Deaver, Susan B.
This upper-elementary level social studies curriculum guide is designed to: (1) teach students to understand and appreciate the built (man made) environment; (2) instruct students about Georgia's history and heritage; and (3) introduce the basic concepts of historic preservation. The unit highlights 10 architectural styles of the homes of famous…
Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kulmala, Janne Santeri; Jaakkola, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Fish, Joseph Cole; Tammelin, Tuija
Schools are in a unique position to ensure that all students meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations. This study aimed to examine 1st to 3rd grade elementary students' accelerometer measured school day PA in the United States (U.S.) and Finland. The sample consisted of 200 students (107 girls, 93 boys; ages 6 to 8) and their school day PA was monitored with hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers across a 5-day school week and the thresholds 100 and 2296 count per minute were used to separate sedentary time, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). On an average school day, students were engaged in MVPA for 20.0 min in the U.S. and 24.1 min in Finland. Students' school-day MVPA was 9 to 16 minutes higher during physical education (PE) days compared with non-PE days (U.S: 25.8 vs. 16.6 min/day; Finland: 36.3 vs. 20.1 min/day). Girls had less MVPA and more sedentary time compared with boys in both samples. This study highlights both the role of PE and other school day physical activities in meeting PA guidelines. Policy measures are needed to change the structure of the school day and enhance PA to ensure that students meet the PA recommendations.
Whittington, Kayla Lee
This study examined the impact of an inquiry based Next Generation Science Standard aligned science unit on elementary students' understanding and application of the eight Science and Engineering Practices and their relation in building student problem solving skills. The study involved 44 second grade students and three participating classroom teachers. The treatment consisted of a school district developed Second Grade Earth Science unit: What is happening to our playground? that was taught at the beginning of the school year. Quantitative results from a Likert type scale pre and post survey and from student content knowledge assessments showed growth in student belief of their own abilities in the science classroom. Qualitative data gathered from student observations and interviews performed at the conclusion of the Earth Science unit further show gains in student understanding and attitudes. This study adds to the existing literature on the importance of standard aligned, inquiry based science curriculum that provides time for students to engage in science practices.
The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…
Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…
Harvey, Stephen; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Smith, Megan Lorraine; Smith, Lindsey Rachel
Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students' engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students' previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers' training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce controlling
Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert
This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…
One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students' comprehension…
Adams, Curt M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if collective student trust functions as a resource for urban elementary students. Methods: Data from 1,646 students nested in 56 elementary schools in an urban school district were used to test the hypothesized effect of collective student trust on school identification, self-regulated…
McClain, Janet; And Others
In order to increase students' awareness of their place in the nation's political life, this unit introduces young children to the electoral process. Each lesson includes objectives, materials, procedures, and supplementary materials that can be duplicated for student use. The first five lessons are designed to improve student awareness of…
Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice
This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…
Marrs, Sarah; Zumbrunn, Sharon; McBride, Caitlin; Stringer, J. K.
The purpose of this descriptive qualitative investigation was to explore elementary students' (N = 867) perceptions of the feedback they receive on their writing. After responding to the closed-ended question, "Do you like to receive feedback about your writing?" students were branched to the appropriate follow-up open-ended question,…
Describes a robotics literacy course offered for elementary age children at Broward Community College (Florida) and discusses the motivation for offering such a course, the course philosophy and objectives, and participant reactions. A sampling of robots and robotics devices and some of their teaching applications are included. (MBR)
Linder, Sandra M.; Smart, Julie B.; Cribbs, Jennifer
This paper presents the results of a multi-method study examining elementary students with high self-reported levels of mathematics motivation. Second- through fifth-grade students at a Title One school in the southeastern United States completed the Elementary Mathematics Motivation Instrument (EMMI), which examines levels of mathematics…
Parsons, Allison Ward; Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Gambrell, Linda B.; Marinak, Barbara A.; Reutzel, D. Ray; Applegate, Mary D.; Applegate, Anthony J.; Fawson, Parker C.
This research explores upper elementary students' motivation to read fiction and nonfiction. Using expectancy-value theory, the researchers developed separate surveys to measure motivation to read fiction and nonfiction. Researchers administered surveys to 1,104 upper elementary students (grades 3-6) in multiple locations across the United States…
Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik
Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...
Carter, Chandra P; Reschly, Amy L; Lovelace, Matthew D; Appleton, James J; Thompson, Dianne
Early school withdrawal, commonly referred to as dropout, is associated with a plethora of negative outcomes for students, schools, and society. Student engagement, however, presents as a promising theoretical model and cornerstone of school completion interventions. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Student Engagement Instrument-Elementary Version (SEI-E). The psychometric properties of this measure were assessed based on the responses of an ethnically diverse sample of 1,943 students from an urban locale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 4-factor model of student engagement provided the best fit for the current data, which is divergent from previous SEI studies suggesting 5- and 6-factor models. Discussion and implications of these findings are presented in the context of student engagement and dropout prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.
Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)
Verstegen, Deborah A.
The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…
Veteto, Bette R.
This project focuses on the construction and use of a student-made elementary algebra tutorial World Wide Web page at the University of Memphis (Tennessee), how this helps students further explore the topics studied in elementary algebra, and how students can publish their work on the class Web page for use by other students. Practical,…
Tobias, Jennifer M.; Roy, George J.; Safi, Farshid
This article examines prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of unitizing with whole numbers and fraction concepts and operations throughout a semester-long mathematics content course. Student work samples and classroom conversations are used to illustrate the types of unitizing understandings that prospective teachers bring to teacher…
Constantinides, Panos; Silverman, Stephen
Purpose: This study examined the attitudes of Cypriot elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth, fifth and sixth grade students (N = 763) from six urban Cypriot elementary schools completed an attitude instrument. Methods: Adapting the attitude instrument for Greek-speaking students an extensive two-step pilot study showed the…
Describes a unit on Ancient Greece designed to make social studies meaningful to fourth and fifth graders. Individual projects and group activities helped students learn about ancient Greek culture. (AM)
Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem
The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…
Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.
Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis
This purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which three prospective teachers who had early opportunities to teach science would approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. The study is framed in the literature on pedagogical content knowledge and learning to teach. A situated perspective on cognition is applied to better understand the influence of context and the role of the cooperating teacher. The three participants were enrolled in an experimental teacher preparation program designed to enhance the teaching of science at the elementary level. Qualitative case study design guided the collection, organization, and analysis of data. Multiple forms of data associated with student teachers' content representations were collected, including audiotaped planning and reflection interviews, written lesson plans and reflections, and videotaped teaching experiences. Broad analysis categories were developed and refined around the subconstructs of content representation (i.e., knowledge of instructional strategies that promote learning and knowledge of students and their requirements for meaningful science learning). Findings suggest that when prospective teachers are provided with opportunities to apply and reflect substantively on their developing considerations for supporting children's science learning, they are able to maintain a subject matter emphasis. However, in the absence of such opportunities, student teachers abandon their subject matter emphasis, even when they have had extensive background and experiences addressing subject-specific considerations for teaching and learning.
Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay
Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
When in life do we take the big decision of deciding which path in our career we are going to take? Is this decision made from our experiences in school or is it taken before? Do our family or our friends hopes and dreams for us have any impact on our decision? These are questions that are useful for understanding why some people choose to work with science and why other has chosen another career. In my work to help the university to recruit new student to their master of science in space engineering programme, I have been visiting an elementary school and talked about different topics in space science. The pupils were very interested but when I did a survey of their dream jobs and future career I saw that most of them have hopes of a career that are based on their present talent and not on what education they are going to have. 11 out of 17 students that did this survey wanted to be some kind of artist or soccer professional. Only 4 of them had chosen a career that there are educations for. I do not think this is the situation only for this school, I think this situation is common for children I this age. Since the chance of being a pro in any sport is a really hard thing, probably the most of them have to give up their dream and chose a more realistic approach to their future career. This leaves us with a majority of the students that have not yet had their path chosen and hopefully with help of teachers and special lectures we can make science more attractive to them. This sound like an easy problem, since most of the students finds space really interesting. But there are some problems. The teachers do not have the kind of education, especially in elementary school that is needed for the kids to get proper answer to their questions. The solution is not easy. Should the teachers take more courses in physics and chemistry or should it be their responsibility to search for facts when these kinds of questions appear? I found that in some cases the student have
Marulcu, Ismail; Karakuyu, Yunus; Dogan, Mevlut
In this study, we investigated whether concept maps were used as often and as effectively in elementary science and technology classrooms as recommended by the National Ministry of Education (MEB) in the new curricula in Turkey. In the new elementary science and technology curricula, the MEB provides a general concept map for each unit. We used…
Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.
We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina
This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…
Markovits, Zvia; Forgasz, Helen
The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs of elementary school students about mathematics and about themselves as mathematics learners. The participants, Israeli grade 4 and grade 6 students, completed questionnaires. Using an "animal metaphor" to tap beliefs, some students perceived mathematics as difficult and complicated, while…
Sotardi, Valerie A.
This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…
Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Wu, Chiu-Yi
The authors examined whether applying questioning review better enhances elementary level students' learning from technology-enhanced coediting-based note taking than does traditional reading review. A nonequivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design was implemented and replicated on four independent units. Two sixth grade elementary…
Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.
This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…
Staff and student surveys at Lane Elementary School (pseudonym) confirm that students lack motivation to complete class work and often struggle to interact appropriately with one another. Similar concerns are reported across the United States as indicated by national Gallup Poll results on student motivation, peer relationships, and feelings of…
Stockdale, Margaret S; Hangaduambo, Saidou; Duys, David; Larson, Karl; Sarvela, Paul D
To examine the prevalence and correlates of bullying in 7 rural elementary schools from students', parents', and teachers' perspectives. Surveys were completed by 739 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students, 367 parents, and 37 teachers. Students tended to report higher prevalence of bullying than did parents or teachers, and their reports were associated with aggression, attitudes toward violence, and perceptions of school safety. Bullying behavior is prevalent in rural elementary schools and is indicative of aggression and proviolence attitudes. Parents and teachers need to pay closer attention to bullying behavior among schoolchildren and to impart their knowledge to children in a comprehensive, coordinated manner.
This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
Karneboge, Lynn; Smith, Stacia B.; VandeSchraaf, Cary; Wiegardt, Craig G.; Wormer, Gail
This action research project evaluated the effectiveness of a program to enhance students' social skills with peers. The targeted population was comprised of elementary and junior high school students in an economically diverse, predominantly blue collar community in central Illinois. The problem of inability to problem solve, listen actively,…
Morris, Ronald V.
Elementary students survey buildings in an extracurricular community service project to learn social studies and historic preservation. From these experiences students formed values and dispositions by engaging in a constructivist process of creating knowledge by examining their community. They gathered data, transformed it into information, and…
Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai
Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…
Nemiro, Jill; Larriva, Cesar; Jawaharlal, Mariappan
The School Robotics Initiative (SRI), a problem-based robotics program for elementary school students, was developed with the objective of reaching students early on to instill an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math disciplines. The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was to examine how the SRI fosters student…
Biggers, Mandy; Forbes, Cory T.
Using the National Research Council's inquiry continuum framework, we use a multiple-case study research design to investigate the teacher- and student-directedness of elementary preservice teachers' planned and enacted science lessons and their pedagogical reasoning about science instruction during a semester-long science methods course. Our…
Patrick, John J.
This paper describes briefly the path of political socialization research over the past 40 years; discusses "Project Citizen," a civics program for adolescent students, and the implications of recent research on it; and comments on the current state of political socialization research. Contains 12 references. (BT)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a parent-training program on parenting practices and children's misconduct in a predominately low performing school in the Northeastern region of the United States. The study included 26 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade. The participants were predominately African…
Sali, Güneş; Akyol, Aysel Köksal
Although creativity provides a considerable number of advantages, many teachers have direct and indirect prejudices against creative students since they may display distracting and disruptive behaviors toward teachers and classmates. To determine how teachers' creativity affects their students' creative development, 90 preschool and elementary school teachers and 90 pupils were assessed for creative thinking. The children's sex was not correlated with creativity scores. There were small, significant relationships between various measures of preschool teachers' and students' creativity.
An intermediate-level general music unit provides introductory lessons for the autoharp, guitar, and recorder. In the autoharp unit, chording is approached by first using a one-chord song and proceeding to three-chord songs. The guitar unit introduces chord symbols and tablatures and helps students gain familiarity with the parts of the…
Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…
Full Text Available A novel program called Science Alive! was developed by undergraduate faculty members, K–12 school teachers, and undergraduate students to enrich science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM literacy at community schools located near the university. The ultimate goal of the program is to bolster the scientific knowledge and appreciation of local area students and community members and serve as a model for similar programs. Through the program, we observed that elementary school students made gains toward learning their grade-level science curricula after a hands-on learning experience and had fun doing these hands-on activities. Through the program, undergraduate students, working with graduate students and alumni, build scientific learning modules using explanatory handouts and creative activities as classroom exercises. This helps better integrate scientific education through a collaborative, hands-on learning program. Results showed that elementary school students made the highest learning gains in their performance on higher-level questions related to both forces and matter as a result of the hands-on learning modules. Additionally, college students enjoyed the hands-on activities, would consider volunteering their time at such future events, and saw the service learning program as a benefit to their professional development through community building and discipline-specific service. The science modules were developed according to grade-level curricular standards and can be used year after year to teach or explain a scientific topic to elementary school students via a hands-on learning approach.
Raja, Aarti; Lavin, Emily Schmitt; Gali, Tamara; Donovan, Kaitlin
A novel program called Science Alive! was developed by undergraduate faculty members, K-12 school teachers, and undergraduate students to enrich science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) literacy at community schools located near the university. The ultimate goal of the program is to bolster the scientific knowledge and appreciation of local area students and community members and serve as a model for similar programs. Through the program, we observed that elementary school students made gains toward learning their grade-level science curricula after a hands-on learning experience and had fun doing these hands-on activities. Through the program, undergraduate students, working with graduate students and alumni, build scientific learning modules using explanatory handouts and creative activities as classroom exercises. This helps better integrate scientific education through a collaborative, hands-on learning program. Results showed that elementary school students made the highest learning gains in their performance on higher-level questions related to both forces and matter as a result of the hands-on learning modules. Additionally, college students enjoyed the hands-on activities, would consider volunteering their time at such future events, and saw the service learning program as a benefit to their professional development through community building and discipline-specific service. The science modules were developed according to grade-level curricular standards and can be used year after year to teach or explain a scientific topic to elementary school students via a hands-on learning approach.
Francis, Claire; And Others
Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…
This paper describes a course in which preservice elementary teachers read and discussed "The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark" by Carl Sagan. Students discussed their beliefs about the nature of science, teaching, and learning. The paper concludes that preservice teachers appeared to develop reflective and critical…
Stephens, Ana C.; Fonger, Nicole; Strachota, Susanne; Isler, Isil; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Murphy Gardiner, Angela
In this article we advance characterizations of and supports for elementary students' progress in generalizing and representing functional relationships as part of a comprehensive approach to early algebra. Our learning progressions approach to early algebra research involves the coordination of a curricular framework and progression, an…
Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana
Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…
Jack, Diamond Marie
Student achievement in mathematics, particularly in urban areas, is a consistent concern in the United States. Research suggests that teachers either are under qualified or have a negative perception of themselves as mathematics teachers. Departmentalization on the elementary level is an organizational structure that may benefit urban students and…
Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.
This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help
Schmidt, Matthew; Fulton, Lori
The need to prepare students with twenty-first-century skills through STEM-related teaching is strong, especially at the elementary level. However, most teacher education preparation programs do not focus on STEM education. In an attempt to provide an exemplary model of a STEM unit, we used a rapid prototyping approach to transform an…
Andrews, Chelsea Joy
Although engineering education has been practiced at the undergraduate level for over a century, only fairly recently has the field broadened to include the elementary level; the pre-college division of the American Society of Engineering Education was established in 2003. As a result, while recent education standards require engineering in elementary schools, current studies are still filling in basic research on how best to design and implement elementary engineering activities. One area in need of investigation is how students engage with physical failure in design tasks. In this dissertation, I explore how upper elementary students engage in failure-prone engineering design tasks in an out-of-school environment. In a series of three empirical case studies, I look closely at how students evaluate failed tests and decide on changes to their design constructions, how their reasoning evolves as they repeatedly encounter physical failure, and how students and facilitators co-construct testing norms where repetitive failure is manageable. I also briefly investigate how students' engagement differs in a task that features near-immediate success. By closely examining student groups' discourse and their interactions with their design constructions, I found that these students: are able to engage in iteration and see failure-as-feedback with minimal externally-imposed structure; seem to be designing in a more sophisticated manner, attending to multiple causal factors, after experiencing repetitive failure; and are able to manage the stress and frustration of repetitive failure, provided the co-constructed testing norms of the workshop environment are supportive of failure management. These results have both pedagogical implications, in terms of how to create and facilitate design tasks, and methodological implications--namely, I highlight the particular insights afforded by a case study approach for analyzing engagement in design tasks.
Hussain, Irshad; Alamgir, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahzad, Muhammad
Health Education, particularly in elementary schools, appears to be a neglected area in Pakistan. This study investigated the health education needs of elementary school students. The purpose of the present study is to assess health education needs of elementary school students. The study adopted mix approach of (qualitative and quantitative)…
Baysal, Z. Nurdan; Tezcan, Özlem Apak; Araç, Kamil Ersin
This study seeks to identify elementary school students' views and perceptions of the Life Studies course through verbal and visual instruments. It employs a descriptive phenomenological research design. The study surveyed second- and third-grade students attending one private elementary school and two state elementary schools. The data was…
Gerstner, Gary M.
This study sought to fill the gap in the literature concerning intrinsic motivation in elementary students in Grades 4-6 by examining 155 elementary school students and in-depth interviews with three elementary grade teachers. This study used data collected from the self-report survey called the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory…
This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to review and implement interactive audio visual media used in an educational game to improve elementary students’ interest in learning mathematics. The game was developed for desktop platform. The art of the game was set as 2D cartoon art with animation and audio in order to make students more interest. There were four mini games developed based on the researches on mathematics study. Development method used was Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC that consists of requirement, design, development, testing, and implementation phase. Data collection methods used are questionnaire, literature study, and interview. The conclusion is elementary students interest with educational game that has fun and active (moving objects, with fast tempo of music, and carefree color like blue. This educational game is hoped to be an alternative teaching tool combined with conventional teaching method.
Ji, Eun Sun; Jang, Mi Heui
This study was done to explore the relationship between aggression and internet over-use, depression-anxiety, self-esteem, all of which are known to be behavior and psychological characteristics linked to "at-risk" children for aggression. Korean-Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL), Korean-Internet Addiction Self-Test Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale by Rosenberg (1965) were used as measurement tools with a sample of 743, 5th-6th grade students from 3 elementary schools in Jecheon city. Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and stepwise multiple regression with SPSS/Win 13.0 version were used to analyze the collected data. Aggression for the elementary school students was positively correlated with internet over-use and depression-anxiety, whereas self-esteem was negatively correlated with aggression. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 68.4% of the variance for aggression was significantly accounted for by internet over-use, depression-anxiety, and self-esteem. The most significant factor influencing aggression was depression-anxiety. These results suggest that earlier screening and intervention programs for depression-anxiety and internet over-use for elementary student will be helpful in preventing aggression.
Strecker, Catherine Hunt
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain a clear understanding of the manner in which fourth-grade students attending a Kansas elementary school learn when engaged in science activities grounded in H. Gardner's book, Frames of mind the theory of multiple intelligences (1983). The significance of this research lies in the discovery of the difference between teaching practice grounded in multiple intelligences versus that based upon traditional theory. Teacher self-perceptions with regard to the effectiveness of their instruction and student assessment within the classroom were also explored. The research evaluated the overall effectiveness of both traditional curriculum delivery and that rooted in the concept of multiple intelligences.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a physical activity intervention programme, named “Morning Blast”, on elementary school students’ math learning and daily physical activity. The Morning Blast intervention programme was a 16-week cardiovascular endurance emphasized physical activity program that students voluntarily participated in before the school day. Participants that volunteered, did so for the duration of the program. Methods: This mixed-methods study included seven educators and 83 students (n=90. The students were all children who were enrolled in Grades 3, 4, and 5 in a semi-rural elementary school in the United States. Data were collected through focus-group interviews, surveys, quantitative analysis of step counts, and from quasi-experimental research design. Results: Students in the experimental group were found to have: (1 increased scores on math standard score, (2 greater confidence in their academic ability, and (3 had more accumulated steps compared to students in the control group. Students in the experimental group also reported that they were more “ready to learn” after completing the physical activity intervention. This finding was also confirmed by their teachers. Conclusion: This study demonstrates how an increase in physical activity during the morning time has positive benefits for students throughout the school day.
Ali, N. A.; Paglierani, R.; Raftery, C. L.; Romero, V.; Harper, M. R.; Chilcott, C.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.; Yan, D.; Ruderman, I.; Frappier, R.
The Multiverse education group at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab created the NASA-funded "Five Stars Pathway" model in which five "generations" of girls and women engage in science together in an afterschool setting, with each generation representing one stage in the pathway of pursuing a career in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). The five stages are: elementary-age students, middle-school-age students, undergraduate-level college students, graduate-level college students and professional scientists. This model was field-tested at two Girls Inc. afterschool locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and distributed to Girls Inc. affiliates and other afterschool program coordinators nationwide. This presentation will explore some of the challenges and success of implementing a multigenerational STEM model as well as distributing the free curriculum for interested scientists and college students to use with afterschool programs.
Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T; Hanita, Makoto; Moscato, Susan R
The study compared students' perceptions of their clinical learning experiences in a dedicated education unit (DEU) with their experiences in traditional clinical education. Unlike traditional academic-instructor models, expert nurses in the DEU provide clinical education to students with faculty support. This repeated measures design used student surveys, supplemented by focus group data. Students were more likely to agree that their clinical learning experience was high quality and they had a consistent mentoring relationship during DEU rotations. Students also reported the quality of the unit's learning environment, the leadership style of the nurse manager, and the nursing care on the unit was more favorable in DEUs than traditional units. Consistent with their changed role in DEUs, faculty members were less active in helping students integrate theory and practice. These findings provide additional evidence of the value that the DEU model contributes to high-quality clinical education.
Woody, Tammy Lynn
This study explored elementary school counselors' perceptions of working with students exposed to violent video games. Certified elementary school counselors participated in both an online survey and individual interviews, revealing their observations regarding elementary school children and the phenomenon of gaming. An emphasis was placed on…
We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...
