to analyze its capability of fulfilling its objectives in nowadays-international system specifically in the observance of the cases in study.

  1. On viewer motivation, unit of analysis, and the VIMAP. Comment on "Move me, astonish me ... delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates" by Matthew Pelowski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinio, Pablo P. L.

    2017-07-01

    The Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (VIMAP; [5]) is the most comprehensive model of the art experience today. The model incorporates bottom-up and top-down cognitive processes and accounts for different outcomes of the art experience, such as aesthetic evaluations, emotions, and physiological and neurological responses to art. In their presentation of the model, Pelowski et al. also present hypotheses that are amenable to empirical testing. These features make the VIMAP an ambitious model that attempts to explain how meaningful, complex, and profound aspects of the art experience come about, which is a significant extension of previous models of the art experience (e.g., [1-3,10]), and which gives the VIMAP good explanatory power.

  2. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en niños que consultaron al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín Diciembre 1 de 1998-marzo 6 de 1999 Risk factors for accidents in children that consulted to the emergency unit of San Vicente de Púl Children's Hospital of Medellín, Colombia. December 1, 1998 - March 6, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    María Beatriz Mesa Restrepo; Olga Francisca Salazar Blanco; Diana Patricia Medina Mesa; Claudia Mónica Neira Velásquez; Humberto Ramírez Gómez; Julio César Correa Escobar

    2001-01-01

    Se hizo un estudio descriptivo prospectivo para identificar los factores de riesgo para accidentes en los niños menores de 12 años que consultaron por esta causa al Policlínico Infantil de Medellín, desde diciembre 1 de 1998 hasta marzo 6 de 1999. Se compararon dichos factores durante un período de vacaciones escolares y uno de actividad académica de igual duración. Se trabajó con 1.185 pacientes. La distribución por sexo fue: 771 niños (65%) y 414 niñas (35%); el 76,9% (912 pacientes) proced...

  3. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    pasa por etapas antes de ver al bebé como suyo y confiar en sí. Posibilitar el toque en el hijo, comprendiéndola en su individualidad, singularidad que se mostró como un cuidado al recién nacido prematuro en su complexidad como ser-ahí.Study in the approach theorical-methodological heideggerian with the objective to reveal the meaning of being-mother that has the possibility to touch the premature baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. After approbation, was developed a phenomenological interview with nine women-mothers. The comprehensive analysis constituted eight units of significance, the hermeneutics allowed to reveal the existential movement of being-mother in the daily routine, in the ways of being of the inauthenticity and impersonality, moved by the talk, the ambiguity and fear, modes of occupation. By understanding how yours the possibility to have a premature baby, touch it gingerly and carefully, transits to an understanding in which no longer engages yourself, concerns yourself. By concerning yourself, the being-mother establishes the possibility of being-there-with-the-baby. Was possible to understand this way of being mother, in which pass by stages before seeing the baby like yours and to trust in yourself. Enable to touch the baby, understanding it in its individuality, uniqueness proved to be a care to the premature newborn in their complexity as being-there.

  4. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  5. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  6. MOOCs; vanwaar al die ophef?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderikx, Maartje; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    MOOCs; vanwaar die ophef? Het nog maar zeer recente fenomeen MOOCs (massive open online courses) heeft zich in korte tijd al een onwrikbare positie weten in te nemen in het open online onderwijs. De hype rondom deze nieuwe manier van onderwijs geven bereikte zijn hoogtepunt in 2012, dat prompt werd

  7. Un controesempio al Modus Ponens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vann McGee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione dell’articolo è stata resa possibile grazie al consenso dell’autore e del Journal of Philosophy. Riferimenti originali: Vann McGee (1985: “A Counterexample to Modus Ponens”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 82, No. 9 (Sep. 1985, pp. 462-47. [N.d.T.

  8. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Jahre später auf einem Sechstel der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche wiedererrichtet und dann im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert / beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert endgültig aufgeben. Die Stadt lebt als Legende im Bewusstsein der katarischen Bevölkerung, doch der Name wird heute nicht mit der Stadtanlage sondern...

  9. Kringloop als basis van bedrijfsvoering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der A.

    2007-01-01

    Gerard Keurentjes bekijkt zijn bedrijf als kringloop waarin grond en koeien de spil zijn. Het gebruik van microbiotica in plaats van antibiotica past daarin perfect. Een microbioticum bestaat uit een mengsel van acht kruiden opgelost in alcohol. Onderzoek toont aan dat het de productie van witte blo

  10. Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Scheuble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Am 9. Juli 2014 veranstaltete der VDB-Regionalverband Südwest in Kooperation mit der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main eine Fortbildungsveranstaltung zum Thema „Der Nutzer als besserer Fachreferent?”, die sich mit Formen von und Erfahrungen mit nutzergesteuerter Erwerbung (PDA in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken beschäftigte.

  11. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  12. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  13. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  14. AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chujun; Ye, Xuanchao; Sun, Rui; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yanan; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Jintao

    2017-06-01

    AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with AlInN/AlGaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) operated at lower avalanche breakdown voltage are numerically demonstrated. The p-type AlGaN layer and the multiplicative layer with low Al composition are introduced to construct the polarization-induced electric field, which can significantly reduce the avalanche breakdown voltage of the APDs. Calculated results exhibit that the avalanche breakdown voltage of the designed APDs decrease by 13% compared with the conventional device structure. Simultaneously, an improved solar-blind spectral responsivity is achieved due to the inserted AlInN/AlGaN DBRs.

  15. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  16. First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ning Zhuang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100 electrodes (Al-Cn-Al. Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1. the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2. the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

  17. 76 FR 34750 - United States et al. v. Comcast Corp., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... the agency's preferred practice reflects the undue influence of the regulatory culture in the DOWFCC... easy to circumvent. Moreover, such remedies are difficult to enforce and impose undue compliance and...

  18. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  19. 76 FR 5439 - United States, et al. v. Comcast Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... to gain control of NBCU's programming, a potent tool that would allow it to disadvantage its... most areas. OVDs' Internet-based offerings are likely the best hope for additional video programming... network from engaging in unfair acts or practices, including (1) Entering into exclusive agreements for...

  20. 75 FR 5120 - United States, et al. v. Stericycle, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., materials, supplies, on- or off-site warehouses or storage facilities; all licenses, permits, and... ability unreasonably to raise the Acquirer's costs, to lower the Acquirer's efficiency, or otherwise...