Ciullo, Stephen; Mason, Linda
Helping elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) prepare for the rigor of middle school writing is an instructional priority. Fortunately, several standards-based skills in upper elementary school and middle school overlap. Teachers in upper elementary grades, specifically fourth and fifth grades, have the opportunity to provide…
Cakmak, Sedanur; Isiksal, Mine; Koc, Yusuf
The authors' purpose was to investigate the effect of origami-based instruction on elementary students' spatial ability. The students' self-reported perceptions related to the origami-based instruction were also examined. Data was collected via purposive sampling techniques from students enrolled in a private elementary school. A spatial ability…
Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Ertepinar, Hamide
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument for assessing elementary students' nature of science (NOS) views and to explain the elementary school students' NOS views, in terms of varying grade levels and gender. The sample included 782 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Exploratory factor analysis…
Craddock, Jennifer Lovejoy
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of elementary teachers who teach science as opposed to science teacher specialists regarding their efforts to help students use student-to-student discourse for improving science learning. A growing body of research confirms the importance of a) student-to-student discourse for making meaning of science ideas and b) moving students' conceptual development towards a more scientific understanding of the natural world. Based on those foundations, the three research questions that guided this study examined the value elementary teachers place on student-to-student discourse, the various approaches teachers employ to promote the use of student-to-student discourse for learning science, and the factors and conditions that promote and inhibit the use of student-to-student discourse as an effective pedagogical strategy in elementary science. Data were gathered from 23 elementary teachers in a single district using an on-line survey and follow-up interviews with 8 teachers. All data were analyzed and evolving themes led to the following findings: (1) elementary teachers value student-to-student discourse in science, (2) teachers desire to increase time using student-to-student discourse, (3) teachers use a limited number of student-to-student discourse strategies to increase student learning in science, (4) teachers use student-to-student discourse as formative assessment to determine student learning in science, (5) professional development focusing on approaches to student-to-student discourse develops teachers' capacity for effective implementation, (6) teachers perceive school administrators' knowledge of and support for student-to-student discourse as beneficial, (7) time and scheduling constraints limit the use of student-to-student discourse in science. Implications of this study included the necessity of school districts to focus on student-to-student discourse in science, provide teacher and
Hosie, Thomas W.
This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)
Caswell, T. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Jawin, E. R.; Robinson, F.
Since 2005, graduate students in the Brown University Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Studies have volunteered to teach science to second-grade students at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School in Providence, RI. Initially developed to bring science into classrooms where it was not explicitly included in the curriculum, the graduate student-run program today incorporates the Providence Public Schools Grade 2 science curriculum into weekly, interactive sessions that engage the students in hypothesis-driven science. We will describe the program structure, its integration into the Providence Public Schools curriculum, and 3 example lessons relevant to geology. Lessons are structured to develop the students' ability to share and incorporate others' ideas through written and oral communication. The volunteers explain the basics of the topic and engage the students with introductory questions. The students use this knowledge to develop a hypothesis about the upcoming experiment, recording it in their "Science Notebooks." The students record their observations during the demonstration and discuss the results as a group. The process culminates in the students using their own words to summarize what they learned. Activities of particular interest to educators in geoscience are called "Volcanoes!", "The "Liquid Race," and "Phases of the Moon." The "Volcanoes!" lesson explores explosive vs. effusive volcanism using two simulated volcanoes: one explosive, using Mentos and Diet Coke, and one effusive, using vinegar and baking soda (in model volcanoes that the students construct in teams). In "Liquid Race," which explores viscosity and can be integrated into the "Volcanoes!" lesson, the students connect viscosity to flow speed by racing liquids down a ramp. "Phases of the Moon" teaches the students why the Moon has phases, using ball and stick models, and the terminology of the lunar phases using cream-filled cookies (e.g., Oreos). These lessons, among many others
Panico, James; Healey, E Charles; Knopik, Jennifer
Past research studies have focused on perceptions of stuttering by various age groups and only a few have examined how children react to a peer who stutters. All of these studies used a quantitative analysis but only one included a qualitative analysis of elementary school age children's responses to stuttering. The aim of this study was to further explore the perceptions of elementary school students toward a peer who stutters using both quantitative and qualitative analyses of three levels of stuttering. Participants included 88 elementary school children between 8 and 12 years of age. Each participant viewed one of four audiovisual samples of a peer producing fluent speech and mild, moderate, and severe simulated stuttering. Each participant then rated five Likert statements and answered three open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that negative ratings and the percentage of negative comments increased as the frequency of stuttering increased. However, the children in this study indicated that they were comfortable listening to stuttering and would be comfortable making friends with the peer who stutters. The findings of this study together with past research in this area should help clinicians and their clients appreciate the range of social and emotional reactions peers have of a child who stutters. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) discuss past research regarding children's perceptions of stuttering; (b) summarize the need to explore the perceptions of elementary-aged children toward a peer who stutters; (c) describe the major quantitative and qualitative findings of children's perceptions of stuttering; and (d) discuss the need for disseminating more information about stuttering to children and teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more persons. Incidents of bullying are frequent occurrences for many children at school. This study was intended to investigate the perceptions of the elementary students about the reasons for bullying in the school. For this purpose 688 students from 4-8th. Grades of an elementary school were given a questionnaire “Colorado School Climate Survey”. The data was analyzed in terms of frequencies and percentiles. The results revealed that the most frequently reported reason was being physically weak (for bullies 56.5%, bullyvictims 52.9%, victims 48.6%, being fat (for victims bully-victims 45.1%, victims 42.6% and being poor (for bully-victims 43.2%, victims 41.5%, neither bully nor victims 39.4%. Almost half of the girls reported that the reasons of bullying are being short, being poor and being fat. Boys reported these reasons physical weakness, being fat and being skinny. According to neither bullies nor victims the reasons of bullying are physical weakness, poorness, and bad wearing. Victims also reported that first reason is physical weakness. Bullies reported that children without friends, short and poor children mostly bullied. Bully/victims again talked about physical weakness
Stutz, Franziska; Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich
In order to initiate more research on the role of reading motivation during the initial stages of learning to comprehend texts, we developed the "Reading Motivation Questionnaire for Elementary Students" (RMQ-E). The sample comprised 1497 elementary students in Grades 1-3. By means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, three…
Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria
The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…
This current study examined the reciprocal relationship between anxiety and attitude towards mathematics in elementary students. Two instruments (attitudes towards mathematics inventory short form [ATMI-Short Form] and the Revised Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale [Revised-FSMAS]) were administered to 310 fourth grade elementary students.…
Lan, Chu M.; Lee, Yu H.
Although there has been considerable research which has explored factors related to internet addiction, few studies have investigated elementary school students' involvement in this behaviour pattern. Participants in the present study were 1045 children in grades 3 to 6 from elementary schools in Taiwan. Students completed surveys on their use of…
Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Kiroglu, Kasim; Ocak Iskeleli, Nazan
The purpose of this study is to determine the mental models of elementary school students on seasons and to analyze how these models change in terms of grade levels. The study was conducted with 294 students (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th graders) studying in an elementary school of Turkey's Black Sea Region. Qualitative and quantitative data collection…
De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie
Responding to the declining trend in reading motivation in and beyond the elementary school years, the authors aimed to enhance late-elementary school students' autonomous reading motivation. Toward this end, the authors evaluated the influence of a teacher professional development grounded in self-determination theory on fifth-grade students' (n…
Chang, Wan-Chen; Ku, Yu-Min
The authors investigated the effects of a 5-week note-taking skills instructional program on note-taking and reading comprehension performance of elementary students. The participants included 349 fourth-grade students from 2 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Note-Taking Instruction group received approximately 40 min of note-taking skills…
Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk
This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838
Coutts, Trudi E.
This study is a transcendental phenomenological study that described the experience of students’ interest in science from elementary school through middle school grades and the identification of the factors that increase or decrease interest in science. Numerous researchers have found that interest in science changes among children and the change in interest seems to modulate student motivation, which ultimately leads to fewer children choosing not only science classes in the future but science careers. Research studies have identified numerous factors that affect student interest in science; however, this study incorporated the lived experience of the child and looked at this interest in science through the lens of the child. The study design was a collective cross-case study that was multi-site based. This study utilized a sample of children in fifth grade classes of three different elementary schools, two distinct seventh grade classes of different middle schools, and ninth grade children from one high school in the State of Illinois. The phenomenon was investigated through student interviews. The use of one-on-one semi-structured interviews limited to 45 minutes in length provided the researcher with data of each child’s description of science interest. All interviews were audio- recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was collected and analyzed in order to identify themes, and finally checked for validity. The most significant findings of this study, and possible factors contributing to science interest in children as they progress from elementary to high school, were those findings relating to hands-on activities, the degree to which a student was challenged, the offering of new versus previously studied topics in the curriculum, the perceived relevance of the curricular materials to personal life, and the empowerment children felt when they were allowed to make choices related to their learning experiences. This study’s possible implications for
Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy
While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…
Galluzzo, Gary L.; Minix, Nancy A.
Using videotaped simulated recall interviews, researchers assessed elementary and secondary student teachers' thoughts and concerns. Both groups considered pupil learning the greatest concern. There were consistent differences in how the groups perceived classroom interactions. Both groups addressed a narrower range of concerns regarding teaching…
Waller, Samara Susan
This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.
Lanham III, James Warren
The relationships between student achievement and a number of variables relating to building and classroom conditions in Virginia elementary schools were examined. A systematic random sample of 300 schools was selected from all elementary schools in Virginia with grades three and five. Data on building condition, classroom condition, and demographics were collected with "An Assessment of Building and Classroom Conditions in Elementary Schools in Virginia." Building prin...
Zandstra, Anne M.
This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…
Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and
Bickford, John H., III
This content analysis research examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals and issues are represented in elementary-level trade books. The data pool included every LGBTQ-based trade book with intended audiences of primary (grades K-2) and intermediate (grades 3-5) elementary students. Trade books…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Many elementary school children may cope with difficult life struggles such as disabilities, abuse, loss, and identity issues. This article details original, student generated, biblio-therapeutic book creations and how this genre teaches positive ways for children at-risk to cope with tough life circumstances. Pre-service, elementary college…
Minott, Robert Charles
The purpose of this qualitative dissertation was to explore the lived experiences of departmentalized elementary teachers, Grades 1-3, and how they addressed their students' affective needs. The main research question of the study was how do elementary school teachers perceive departmentalized instruction and describe their experiences of this…
Flores, Ingrid M.
Thirty preservice teachers enrolled in a field-based science methods course were placed at a public elementary school for coursework and for teaching practice with elementary students. Candidates focused on building conceptual understanding of science content and pedagogical methods through innovative curriculum development and other course…
Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith
We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…
Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail
The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…
Martinez-Hicks, Laura M.
This is a constructivist grounded theory study investigating how elementary principals approach the student retention decision process in their schools. Twenty-two elementary principals participated in the study using a selective or snowball sampling method. Principals worked in one of three districts in a mid-Atlantic state and had experience as…
Horne, Patricia Lynne
The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews…
Dupuis, Danielle N.
The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducted two analyses with the purpose of examining the association between elementary school start time and students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading in Wayzata Public Schools. The first analysis examined the association between elementary school start time and…
Wang, Cixin; Wang, Weimeng; Zheng, Lianzhe; Atwal, Kavita
This study examined Asian American elementary students' experience with victimization. Data were collected from 313 fourth and fifth graders from an ethnically diverse elementary school in southern California. Most participants self-identified as Asian/Asian American and spoke an Asian language at home. Results indicated that Asian American…
This study compared teacher assessments of principal servant leadership and their experience with team learning in high, moderate, and low student academic achieving elementary schools. The participants were from fifteen moderate need elementary schools located in southern New York State counties. One hundred sixty two teachers responded to a 36…
Yuan, Wei Ming; Lu, Yuan Qiang; Wei, Zheng; Chen, Ming; He, Sheng Liang; Mai, Wen Yuan; Zhang, Mei Bian
Emergencies of epistaxis in students caused by environmental pollution have rarely been reported to date. This study aimed to explore the cause of an emergency of epistaxis in elementary students by using a field epidemiological investigation. Twenty-two epistaxis cases from a single school with differences in gender, age, and classroom, were diagnosed within a period of 7 days. The air concentration of chromic acid mist (Cr6+) in the electroplating factory area, new campus, and residential area exceeded the limit of uncontrolled emissions. The emission of HCL and H2SO4 was also observed. Formaldehyde levels in the classrooms exceeded the limits of indoor air quality. Abnormal nasal mucosa was significantly more frequent in the case group (93.3%) and control group 1 (of the same school) (66.7%) than in control group 2 (from a mountainous area with no industrial zone) (34.8%; P epistaxis. Several lessons regarding factory site selection, eradication of chemical emissions, and indoor air quality in newly decorated classrooms, should be learned from this emergency. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim
Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...
Sri Huning Anwariningsih; Sri Ernawati
The implementation of information and comunication technology (ICT) curriculum at elementary school is the educational sector development. ICT subject is a practical subject which require a direct practice to make easier in the student understanding. Therefore, a teacher is demanded to make a learning media which helps the student to understand the material of study. This research is aimed at describing the model of ICT study in elementary school and using of learning media. Moreover, the des...
H. Richard Milner
Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.
Full Text Available Elementary students have difficulty with the topic of time. The present study investigated students’ actions to position hour and minute hands on an analog clock to indicate particular times of the day. Using one-on-one interviews with students in Grades 2 and 4 (n = 48, we analyzed whether students were more accurate for one hand indicator (hour or minute versus the other as well as their solution approaches as they positioned each hand. We first present a quantitative analysis of student performance to document whether hour and minute hands posed differential challenges for students as they positioned hands to indicate particular times. Results indicate the hour hand is significantly more challenging to position accurately than the minute hand. Students’ solutions reflected varied approaches, including consideration of the quantitative hour-minute multiplicative relationship, attention to part-whole relations, and matching numbers from the provided time to numerals on the clock. We discuss implications for theory and instruction, including the relationship of time to length measure learning trajectories and the current treatment of time in K-12 mathematics standards for the United States.
ADAMS, EFFIE KAYE
A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT BISHOP COLLEGE, DALLAS, TEXAS, TO EXAMINE THE READING NEEDS OF PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS. SCORES ON THE NELSON DENNY READING TESTS, ADVANCED FORM A, ON THE OTIS QUICK SCORING TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY, GAMMA FORM BM, AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES COVERING 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE WORK WERE ANALYZED FOR 29 NEGRO ELEMENTARY STUDENT…
García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark
Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…
Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina
This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…
Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo
This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…
Johnson, Malissa Lee
This study addressed the benefits of departmentalization in upper elementary grades for students and teachers. The variables of gender and classroom structure (departmentalized versus self-contained) were considered for student participants (n = 125). Results for students were evaluated on pre-test and post-test data using the following measures:…
Guvercin, Ozge; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of grade level and gender on elementary school students' motivation towards science learning. A total of 2231 sixth and eight grade students participated in the study. Data were collected through Students' Motivation towards Science Learning Questionnaire. Two-way Multivariate Analysis of…
Matera, Bryan D.
Past research has shown that rewards and punishments imposed on elementary school students may contribute to increases in student motivation and academic achievement. However, alternative research findings indicate that students may exhibit temporary compliance with such external stimuli and may not develop intrinsic motivation to perform well…
Isshiki, Yuriko; Morimoto, Kanehisa
To examine the relationship between lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms in children, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey of elementary school students and junior high school students in Japan. We designed an original questionnaire to investigate the lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms of children. In 1997, responses to the questionnaires were elicited from public elementary school fourth grade students (then aged 9-10) and public junior high school seventh grade students (then aged 12-13). The survey was repeated annually for three years as the students advanced through school. For both boys and girls, each cross-sectional analysis revealed a strong relationship between lifestyle behaviors and psychosomatic symptoms. Psychosomatic, symptoms scores varied according to daily hours of sleep, eating of breakfast, having strong likes and dislikes of food, bowel habits, and daily hours of television watching. Both boys and girls with "good" lifestyle, behaviors evaluated by the HPI (Health Practice Index) showed lower scores for psychosomatic symptoms. These findings show that the lifestyle behaviors of children are significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms and suggest that poor lifestyle behaviors are likely to increase physical and psychological health risks.
Lingering concerns over the persistent achievement gap amidst the trend of an increasingly diverse society have been compounded by calls from the Oval Office, the National Science Board, and nationwide media to also address our current creativity crisis. Now, more than ever, we have a responsibility to produce a STEM-capable (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce to meet the demands of our rapidly changing local and global economic landscape. Barriers exist in our traditional educational system, which has historically limited underrepresented groups' affiliation and membership in the disciplines of science and engineering. The recent incorporation of engineering into the latest science education reform efforts presents an opportunity to expose students as early as elementary school to engineering practices and habits of mind, which have the potential to stimulate creative thinking skills through engineering design. This qualitative study was designed to examine the ways in which engineering education has the potential to promote creativity and academic competence in elementary science classrooms. As a part of my study, a diverse group of students from two fifth-grade classrooms took part in a 10-12 hour, engineering-based curriculum unit (Engineering is Elementary) during their regular science instructional time. Using a sociocultural lens, to include cultural production and identities in practice as part of my framework, I analyzed group and individual performances through classroom observations, student interviews, and teacher reflections to better understand the meaning students made of their experiences with engineering. Findings from the study included the ways in which creativity was culturally produced in the classroom to include: 1) idea generation; 2) design and innovation; 3) gumption/resourcefulness; and 4) social value. Opportunities for collaboration increased through each stage of the unit culminating with the design challenge
Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir
The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…
Walsh, Mary Grace
Private Catholic elementary schools in the United States often trace their origins to religious congregations of women and men. The rapid decline of religious vocations and the choice of many religious to serve in diverse ministries since the Second Vatican Council, has had an effect on all Catholic schools. Schools founded by religious…
This Digest examines U.S. teacher supply and demand, including projections for the next 10 years. For the past 10 years, the supply of public elementary and secondary school teachers has grown. Currently, the number of teachers in the United States is 3.1 million, 2,666,034 of whom teach in public schools. The number is projected to increase by…
An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.
The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a sequence of classroom activities that integrated mathematics content with music elements aimed at providing teachers an alternative approach for teaching mathematics. Two classes of third grade students (n = 56) from an elementary school in the west coast of the United States…
Full Text Available Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1 recording, (2 documentation, (3 field notes, (4 interview. The results showed that: (1 the form of questioning the teacher in the teacher-student interaction in Bahasa Indonesia learning in primary schools generally examined the low-level thinking skills, (2 functions of teacher questions are generally intended to check student understanding, and (3 teachers utilize a variety of strategies in addressing student answers correctly and the apparent hesitation. Some disadvantages are indicated teachers in providing interrogation.
The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20
Ángel Alberto Valdés Cuervo
Full Text Available This article describes the degree of parental involvement in the educational activities of elementary school children in the State of Yucatán. Based on the opinion of experts and references in the relevant literature, a Likert-type scale with 36 items was designed and applied to 106 parents of students at a public elementary school in the city of Mérida, capital of the state of Yucatan, in order to evaluate their involvement. The results show that the scale has an acceptable reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .92 and its underlying structure, after a factor analysis with varimax rotation, consists of three unit factors: 1 Communication with the school; 2 Communication with the child, and 3 Knowledge of the school. Generally, the results show that parent involvement in children’s educational activities is low or precarious, especially in regard to the factors of Communication and Knowledge of the school, although mothers have a considerably higher level of involvement than fathers in these factors. The implications of these findings for the school as well as for research on parental participation in the educational process are discussed in light of the results.
Shen, Xiuhua; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Wenjing; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei
It has been shown that food insecurity is associated with poor diet quality and unfavourable health outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effects of food insecurity on the overall malnutrition status among children. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among 1583 elementary school students, aged 6-14 years, living in Chinese rural areas and examined its association with four malnutrition signs, including rickets sequelae, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Information on food security was collected via questionnaires. Rickets sequelae were assessed by an experienced paediatrician during the interview. Anaemia was determined by the WHO Hb thresholds adjusted by the local altitude. Weight and height were measured during the interview. Stunting and wasting were then evaluated according to WHO child growth standards (2007). We examined the association between food insecurity and the number of malnutrition signs (total number = 4), and the likelihood of having severe malnutrition (presence of 3+ signs), after adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, social-economic status and dietary intakes. During the previous 12 months, the overall prevalence of food insecurity was 6.1% in the entire studied population and 16.3% in participants with severe malnutrition. Participants with food insecurity had a slightly higher number of malnutrition signs (1.14 v. 0.96; P=0.043) relative to those who were food secure, after adjusting for potential confounders. Food insecurity was also associated with increased likelihood of having severe malnutrition (adjusted OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.47, 6.46; P=0.003). In conclusion, food insecurity is significantly associated with malnutrition among Chinese children in this community.
The Tlingit Indians of Southeastern Alaska: Social Studies Unit for Elementary Grades. Teacher's Manual [And] Kiksadi Dog Salmon Legend [And] Halibut Fishing [And] How Raven Stole the Light: A Radio Play [And] Raven, The Old Woman of the Tides, and the Sea Urchins: A Puppet Play [And] Raven and the Fog Woman [And] The Legendary Adventures of Raven [And] A Tlingit Uncle and His Nephews [And] Three Brothers [And] Lingit Aanee....
Partnow, Patricia H.; And Others
Part of a series designed to introduce the culture of the Alaskan Indians to elementary school students, the unit contains materials related to seasonal Tlingit activities and a guide for elementary classroom teachers to implement the student materials. The guide describes the format of the unit, suggests activities, lists resource materials, and…
King, Melissa Digennaro
Goals 2000 set forth a bold vision for U.S. students: they would be "first in the world in science and mathematics" by the year 2000. Performance indicators such as the TIMSS-R (1999) and NAEP (2000) reports suggest that U.S. students have not yet reached that goal. This study intended to learn how specific assessment strategies might contribute to improved student performance in science. This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of formative assessment with reflection on students' motivational beliefs, self-regulatory skills, and achievement in elementary science. The study aimed to find out whether and how classroom applications of formative assessment during science instruction might influence fifth-grade students' attitudes and self-perceptions about science learning, self-regulatory learning behaviors, and achievement. To explore the effects of the assessment intervention, the study utilized a mixed methods approach involving quantitative and qualitative investigations of treatment and control groups during a four-week intervention period. Quantitative measures included student self-report surveys administered pre- and post-treatment and an end-of-unit science test. Qualitative measures included classroom observations, student interviews (post-treatment), and a teacher interview (post-treatment). Findings indicated that the fifth-grade students in this study had positive attitudes toward science and high levels of self-efficacy for science. Results suggested that these elementary students employed a wide variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to support science learning. Findings revealed that these fifth graders believed formative assessment with reflection was beneficial for science learning outcomes. Research results did not show that the formative assessment intervention contributed to significant differences between treatment and control groups. However, the data revealed different levels of academic achievement and self
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.
This guide for elementary teachers provides information on getting ideas into action, designing and implementing the right situation, ways in which to evaluate science process activities with students, and seven sample units. The units cover using the senses, magnets, forces, weather forecasting, classification of living things, and the physical…
Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy
The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…
Willis, Belinda F.
Literature that addresses how the arts enhance student learning through creative expression is minimal. This is especially true for African-American elementary students from high-poverty backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to employ a case study design to explore how African-American elementary students in high-poverty schools experience…
Anna Newley; Hasan Deniz; Erdogan Kaya; Ezgi Yesilyurt
The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improv...
Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo
This study examined changes in academic motivation among elementary and junior high school students. Based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000a), we focused on changes in autonomous and controlled motivation. In Study 1, we examined inter-individual changes in academic motivation among 5th to 9th grade students (N = 1 572) through a cross-sectional study. In Study 2, we examined intra-individual changes in academic motivation among students (N = 128) who were in transition from elementary to junior high school through a longitudinal study. All participants completed the Academic Motivation Scale (Nishimura, Kawamura, & Sakurai, 2011) that measured autonomous and controlled motivation. The results revealed that autonomous motivation decreased in the students from elementary to junior high school, while controlled motivation increased during the same period. This is a unique finding because a prior study conducted in a Western culture suggested that both motivations decrease gradually in school.
Ozcan Demir; Ahmet Atan; Yucel Gelisli
The aim of this study was to analysis the effects of cartoons telecasted on Turkish televisions on the socialization process of elementary education students. The data were collected by the “The Behavior Scale on the Evaluation of the Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary Education Students’ Socialization Process”. Participants were in 18 schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in 9 central counties in Ankara. The characteristics of the varia...
Stender, Robert Holoua
The relationship between Hawaiian cultural identity and student progress at Kamehameha Elementary School (KES) is the focal point of this study. As the student demographics continue to evolve at Kamehameha Schools, most recently with increasing numbers of children coming from orphan and indigent backgrounds, teachers want greater understanding of…
de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla
The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…
Lin, Sheau-Wen; Liu, Yu
The purpose of this study was to explore elementary students' listening comprehension changes using a Web-based teaching system that can diagnose and remediate students' science listening comprehension problems during scientific inquiry. The 3-component system consisted of a 9-item science listening comprehension test, a 37-item diagnostic test,…
Blanch, Norine; Forsythe, Lenora C.; Van Allen, Jennifer H.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth
Given the importance of writing, especially in light of college and career readiness emphasis, and the observations that time spent writing in context diminishes over a student's years in school, this article proposes to reignite writing instruction in elementary classrooms through three practical approaches for supporting students in authentic…
Schottelkorb, April A.; Ray, Dee C.
The authors used a single-case design to examine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and person-centered teacher consultation (PCTC) for four elementary students identified with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Two students participated in CCPT and their teachers participated in PCTC. Two students…
Barnard, Allison D.; Adelson, Jill L.; Pössel, Patrick
We explored the associations between student-perceived teaching behaviours and negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in upper elementary age students, both before and after controlling for perceived parenting behaviours. The Teaching Behaviour Questionnaire, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule…
Hall, Colby; Barnes, Marcia A.
Making inferences during reading is a critical standards-based skill and is important for reading comprehension. This article supports the improvement of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) in upper elementary grades by reviewing what is currently known about inference instruction for students with LD and providing…
Baydik, Berrin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice
The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…
Masal, Ercan; Koc, Mustafa; Colak, Tugba Seda; Takunyaci, Mithat
The main purpose of this research is to analyse whether there is a difference or not in levels of having psychological symptoms of the students of undergraduate program in elementary mathematics teaching. Another aim of the research is to determine whether the levels of having psychological symptoms of the students differ or not regarding various…
Knowledge of technology is an educational goal of science education. A primary way of increasing technology literacy in a society is to develop students' conception of technology starting from their elementary school years. However, there is a lack of research on student recognition of and reasoning about technology and technological artifacts. In…
Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dostal, Hannah M.; Graham, Steve; Cihak, David; Kilpatrick, Jennifer R.; Saulsburry, Rachel
Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction (SIWI) has led to improved writing and language outcomes among deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) middle grades students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SIWI on the written expression of DHH elementary students across recount/personal narrative, information report, and persuasive…
Schweinle, Amy; Meyer, Debra K.; Turner, Julianne C.
The authors explored the relationship between motivation and affect in upper elementary mathematics classes from the perspective of flow theory. They also investigated the relationship between students' motivation and teachers' instructional practices. Students' reported classroom experiences formed 4 factors--Social Affect, Personal Affect,…
La Salle, Tamika P.; Zabek, Faith; Meyers, Joel
School climate has increasingly been recognized as an essential component of school improvement owing to the established associations between a positive school climate and academic outcomes for students. Our study examines associations among a brief measure of school climate assessing elementary student perceptions and the College and Career Ready…
Godzicki, Linda; Godzicki, Nicole; Krofel, Mary; Michaels, Rachel
This action research project report was conducted in order to increase motivation and engagement in elementary and middle school students through technology-supported learning environments. The study was conducted from August 27, 2012, through December 14, 2012 with 116 participating students in first-, fourth-, fifth- and eighth-grade classes. To…
The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…
Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, So-Ra; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kang, Kyung-Ah
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of coping knowledge for emergency preparedness in Korean elementary school students. A school-based coping education program was provided seven times to 271 fourth- and fifth-grade students in two urban schools by researchers with the school nurses. The Process Model of Stress and Coping and…
Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of at-risk student mobility on academic achievement in an urban elementary school. Math and reading scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) of 172 third, fourth, and fifth grade students from an urban school district in South Central Texas were examined to determine whether…
Nokes, Jeffery D.
This article reports on a study that repositioned elementary students in new roles as active, critical participants in historical inquiry--roles that required a more mature epistemic stance. It reports 5th-grade students' responses to instructional methods intended to help them understand the nature of historical knowledge, appreciate the work of…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Kao, Mei-Chuan; Yen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Ru-Chu
The purpose of this study aims to explore the effects of applying blog-assisted life education instruction to fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects were 30 fifth-grade students from southern Taiwan. The teaching experiment lasted 10 weeks with three sessions conducted each week. In the experiment, instructional effectiveness and the…
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, affect, skills and behavior which are the main components of environmental literacy. The sample consisted of 45 students (25 males, 20 females) studying in 4th through 8th grades and living in…
Sherrill, Carol A.
The purpose of this dissertation was to determine if the knowledge of literacy development and reading instruction practices an elementary school principal possesses impacts the level of reading achievement of his/her students. Principals' scores on an assessment of knowledge of literacy development and instruction were compared to students'…
Malmberg, Jonna; Järvelä, Sanna; Kirschner, Paul A.
This study investigated what types of learning patterns and strategies elementary school students use to carry out ill- and well-structured tasks. Specifically, it was investigated which and when learning patterns actually emerge with respect to students' task solutions. The present study uses computer log file traces to investigate how…
Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan
This study investigated elementary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental knowledge and attitudes, and how self-reported environmentally friendly behaviour is related to environmental knowledge, behavioural intentions, environmental affects, and the students' locus of…
Cheng, Yuh-Ming; Lou, Shi-Jer; Kuo, Sheng-Huang; Shih, Ru-Chu
In order to improve and promote students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour, integrating environmental education into the primary education curriculum has become a key issue for environmental education. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate elementary school students' acceptance of technology applying digital game-based…
Martin, Ron Reuel
This study was an investigation of student beliefs about their EFL education, and it was based upon the subjective task value component of the expectancy-value theory, a prominent theory of achievement motivation. The participants were three cohorts of Japanese public elementary school students (Cohort 1 from 2008; Cohort 2 from 2009; and Cohort 3…
Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda
The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…
State standardized tests results indicated that between 2012 and 2016, fewer African American students at a rural, Title I elementary school met state standards in reading compared with other racial/ethnic groups of students. A gap in practice existed because the school and district had not conducted studies to understand teacher knowledge and…
The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are
Chang, Florence C.; Muñoz, Marco A.; Koshewa, Sheila
The increasing accountability demands are leading some districts to departmentalize or consider departmentalizing at the elementary school level (Delviscio & Muffs, 2007). Departmentalization allows teachers to specialize and teach one content area in-depth which may, in turn, lead to higher accountability test scores. Although, due to…
Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.
This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a unit on electricity; they also reflected on the epistemic nature of their discourse. A comparison class of 22 students, taught by the same teacher, studied the same unit using the school's established scientific investigation method. We hypothesised that engaging students in idea-driven and theory-building discourse, as well as scaffolding them to reflect on the epistemic nature of their discourse, would help them understand their own scientific collaborative discourse as a theory-building process, and therefore understand scientific inquiry as an idea-driven and theory-building process. As hypothesised, we found that students engaged in knowledge-building discourse and reflection outperformed comparison students in scientific epistemology and science learning, and that students' understanding of collaborative discourse predicted their post-test scientific epistemology and science learning. To further understand the epistemic change process among knowledge-building students, we analysed their KF discourse to understand whether and how their epistemic practice had changed after epistemic reflection. The implications on ways of promoting epistemic change are discussed.
Full Text Available Background In modern education, physical space is considered as a dynamic factor in students' educational activities. This study was conducted to investigating the impact of lighting educational spaces on learning and academic achievement of elementary students. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study (2015-2016, a total of 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Cluster sampling was done by appropriate allocation and questionnaires were randomly divided among students. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning environment lighting and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed using SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that lighting educational spaces has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz, Iran (P
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) and paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests which could evaluate the abilities of motor processing, immediate, delayed and working memory, selective, divided and alternative attention, retrieve learned material, and spatial construction. We found that in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, slow motor processing was positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the elementary school students and decreases in working memory and divided and alternative attention processing were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the junior high school students. The grade-dependent development of cognitive function influences the severity of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Eunok; Kim, Jaerok; Choi, Yoonseok
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Educational interventions targeted food selection perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Education regarding irradiated food was intended to change food selection behavior specific to it. SUBJECTS AND METHODS There were 43 elementary students (35.0%), 45 middle school students (36.6%), and 35 high school students (28.5%). The first step was research design. Educational targets were selected and informed consent was obtained in step two. An initial survey was cond...
Nagai, Susumu; Okamura, Yasuharu; Sakata, Misaki; Miyakawa, Toshiharu
In 2006, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) began 'the delivery lesson on radiation' in order to promote understanding of radiation for the elementary and junior high schools students. Currently, 'the delivery lesson on radiation' is aimed mainly for the junior high school students. About 1800 students per year take the lesson. We will report the effects and tasks of 'the delivery lesson on radiation' based on the results of the questionnaire filled out before and after the lesson. (author)
Full Text Available Results of numerous studies indicate that young people have improper eating habits. The aim of this study was to determine whether daily intake of vitamins, minerals and energy satisfies nutrition requirements for graduating classes of elementary and high school students. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 students, including 42 students from graduating class of an elementary school and 42 students from graduating class of a high school. The students were asked to write the amount and composition of food consumed over a week, their age, body weight and height. 'USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 25' was used to calculate daily intake of vitamins, minerals and energy. Comparison was made with respect to recommendations of Dietary Reference Intake of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, US National Academy of Science. The mean, standard deviation and percentiles of daily intake of certain nutrients were determined. For nutrients for which there was defined value of Estimated Average Requirement the results are presented as percentages of individuals with intakes less than the Estimated Average Requirement as estimates of the prevalence of inadequacy, whereas for nutrients for which only Adequate Intake was defined the results are presented as percentages of individuals with intakes at or greater than the Adeqate Intake. Assessment of adequacy of energy intake was done with respect to calculated Estimated Energy Requirement for each participant in the study. It was shown that 47.6% of elementary and 38.1% of high school students have adequate energy intake. Daily intake of students from both elementary and high school does not meet the dietary recommendations for magnesium, calcium, vitamin C and liposoluble vitamins A, D, E and K. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of proper nutrition. There is a need for increased intake of milk, dairy products, fresh
Kaewchote, Nantawan; Chongchaikit, Maturos
The purpose of this research was to enhancing the Thai language oral reading skills of lower elementary students with Down syndrome using WebQuest lesson. The sample groups were the 5 lower elementary students, purposively selected from Watnonsaparam public school under the Office of Saraburi Educational Service Area, Thailand. The research…
Ertem, Ihsan Seyit
The purpose of this research was to examine the role of personalized and non-personalized online texts on elementary school fifth grade students' comprehension and their attitudes toward reading. Participants were 47 fifth-grade students from a rural elementary school in north Florida. The subjects were randomly assigned into two (personalized…
The objective of this research was to discover the effect of teaching methods and learning styles on the student's ability to write essays. This study was conducted in elementary school in East Jakarta. The population of this studies was 3rd-grade elementary school students who study in East Jakarta. Samples were taken with stratified cluster…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Takemura, Takaubu; Funaki, Kensaku; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Kou; Saito, Yasushi; Aizawa, Rika; Inomata, Shoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo
It is widely accepted that students in Japan sleep fewer hours than what they actually need. However, epidemiological data on sleep habits among students are scarce. The sleep habits and related problems among 1650 students in Akita prefecture were studied. The results revealed that schoolchildren attending elementary schools seemed to sleep for a sufficient number of hours, whereas students attending junior or senior high schools were not sleeping enough. In particular, approximately half of the students attending senior high schools answered that they slept 6 h or less on weekdays and nodded off during classes more than twice a week.
Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Murakami, Yukiko; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Nakai, Shohei; Hamanishi, Masayoshi; Marukawa, Seishiro; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Iwami, Taku
Little is known about the effectiveness of systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for elementary school children. We introduced systematic training of chest compression-only CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) use to elementary school students aged 10-12 years at 17 schools. The questionnaire compared student attitudes towards CPR and their knowledge about it before and after CPR training. We also evaluated parent and teacher views about CPR training in school education. The primary outcome was positive attitude, defined as "yes" and "maybe yes" on a 5 point Likert-type scale of student attitudes towards CPR.1 RESULTS: A total of 2047 elementary school students received CPR training. Of them, 1899 (92.8%) responded to the questionnaire regarding their attitude towards CPR before and after the training. Before training, 50.2% answered "yes" and 30.3% answered "maybe yes", to the question: "If someone suddenly collapses in front of you, can you do something such as check response or call emergency?" After training, their answers changed to 75.6% and 18.3% for "yes" and "maybe yes", respectively. Many of the students (72.3%, 271/370) who did not have a positive attitude before CPR training had a positive attitude after the training (P CPR (97.7%) and use an AED (98.5%). Parents (96.2%, 1173/1220) and teachers (98.3%, 56/57) answered that it was "good" and "maybe good" for children to receive the training at elementary schools. Systematic chest compression-only CPR training helped elementary school students to improve their attitude towards CPR. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Jo Ann M. Petancio
Full Text Available This study probed into the lived experiences of the student-teachers as they go through teaching Elementary Mathematics. Apart from Mathematics, these student-teachers who are generalists teach the other seven subjects. This phenomenological study was conducted during the first semester, school year 2017-2018 in Cebu Normal University-Integrated Laboratory School in Cebu City, Philippines. The researchers interviewed twelve student teachers and used Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Results revealed that the essence of teaching Math from the lens of elementary student teachers is condensed in the following themes: a Emotional mix-up; b Challenging; c Never stop learning and reach out for help; d Success is a joint venture of teacher and student; e Values count; f We are work in progress. The researchers recommend that teacher education institutions may consider revisiting their policies and practices to strengthen the support lent by the supervisor, mentors and staff to the budding teachers; providing supplemental training and coaching towards improving the student teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in Math; and providing the pre-service teachers with reflective strategies in processing one’s own experiences in teaching the subject. Moreover, since elementary student-teachers teach not only Math but the other subjects as well, the researchers also recommend that further researches may be conducted on topics related on how the teaching of the other subjects influence one’s way of teaching Mathematics.
Momenian, Mohammad; Samar, Reza Ghafar
This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out on the advanced and elementary teachers' and students' functions and patterns of code-switching in Iranian English classrooms. This concept has not been adequately examined in L2 (second language) classroom contexts than in outdoor natural contexts. Therefore, besides reporting on the…
Pires Pereira, Íris Susana; González Riaño, Xosé Antón
This article arises out of an initiative to implement a curriculum designed to enhance the literacy learning of elementary school children in Portugal. Researchers explored students' perspectives about the experienced curriculum through the enactment of group interviews. Thematic analysis of the conversations revealed positive opinions and…
Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne
This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…
Cihak, David F.; Moore, Eric J.; Wright, Rachel E.; McMahon, Don D.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Smith, Cate
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of augmented reality to teach a chain task to three elementary-age students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Augmented reality blends digital information within the real world. This study used a marker-based augmented reality picture prompt to trigger a video model clip of a student…
Kyunghwa, Lee; Hyejin, Yang
The purpose of this study was to understand cultural differences and similarities in children's creative characteristics in Korea and Australia. In this cross-cultural research, the Integrative Creativity Test (K-ICT, ) with identified validity and reliability for measuring elementary school students' creative ability and creative personality,…
Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Yau-Kai; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Lo, Lap-Yan
The longitudinal predictive power of four important reading-related skills (phonological skills, rapid naming, orthographic skills, and morphological awareness) to Chinese word reading and writing to dictation (i.e., spelling) was examined in a 3-year longitudinal study among 251 Chinese elementary students. Rapid naming, orthographic skills, and…
Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.
Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…
Odaci, Hatice; Kalkan, Melek; Karasu, Pinar
The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive errors as predictor of quality of life of mainstreamed elementary students. Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual. The functional deficiencies, which occur due to physical, cognitive, sensory, emotional disorders, affect the quality of life of the individuals. In this…
Zeichner, Kenneth M.; Tabachnick, B. Robert
A study was conducted to determine the range of supervisory belief systems that existed among nine university supervisors of elementary education student teachers. In interviews, three distinct belief systems emerged: (1) technical/instrumental; (2) personal growth centered; and (3) critical. (FG)
Coots, Jennifer J.; Bishop, Kathryn D.; Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita
Findings of a study in which four elementary general-education teachers commented on the inclusion of students with significant disabilities within general-education classrooms indicated that children with disabilities were described and observed as full classroom members. Difficulties were related to designing and implementing appropriate and…
Irvin, Judith L.; Rose, Elaine O.
On the premise that even young students can learn to study effectively, this book provides a framework and activities for the systematic teaching of study skills during the elementary grades. The book is consistent with current research and theory about learning and remembering; concepts such as schema and metacognition pervade the suggested…
Duke, Robert A.
Uses extant musical examples as stimuli in order to assess the effect of melodic rhythm as a determinant of relative tempo as perceived by college undergraduates and elementary students. Results indicate that subjects responded to the melodic rhythm as well as the beat when making tempo judgments. (LS)
Freiberg, Elizabeth J.
In response to the continued pressure placed on American public schools to increase academic achievement, some schools have begun to reorganize instructional environments in an effort to improve student outcomes. The current study examined one such elementary school that implemented a departmentalized model of instruction in fourth and fifth-grade…
Pajares, Frank; Johnson, Margaret J.; Usher, Ellen L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Albert Bandura's four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on students' writing self-efficacy beliefs (N = 1256) and to explore how these sources differ as a function of gender and academic level (elementary, middle, high). Consistent with the tenets of self-efficacy theory, each of the…
Systems and system models are recognized as a crosscutting concept in the newly released framework for K-12 science education (NRC [National Research Council], 2012). In previous work, I developed a learning progression for systemic reasoning in ecology at the elementary level. The learning progression captured five levels of students' reasoning…
Although elementary general music specialists teach students with a variety of exceptionalities every day (Chen, 2007; Hahn, 2010; Hoffman, 2011), many music teacher preparation programs do not adequately address exceptionality (Salvador, 2010). Articles regarding "strategies that work" appear perennially in the professional literature…
Service learning provides pre-service educators with a context for having hands-on field experience and also assists in understanding the theory and practice. This study discusses 7 undergraduates' implementations of learning stations as their service learning with 28 elementary school students. Through thematic data analysis of interviews,…
Lee, Chung-Ping; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung
This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to quantify important knowledge management behaviors and to analyze the weight scores of elementary school students' behaviors in knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation. Based on the analysis of Expert Choice and tests for validity and reliability, this study identified the weight scores of…
Schüller, Elisabeth M.; Birnbaum, Lisa; Kröner, Stephan
Why should children read in their leisure time? Reading may contribute to the acquisition of reading literacy and may foster integral human development. However, there has been a scarcity of research on determinants of leisure time reading among elementary school students, especially regarding environmental aspects. In this article, the authors…
Goddard, Roger D.; Sweetland, Scott R.; Hoy, Wayne K.
Examines importance of a school climate characterized by high levels of academic emphasis. Drawing on effective-schools research and social-cognitive theory, uses hierarchical linear modeling to show that academic emphasis accounts for differences among urban elementary schools in student math and reading achievement. (Contains 48 references.)…
Jones, James M.
Principal leadership studies have indicated that leadership can play an important role in augmenting students' achievement scores. One significant influence that can affect achievement scores is the leadership style of the principal. This study focuses on fourth-grade achievement scores within urban elementary schools and explores the relationship…
Hsieh, Chuan-Chung; Yen, Hung-Chin; Kuan, Liu-Yen
This study empirically investigates the relationships among principals' technology leadership, teaching innovations, and students' academic optimism by surveying elementary school educators across Taiwan. Of the total 1,080 questionnaires distributed, 755 valid surveys were returned for a 69.90% return rate. Teachers were asked to indicate the…
Bai, Yu; Jin, Leili
Gratitude is a key construct in positive psychology. Previous studies seldom examined the salient contextual correlates of gratitude in early adolescence in non-Western society. This study examined the relations among family functioning, class environment, and gratitude in a sample of 202 Chinese elementary school students. The results showed that…
Wilson, Shelli L.
A significant body of research has shown that effective leadership is an essential element of successful efforts to improve student performance in primary and secondary schools. Emotional intelligence is an important component of effective leadership. This study--involving elementary school principals in a Kentucky school district--suggests there…
Paek, Seungoh; Fulton, Lori A.
This exploratory study investigates the potential of a tablet-based note-taking application (TbNA) to serve as a digital notebook in support of students' classroom science practices. An elementary teacher (Grades 4-5) from a public charter school integrated a TbNA into her science class for one semester while participating in professional…
Lim, Cher Ping; Tay, Lee Yong
Based on a case study of an elementary school in Singapore, this article describes and analyzes how different types of ICT tools (informative, situating, constructive, and communicative tools) are used to engage students in higher-order thinking. The discussion emphasizes that the objective of the lesson and the orienting activities, rather than…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Thoma, Jennifer; Edwards, Patricia
In this column, we share the collective reflections of a group of teachers and a school administrator in one Midwestern elementary school, which highlight the value of using data collaboratively to bring about instructional change and to improve student reading achievement.
Akin, Ayça; Güzeller, Cem Oktay; Evcan, Sinem Sezer
The purpose of the current study is to develop a mathematics self-report inventory (MSRI) to measure Turkish elementary students' mathematics expectancy beliefs and task values based on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. In Study-1 (n = 1,315), exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability analysis are used to evaluate the…
Haywood, Joey; Kuespert, Sarah; Madecky, Dani; Nor, Abbey
This action research project report examined strategies to motivate students from extrinsically rewarding behaviors to intrinsically motivating behaviors. The action research was conducted in two different schools by four different teacher researchers within the same district. Three teachers in an elementary building (Site A) and one teacher in a…
A K-12 school district located in southern California was faced with overcrowding at 1of its middle schools for the 2011-2012 school year. This project study was designed to explore if an elementary or middle school campus was best in supporting students' academics while they were in transition to 6th grade middle school. Maslow's hierarchy of…
Burlew, Whitney; Gordon, Tracy; Holst, Charla; Smith, Cathy; Ward, Judi; Wheeler, Karen
This report describes strategies for increasing levels of interest in reading for enjoyment. The targeted population consisted of first, second, and third grade students in three elementary school districts. The schools were located in middle class and affluent suburban communities of a large city in the Midwest. The problem of lack of interest in…
Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P
This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…
Students as early as elementary school age are capable of learning the aspects of the nature of science (NOS), and the National Benchmarks incorporate the NOS as part of the learning objectives for K--2 students. Learning more about elementary science instruction can aid in understanding how the NOS can be taught or potentially integrated into current teaching methods. Although many teaching methods exist, this study will focus on read-alouds because they are recommended for and are very common in elementary schools. The read-aloud practice is particularly helpful to young students because most of these students have a higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension. One of the main components of the read-aloud practice is the discourse that takes place about the trade book. Both explicit and implicit messages are communicated to students by teachers' language and discussion that takes place in the classroom. Therefore, six multisite naturalistic case studies were conducted to understand elementary teachers' understanding of the NOS, students' understandings of the NOS, trade book representations of the NOS, and read-aloud practices and understandings in upstate New York. The findings of the study revealed that teachers and students held mostly naive and mixed understandings of the NOS. The trade books that had explicit connections to the NOS helped teachers discuss NOS related issues, even when the teachers did not hold strong NOS views. Teachers who held more informed NOS views were able to ask students NOS related questions. All teachers showed they need guidance on how to translate their NOS views into discussion and see the significance of the NOS in their classroom. Explicit NOS instruction can improve student understanding of the NOS, however the focus should be not only on teachers and their NOS understanding but also on the books used. These results show that quality trade books with explicit connections to the NOS are a useful instructional tool
Foster, Esau, II
The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…
Moreno, Geraldine; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Boles, Shawn
Background: The high rates of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States have generated interest in schools as sites for monitoring body mass index (BMI) information. This study established baseline values for a 5-year longitudinal assessment of BMI of elementary school children and examined variation across the schools, because little…
This article focuses on elementary principals as instructional leaders, as well as public school initiatives and educational accountability in the United States. It presents the methodology, instrumentation, measures of academic achievement in Florida, data collection, and processing procedures. Finally, it presents data analysis, results of the…
Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073
Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz
The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baas, Diana; Castelijns, Jos; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob; Segers, Mien
Assessment for Learning (AfL) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of AfL that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between AfL and students' strategy use is scarce. This study investigates the relation between AfL and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven Dutch elementary schools. Students' perceptions of AfL and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. The results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict Students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. The results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Perry, C L; Sellers, D E; Johnson, C; Pedersen, S; Bachman, K J; Parcel, G S; Stone, E J; Luepker, R V; Wu, M; Nader, P R; Cook, K
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) was the largest school-based field trial ever sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The trial demonstrated positive changes in the school food service and physical education program, as well as in students' cardiovascular health behaviors. Because the CATCH intervention programs were implemented in 56 schools (in four states) that were typical of schools throughout the United States, their reception by schools and degree of implementation provide evidence about their feasibility for schools nationally. Extensive process evaluation data were collected from students, teachers, school food service personnel, and physical education specialists throughout the three school years of the CATCH intervention. Four of the CATCH programs--school food service, physical education, classroom curricula, and home programs--were assessed over the three school years. The process data provide information on participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility of the CATCH programs in the intervention schools for these programs. High levels of participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility were observed for the four programs during the 3 school years. CATCH emerges as a model of a feasible multilevel health promotion program to improve eating and exercise behaviors for elementary schools in the United States.
Lee, Jeong-A.; Kim, Chan-Jong
This study aims to understand interactions in Korean elementary science classrooms, which are heavily influenced by Confucianism. Ethnographic observations of two elementary science teachers' classrooms in Korea are provided. Their classes are fairly traditional teaching, which mean teacher-centered interactions are dominant. To understand the power and approval in science classroom discourse, we have adopted Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Based on CDA, form and function analysis was adopted. After the form and function analysis, all episodes were analyzed in terms of social distance. The results showed that both teachers exercised their power while teaching. However, their classes were quite different in terms of getting approval by students. When a teacher got students' approval, he could conduct the science lesson more effectively. This study highlights the importance of getting approval by students in Korean science classrooms.
Jennifer M. Suh
Full Text Available This paper examines the experiences of two elementary teachers’ implementation of mathematical modeling in their classrooms and how the enactment by the teachers and the engagement by students exhibited their creativity, critical thinking, collaboration and communication skills. In particular, we explore the questions: (1 How can phases of mathematical modeling as a process serve as a venue for exhibiting students’ critical 21st century skills? (2 What were some effective pedagogical practices teachers used as they implemented mathematical modeling with elementary students and how did these promote students’ 21st century skills? We propose that mathematical modeling provides space for teachers and students to have a collective experience through the iterative process of making sense of and building knowledge of important mathematical ideas while engaging in the critical 21st century skills necessary in our complex modern world.
Sri Huning Anwariningsih
Full Text Available The implementation of information and comunication technology (ICT curriculum at elementary school is the educational sector development. ICT subject is a practical subject which require a direct practice to make easier in the student understanding. Therefore, a teacher is demanded to make a learning media which helps the student to understand the material of study. This research is aimed at describing the model of ICT study in elementary school and using of learning media. Moreover, the description can be bocome one of the basic from the development of interactive study model base on student self learning. Besides, the arraging of this study model is hoped to make habitual and self learning.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the predictive value of elementary school teachers' workplace characteristics on work stress and burnout. Workplace characteristics were defined as job demands and resources, which were further divided into general and specific, related to work with special education needs students. We examined whether variables related to work with special education needs students explained incremental variance in stress and burnout above and beyond general workplace characteristics. Elementary school teachers from all twelve regions of Slovenia (N ranges from 439 to 886 took part in the study. The results have shown that workplace characteristics independently predict a significant amount of variance in stress, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization among teachers. General job demands and specific demands related to special education needs students are the highest and most stable predictors of all three studied criteria. Based on our findings, we suggest several measures which can help to alleviate stress and foster efficient coping strategies.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out whether there was a positive relationship between students’ interest in reading and their mastery of English vocabulary for fifth grade elementary school students at the lab school in Jakarta. This research used a quantitative method applying a co-relational approach. The population for this research was fifth grade elementary school students from three lab schools. A simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 60 students as respondents from these schools: Lab school Rawamangun in East Jakarta, Lab school Setia Budi in South Jakarta and Lab school Kebayoran also in South Jakarta. Data was collected using a questionnaire with 30 questions requiring answers on a Likert scale and 32 test items were given to each respondent. The conclusion from this research is that there was a positive and significant relationship between interest in reading and mastery of English vocabulary amongst the sample fifth grade elementary school students from these lab schools in Jakarta. Hence, students who had high interest in reading, their mastery of English vocabulary also increased.
Bartley, Nancy; Concannon, James P.; Brown, Patrick L.
Students love learning about animals: how animals behave, what animals eat, why some animals are more dangerous than others are, and why animals look the way they do. In this 5E lesson, students investigate why some animals look the way they do--specifically, the advantages of camouflage and mimicry. What are an animal's advantages of being…
Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia
This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…
Every day, music teachers face the challenge of motivating less-confident student singers in general music classes. Teaching vocal improvisation can be a difficult task, because students are often self-conscious about their voices and too intimidated to sing in front of their peers. Technology can be an excellent motivational tool in the classroom…
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
A variety of instructional practices have been recommended to increase the problem-solving (PS) performance of elementary school children. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically review research on the use of schema instruction to increase the PS performance of elementary school-age students. A total of 21 studies, with 3,408…
Dahmes, Victoria M.
This paper examines the observable play behaviors of elementary school students to determine how children interact within and among cultural groups. Observations were conducted during the recess period at an urban elementary school attended by 623 boys and girls age 6 through 12. Recess periods and play areas were segregated by grade and sex. Data…
Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn
This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…
This descriptive research study was conducted to determine the state of perceived teacher morale and student academic performance as measured by fourth-grade reading and math scores among four elementary schools defined by the servant leadership score of each principal in this Florida elementary school district. While related research from other…
Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura; Schwarz, Christina V.
Elementary teachers play a crucial role in supporting and scaffolding students' model-based reasoning about natural phenomena, particularly complex systems such as the water cycle. However, little research exists to inform efforts in supporting elementary teachers' learning to foster model-centered, science learning environments. To address this…
Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Viga-de Alva, Dolores; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Molina-Segui, Fernanda
We use complex network theory to study the differences between the friendship concepts in elementary school and university students. Four friendship networks were identified from surveys. Three of these networks are from elementary schools; two are located in the rural area of Yucatán and the other is in the urban area of Mérida, Yucatán. We analyzed the structure and the communities of these friendship networks and found significant differences among those at the elementary schools compared with those at the university. In elementary schools, the students make friends mainly in the same classroom, but there are also links among different classrooms because of the presence of siblings and relatives in the schools. These kinds of links (sibling-friend or relative-friend) are called, in this work, "mixed links". The classification of the communities is based on their similarity with the classroom composition. If the community is composed principally of students in different classrooms, the community is classified as heterogeneous. These kinds of communities appear in the elementary school friendship networks mainly because of the presence of relatives and siblings. Once the links between siblings and relatives are removed, the communities resembled the classroom composition. On the other hand, the university students are more selective in choosing friends and therefore, even when they have friends in the same classroom, those communities are quite different to the classroom composition. Also, in the university network, we found heterogeneous communities even when the presence of sibling and relatives is negligible. These differences made up a topological structure quite different at different academic levels. We also found differences in the network characteristics. Once these differences are understood, the topological structure of the friendship network and the communities shaped in an elementary school could be predicted if we know the total number of students
Luis Jorge Martín-Antón
Full Text Available This study examined the social situations that are problematic for peer-rejected students in the first year of elementary school. For this purpose, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations for Children (TOPS, Dodge et al., 1985 in 169 rejected pupils, identified from a sample of 1457 first-grade students (ages 5-7 enrolled in 62 classrooms of elementary school. For each rejected student, another student of average sociometric status of the same gender was selected at random from the same classroom (naverage = 169. The model for the rejected students showed a good fit, and was also invariant in the group of average students. Four types of situations were identified in which rejected students have significantly more difficulties than average students. They are, in descending order: (a respect for authority and rules, (b being disadvantaged, (c prosocial and empathic behavior, and (d response to own success. Rejected boys have more problems in situations of prosociability and empathy than girls. The implications concerning the design of specific programs to prevent and reduce early childhood rejection in the classroom are discussed.
David W. Pittman
Full Text Available Previously we have shown that our Healthy Eating Decisions school-based intervention can influence students’ selections of the healthiest foods available in their elementary school cafeterias through positive reinforcement techniques. Although effective, we recognized that students were missing fundamental nutrition knowledge necessary to understand why the Healthy Eating Decisions program identified particular beverages and foods as the healthiest in the cafeteria. Therefore, we developed the Boss’ Healthy Buddies nutrition education resource as a freely available curriculum matched with South Carolina education standards and designed for elementary school students from kindergarten through fourth grade. The current study implemented Boss’ Healthy Buddies and compared its efficacy to a commercially available nutrition program, CATCH. Elementary school students in Spartanburg, South Carolina, received weekly twenty-minute Boss’ Healthy Buddies lessons for eight weeks. Results from preassessment and postassessment surveys were compared with a positive control elementary school using the CATCH program and a negative control school receiving no nutrition education. Results show that Boss’ Healthy Buddies was equally effective as the CATCH program in improving the nutrition attitudes regarding healthiest beverages and food selections with the advantage of being freely available and minimizing the impact on classroom instruction time. In order to reduce most effectively the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, it is crucial that children are taught nutrition education to support healthy eating habits at an early age. Both the Healthy Eating Decisions school-based intervention and the Boss’ Healthy Buddies nutrition education program are available online for use as free resources to aid in reducing childhood overweight and obesity within elementary schools.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementary students enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC on time to completion and words spelled correctly. Improvements in all measures were found when CCC was in effect. The participants enjoyed the procedures and each improved their spelling over baseline performance. The applicability of CCC across academic contexts and for students with behavior disorders was discussed.
Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael
The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health pre...
Upadhyay, Bhaskar; Maruyama, Geoffrey; Albrecht, Nancy
In this interpretive case study, we draw from sociocultural theory of learning and culturally relevant pedagogy to understand how urban students from nondominant groups leverage their sociocultural experiences. These experiences allow them to gain an empowering voice in influencing science content and activities and to work towards self-determining the sciences that are personally meaningful. Furthermore, tying sociocultural experiences with science learning helps generate sociopolitical awareness among students. We collected interview and observation data in an urban elementary classroom over one academic year to understand the value of urban students' sociocultural experiences in learning science and choosing science activities.
Full Text Available The objective of the nine-year integrated curriculum in Taiwan is to cultivate the ten basic competencies of students. Nations around the world have also accentuated the importance of key competencies in citizens, and it is hoped that through education, civic literacy can be enhanced. Among the basic competencies, many nations value the abilities to use technology, to be creative, and cooperative. This study investigated the development of two abilities, creativity and cooperation, in indigenous students while they learned basic mechanical concepts in a LEGO Mindstorms NXT course, which comprised nine units, during the 2010-2011 school year. Indigenous Atayal culture and teaching strategies involving collaborative problem solving were integrated into the course. The participants were 24 third graders from an elementary school serving the Atayal Tribes of Nan-ao, Ilan County. Data was collected through pretests, posttests, and classroom observations. The findings of this study are as follows. (1 The scores of the pretests and posttests indicate that the basic mechanical concepts of the students improved significantly. (2 The results of the figural Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking showed that the students improved significantly in fluency, originality, elaboration, openness, and creative potential. (3 In learning, cooperating, and the division of labor, the students were able to perform their respective duties; in discussion, problem-solving, and presentation, they required some guidance from the teacher; in reflection, assessment, and summary, the students displayed high levels of interest and creative performance.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung; Rao, Mrinalini A; Thornberg, Robert
This study examines sociodemographic characteristics and social-environmental factors associated with bullying during the elementary to middle school transition from a sample of 5th-grade students (n = 300) in 3 elementary schools at Time 1. Of these, 237 participated at Time 2 as 6th-grade students. Using cluster analyses, we found groups of students who reported no increase in bullying, some decrease in bullying, and some increase in bullying. Students who reported increases in bullying also reported decreases in school belongingness and teacher affiliation and increases in teacher dissatisfaction. Students who reported decreases in bullying also reported decreases in victimization. These findings suggest that changes across the transition in students' relations to school and their teachers are predictive of changes in bullying.
During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.
Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C
The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok
Today, policies relating to nuclear power generation face a myriad of issues regarding the aspects of understanding, sympathy, acceptance, and satisfaction by policy consumers. This study has provided education on nuclear power for elementary, middle, and high school students who are expected to have high ripple effects of communication and education, and organized a mock referendum on nuclear power generation to observe the results of the referendum. Based on the results of this study, it is important to provide sufficient information on the dangers of nuclear power to the future generation in order to enable them to participate in policies with the right value judgments. Both before and after the educational program, all of elementary, middle, and high school students overwhelmingly indicated that nuclear power was dangerous in presenting their disagreement. The expert groups must consider that students are concerned about the risks of nuclear power generation, despite the explanations from experts on the safety of nuclear power. Based on the results of this study, it is important to provide sufficient information on the dangers of nuclear power to the future generation in order to enable them to participate in policies with the right value judgments. Both before and after the educational program, all of elementary, middle, and high school students overwhelmingly indicated that nuclear power was dangerous in presenting their disagreement.
Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Choi, Yoon Seok; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Today, policies relating to nuclear power generation face a myriad of issues regarding the aspects of understanding, sympathy, acceptance, and satisfaction by policy consumers. This study has provided education on nuclear power for elementary, middle, and high school students who are expected to have high ripple effects of communication and education, and organized a mock referendum on nuclear power generation to observe the results of the referendum. Based on the results of this study, it is important to provide sufficient information on the dangers of nuclear power to the future generation in order to enable them to participate in policies with the right value judgments. Both before and after the educational program, all of elementary, middle, and high school students overwhelmingly indicated that nuclear power was dangerous in presenting their disagreement. The expert groups must consider that students are concerned about the risks of nuclear power generation, despite the explanations from experts on the safety of nuclear power. Based on the results of this study, it is important to provide sufficient information on the dangers of nuclear power to the future generation in order to enable them to participate in policies with the right value judgments. Both before and after the educational program, all of elementary, middle, and high school students overwhelmingly indicated that nuclear power was dangerous in presenting their disagreement.
Emine Gül Kapçı
Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains
Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t
Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t
Maelasari, E.; Wahyudin
The aim of this study is to describe the increasing of mathematical communications capability, and difference between students who get STAD cooperative learning and students who receive Direct Instruction. This study is a quasi-experimental study with pretest posttest study design. Subjects in this study in one of the fifth grade elementary school located in Cibeureum District, Kuningan. The research instrument used was a written test mathematical communication skills. The results showed that the improvement of mathematical communication capabilities Direct Instruction students who scored significantly better than students who learned with STAD cooperative learning. By grouping according to the ability of students will show a positive impact on student achievement in the classroom.
Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S
The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.
Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang
This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.
An extensive investigation of elementary school classrooms was conducted through the collection and statistical analysis of student and teacher responses to questions concerning the educational environment. Several asepcts of the classroom are discussed, including the spatial, thermal, luminous, and aural environments. Questions were organized so…
Widhitama, Y. N.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
The aim of this research is to develop problem solving based learning materials on fraction for training creativity of elementary school students. Curriculum 2006 states that mathematics should be studied by all learners starting from elementary level in order for them mastering thinking skills, one of them is creative thinking. To our current knowledge, there is no such a research topic being done. To promote this direction, we initiate by developing learning materials with problem solving approach. The developed materials include Lesson Plan, Student Activity Sheet, Mathematical Creativity Test, and Achievement Test. We implemented a slightly modified 4-D model by Thiagajan et al. (1974) consisting of Define, Design, Development, and Disseminate. Techniques of gathering data include observation, test, and questionnaire. We applied three good qualities for the resulted materials; that is, validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The results show that the four mentioned materials meet the corresponding criteria of good quality product.
Pathare, S. R.; Pradhan, H. C.
Heat and thermodynamics is a conceptually rich area of undergraduate physics. In the Indian context in particular there has been little work done in this area from the point of view of misconceptions. This prompted us to undertake a study in this area. We present a study of students' misconceptions about heat transfer mechanisms, i.e. conduction,…
Findlay, Nora M.
Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…
Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie
This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…
Focusing on the goal of character education, this book provides the Catholic educational community with a resource for building in students a strong sense of self, including self-identity, self-worth, and self-esteem. Four pillars of self-esteem are presented: security, autonomy, initiative, and industry. These pillars are illustrated with…
Shin, Namsoo; Sutherland, LeeAnn M.; Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot
This paper reports the effects of game technology on student learning in mathematics as investigated in two data sets collected from slightly different subjects. In the first, 41 second graders (7 or 8 years old) from two classes used either a technology-based game or a paper-based game for 5 weeks. For the next 13 weeks, both classes used a…
Peto, Erica; Onishi, Esther; Irish, Barbara
A step-by-step manual of worksheets, templates, forms and examples, this comprehensive handbook is designed for librarians, classroom teachers, and technology specialists who are interested in training students to be technology aides. The "Tech Team" program not only systematically outlines how one organizes and manages a support program, but…
Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others
This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…
Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others
This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part I, contains the first five chapters of the course and two appendices. Chapters included are: (1) Polynomial Functions; (2) The Derivative of a Polynomial…
Cullen, Amanda L.; Cullen, Craig J.; O'Hanlon, Wendy A.
In this report, we discuss the findings from 2 pilot studies investigating the effects of interventions designed to provide students in Grades 3-5 with opportunities to work with dynamic and static models of angles in a dynamic geometry environment. We discuss the effects of the interventions on the children's development of quantitative reasoning…
Jan, Afroz; Husain, Shafqat
Bullying is an everlasting problem in the lives of school kids. It is a problem that affects all students, the person who bully, those who are victims, and the persons who witnesses to interpersonal violence. Bullying may include verbal and physical assaults, threats, "jokes" or language, mockery and criticizing , insulting behavior and…
Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety differed signific...
Defia Rizki, Sari; Susilawati; Mariam, Iyam
HUBUNGAN POLA ASUH ORANG TUA DENGAN PRESTASI BELAJARANAK USIA SEKOLAH DASAR KELAS II DAN IIIRelationship between Parenting Style and Children Academic Achievementamong Elementary Students Grade II and IIISari Defia Rizki1, Susilawati2, Iyam Mariam3123Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan SukabumiJalan Karamat Nomor 36, Karamat, Kec. Sukabumi, Kota Sukabumi,Jawa Barat 431221e-mail: Pola asuh merupakan cara yang digunakan orang tua dalam mencoba berbagai strategi untukmendoron...
Full Text Available There are several factors that bring down student interest in technical education within Slovakia and other European Union countries. Authors of this article have now considered one effective method that could improve this situation. This new method is to change of teaching strategies by applying methods of creative thinking. The article further examines the demonstration of these methods applied in elementary schools and defines barriers to their application in educational practice.
Orthaber, Mateja; Potočnik, Katja
The fundamental elements of healthy eating for children and adolescents is a high-quality and varied diet that will help develop good habits for future life. Therefore, we presented some statistics on the eating habits of children and adolescents in elementary school and the organization of school meals in our country. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the basic characteristics of the eating habits of students. We included their opinions and attitudes toward eating at home and ...
The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (pgender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.
Zahnd, Whitney E; Rogers, Valerie; Smith, Tracey; Ryherd, Susan J; Botchway, Albert; Steward, David E
To assess the gender-specific effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on obesity in elementary school students. We evaluated body mass index (BMI) data from 2,648 first- and fourth-grade students (1,377 male and 1,271 female students) in eight elementary schools in Springfield, Illinois, between 2012 and 2014. Other factors considered in analysis were grade level, year of data collection, school, race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic disadvantage (SD). Students were considered SD if they were eligible for free/reduced price lunch, a school-based poverty measure. We performed Fisher's exact test or chi-square analysis to assess differences in gender and obesity prevalence by the other factors and gender-stratified logistic regression analysis to determine if SD contributed to increased odds of obesity. A higher proportion of SD female students (20.8%) were obese compared to their non-SD peers (15.2%) (p=0.01). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated no difference in obesity in SD and non-SD male students. However, in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, SD female students had higher odds of obesity than their peers. Even after controlling for grade level, school, year of data collection, and race/ethnicity, SD female students had 49% higher odds of obesity than their non-SD classmates (odds ratio:1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.04). Obesity was elevated in SD female students, even after controlling for factors such as race/ethnicity, but such an association was not seen in male students. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of this disparity, and interventions should be developed to target SD female students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aricak, Tolga; Bekci, Banu; Siyahhan, Sinem; Martinez, Rebecca
Introduction: Historically, terrorism has occurred in various regions of the world and has been considered a local problem until the September, 11 terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. After 9/11, terrorism has become a global concern. The definition of terrorism has changed from a violent act of a group of local people against their…
Nature of Science is one of the most fundamental aspects of understanding science. How different cultures, races and ethnicities see and interpret science differently is critical. However, the NOS views specific to African American teachers and learners have gone largely unresearched. The views of a purposeful sample of African American third grade children reported in this study contribute to efforts to make science equitable for all students. Conducted in two Midwest urban settings, within the students' regular classrooms, three instruments were employed: Views of Nature of Science Elementary (an interview protocol), Elementary Draw a Scientist Test (a drawing activity supplemented by an explicating narrative), and Identify a Scientist (a simple select-a-photo technique supported by Likert-measured sureness). The responses provided by twenty-three students were coded using qualitative content analysis. The findings are represented in three main categories: Science - is governed by experimentation, invention and discovery teach us about the natural world, school is not the only setting for learning science; Scientists - intelligent, happy, studious men and women playing multiple roles, with distinct physical traits working in laboratories; Students - capable users and producers of science and who view science as fun. This study advocates for: use of such instruments for constant monitoring of student views, using the knowledge of these views to construct inquiry based science lessons, and increased research about students of color.
Petry, Karla L.
Describes successful experiment in teaching of medieval literature to elementary French language classes in the Cincinnati public schools. Purpose was to strengthen linguistic awareness and expand social studies unit on medieval France. (BK)
Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies
This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…
Korkmaz, Murat; Esen, Binnaz Kiran
The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a peer-training program about changing students' internet use habits. This study was conducted with students from two different elementary schools in Mersin, Turkey, who were enrolled in 7th or 8th grade in the 2009-2010 academic year. A total of 24 students participated in the program, 12 of whom…
Full Text Available This study was designed to increase gender equity awareness in elementary school teachers withrespect to student computer and technology usage. Using professional development methods with agroup of teachers, the writer attempted to help them become more aware of gender bias intechnology instruction. An analysis of the data revealed that teachers who were exposed to genderequity professional development training sessions were more likely to exhibit gender equitableteaching behaviors than they did prior to the sessions. The data also indicated that teachers providedmore equitable assistance to their classroom students after being presented with gender equityinterventions.
Poelker, Katelyn E; Kuebli, Janet E
Gratitude, although studied throughout history by scholars from diverse backgrounds, has been largely understudied in psychology until recently. The psychological literature on gratitude is expanding, but it is still particularly limited with children. The authors compared younger (first- and second-grade students; n = 30) and older (fourth- and fifth-grade students; n = 27) children on gratitude-related ratings surrounding gift giving vignettes that included either a desirable (e.g., a birthday cupcake) or an undesirable (e.g., a melted ice cream cone) gift. Empathy was also measured. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns of predictors for desirable and undesirable gifts. For desirable gifts, liking significantly predicted gratitude and liking predicted effort. For undesirable gifts, older children and those who perceived the target as liking the gift more predicted higher gratitude ratings. Finally, higher gratitude rating predicted both higher ratings of giver effort (i.e., intention or how hard did the giver try to give a nice gift) and liking of the undesirable gifts. More research on children's understanding of gratitude is needed but these results suggest that school-aged children take into account givers' intentions and thoughts behind gift giving in determining feelings of gratitude. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.
Dalvi, Tejaswini; Wendell, Kristen
Our study addresses the need for new approaches to prepare novice elementary teachers to teach both science and engineering, and for new tools to measure how well those approaches are working. This in particular would inform the teacher educators of the extent to which novice teachers are developing expertise in facilitating their students' engineering design work. One important dimension to measure is novice teachers' abilities to notice the substance of student thinking and to respond in productive ways. This teacher noticing is particularly important in science and engineering education, where students' initial, idiosyncratic ideas and practices influence the likelihood that particular instructional strategies will help them learn. This paper describes evidence of validity and reliability for the Video Case Diagnosis (VCD) task, a new instrument for measuring pre-service elementary teachers' engineering teaching responsiveness. To complete the VCD, participants view a 6-min video episode of children solving an engineering design problem, describe in writing what they notice about the students' science ideas and engineering practices, and propose how a teacher could productively respond to the students. The rubric for scoring VCD responses allowed two independent scorers to achieve inter-rater reliability. Content analysis of the video episode, systematic review of literature on science and engineering practices, and solicitation of external expert educator responses establish content validity for VCD. Field test results with three different participant groups who have different levels of engineering education experience offer evidence of construct validity.
Szostkowski, Alaina Hopkins
Integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education promises to enhance elementary students' engagement in science and related fields and to cultivate their problem-solving abilities. While STEM has become an increasingly popular reform initiative, it is still developing within the Montessori education community. There is limited research on STEM teaching and learning in Montessori classrooms, particularly from student perspectives. Previous studies suggest productive connections between reform-based pedagogies in mainstream science education and the Montessori method. Greater knowledge of this complementarity, and student perspectives on STEM, may benefit both Montessori and non-Montessori educators. This instrumental case study of two elementary classrooms documented student characterizations of aspects of STEM in the context of integrated STEM instruction over three months in the 2016-2017 school year. Findings show that the Montessori environment played an important role, and that students characterized STEM in inclusive, agentive, connected, helpful, creative, and increasingly critical ways. Implications for teaching and future research offer avenues to envision STEM education more holistically by leveraging the moral and humanistic aspects of Montessori philosophy.
Full Text Available Education makes it possible for students to become familiar with the rational management of energy as well as learn to implement energy saving practices in their everyday life. The study of certain student characteristics helps in the direction of applying strategies of behavioural change. The aim of this research is to record the knowledge and attitudes of elementary school students in the Prefecture of Evros with regard to energy saving. The collection of research data was done through the use of a structured and anonymous questionnaire with closed questions. The method used for the collection of the research data was cluster sampling. This involved 17 elementary schools of the continental part of the prefecture. 612 questionnaires were completed by students of the 5th and 6th grade of these schools. The evaluation of the research data showed that 69.6% of the students think that the most appropriate house temperature is 20°C with 79.1% of the students keeping the thermostat switched off while the house is aired. With regard to the use of TV, stereo, play station and PC the research showed that 93.8% of the students switch off the above devices when these are not in use. In parallel, 86.6% of the respondents usually or always switch off the lights when coming out of a room and 46.2% of the students use energy saving bulbs. Also, 93% of the students recycle because they believe that doing so contributes to the protection of the environment while 41% always chooses to walk to school. With regard to the significance of reasons concerning energy saving 85.9% thinks that energy saving is important to very important for reducing environmental pollution.
Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J
Dietary intake among children in the United States falls short of national recommendations. Schools can play an important role in improving children's preferences and food consumption patterns. The US Department of Agriculture's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) aims to improve children's nutrient intake patterns by offering fresh fruits and vegetables as snacks outside the reimbursable meals programs in elementary schools that serve large numbers of low-income children. Using a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools, this cross-sectional study investigated FFVP participation patterns among schools by demographic and school characteristics. Further, the study investigated the association between FFVP participation and availability of fresh fruits, salads, and vegetables at lunch as reported by school administrators and foodservice staff. Data collected via a mail-back survey from 620 public elementary schools participating in the National School Lunch Program during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Almost 70% of the FFVP-participating schools had a majority of students (>50%) eligible for free and reduced-cost meals. Participating in US Department of Agriculture Team Nutrition Program and having a registered dietitian or a nutritionist on staff were significantly associated with FFVP participation. Based on the results from logistic regression analyses schools participating in the FFVP were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.07; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.53) to serve fresh fruit during lunch meals. Slightly >25% of public elementary schools across the United States participated in the FFVP, and participation was associated with healthier food availability in school lunches. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available By taking the role as a mentor and a facilitator, a teacher in the 4th grade of elementary school needs to look at the condition of the students in the concrete thinking stage. Learning process needs to be adjusted such that the abstract objects in mathematics can be represented through concrete objects as a bridge to enter the knowledge that the students already had, especially for the material of fraction. This research aims to analyze the achievement and the improvement of students’ mathematics reasoning ability through the implementation of Indonesian realistic mathematics education (PMRI approach. The research subject consisted of 51 students in the experiment group and 45 students in the control group which categorized into three levels (low, intermediate, and high. The result suggests that the achievement and the improvement of students’ reasoning ability in the mathematics learning using PMRI approach are better than the conventional learning.
Tri Marhaeni Puji Astuti
Full Text Available Realizing the character building on students is a national education goal. The character education is very important for the students. Therefore, the socialization and enculturation of national character education in schools by using an effective and efficient method are needed. This study aims to understand the process of socialization of character education in elementary school, to find the effective way of socialization models of national character education for students in elementary school through comics, and to determine the impact of socialization models of national character education for students in elementary school through the comic for the character building of students. This research was conducted using qualitative methods (Research & Development. The data collection techniques used were interviews, observation and documentation. The results show that the socialization of the nation’s character education in primary schools is done in several ways; integrated with in the curriculum through the school management, and through extracurricular programs. Those ways do not seem to produce maximum results. Socialization model of the national character of education in the elementary schools through the comic is more effective to apply, because students are more interested in the visualization of interesting and familiar images.Menyadari pembangunan karakter siswa adalah tujuan pendidikan nasional. Pendidikan karakter sangat penting bagi para siswa. Oleh karena itu, sosialisasi dan enkulturasi pendidikan karakter bangsa di sekolah-sekolah dengan menggunakan metode yang efektif dan efisien diperlukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami proses sosialisasi pendidikan karakter di sekolah dasar, untuk menemukan cara yang efektif untuk model sosialisasi pendidikan karakter bangsa bagi siswa di sekolah dasar melalui komik, dan untuk menentukan dampak dari model sosialisasi pendidikan karakter bangsa bagi siswa di sekolah dasar melalui komik
Ren, Fujun; Li, Xiuju; Zhang, Huiliang; Wang, Lihui
For almost a century, researchers have studied creative imagination, most typically that of children. This article reports on a study of the development of creative imagination of Chinese youths and its relation to the educational environment. Data consisted of 4,162 students from grades 4 through 12. Findings showed that students' creative imagination increased as the grade in school increased from grades 4 through 11, but decreased slightly at grade 12. Students' creative imagination was lower in elementary school than that in middle school. The pace of development was also different in different stages. In different grades, youths used different ways to express their imagination. Students of 'excellent' academic performance had the highest creative imagination, followed by students of 'fairly good', 'medium' and 'poor' academic performance. Student-centred teaching methods were associated with higher creative imagination. Students whose teachers had a more supportive attitude showed better creative imagination. Finally, taking part in science-related competitions and frequently visiting science venues were related to the development of students' creative imagination. Some implications and recommendations for development of students' creative imagination are also proposed.
Harvey, Stephen; Gil-Arias, Alexander; Smith, Megan Lorraine; Smith, Lindsey Rachel
Abstract Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM). Participants were 173 students (84 girls), 79 middle school (45 girls) and 94 (39 girls) elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle) and 33 (elementary) level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased) and elementary school students (autonomy decreased) and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased). Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary) of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce
Full Text Available Studies examining student motivation levels suggest that this is a significant factor in students’ engagement in physical education and may be positively affected when teachers employ alternative pedagogical models such as game-centered approaches (GCAs. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in self-determined motivation of students as they participated in a GCA-basketball unit taught using the Tactical Games Model (TGM. Participants were 173 students (84 girls, 79 middle school (45 girls and 94 (39 girls elementary school students from four seventh and five fourth/fifth grade co-educational classes. Two teachers taught 32 (middle and 33 (elementary level one TGM basketball lessons. Need satisfaction and self-determined motivation data were collected using a previously validated instrument, while lesson context and teacher behavior data were recorded using systematic observation instruments. Repeated measures MANOVAs were employed to examine pre-posttest differences. Results revealed a significant main effect for time in need satisfaction for both middle (relatedness increased and elementary school students (autonomy decreased and a significant main effect in self-determined motivation for middle school students only (introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation all increased. Approximately 48%/42% (middle/elementary of lesson time was game play, 22%/22% skill practice, 17%/17% management, and 13%/19% knowledge. The primary teacher behaviors used were instruction, management, specific observation, corrective feedback and modelling. Results indicate that it is important for future research to pay greater attention to the contextual factors associated with the application of the TGM, such as the students’ previous exposure to TGM lessons, and the teachers’ training and experience in utilizing the TGM. Indeed, results of the present study demonstrate that a longer-term commitment to the TGM is necessary to reduce
Kellagher, E.; Scherrer, D. K.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.
The SDO instruments (EVE, AIA and HMI) teams have created a digital comic book series for upper elementary and middle school students featuring solar science aficionados Camilla and Colours, 2 cool mascot characters. These comics may be printed or read on mobile devices and are available as a free download. Many teachers are looking for resources to use with their students via the IPad so our collaboration helps supply teachers with a great resource that teaches about solar concepts and helps dispel solar misconceptions. It doesn't come as a surprise to a lot of us, but a recent study confirms what's been theorized for years: Comics are a stronger learning tool than text books. Image-based storytelling is a powerful educational tool. Comics are probably more able to combine story and information simultaneously, more effectively and seamlessly, than almost any other medium. There's also a great potential to incorporate interactive elements into digital versions, so that more information can be presented on certain items on a page. For example, videos, animations and even historic footage and audio can be embedded into digital comics. Really, the possibilities are limited only by the creators' imaginations as to how to find new ways to create a rich experience that is interesting to explore for students. We are excited to unveil this new series of solar science comics that promotes science literacy with upper elementary and middle school students.
Roychoudhury, Anita; Roth, Wolff-Michael
The present study provided insights regarding the interactions that take place in collaborative science laboratory and regarding the outcome of such interactions. Science laboratory experiences structured by teachers have been criticized for allowing very little, if any, meaningful learning. However, this study showed that even structured laboratory experiments can provide insightful experience for students when conducted in a group setting that demanded interactive participation from all its members. The findings of the present study underscored the synergistic and supportive nature of collaborative groups. Here, students patiently repeated explanations to support the meaning construction on the part of their slower peers and elaborated their own understanding in the process; groups negotiated the meaning of observations and the corresponding theoretical explanations; students developed and practiced a range of social skills necessary in today’s workplace; and off-task behavior was thwarted by the group members motivated to work toward understanding rather than simply generating answers for task completion. The current findings suggest an increased use of collaborative learning environments for the teaching of science to elementary education majors. Some teachers have already made use of such settings in their laboratory teaching. However, collaborative learning should not be limited to the laboratory only, but be extended to more traditionally structured classes. The effects of such a switch in activity structures, increased quality of peer interaction, mastery of subject matter content, and decreased anxiety levels could well lead to better attitudes toward science among preservice elementary school teachers and eventually among their own students.
Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.
This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.
Nakata, Hiroki; Akido, Miki; Naruse, Kumi; Fujiwara, Motoko
The present study investigated characteristics of the relative age effect (RAE) among a general sample of Japanese elementary and junior high school students. Japan applies a unique annual age-grouping by birthdates between April 1 and March 31 of the following year for sport and education. Anthropometric and physical fitness data were obtained from 3,610 Japanese students, including height, weight, the 50-m sprint, standing long jump, grip strength, bent-leg sit-ups, sit and reach, side steps, 20-m shuttle run, and ball throw. We examined RAE-related differences in these data using a one-way analysis of variance by comparing students with birthdates in the first (April-September) versus second (October-March of the following year) semesters. We observed a significant RAE for boys aged 7 to 15 years on both anthropometric and fitness data, but a significant RAE for girls was only evident for physical fitness tests among elementary school and not junior high school students. Thus, a significant RAE in anthropometry and physical fitness was evident in a general sample of school children, and there were RAE gender differences among adolescents.
Horne, Patricia Lynne
The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).
Pinar Karacan Dogan; Tingaz, Emre Ozan; Hazar, Muhsin; Zvonar, Martin
The purpose of this study is to compare the perception concerning game concept of 4th grade students in Turkey and the Czech Republic. 19 fourth grade elementary students in the Czech Republic and 40 fourth grade elementary students in Turkey were selected by criterion and convenience sampling. They responded to a specific question "What is…
Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432
Yang, Chunyan; Sharkey, Jill D; Reed, Lauren A; Chen, Chun; Dowdy, Erin
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including traumatic responses. This study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the multilevel moderating effects of school climate and school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high schools) on the association between bullying victimization and student engagement. Participants included 25,896 students in 4th to 12th grades from 114 schools. Results indicated that, after controlling for student and school demographic factors, positive school climate was associated with higher behavioral/cognitive and emotional engagement of students across all grades. This highlights the critical and fundamental role of positive school climate in bullying prevention and intervention, among students across all grade levels, including those with frequent bullying victimization experience. Results also showed that negative associations between student-level bullying victimization and engagement were intensified in more positive school climates. This finding suggests that, in comparison with students in schools with less positive school climates, the engagement of bullying victims in schools with a more positive school climate might be more negatively influenced by their victimization experience. Additionally, the relation between student-level bullying victimization and emotional engagement was significantly different across middle and high schools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Zee, Marjolein; Koomen, Helma M Y; Van der Veen, Ineke
This study tested a theoretical model considering students' personality traits as predictors of student-teacher relationship quality (closeness, conflict, and dependency), the effects of student-teacher relationship quality on students' math and reading achievement, and the mediating role of students' motivational beliefs on the association between student-teacher relationship quality and achievement in upper elementary school. Surveys and tests were conducted among a nationally representative Dutch sample of 8545 sixth-grade students and their teachers in 395 schools. Structural equation models were used to test direct and indirect effects. Support was found for a model that identified conscientiousness and agreeableness as predictors of close, nonconflictual relationships, and neuroticism as a predictor of dependent and conflictual relationships. Extraversion was associated with higher levels of closeness and conflict, and autonomy was only associated with lower levels of dependency. Students' motivational beliefs mediated the effects of dependency and student-reported closeness on reading and math achievement. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Berlin, Donna
The main purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the attitudes toward science class of fourth- and fifth-grade students in an Asian school culture. Specifically, the development focused on three science attitude constructs-science enjoyment, science confidence, and importance of science as related to science class experiences. A total of 265 elementary school students in Taiwan responded to the instrument developed. Data analysis indicated that the instrument exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability with the Taiwan population used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the entire instrument indicating a satisfactory level of internal consistency. However, both principal component analysis and parallel analysis showed that the three attitude scales were not unique and should be combined and used as a general "attitudes toward science class" scale. The analysis also showed that there were no gender or grade-level differences in students' overall attitudes toward science class.
Full Text Available This study examined the submissive behaviors of second level of elementary school students at with respect to some variables. Participants were 430 students, 172 (42,6 % girls and 231 (57,4 % boys. Among these participants, 156 (38,6 % were 6th graders, 104 (26% were 7th graders, and 143 (35,4% were 8th graders. The data were collected using Student Personal Information Form developed by researchers and Submissive Behaviors Scale. The data collected were analyzed using t-test, One-way ANOVA, Tukey Test, and Mann–Whitney U test. The findings revealed that students’ levels of submissive behaviors significantly differed by the variables including school type, gender, school class level, achievement, residence, economic level, mother’s and father’s education level, violence by mother and father.
Bazzano, Alessandra N; Anderson, Christopher E; Hylton, Chelsea; Gustat, Jeanette
To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom. A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions. In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL ( p -value 0.001) and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL ( p -value 0.01). Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions ( p -value classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in emotional and psychosocial quality of life in the intervention group when compared to the control group, suggesting that yoga/mindfulness interventions may improve symptoms of anxiety among students. Yoga/mindfulness activities may facilitate stress management among elementary school students and may be added as a complement to social and emotional learning activities.
Spilt, J.L.; Hughes, J.N.; Wu, J.Y.; Kwok, O.M.
This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = .39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5.
Akgun, Serap; Araz, Arzu
The purpose of the study was to implement "we can resolve our conflicts" training program to elementary school students and to assess the effectiveness of this school-based conflict resolution training program, designed to enhance students' conflict resolution skills and social competence and consequently decrease aggression. Three…
Selective mutism (SM) is considered a communication and anxiety disorder that afflicts about 1% of students. The rarity of SM and the isolated cases of this condition has rendered the elementary to secondary school experience for a student with SM difficult to study. Utilizing a qualitative approach, this phenomenological case study examined the…
Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.
This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a…
Pilson, Sylvia Yvonne Reddick
The curriculum for elementary students has undergone a significant change in the past decade. This led to an increased expectation for higher academic performance for fifth grade students in the areas of reading and mathematics. Teachers seek innovative ways to provide instructional practices within their classrooms that will aid success for all…
Kamalova, Lera A.; Koletvinova, Natal'ya D.
This article is aimed to study the problems of reading and improve reading culture of students-bachelors of elementary education in modern high institutions and development of the most effective methods and techniques for improving of reading culture of students in the study of Humanities disciplines. The leading method to the study of this…
This study measured the amounts of different types of metacognitive statements made by students enrolled in Elementary Algebra courses at a community college in California. A total of 17 students were interviewed three times during the course of a semester. All interviews were coded for types of metacognitive statements that fell into one of three…
This paper describes the impact of the project-based learning (PBL) approach on learning and teaching physics from the perspective of pre-service elementary school teacher education students and an instructor. This approach promoted meaningful learning (mainly in the scope of projects), higher motivation, and active involvement of students in…
Maria Homéria Leite de Morais Sampaio
Full Text Available Abstract Postural changes and pain in the spine of children and adolescents of school age are influenced by the permanent incorrect sitting position, misuse of furniture and weight of the backpack. The aim of this study was to verify postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students. It was a cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach. The subjects were 83 elementary students, aged 8 to 12 years, of Kindergarten and Elementary Education at Paulo Sarasate Municipal School, Ceará. It was performed from March to June 2008. In the physical examination it was used an evaluation form, based on Global Postural reeducation, by Souchard method, which included the variables: compromised anterior, posterior, superior shoulder muscle chains and pain and, in academic performance, a semi-structured questionnaire with the variables: behavior, attendance and performance. The data was stored in the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. In the descriptive analysis, absolute and relative frequencies were used, and in the inferential analysis, the following tests were applied: Mann-Whitney, to verify the existence of significant differences in changes in groups A and B, at a significance level of 5%, and the F statistical test, for comparing postural changes and pain, in the three grades. Results: it was noted that the majority of the students presented postural changes, such as forward head, lifted shoulders, dorsal hyperkyphosis and pain, which predominantly occurred in the anterior chain, when compared with the posterior and superior chains. These changes in both groups were statistically significant only in subjects of the fifth grade with satisfactory academic performance and behavior. It was concluded that there was no association between postural changes and school performance, although it was influenced by pain.
Han, E.; Choi, Y.; Yang, J.; Lee, S.
The textbooks for elementary school students were developed to help future generations make value judgments based on appropriate information about nuclear energy and radiation. The themes and educational contents of the 13 lessons, to be delivered in one semester at elementary school level, were selected by the educational requirements of students, science teachers, and experts. The “Radiation and Life” textbook for elementary school students consists of the following chapters: – Chapter 1. What is nuclear energy and radiation?, – Chapter 2. Who discovered the nuclear energy and radiation?, – Chapter 3. Why is nuclear energy and radiation important?, – Chapter 4. Is nuclear energy and radiation dangerous?, – Chapter 5. Let’s learn about what to do when an accident occurs, – Chapter 6. How are nuclear energy and radiation used?, – Chapter 7. What is nuclear power generation?, – Chapter 8. Why is radiation used for food?, – Chapter 9. What is medical radiation?, – Chapter 10. What kind of irradiated products are in our daily lives?, – Chapter 11. What jobs are related to nuclear energy and radiation?, – Chapter 12. What are energies of future?, – Chapter 13. Concept of Talk-talk (a study review game). The general trend in recent educational curriculum development suppresses national education course organizations and authorities and expands the autonomy and authority of regions and schools. The derived textbook contents are expected to be helpful as first textbooks for the autonomous selection of education about nuclear energy and radiation for use in creative experiences developed at the school level. (author)
Full Text Available Background Carrying heavy backpacks by school students at growth age can cause irreversible physical harms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between backpack weight and the incidence of lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and dropped shoulders in elementary school students. Materials and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2015 in Abadan, Iran, and 383 elementary school students were selected and enrolled using the cluster sampling method. Data was collected through the grid method and a demographic questionnaire. The weights of students’ backpacks were recorded, and it was determined whether they were standard or not. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22, descriptive statistics, and the Chi-square test. Results Findings showed that 36.9% of public school students’ backpacks and 55.1% of private school students’ backpacks were non-standard with respect to weight. A significant relationship was also found between non-standard backpack weight and prevalence of dropped shoulders, kyphosis and lordosis (P
Wang, Peng-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Ching; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Wang, Kuo-Ming
The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effects of daily energy expenditure on the academic performance (AP) of elementary schoolchildren, the results of which will be used as the basis of planning physical activity (PA) for children in the future. Participants were collected from 4th to 6th grade children at an elementary school in southern Taiwan. The effective sample data size was 1065 (79.8%; 528 boys and 537 girls). Daily mean energy expenditure was obtained using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3-DPAR), and the intensive activities degrees of physical activity were categorized into lowest PA, middle PA, and highest PA group, and academic performance assessed with weighted academic score. The significant effect on the academic performance of schoolchildren was only in energy expenditure but not for sexes and tutorials attended. All students in the middle PA group performed better academically than those in the highest PA group. After controlling sexes, male students in the middle PA group performed better than other groups; female students in the lowest PA group performed better than other groups. These results may be consulted by schools, academic faculties, and parents in setting up exercise plans for children. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Bigarelli, Juliana Faleiros Paolucci; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de
To characterize, according to the school grade and the type of school (private or public), the performance on orthographic and narrative text production in the writing of Elementary School students with good academic performance, and to investigate the relationships between these variables. Participants were 160 children with ages between 8 and 12 years, enrolled in 4th to 7th grades Elementary School. Their written production was assessed using words and pseudowords dictation, and autonomous writing of a narrative text. Public school students had a higher number of errors in the words and pseudowords dictation, improving with education level. The occurrence of complete and incomplete utterances was similar in both public and private schools. However, 4th graders presented more incomplete statements than the other students. A higher number of overall microstructure and macrostructure productions occurred among private school students. The essential macrostructures were most frequently found in the later school grades. The higher the total number of words in the autonomous written production, the higher the occurrence of linguistic variables and the better the narrative competence. There was a weak negative correlation between the number of wrong words and the total of events in text production. Positive and negative correlations (from weak to good) were observed between different orthographic, linguistic and narrative production variables in both private and public schools. Private school students present better orthographic and narrative performance than public school students. Schooling progression influences the performance in tasks of words' writing and text production, and the orthographic abilities influence the quality of textual production. Different writing abilities, such as orthographic performance and use of linguistic elements and narrative structures, are mutually influenced in writing production.
Stephenson, Robert L.
The majority of Grade 5 students demonstrate limited science knowledge on state assessments. This trend has been documented since 2010 with no evidence of improvement. Because state accountability formulas include proficiency scores and carry sanctions against districts that fail to meet proficiency thresholds, improved student performance in science is an important issue to school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary teachers' perceptions about their students' science knowledge, the strategies used to teach science, the barriers affecting science teaching, and the self-efficacy beliefs teachers maintain for teaching science. This study, guided by Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, was a bounded instrumental case study in which 15 participants, required to be teaching K-5 elementary science in the county, were interviewed. An analytic technique was used to review the qualitative interview data through open coding, clustering, and analytical coding resulting in identified categorical themes that addressed the research questions. Key findings reflect students' limited content knowledge in earth and physical science. Teachers identified barriers including limited science instructional time, poor curricular resources, few professional learning opportunities, concern about new state standards, and a lack of teaching confidence. To improve student content knowledge, teachers identified the need for professional development. The project is a professional development series provided by a regional education service agency for K-5 teachers to experience science and engineering 3-dimensional learning. Area students will demonstrate deeper science content knowledge and benefit from improved science instructional practice and learning opportunities to become science problem solvers and innovative contributors to society.
One of the current trends in pedagogy at all levels(K-college) is the so-called ‘flipped classroom’, in which students prepare for a class meeting through self-study of the material. It is based on a rejection of the classic model of the faculty member as the ‘sage on the stage’ instead, responsibility for learning shifts to the individual student. The faculty member takes on the role of learning facilitator or mentor, and focuses the students’ learning by crafting and administering timely formative assessments (in multiple formats and applied multiple times) that aid both students and the faculty member in tracking the students’ mastery of the learning outcomes. In a flipped, freshman-only, section of SCI 111 Elementary Earth-Physical Sciences (a required introductory science course for pre-service elementary school teachers) the students learned through a combination of individual and group hands-on in-class activities, technology (including PowerPoint presentations and short videos viewed prior to attending class), in-class worksheets, and in-class discussions. Students self-differentiated in how they interacted with the available teaching materials, deciding which activities to spend the most time on based on their individual needs (based on an online quiz taken the night before the class period, and their personal self-confidence with the material). Available in-class activities and worksheets were developed by the faculty member based on student scores on the online quiz as well as personal messages submitted through the course management system the night before the class meeting. While this placed a significant burden on the faculty member in terms of course preparation, it allowed for just-in-time teaching to take place. This poster describes the results of student mastery of content centered on the sun-earth-moon system (specifically seasons, moon phases, and eclipses) as compared to traditional classroom sections.
Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine
Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design......, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured achievement by standardized tests in mathematics or reading. The analysis included 101 studies performed during 2000-2014, 76 percent of which were randomized controlled trials. The effect sizes (ES) of many interventions indicate...
Mesquita, Isabel; Farias, Claudio; Hastie, Peter
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (SE-IGCM) unit application on students' improvements in decision making, skill execution and overall game performance, during a soccer season. Twenty-six fifth-grade students from a Portuguese public elementary school participated in a…
Brown, Mary; Dickinson, Rosemary
This book consists of two complete units on meteorology. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary approach. Suggestions for…
B Ruth Clark
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership.Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 2009-2010 school year. Body mass index (BMI percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. President's Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 9-19 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (⩒O2max was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes.Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ; the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores.A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.
Vaisman, N; Voet, H; Akivis, A; Vakil, E
To study the effect of breakfast timing on selected cognitive functions of elementary school students. A 2-week randomized control intervention trial. Five elementary schools. The subjects comprised 569 children, 51% of them boys, aged 11 to 13 years; the children were in grades 5 through 6 (17 classes). The subjects lived in different areas and had different socioeconomic backgrounds. Each subject was tested twice, by 2 versions of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, 2 alternative forms of the logical memory subtest of the revised Wechsler Memory Scale, and 2 versions of the Benton Visual Retention Test. On the first test, before any nutritional intervention, the subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about their food intake on the day of testing. Two thirds of the subjects received 200 ml of 3%-fat milk and 30 g of sugared cornflakes for the next 14 days, and all the subjects were reexamined on the 15th day. Scoring on the different tests was compared with baseline scores. After 15 days, children who ate breakfast at school scored notably higher on most of the test modules than did children who ate breakfast at home and children who did not at breakfast. Our results indicate that routinely eating breakfast 2 hours prior to being tested does not improve cognitive functions in 11- to 13-year-old elementary school students, but food supplementation 30 minutes prior to taking a test notably improves scoring. We suggest further studies on the relationship between meal content, feeding time, and scholastic performance.
Natale, Francesco; Rapp, Alexander; Yu, Wei; Maiser, Andreas; Harz, Hartmann; Scholl, Annina; Grulich, Stephan; Anton, Tobias; Hörl, David; Chen, Wei; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina
Histone H2AX phosphorylation is an early signalling event triggered by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To elucidate the elementary units of phospho-H2AX-labelled chromatin, we integrate super-resolution microscopy of phospho-H2AX during DNA repair in human cells with genome-wide sequencing analyses. Here we identify phospho-H2AX chromatin domains in the nanometre range with median length of ∼75 kb. Correlation analysis with over 60 genomic features shows a time-dependent euchromatin-to-heterochromatin repair trend. After X-ray or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated DSBs, phospho-H2AX-labelled heterochromatin exhibits DNA decondensation while retaining heterochromatic histone marks, indicating that chromatin structural and molecular determinants are uncoupled during repair. The phospho-H2AX nano-domains arrange into higher-order clustered structures of discontinuously phosphorylated chromatin, flanked by CTCF. CTCF knockdown impairs spreading of the phosphorylation throughout the 3D-looped nano-domains. Co-staining of phospho-H2AX with phospho-Ku70 and TUNEL reveals that clusters rather than nano-foci represent single DSBs. Hence, each chromatin loop is a nano-focus, whose clusters correspond to previously known phospho-H2AX foci.
Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun
Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim
This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Peoples, Shelagh M; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Shields, Katherine A; Wang, Yang
This research describes the development process, psychometric analyses and part validation study of a theoretically-grounded Rasch-based instrument, the Nature of Science Instrument-Elementary (NOSI-E). The NOSI-E was designed to measure elementary students' understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS). Evidence is provided for three of the six validity aspects (content, substantive and generalizability) needed to support the construct validity of the NOSI-E. A future article will examine the structural and external validity aspects. Rasch modeling proved especially productive in scale improvement efforts. The instrument, designed for large-scale assessment use, is conceptualized using five construct domains. Data from 741 elementary students were used to pilot the Rasch scale, with continuous improvements made over three successive administrations. The psychometric properties of the NOSI-E instrument are consistent with the basic assumptions of Rasch measurement, namely that the items are well-fitting and invariant. Items from each of the five domains (Empirical, Theory-Laden, Certainty, Inventive, and Socially and Culturally Embedded) are spread along the scale's continuum and appear to overlap well. Most importantly, the scale seems appropriately calibrated and responsive for elementary school-aged children, the target age group. As a result, the NOSI-E should prove beneficial for science education research. As the United States' science education reform efforts move toward students' learning science through engaging in authentic scientific practices (NRC, 2011), it will be important to assess whether this new approach to teaching science is effective. The NOSI-E can be used as one measure of whether this reform effort has an impact.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analysis the effects of cartoons telecasted on Turkish televisions on the socialization process of elementary education students. The data were collected by the “The Behavior Scale on the Evaluation of the Effects of Animated Cartoons Telecasted on Turkish Televisions to Primary Education Students’ Socialization Process”. Participants were in 18 schools, randomly selected from the elementary schools in 9 central counties in Ankara. The characteristics of the variables were assessed and t-test, variance analysis (ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis H Test and Mann-Whitney U Test was conducted. There was no significant difference found in terms of socializing scale scores (p>0,05 between the television animation film watching hours. There was no significant difference in terms of socialization scale scores between the class levels of the children participating in the research (p>0,05. There was significant difference found in terms of socialization scale scores between the income groups of the families of the children participating in the research (p<0,05. It was concluded in the application process that animation productions telecasted on TV had a partial effect on the socialization process of the primary school students.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep problems are taken into account as a prevalent problem within school-age children that is normally ignored in spite of its high prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the frequency of sleep problems within elementary students in Kashan. Methods: This study is descriptive-cross sectional, in which 300 children (7-12 years old of Kashan elementary schools were randomly selected via cluster sampling method. The study instruments for data collection involved questions concerning children's age and sex as well as BEAR'S questionnaire, which were filled by the children's mothers. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics method (mean and standard deviation, independent sample T-test was used to compare mean of sleep duration and Mann-Whitney u test was applied to evaluate the difference between age and sex groups. Results: Totally, 300 children participated in this study, among which 44.3% were boys and 55.7% were girls. The most common sleep problems involved nightmare and resistance against a wakening. Relative frequency of awakening during night was observed to be higher within boys than girls (p<0.05. Conclusion: High frequency of sleep problems in the current study may indicate the significance of taking sleep problems into consideration within students as well as informing healthy sleep patterns in order to promote knowledge level of parents via schools and parent-teacher meetings.
Hye Mi Jo
Full Text Available Objectives Pyrethroid pesticides are among the most commonly using insecticides in South Korean households and have been the subject of considerable interest among public health professionals for their potential health effects. The objective of this study is to examine the level of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA among elementary students in South Korea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate pyrethroid pesticide exposure levels by measuring the urinary metabolites of 3-PBA using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in March 2011. Study participants were 70 Asan-area and Incheon-area elementary students. Results All respondents had values above the detection limit, and the geometric means of 3-PBA in all children were 1.85 μg/L and 1.46 μg/g creatinine. Children with the top 10% urinary levels of 3-PBA were more likely to be girls, under nine years of age, living in a rural area, and living in a residential type apartment. Conclusions South Korean children have a higher concentration of urinary 3-PBA compared with those of other countries. Further research identifying exposure pathways and intervention efforts to reduce environmental pesticide use are needed in South Korea.
Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong
This study aims to investigate the effects of lighting color temperatures on elementary students' performance, and thereby propose a dynamic lighting system for a smart learning environment. Three empirical studies were conducted: First, physiological responses were measured as a potential mediator of performance. Second, cognitive and behavioral responses were observed during academic and recess activities. Lastly, the experiment was carried out in a real-life setting with prolonged exposure. With a comprehensive analysis of the three studies, three lighting presets-3500 K, 5000 K, and 6500 K-are suggested for easy, standard, and intensive activity, respectively. The study is expected to act as a good stepping stone for developing dynamic lighting systems to support students' performance in learning environments.
Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Kirchofer, Gregg; Telljohann, Susan K
Fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school teachers' (n = 277) techniques of responding to students' human sexuality-related questions were assessed. Few teachers (34%) reported receiving formal training in sexuality education. The most commonly asked student questions dealt with STDs, puberty, homosexuality, pregnancy, and abortion. Teachers' willingness to answer sexually-related questions in front of the class varied (73% to 14%) by content of the question. There were no questions on the questionnaire in which more than one in five teachers would choose not to answer. The most common questions the teachers identified they would not respond to dealt with topics such as abortion, masturbation, homosexuality, and issues about the male genitals. Finally, none of the questions was perceived by more than one in eight of the teachers as questions they would not be allowed to answer.
Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.
Allison, Elizabeth Rowland
This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify
Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.
This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…
Silverman, Rebecca D.; Coker, David; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey; Piantedosi, Kelly W.; Hartranft, Anna M.
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between language variables and writing outcomes with linguistically diverse students in grades 3-5. The participants were 197 children from three schools in one district in the mid-Atlantic United States. We assessed students' vocabulary knowledge and morphological and syntactical skill as…
Canipe, Martha Murray
Preservice elementary teachers often have concerns about teaching science that may stem from a lack of confidence as teachers or their own negative experiences as learners of science. These concerns may lead preservice teachers to avoid teaching science or to teach it in a way that focuses on facts and vocabulary rather than engaging students in the doing of science. Research on teacher identity has suggested that being able to envision oneself as a teacher of science is an important part of becoming a teacher of science. Elementary teachers are generalists and as such rather than identifying themselves as teachers of particular content areas, they may identify more generally as teachers of students. This study examines three preservice teachers' identities as teachers of science and teachers of students and how these identities are enacted in their student teaching classrooms. Using a narrated identity framework, I explore stories told by preservice teachers, mentor teachers, student teaching supervisors, and science methods course instructors about who preservice teachers are as teachers of science and teachers of students. Identities are the stories that are told about who someone is or will become in relation to a particular context. Identities that are enacted are performances of the stories that are an identity. Stories were collected through interviews with each storyteller and in an unmoderated focus group with the three preservice teachers. In addition to sorting stories as being about teachers of science or students, the stories were categorized as being about preservice teachers in the present (actual identities) or in the future (designated identities). The preservice teachers were also observed teaching science lessons in their student teaching placements. These enactments of identities were analyzed in order to identify which aspects of the identity stories were reflected in the way preservice teachers taught their science lessons. I also analyzed the
Keck, Patricia C; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F; Castillo, Keila D
Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by conducting school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs at their campuses. Knowing the effect of SLIV programs on student absenteeism may motivate school nurses and district administrators to conduct such vaccination programs. This study examines the impact of an SLIV program on elementary school absenteeism in an inner city school district with a predominantly Hispanic population. Using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, we analyzed data from 3,775 records obtained by stratified random sampling. Results of the study indicate that students vaccinated through an SLIV program have fewer absences than unvaccinated students. A surprising result of the study shows that students vaccinated through an SLIV program had fewer absences than students vaccinated elsewhere. These results are of particular importance to school nurses who work with large Hispanic populations. Our study illustrates one way that a school nurse can assess the effect of an SLIV program on absenteeism.
Danch, J. M.
The Woodbridge Township New Jersey School District has a 4-year high school Science Research program that depends on the enrollment of students with the prerequisite skills to conduct authentic scientific research at the high school level. A multifaceted approach to training elementary teachers in the methods of scientific investigation, data collection and analysis and communication of results was undertaken in 2017. Teachers of predominately grades 4 and 5 participated in hands on workshops at a Summer Tech Academy, an EdCamp, a District Inservice Day and a series of in-class workshops for teachers and students together. Aspects of the instruction for each of these activities was facilitated by high school students currently enrolled in the High School Science Research Program. Much of the training activities centered around a "Learning With Students" model where teachers and their students simultaneously learn to perform inquiry activities and conduct scientific research fostering inquiry as it is meant to be: where participants produce original data are not merely working to obtain previously determined results.
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
When students proceed to junior high school from elementary school, rapid changes in the environment occur, which may cause various behavioral and emotional problems. However, the changes in cognitive functions during this transitional period have rarely been studied. In 158 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 159 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades, we assessed various cognitive functions, including motor processing, spatial construction ability, semantic fluency, immediate memory, delayed memory, spatial and non-spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Our findings showed that performance on spatial and non-spatial working memory, alternative attention, divided attention, and semantic fluency tasks improved from elementary to junior high school. In particular, performance on alternative and divided attention tasks improved during the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Our finding suggests that development of alternative and divided attention is of crucial importance in the transitional period from elementary to junior high school. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to describe the development and validation of an instrument to identify various dimensions of the computer technology literacy self-assessment scale (CTLS) for elementary school students. The instrument included five CTLS dimensions (subscales): the technology operation skills, the computer usages concepts, the attitudes toward computer technology, the learning with technology, and the Internet operation skills. Participants were 1,539 elementary school students in Taiwan. Data analysis indicated that the instrument developed in the study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Correlations analysis supported the legitimacy of using multiple dimensions in representing students' computer technology literacy. Significant differences were found between male and female students, and between grades on some CTLS dimensions. Suggestions are made for use of the instrument to examine complicated interplays between students' computer behaviors and their computer technology literacy.
Dr. Mohammad Kamali
Full Text Available Objectives: determining the frequency distribution of hearing disorders among the student of public elementary school by Otoscopy, Puretone Audiometry, Impedance Audiometiy and questionnaires. Methods and Materials: This study was carried out in a cross - sectional descriptive survey - on 1200 students (600 girls and 600 boys among the student of primary school of Neishabbor, academic year 1376-77 Results: 1- Otoscopy examination; abnormal conditions of external ear canal was found in 14.1% of cases; mostly impacted ceruman (13.6%; Abnormal conditions of tympanic membrane (0.4% and foreign body 0.16%. Abnormal conditions of external ear canal was statistically unmeaningful. (P V=0 .8 2- Impedance Audiometiy: 5. 75% Abnormal tympanograms were observed, mostly type C (3.15% 3- Pure Tone Audiometry: An overall 5.5% hearing loss was found in this population including 3% bilateral and 1.25% unilateral hearing loss. Only conductive hearing loss was found in this population (2.7% in right ear and 3.5% in left ear, PV=0.9. Hearing loss observed mostly in girls but the difference was slight. Family background showed no effects on the hearing disorders.9.8% of cases were in need of medical care and 0.3% were in need of rehabilitation services. Only 28.8% of parents, 36.3% of teachers and 40.9% of afflicted students were aware of the problem.
Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus, exploring the factors influencing BMI in elementary school children from southern Taiwan is crucial. This study investigated the influencing factors including physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits, and perceived body shape on the BMIs of elementary school children from southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used, and the participants consisted of 3251 fifth-grade students (1628 boys, 50.1%; 1623 girls, 49.9%. The average BMI values for boys and girls were 19.69 and 18.70 (kg/cm respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between BMI and sex, 31–60 min of daily vigorous or moderate physical activities levels, length of time spent watching television, time spent on video games or the computer, and intake of vegetable or meat gravy with rice (p < 0.001. Perceived body shape also affected the BMI of school children. The results of this study enable educational institutions in Taiwan to understand the factors affecting the BMI of school children and use this information as the basis for future healthy body weight policies.
Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…
Goto, Masahide; Yokoyama, Koji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Koichi; Kawamata, Ryou; Matsumoto, Shizuko; Yamagata, Takanori
Few studies have investigated pediatric headaches in Japan. Thus, we examined the lifetime prevalence and characteristics of headaches among elementary and junior high school students in Japan. In this school-based study, children aged 6-15years completed a questionnaire based on the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3β to assess headache characteristics and related disability. Of the 3285 respondents, 1623 (49.4%) experienced headaches. Migraine and tension-type headaches (TTH) were reported by 3.5% and 5.4% of elementary school students, respectively, and by 5.0% and 11.2% of junior high school students. Primary headaches increased with age. Compared with TTH sufferers, the dominant triggers in migraine sufferers were hunger (odds ratio=4.7), sunny weather (3.3), and katakori (neck and shoulder pain) (2.5). Compared with TTH, migraine caused higher headache-related frustration (P=0.010) as well as difficulty concentrating (P=0.017). Migraine-related disability was greater among junior high school students (feeling fed up or irritated, P=0.028; difficulty concentrating, P=0.016). TTH-related disability was also greater among junior high school students (feeling fed up or irritated, P=0.035). Approximately half of the students who complained of headache-related disability were not receiving medical treatment. This is the first detailed study of headaches in Japanese children to include elementary school students. Nearly 50% of the school children reported headaches and the disruption of daily activities caused by migraine was higher among junior high students than elementary school students. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dianovsky, Michael T.; Wink, Donald J.
This paper describes research on the use of journals in a general education chemistry course for elementary education majors. In the journals, students describe their understanding of a topic, the development of that understanding, and how the topic connects to their lives. In the process, they are able to engage in reflection about several…
Marks, Jamar Terry
The purpose of this quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design study was to determine if any differences existed in upper elementary school students' science academic achievement when instructed using an 8-week integrated science and English language arts literacy supplemental instructional intervention in conjunction…
Pichon, Christopher, Sr.
The objective of this study is to identify principal leadership styles and teacher preferred principal leadership styles, as well as to examine the independent and combined effects of these variables on the TAKS Mathematics achievement scores of elementary students. School leadership affects every aspect of an institution. Studies reveal that the…
Schwartz, Catherine; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Poling, Lisa; Richardson, Kerri; Polly, Drew
This research explores the frequency and nature of mathematics-specific feedback given to elementary student teachers by university supervisors across a collection of post-lesson observation forms. Approximately one-third of the forms (n = 250) analysed from five large universities had no comments related to mathematics. Forms that did have…
Katz, David L.; Katz, Catherine S.; Treu, Judith A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Michael, Jennifer
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program designed to teach elementary school students and their parents, and to distinguish between more healthful and less healthful choices in diverse food categories. Methods: Three schools were assigned to receive the Nutrition Detectives[TM] program and…
Howard, Larry L.
This paper estimates models of the transitional effects of food insecurity experiences on children's non-cognitive performance in school classrooms using a panel of 4710 elementary students enrolled in 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (1999-2003). In addition to an extensive set of child and household-level characteristics, we use information on U.S.…
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Vermont Inst. of Natural Science, Woodstock.
The solid waste problem is so pervasive that it can no longer be ignored. The purpose of this set of materials is to encourage a lifestyle that includes the use of the three R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. It was designed to educate upper elementary and junior high school students who may educate their classmates, families, and community about the…
Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza; Sevkin, Burcak
The effectiveness of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training among 10- and 11-year-old elementary school students was examined. The CRPM training program consisted of skills, such as understanding the nature of interpersonal conflicts, communication, anger management, negotiation and peer mediation. The research was carried out…
The achievement gap between White and African American students on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) is an educational phenomenon that has been around for generations and yet to be fully understood or eliminated. This study investigated the difference in school climate perceptions between African American and Caucasian (sic) elementary school…
Vidergor, Hava E.
The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the multidimensional curriculum model (MdCM) in the development of higher-order thinking skills in a sample of 394 elementary and secondary school students in Israel. The study employed a quantitative quasi-experimental pre-post design, using a study module based on MdCM, comparing intervention group…
Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Klint Jørgensen, Anne-Marie
Socioeconomic status is a major predictor of educational achievement. This systematic review and meta-analysis seeks to identify effective academic interventions for elementary and middle school students with low socioeconomic status. Included studies have used a treatment-control group design, were performed in OECD and EU countries, and measured…
Background: Reading is an interactive and constructive process of making meaning by engaging a variety of materials and sources and by participating in reading communities at school or in daily life. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting digital reading literacy among upper-elementary school students. Method: A…
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between distributed leadership, teachers' academic optimism and student achievement in learning. The study targeted public elementary schools in Taiwan and adopted stratified random sampling to investigate 1500 teachers. Teachers' perceptions were collected by a self-report scale. In…
Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.
This book is a guide for the reinforcement of the elementary mathematics laboratory program. It uses a hands-on and activity approach with maximum involvement of the students. Reinforcement strategies for the first three phases (concrete, semiconcrete, and semiabstract) of each mathematics concept are suggested. Also included are specific job…
Davis, Eric S.; Clark, Mary Ann
In this qualitative study, eight school counselors participated in a series of reality play counseling trainings introducing techniques appropriate for counseling upper-grade elementary school students to enhance positive relationship building and problem solving skills. Participants were interviewed and their transcripts were analyzed using…
Elleman, Amy M.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Spencer, Jane Lawrence; Compton, Donald L.
This study compared the effects of 2 strategy-based comprehension treatments intended to promote vocabulary and content knowledge for elementary students at risk for developing reading difficulties (N = 105) with a traditional content approach. The study examined the effectiveness of strategy versus nonstrategy instruction on reading…
Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Ai; Watanabe, Kentaro
This study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) for eliminating the public undressing of two elementary-aged students with developmental disabilities during urination. A multiple-probe design across participants revealed that the degree of exposed body parts decreased immediately after introduction of VSM. However, exposure…
Vitale, John L.
This study investigated the lives of three active music teacher performers and how their performing experience impacted pedagogy and perceived student learning in the classroom. At the time of data collection, one participant was a full-time elementary school music teacher, and the other two participants were full-time secondary school music…
Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca
In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…
On global era todays, as the professional teacher should be improving their pedagogic competency, including to improve their science pedagogy quality. This study is aimed to identify: (1) Process skill approach which has been used by Elementary School Teacher in science learning; (2) Teacher's opinion that process skill can motivate the student to…
Chu, Hui-Chun; Hung, Chun-Ming
In this study, the game-based development approach is proposed for improving the learning motivation, problem solving skills, and learning achievement of students. An experiment was conducted on a learning activity of an elementary school science course to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. A total of 59 sixth graders from two…
Merchie, Emmelien; Van Keer, Hilde
This study examined the effectiveness of two instructional mind-mapping approaches to stimulate fifth and sixth graders' graphical summarization skills. Thirty-five fifth- and sixth-grade teachers and 644 students from 17 different elementary schools participated. A randomized quasi-experimental repeated-measures design was set up with two…
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and perspectives of 4 elementary school principals and 4 instructional leaders committed to social justice practices who have improved and sustained grade level performance in reading with Black students for the duration of 3 consecutive years.…
The Relationship between Student Self-Regulation Strategies and Increased Student Achievement: A Study on How the Explicit Integration of Self-Regulation Strategies Impacts Student Reading Achievement in the Elementary Classroom
Egan, Patti A.
Student ownership in learning is a topic that has become quite prevalent in recent years. While emphasis has grown on the importance of active student involvement in learning, integration of student self-regulation strategies is often absent in elementary classrooms. A paradigm shift that encourages active involvement of students in the learning…
Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Han, Eun Ok
In this context, the present study was designed as part of a large-scale communication strategy for the enhancement of public understanding through the creation of a national consensus about irradiated foodstuffs. In order to provide basic data required to formulate such a strategy, elementary school students were selected as the research population in this study, in consideration of the high ripple effects expected in this population group. Analyzed were differences in perception, knowledge, and attitude regarding irradiated foods as a result of the implementation of an education program designed to enhance the understanding of food irradiation, between the baseline (pre-education) level and the post-education level. Bruhn et al. (1986) reported that even consumers with little knowledge or negative views of irradiation show favorable attitudes towards irradiated foodstuffs after being exposed to promotional materials or campaigns on processing techniques using food irradiation and their advantages
Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Seung Koo; Park, Pil Han; Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this context, the present study was designed as part of a large-scale communication strategy for the enhancement of public understanding through the creation of a national consensus about irradiated foodstuffs. In order to provide basic data required to formulate such a strategy, elementary school students were selected as the research population in this study, in consideration of the high ripple effects expected in this population group. Analyzed were differences in perception, knowledge, and attitude regarding irradiated foods as a result of the implementation of an education program designed to enhance the understanding of food irradiation, between the baseline (pre-education) level and the post-education level. Bruhn et al. (1986) reported that even consumers with little knowledge or negative views of irradiation show favorable attitudes towards irradiated foodstuffs after being exposed to promotional materials or campaigns on processing techniques using food irradiation and their advantages.
Ciullo, Stephen; Lo, Yu-Ling Sabrina; Wanzek, Jeanne; Reed, Deborah K
This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D
Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the
Klemmer, Cynthia Davis
Science literacy refers to a basic knowledge and understanding of science concepts and processes needed to consider issues and make choices on a daily basis in an increasingly technology-driven society. A critical precursor to producing science literate adults is actively involving children in science while they are young. National and state (TX) science standards advocate the use of constructivist methods including hands-on, experiential activities that foster the development of science process skills through real-world investigations. School gardens show promise as a tool for implementing these guidelines by providing living laboratories for active science. Gardens offer opportunities for a variety of hands-on investigations, enabling students to apply and practice science skills. School gardens are increasing in popularity; however, little research data exists attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The study used a quasi-experimental posttest-only research design to assess the effects of a school gardening program on the science achievement of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade elementary students. The sample consisted of 647 students from seven elementary schools in Temple, Texas. The experimental group participated in school gardening activities as part of their science curriculum. The control group did not garden and were taught using traditional classroom-based methods. Results showed higher scores for students in the experimental group which were statistically significant. Post-hoc tests using Scheffe's method revealed that these differences were attributed to the 5th grade. No statistical significance was found between girls and boys in the experimental group, indicating that gardening was equally effective for both genders. Within each gender, statistical significance was found between males in the experimental and control groups at all three grade levels, and for females in the 5 th grade. This research indicated that
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara; Kuhle, Stefan
Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed throu...
Barbara Smolej Fritz; Cirila Peklaj
The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT), a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls) from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (meta)cognitive processes of selfregulate...
The main problem of the research is what instructional material that should be developed to enhance students' speaking skills. The main objective of this research is to develop English instructional material for enhancing students' speaking skills at elementary schools. In conducting the research, the writer used Research and Development method. The data of the research were collected through observation, questionnaire, interview, test, and documentation. The validation of the model was carri...
Deniz, Metin; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Ayas, Tuncay; Koç, Mustafa
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parental style and internet parental style and find out whether student's parental style and parental internet style differ according to various variables. In this study, survey model was used. The study was performed with 296 students, attending at an elementary school in the second period of 2011-2012 academic years in Sakarya, Turkey. Parental style and parental internet style scales were used. Results indicated ...
Vesnina, L. E.
The article describes a lesson "My Family and I" for elementary level students learning Russian as a foreign language. This topic is the first in the academic subject Russian Vocabulary. The article sums up the experience of teaching this subject to Chinese students learning Russian at the Ural State Pedagogical University. The content and the aims of the lesson "My Family and I", as well as the subject Russian Vocabulary, are based on the communicative approach to teaching Russian as a forei...
Doughty, Teresa Taber; Bouck, Emily C; Bassette, Laura; Szwed, Kathryn; Flanagan, Sara
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a pentop computer and accompanying spelling software on the spelling accuracy and academic engagement behavior in three elementary students with disabilities who were served in a resource room setting. Using a multiple baseline across students single subject research design, researchers determined student use of the pentop computer--the FLYPen--and its spelling software may serve as an equivalent intervention to traditional spelling instruction. While academic engagement performance increased considerably for students when using the FLYPen, results indicated little to no improvement over traditional instruction in spelling accuracy. Implications and suggestions for future research are presented.
Fertman, Carl I; Primack, Brian A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drugs and to help shape drug education programs.
Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high
Developing successful educational opportunities for students with autism has long been a challenge for educators. Although medical research is making great strides in the treatment and etiology of autism, as more and more students with autism are learning alongside their peers in the general education classroom the struggle to find effective…
Recently in Japan, many investigations to grasp the ways of thinking in the national layers for energy, environment and radiation applications have been carried out. In the investigations for radiation applications, there is a pointing out that the age which the knowledge on radiations and their related matters is formed is predominantly in elementary school years. Therefore, in order to find out the future way of proceeding with the education of nuclear power and radiations in the curriculums of elementary and junior high schools, the questionnaire survey on radiations and their related matters was carried out for the public elementary and junior high school students in Kagoshima prefecture. The results of the questionnaire survey are summarized in the present paper. (K. Kato)
Full Text Available Many learners hold traditional beliefs about perimeter and area that a shape with a larger area must have a larger perimeter while shape with the same perimeter must have the same area. To address this issue, non-routine geometry problem is given. This qualitative descriptive research used to reach the goal and to explore the effect of non-routine geometry problem on elementary student belief in mathematics. The instrument has been developed to accommodate intuitive student belief and student’s belief about the concept of perimeter. The results provide evidence that students’ intuitive belief about perimeter can be change through non-routine geometry problem which is required understanding and some mathematical analysis. Fortunately, the problem has helped the elementary students revise and correct their beliefs, thoughts, and understandings relating to the circumference of shape.
Ritter, Gary W.; Barnett, Joshua H.; Denny, George S.; Albin, Ginger R.
This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness of volunteer tutoring programs for improving the academic skills of students enrolled in public schools Grades K-8 in the United States and further investigates for whom and under what conditions tutoring can be effective. The authors found 21 studies (with 28 different study cohorts in those studies)…
Ivey, Pauline S.
Research shows that Hispanic second language students are not as successful as their English-speaking peers in school. The problem is in part due to several factors: curriculum deliverance in a foreign language, cultural differences, and family/school disconnect. Current census reports reveal that Hispanic populations in the United States, and…
Griffin, Jacqueline Laverne Meeks
Many students in third, fourth and fifth grades struggle at the lowest levels of reading proficiency. In fact, fewer than 40% of fourth graders in the United States read at or above the "proficient" level on state standardized tests in 2009 (D'Ardenne, Barnes, Hightower, Lamason, Mason, Patterson, Stephens, Wilson, Smith & Erickson,…
Salas, Gayla L.
This action research project was developed in order to increase student literacy, particularly in the area of reading, for students who were considered at-risk. The targeted student population was 2nd grade students who were served within a primary cross-categorical special education program. The classroom was housed in an elementary (K-2) school,…
Resnick, J.; Monroy-Ramírez, F. A.
This paper discusses the development and implementation of a practice based on Active Learning Methodology (ALM) with the aim of encouraging students from an early age to be interested in the world of science. The practical proposal is registered in the area of physics, especially in the field of wave optics, since it turns out to be very attractive to all ages especially for children. This didactic sequence was developed with students from elementary school. The experimental sequence developed is composed by several experimental activities allowing to observe and describe the phenomenon of diffraction scattering, from the entering of light through a piece of compact disc (CD) which acts as a diffraction grating. The distance between the diffraction grating and the screen on which the maximum intensity markers are projected remains constant throughout the practice. Children light up the CD with a red pointer, mark on the screen the position of the different maximum intensity markers, then repeat with the green pointer and finally with blue; from observation and the answer of guiding questions proposed by the teacher, they begin to draw conclusions to diffraction for each wavelength. In this way, the child observes that the maximum intensity markers (diffraction orders) associated with each color are located in different positions. Later, children are enquired about the result of the process when it is repeated with white light. Immediately afterwards, the experiment is tried with white light to check it. Finally, comparing the results observed with pointers in different colors with the result out of the practice with white light, a relevant discussion starts, bringing students to the concept of diffraction scattering. An important aspect is that the materials used in this experiment represents an important advantage in their application, since they are easily accessible (except for laser pointers in colors that are not very common in some places), so it is a
Ebbinger, April M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in initial eligibilities of elementary students across Tennessee since the implementation response to intervention (RtI), as well as understand the perceptions of elementary school psychologists related to those changes in identification and eligibility. RtI is a Tennessee mandated initiative,…
Ra, Esther H.
In this study, the author explores the roles of family, culture, language as these shape both the articulated identities of Korean American elementary students, and their literacy practices at school. Using data from an academic year of ethnographic study at a public elementary school, located outside a northeastern metropolitan city, the author…
Nicholson, Lisa M; Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Abuzayd, Haytham; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank
The objective of this study is to develop a measure of traffic calming with nationally available GIS data from NAVTEQ and to validate the traffic calming index with the percentage of children reported by school administrators as walking or biking to school, using data from a nationally representative sample of elementary schools in 2006-2010. Specific models, with and without correlated errors, examined associations of objective GIS measures of the built environment, nationally available from NAVTEQ, with the latent construct of traffic calming. The best fit model for the latent traffic calming construct was determined to be a five factor model including objective measures of intersection density, count of medians/dividers, count of low mobility streets, count of roundabouts, and count of on-street parking availability, with no correlated errors among items. This construct also proved to be a good fit for the full measurement model when the outcome measure of percentage of students walking or biking to school was added to the model. The traffic calming measure was strongly, significantly, and positively correlated with the percentage of students reported as walking or biking to school. Applicability of results to public health and transportation policies and practices are discussed.
Full Text Available This study aims at ascertaining the social factor causing the shifting of Bahasa Jawa Ngoko into Bahasa Indonesia among the elementary school students and confirming whether this phenomenon also occurs in all grades. The data were collected through observation and interview. Those data were analyzed using interactive analysis model (Milles & Huberman, 1994. There are two triangulations used in this research: source and method triangulations. Finally, the research found that peer-oriented intervention (Mrug et al,. 2001 functions as a social factor of language shift. However, this Javanese shift did not occur in the fifth grade students since they are from the same speech community. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor sosial yang menyebabkan pergeseran Bahasa Jawa Ngoko dalam Bahasa Indonesia di kalangan siswa sekolah dasar dan memastikan apakah fenomena ini juga terjadi di semua kelas. Data dikumpulkan melalui pengamatan dan wawancara. Selanjutnya, data tersebut dianalisis dengan menerapkan model analisis interaktif (Milles &Huberman, 1994. Selain itu, penelitian ini menggunakan triangulasi sumber dan metode. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa peer-oriented intervention berfungsi sebagai faktor sosial pergeseran bahasa. Namun, pergeseran Bahasa Jawa Ngoko ke Bahasa Indonesia ini tidak terjadi pada siswa kelas lima karena mereka berasal dari komunitas bahasa yang sama.
Bernal, Dolores Delgado; Aleman, Enrique, Jr.; Garavito, Andrea
This article examines the experiences of first-year Latina/o undergraduates at a predominantly white institution. Through a borderlands analysis, the authors explore how these students describe their experiences participating in an ethnic studies course and mentoring Latina/o elementary schoolchildren. The authors find that these experiences…
Au, Lauren E; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Hecht, Kenneth; Ritchie, Lorrene D
Few studies have assessed the dietary quality of children who eat meals from home compared with school meals according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The objective of this study was to examine diet quality for elementary school students in relation to source of breakfast and lunch (whether school meal or from an outside source). An observational study was conducted of students in 43 schools in San Diego, CA, during the 2011-2012 school year. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=3,944) completed a diary-assisted 24-hour food recall. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores of children who ate breakfast and lunch at school were compared with the HEI-2010 scores of children who obtained their meals from home and a combination of both school and home. Analysis of variance, χ 2 test, and generalized estimating equation models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, language, and school level clustering were performed. School lunch eaters had a higher mean±standard deviation overall diet quality score (HEI-2010=49.0±11.3) compared with students who ate a lunch obtained from home (46.1±12.2; P=0.02). There was no difference in overall diet quality score by breakfast groups. Students who ate school breakfast had higher total fruit (P=0.01) and whole fruit (P=0.0008) scores compared with students who only ate breakfast obtained from home. Students who ate school foods had higher scores for dairy (P=0.007 for breakfast and Pempty calories from solid fats and added sugars (P=0.01 for breakfast and P=0.007 for lunch). Eating school lunch was associated with higher overall diet quality compared with obtaining lunch from home. Future studies are needed that assess the influence of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on children's diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye
Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.
Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Christopher E Anderson,2 Chelsea Hylton,3 Jeanette Gustat2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3Project Peaceful Warriors, New Orleans, LA, USA Objective: To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom.Methods: A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions.Results: In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL (p-value 0.001 and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL (p-value 0.01. Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions (p-value <0.05. Perceived barriers to introducing yoga to the classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high
Seyedehsahar Shafieiosgouei; Nava Nourdad; Robab Hassantofighi; Seyyedreza Shafieioskouei
The technological advances of the 21st century have impacted all spheres of life, including education. The world of books and pens is being replaced by computers at young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of technology on Iranian elementary school students’ learning and interest in school attendance. The participants were 47 sixth grade students selected from two schools with and without technological support. The results of the study revealed a higher level of interes...
Zhang, Xinghui; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Furong; Wang, Yun
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of smoking in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate its risk factors from families and schools. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC), in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the relationships between smoking and the risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate odds ratios. The prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 19.0% and 5.4%. Focusing on current smokers, boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels reported smoking significantly more than girls, elementary school students, urban students, non-boarding students, only children and those owning parents with high educational levels. Lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict positively predicted both smoking and smoking frequency. Lower trust and support from classmates was associated with higher possibility of smoking. However, higher trust and support from classmates was associated with higher smoking frequency. Teacher smoking and friend smoking were only predictive of smoking, but not of smoking frequency. Boys, middle school students, rural students, boarding students, non-only children and those owning parents with low educational levels need special attention. The most risk factors for smoking and smoking frequency were lower trust and support from teachers and higher parent-child conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, EunOk; Lee, Seung Koo; Choi, Yoon Seok
Advancing nuclear energy and radiation technology to drive the country forward should be based on the understanding and acceptance of the public. Korea has provided numerous types of information to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy, but it has been difficult to change adults’ perceptions and increase their acceptance of nuclear energy. As a result, social costs are rising. After a pilot program of 13 classes on understanding nuclear energy and radiation offered to elementary school students, who were expected to easily change their perceptions and to experience a relatively greater educational effect, this study analyzed changes to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nuclear energy. In addition, this program was the first curriculum of its kind used as a step to lay the groundwork for offering it nationally in the free semester system. Therefore, the study analyzed its appropriateness to educational purposes. A lack of research and practice on communication strategies could be responsible for the situation in Korea of low support for nuclear energy because Korea does not have public understanding even though it is a nuclear energy exporter. If Korea implemented strategic communications from this point, such efforts could reduce unnecessary social costs
Han, EunOk; Lee, Seung Koo; Choi, Yoon Seok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Advancing nuclear energy and radiation technology to drive the country forward should be based on the understanding and acceptance of the public. Korea has provided numerous types of information to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy, but it has been difficult to change adults’ perceptions and increase their acceptance of nuclear energy. As a result, social costs are rising. After a pilot program of 13 classes on understanding nuclear energy and radiation offered to elementary school students, who were expected to easily change their perceptions and to experience a relatively greater educational effect, this study analyzed changes to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nuclear energy. In addition, this program was the first curriculum of its kind used as a step to lay the groundwork for offering it nationally in the free semester system. Therefore, the study analyzed its appropriateness to educational purposes. A lack of research and practice on communication strategies could be responsible for the situation in Korea of low support for nuclear energy because Korea does not have public understanding even though it is a nuclear energy exporter. If Korea implemented strategic communications from this point, such efforts could reduce unnecessary social costs.
Full Text Available One of the actual issues in the field of Internet use disorders is related to the validity and reliability of measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to examine, on non-clinical population of younger adolescents, the factor structure of the Internet Addiction Test - IAT, as one of the oldest and most widely used instruments in this field. The sample consisted of 814 Belgrade elementary school students, from fifth to eighth grade, with the average age of 12.9 years. Using exploratory factor analysis, two factors were extracted, together accounting for 46.32% of the total variance. The first factor, which accounted for 38.47% of the total variance, appeared to measure inability to control Internet use and consequences that arise as a result of excessive Internet use, while the second factor accounted for 7.85% of the variance and appeared to measure preoccupation to the Internet, responses to deprivation and replacement of real to virtual social relationships. The reliability of the whole scale, expressed by Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency, was 0.91. High reliability coefficients are retained on the subscale that represent the factor, so coefficient of reliability for the first scale was 0.87, and 0.85 for the second. These findings were discussed in the context of possible modifications of the instrument and compared with the results of international research studies testing the validity and reliability of the IAT in specific national samples.
Christine A. Foran
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the perceptions of elementary teachers who routinely prioritized physical activity in their classrooms. Researchers are reporting improved student academic test results following physical activity sessions, however, classroom teachers are challenged in balancing curricular and other expectations. Hence, teachers who voluntarily implement physical activity have views that are unique and important for promoting the practice to others. We interviewed seven teachers from grades 1-6, using the qualitative constructivist approach to grounded theory qualitative research. Teachers valued physical activity because it enhanced their students’ focus on classroom activities. Common attributes amongst the teachers were active lifestyles, previous employment experiencesusing physical activity, and a pedagogical approach prioritizing physical activity throughout the day. Additionally, the teachers perceived that belonging to schools with a culture of movement was important. Teachers view physical activity as a teaching asset when they perceive a positive impact on their students’ ability to focus. Specific teacher attributes and a school environment that embraces physical activity may predispose teachers to these views, and represent areas that should be further explored. Pre-service courses could be one way to provide teachers with experience and a repertoire of easy physical activities.
Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna
The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the teaching competencies of English Education students practising at elementary schools and kindergartens based on the teacher supervisors’ view. The teaching competencies include the students’ competence on writing the lesson plan and their competence on practice teaching. To reach the objectives of the study, the researcher collected the data by distributing a questionnaire to the supervisors at schools. There were 41 schools consisting of TK ABA, SD Muhammadiyah, SD Negeri located in Yogyakarta (24, Sleman (1 and Bantul (16. The questionnaire used was based on the official assessment form published by Indonesian government for teacher’s certification. It contains some indicators of teaching competence, it uses Likert scales ranging from 1 to 5. The criteria are as follows: 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = rather poor, 4 = good, and 5 = excellent. The data were taken from proportionally random sampling of the supervisors. From the total number of 103 teacher supervisors, the researcher distributed 61 questionnaires. The supervisors represented the ones from different educational backgrounds. The findings show the following results. The competence of English Education students in composing the lesson plan, according to the teacher supervisors, is classified good (actual mean = 3.858, SD = 0.685, ideal mean = 3, ideal SD = 0.750. Further, their competence on practice teaching is also good (actual mean = 3.867, SD = 0.688, ideal mean = 3, ideal SD = 0.966. The two aspects of composing the lesson plan to improve are teaching material organization and the completeness of assessment instrument. The other two aspects to improve in teaching practice are contextual teaching and learning and class management.
Song, Y; Wang, M; Xie, J; Li, W; Zhang, X; Wang, T; Tan, G
To investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among elementary and middle school students and examine its impact on their quality of life. Stratified sampling and cluster sampling surveys were performed among 10-17-year-old students in Changsha city from June 2011 to April 2012. In the stratified sampling survey, the self-reported allergic rhinitis rate was 42.5 per cent. Further examination demonstrated that the average prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 19.4 per cent. The cluster sampling survey demonstrated that 214 of 814 students appeared to be atopic (26.3 per cent). The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma was 17.2 and 2.1 per cent, respectively. In total, 71 atopic individuals (8.7 per cent) were without any symptoms of allergic disease. Further analysis showed that allergic rhinitis influenced the students' sleep, emotions and memory (p students' sleep, emotions and memory.
Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan
The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Yamano, Emi; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is known to be associated with reduced academic performance. Recently, we demonstrated that fatigue was correlated with decreased cognitive function in these students. However, no studies have identified cognitive predictors of fatigue. Therefore, we attempted to determine independent cognitive predictors of fatigue in these students. We performed a prospective cohort study. One hundred and forty-two elementary and junior high school students without fatigue participated. They completed a variety of paper-and-pencil tests, including list learning and list recall tests, kana pick-out test, semantic fluency test, figure copying test, digit span forward test, and symbol digit modalities test. The participants also completed computerized cognitive tests (tasks A to E on the modified advanced trail making test). These cognitive tests were used to evaluate motor- and information-processing speed, immediate and delayed memory function, auditory and visual attention, divided and switching attention, retrieval of learned material, and spatial construction. One year after the tests, a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) was administered to all the participants. After the follow-up period, we confirmed 40 cases of fatigue among 118 students. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grades and gender, poorer performance on visual information-processing speed and attention tasks was associated with increased risk of fatigue. Reduced visual information-processing speed and poor attention are independent predictors of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. © 2011 Mizuno et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is known to be associated with reduced academic performance. Recently, we demonstrated that fatigue was correlated with decreased cognitive function in these students. However, no studies have identified cognitive predictors of fatigue. Therefore, we attempted to determine independent cognitive predictors of fatigue in these students. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study. One hundred and forty-two elementary and junior high school students without fatigue participated. They completed a variety of paper-and-pencil tests, including list learning and list recall tests, kana pick-out test, semantic fluency test, figure copying test, digit span forward test, and symbol digit modalities test. The participants also completed computerized cognitive tests (tasks A to E on the modified advanced trail making test. These cognitive tests were used to evaluate motor- and information-processing speed, immediate and delayed memory function, auditory and visual attention, divided and switching attention, retrieval of learned material, and spatial construction. One year after the tests, a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale was administered to all the participants. Results After the follow-up period, we confirmed 40 cases of fatigue among 118 students. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grades and gender, poorer performance on visual information-processing speed and attention tasks was associated with increased risk of fatigue. Conclusions Reduced visual information-processing speed and poor attention are independent predictors of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students.
Abbasi, Masoumeh; Eslami, Saeid; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Khajouei, Reza
Deaf or hard-of-hearing children experience difficulties in learning health principles. But technology has significantly improved their ability to learn. The challenge in e-learning is to design attractive applications while having an educational aspect. The aims of this study were to determine the pedagogical effectiveness of a health education application for deaf and hard of hearing students in elementary schools, and to investigate the student's perceptions in different educational grades about the educational effectiveness of the text, graphics, video clips, and animation in the application. The study design was quasi experimental and was conducted in Mashhad in 2016. Study population were deaf or hard-of-hearing students in elementary schools. The intervention included health application training to deaf and hard-of-hearing students in Mashhad. A questionnaire was used for data gathering. The pedagogical effectiveness was determined by measuring the modified Adapted Pedagogical Index. This index was created based on the characteristics of the application and study population. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni adjustment by SPSS 22. Eighty-two students participated in the intervention. The value of modified Adapted Pedagogical Index was 0.669, indicating that the application was effective. The results of Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in different educational grades. (pinformation technology can improve the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Modified Adapted Pedagogical Index can be used for evaluation of non-interactive applications for elementary school children who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Ghotra, Satvinder; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan
Background. School is an integral component of the life of a child, and thus quality of school life is an important part of the overall quality of life experienced by a child. There are a few instruments available to measure the quality of school life but they are often not available in English, or they are not appropriate for use alongside other instruments in a survey of young children. The Quality of Life in School (QoLS) instrument is a short, self-report measure to assess elementary school students' perception of their quality of school life in four domains. The instrument was developed in Israel and has been validated among Hebrew-speaking children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the QoLS measure in Canadian elementary school children. Methods. A total of 629 children attending grades 4-6 were recruited in a population-based cross-sectional study. The QoLS measure was administered to participating children by trained research assistants. In addition, their socio-demographic details and academic data were also obtained. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis and reliability estimation using internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha). Construct validity was investigated using the known groups comparisons for discriminative validity and via convergent validity. Results. A four-factor structure was generated explaining 39% of the total variance in the model. The results showed good internal consistency and acceptable floor and ceiling effects. Cronbach's Alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. Known groups comparisons showed that the QoLS measure discriminated well between subgroups on the basis of gender, grade, and academic achievement, thus providing evidence of construct validity. The convergent validity was also appropriate with all the four domains demonstrating moderate to strong correlations to each other and to the total QoLS score. Conclusions. QoLS appears to be a valid and reliable measure for
Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee
This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.
Diosky Ferrer Vílchez; Ana Belkys Hernández Millán; Disney Tablada Peralta; Ana Ivis Betancourt García; Antonio Araujo Vílchez; Yenly Rodríguez Alonso
Background: the first molars are among the first teeth affected by dental caries. Their premature loss leads to occlusion disorders. Objective: to determine the status of the first permanent molars in first-, fourth- and sixth- grade students from the Jose Antonio Saco elementary school in Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 227 students treated at the Raúl González Pediatric Dental Clinic of the health area number 1 in Cienfuegos from October 2014 to M...
Lin, Show-Yu; Wu, Ming-Ta; Cho, Ya-I.; Chen, Hui-Huang
Background:Nanotechnology education has become an urgent priority to nurture skilled human resources for the rapidly developing nanotechnology-related industries. The promotion of popular science education focusing on nanotechnology is an ideal approach to bridge the gaps in formal curricula, and to stimulate curiosity about and interest in nanotechnology among schoolchildren. Purpose:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nanotechnology-based Popular Science Education Promotion and Teaching (NPSEPT) program through camp activity that was implemented in elementary schools in I-Lan City, Taiwan. Program description:To create a competitive advantage, a human resources development program was implemented as one of the nanotechnology incubation projects in Taiwan and focused on developing an appropriately-skilled professional workforce as well as promoting popular science education. Sample:The volunteer research participants were 323 sixth grade students in four elementary schools in I-Lan City, Taiwan, who were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the nanotechnology-based popular science promotion camp activity. Design and methods:A research tool called the 'NPSEPT test' was designed specifically for this study and was approved by experts who evaluated its content and face validity. The questionnaire was divided into three aspects: 'Nanophenomena in the natural world'; 'Nanomaterials and their scaling effects'; and 'Definition, characteristics, and applications of nanotechnology.' The effectiveness of learning among the students was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a paired sample t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc comparison. Results:The results of the three-part 'NPSEPT test' revealed that NPSEPT significantly advanced nanotechnology learning performance and outcomes among students in the four participating elementary schools. Of the 15 questions included in the NPSEPT test, positive change for more than 30
Tsutsumi, Hirotaka; Nikkuni, Hiroyuki; Kitakoshi, Daisuke; Yasuda, Toshitaka; Kikuchi, Akira; Mitani, Tomoyo
Recently Colleges of technology as well as universities have some experience-oriented classes in sciences for elementary school students. These have proved to be successful as good motivation for students in the primary education to be engineers. This research has tried the PBL education, which combined the Support of Science Education in Elementary School and the improvement of students‧ practical competence in their careers. The support of science education in elementary school was carried out by using LEGO blocks, widely utilized in the educational researches of robots, and was conducted in the practical class with the autonomous robots. Finally, the method for the class was evaluated by the elementary school students on the basis of the questionnaire.
Sharp, Zoe; Hock, Emily
As Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are implemented across the nation, engaging and content-specific lessons are becoming an important addition to elementary classrooms. This paper demonstrate how effective hands-on teaching tactics, authentic learning, scientifically significant data, and research in the elementary realm can aid students in selfdiscovery about astronomy and uncover what it is to be a researcher and scientist. It also outlines an effective, engaging, and integrated classroom unit that is usable in both the scientific community and elementary schools. The lesson unit consists of NGSS science and engineering practices and performance expectations as well as California Common Core Standards (CCSS).
Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi
Formulation of mathematical learning goals now is not only oriented on cognitive product, but also leads to cognitive process, which is probabilistic thinking. Probabilistic thinking is needed by students to make a decision. Elementary school students are required to develop probabilistic thinking as foundation to learn probability at higher level. A framework of probabilistic thinking of students had been developed by using SOLO taxonomy, which consists of prestructural probabilistic thinking, unistructural probabilistic thinking, multistructural probabilistic thinking and relational probabilistic thinking. This study aimed to analyze of probability task completion based on taxonomy of probabilistic thinking. The subjects were two students of fifth grade; boy and girl. Subjects were selected by giving test of mathematical ability and then based on high math ability. Subjects were given probability tasks consisting of sample space, probability of an event and probability comparison. The data analysis consisted of categorization, reduction, interpretation and conclusion. Credibility of data used time triangulation. The results was level of boy's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated multistructural probabilistic thinking, while level of girl's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated unistructural probabilistic thinking. The results indicated that level of boy's probabilistic thinking was higher than level of girl's probabilistic thinking. The results could contribute to curriculum developer in developing probability learning goals for elementary school students. Indeed, teachers could teach probability with regarding gender difference.
Anahita Sanaei Dashty
Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the first leading causes of death in the world, whose main risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension and smoking are somehow closely related to childhood. The process of atherosclerosis may begin developing during childhood. Methods: In order to evaluate the knowledge of elementary school students of Bushehr Port regarding heart function and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, 1128 students educating in 3rd and 4th grades were randomly selected and assessed with a 30-item questionnaire including four sections heart anatomy, smoking, exercise and nutrition. The minimum score was considered zero, the maximum 30 and the passing score was to gain 51% of the maximum score (or 15.30 out of 30. Results: The mean of total score was 13.1 5. The mean-score of the 3rd grade students was higher than the mean of the score in the 4th grade ones (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between total mean-score of girls and boys. The mean of the anatomy section score was higher in girls and those of the three other sections were higher in boys. Only 36% of students gained the passing score and 64% of them failed to pass the examination. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors is low in elementary school students in Bushehr Port. We suggest preparing attractive teaching booklets regarding healthy heart, to be taught routinely in schools, beside other health issues.
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.
The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.
Chung, Eun-Soon; Jeong, Ihn-Sook; Song, Mi-Gyoung
This study was aimed to develop a WBI(Web Based Instruction) program on safety for 3rd grade elementary school students and to test the effects of it. The WBI program was developed using Macromedia flash MX, Adobe Illustrator 10.0 and Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The web site was http://www.safeschool.co.kr. The effect of it was tested from Mar 24, to Apr 30, 2003. The subjects were 144 students enrolled in the 3rd grade of an elementary school in Gyungju. The experimental group received the WBI program lessons while each control group received textbook-based lessons with visual presenters and maps, 3 times. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, and chi2 test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. First, the WBI group reported a longer effect on knowledge and practice of accident prevention than the textbook-based lessons, indicating that the WBI is more effective. Second, the WBI group was better motivated to learn the accident prevention lessons, showing that the WBI is effective. As a result, the WBI group had total longer effects on knowledge, practice and motivation of accident prevention than the textbook-based instruction. We recommend that this WBI program be used in each class to provide more effective safety instruction in elementary schools.
Welington, Cerqueira, Jr.; dos Santos Almeida, Robenil; do Santos da Conceição, Regiane; Dutra, Glênon
This work attempts to identify the level of confidence of some students of the course in Pedagogy of a public University located in the interior of the Bahia state, for the teaching of contents of Astronomy in the initial years of the Elementary School. The data was obtained from the application of a questionnaire, answered by 16 students. The analysis of these results took into account several factors, like the framework of the curriculum of the graduation course in Pedagogy, the reading profile of the students and the level of experience regarding their teaching in classroom. The obtained results point to a great insecurity of the students regarding the teaching of contents of Astronomy, being compatible with previous findings of other investigators of the area.
Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...
Smith, Stephanie L; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
To (i) evaluate food choices and consumption patterns of elementary- and middle-school students who participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and (ii) compare students' average nutrient intake from lunch with NSLP standards. Plate waste from elementary- and middle-school students' lunch trays was measured in autumn 2010 using a previously validated digital photography method. Percentage waste was estimated to the nearest 10 % for the entrée, canned fruit, fresh fruit, vegetable, grain and milk. Univariate ANOVA determined differences in percentage waste between schools, grades and genders. Daily nutrient intake was calculated using the district's menu analysis and percentage waste. Elementary and middle schools in northern Colorado (USA). Students, grades 1-8. Plate waste was estimated from 899 lunch trays; 535 elementary- and 364 middle-school students. Only 45 % of elementary- and 34 % middle-school students selected a vegetable. Elementary-school students wasted more than a third of grain, fruit and vegetable menu items. Middle-school students left nearly 50 % of fresh fruit, 37 % of canned fruit and nearly a third of vegetables unconsumed. Less than half of the students met the national meal standards for vitamins A and C, or Fe. Few students' lunch consumption met previous or new, strengthened NSLP lunch standards. Due to the relatively low intake of vegetables, intakes of vitamins A and C were of particular concern. Effective behavioural interventions, combined with marketing, communications and behavioural economics, will likely be necessary to encourage increased vegetable intake to meet the new meal standards.
Darlene Y. Bruner
Full Text Available Currently, 848 Georgia public elementary schools that house third- and fifth-grades in the same building use the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS accreditation as a school improvement model. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether elementary schools that are SACS accredited increased their levels of academic achievement at a higher rate over a five-year period than elementary schools that were not SACS accredited as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS. Independent variables included accreditation status, socioeconomic status (SES of schools, and baseline scores of academic achievement. Dependent variables included mathematics and reading achievement scores. There was a statistically significant difference found when examining the SES of schools and baseline scores of the elementary schools. SACS accredited elementary schools had higher SES and higher baseline scores in third- and fifth grade mathematics and reading. However, the multiple regression model indicated no statistically significant differences in gain scores between SACS accredited and non-SACS accredited elementary schools in third- and fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement during the five year period examined in this study.
Full Text Available The time lag between the progresses in the area of molecular biology reached in the last years and the schools science curricula can be reduced through initiatives of the university regarding the dissemina- tion of sciences. Inside of this context, one of the major objectives of the CBME has been the scientific education and dissemination on Molecular Biosciences. Among the strategies organized to promote the dissemination of this area, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME developed a set of playful activities for students from public and private elementary schools (7th and 8th grades. As a first step science teachers were interviewed in order to indicate which topics related to molecular bio- sciences they usually include in their curricula planning. The approach considered in the elaboration of the set of activities was the construction of knowledge of the concepts related to topics as cell types, their structures and organelles, and the importance of the nucleus and DNA. The set was offered to170 students. Students from private schools were evaluated by their performance through the classes, which were registered by the notes of the instructors. Students from public schools were evaluated through questionnaires containing basic concepts on the theme applied before (pre-test and after (post-test the set of activities in order to measure, respectively, the previous and acquired knowledge. The programming accomplished at the public school was partially modified due to the absence of a laboratory, microscopes and a room of computers, without, however, to alter the objectives and content of the activities. The comparative analysis of the pre- and post-tests revealed that, in this latter, there was an increase of the average percentage of correct answers and an
Goldston, J. W.
This unit introduces analytic solutions of ordinary differential equations. The objective is to enable the student to decide whether a given function solves a given differential equation. Examples of problems from biology and chemistry are covered. Problem sets, quizzes, and a model exam are included, and answers to all items are provided. The…
Lee, Yeung Chung; Lee, Carole Kwan-Ping; Lam, Irene Chung-Man; Kwok, Ping Wai; So, Winnie Wing-Mui
International studies of science education, such as the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), have revealed considerable national disparities in students' achievements in science education. The results have prompted many nations to compare their science education systems and practices to those of others, to gain insights for improvement. Teacher training and professional development are key educational components that have not attracted as much attention as they deserve in international comparative studies. This study compares the conceptions and attitudes of pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) in Hong Kong and the United States with respect to inquiry science learning and teaching at the beginning of the semester before the start of the science methods course. PSETs' conceptions and attitudes in the two countries were compared by means of a questionnaire with both Likert-type and open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed through the systematic categorization of PSETs' responses into broad themes and subthemes to reflect patterns in their conceptions of and attitudes toward inquiry science learning and teaching. The results revealed a complex interplay between PSETs' conceptions of and attitudes toward inquiry science learning and teaching. The results shed light on the effects of sociocultural contexts and have important implications for the design of science methods courses.
Maurivan Güntzel Ramos
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of 342 questions on the theme "Water", proposed by 114 students from three elementary schools in the South region of Brazil, in order to identify interdisciplinary articulations associated with complex thinking present in these questions. The research sought to answer the following question: What revelations can emerge from the analysis of student's questions about a specific topic of study, such as "Water", in relation to interdisciplinarity and complex thinking? From the discursive textual analysis of the questions, two categories emerged: disciplinary questions; and interdisciplinary questions. The examination of the content of the categories enabled the writing of metatexts that reveal that in the text of most of the students' questions, is present a complex mode of thinking and interdisciplinary relationships, since 77.8% of the questions belong to second category. This can be an indication to teachers of how to initiate pedagogical actions, whose focus is interdisciplinarity.
Homer, Ryan; Hew, Khe Foon; Tan, Cheng Yong
This paper reports the findings of a field experiment that gamified the classroom experience of elementary school ESL students by implementing digital badges-and-points which students could earn by achieving specific behavioral and learning goals. Altogether, 120 children in eight different classes participated in this study. Four of the classes…
Describes how one elementary teacher helped students in her class and in the entire school see through ethnic biases and feel proud of being bilingual or having bilingual friends. Her efforts taught the children that bilingual students are very much like their non-bilingual classmates in being unique people with talents that should be respected.…
The present pilot study investigated the impact of video hero modelling (VHM) on the daily living skills of an elementary-aged student with autism spectrum disorder. The VHM, in which a character much admired by the student exhibited a correct response, was shown to the participant immediately before the situation where he needed to exhibit the…
Coke, Lileth Althea
Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…
Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Pei-Di; Lu, Yu-Jui
This study investigated, via quasi-experiments, the effects of problem-based learning with flipped classroom (FPBL) on the development of students' learning performance. In this study, 144 elementary school students were selected from sixth-grade sections taking a course titled "Production of Ebook," and were assigned into the following…
Results indicated that, for elementary students, art criticism was more effective than a combination of methodologies for developing positive affect toward art works. For junior high students, the combination methodology was more effective than art criticism, the exposure method, or the counterattitudinal advocacy method. (Author/SR)
The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.
Mlenga, Francis Howard
The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.
National Council on Teacher Quality, 2011
In an effort to understand what makes a student teaching experience strong, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) has undertaken this comprehensive review. Over a period of two years, NCTQ researchers examined the student teaching programs of a stratified random sample of 134 higher education institutions across the United States, with at…
Sicardi-Segade, A.; Campos-Mejía, A.; Solano, C.
Innovation through science and technology will be essential to solve important challenges humanity will have to face in the years to come, regarding clean energies, food quality, medicine, communications, etc. To deal with these important issues, it is necessary to promote STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education in children. In this work, we present the results of the strategies that we have implemented to increase the elementary and middle school students interest in science and technology by means of activities that allow them to use and develop their creativity, team work, critical thinking, and the use of the scientific method and the engineering design process.
Movvahedi, M M; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A; Mortazavi, S A R; Haghani, M; Razi, Z; Shojaie-Fard, M B; Zare, M; Mina, E; Mansourabadi, L; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, S M J
Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of their short-term memory.
Robiansyah, S. T. U.; Nanang, F.; Hidayat
The purpose of this study was to introduce about mathematic assessment is a process of obtaining data or information about the mastery of a student's mathematical skills as an ingredient in preparing a learning program. With this mathematics assessment can be known obstacles, difficulties and needs of students especially in the field of mathematic, so that the learning program will be in accordance with the potential students because it is tailored to what is required of students. This research study was conducted at elementary school of inclusive precisely at SDN Sukagalih I Bandung City based learning in setting of inclusive education. This research study is motivated by the existence of a first-grade student who has disabilities learning in mathematics, the ability of the mathematical prerequisite mastery of the classification of objects by color. The results of the research can provide a profile picture of student data information, the data obtained from the results of the development of systematic and formal mathematical assessment. After doing the development of mathematics assessment then the teacher gets important related information: 1. process the analysis of students’ learning needs, especially in the field of mathematics, 2. preparing the learning program planning according to student learning needs, 3. Designing procedural of method remedial program.
The present study further found that the majority of counselling centres/units had one or more staff members with specialised training in areas such as HIV/AIDS counselling, sexual abuse counselling and multicultural counselling. In 2007, these counselling centres/units saw on average 18 per cent of enrolled students as ...
Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t
Hilke, Eileen Veronica
Suggests methods for teaching about Yugoslavia. Recommends assigning students to maintain journals of news clippings about developments in Yugoslavia. Proposes forming cooperative-learning groups for researching the country's various regions. Offers activities for teaching about language arts, fine arts, reading and literature, religion,…
Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.
Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to
Karakaya, Fahri; Quigley, Charles; Bingham, Frank; Hari, Juerg; Nasir, Aslihan
This research measures perceptual differences between sales and sales careers among business students studying in the United States, Switzerland, and Turkey. Earlier studies indicate that selling and a sales career are not viewed favorably by students in the United States and several other countries. This study expands on prior studies by…
Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert
In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…
Full Text Available Decision making is one of the most important life skills. While making correct, timely, accurate and appropriate decisions lead to positive changes in one’s life, making incorrect decisions may have a negative impact. It is an important issue to examine what the 4th grade students in primary school have about the decision-making ability to be achieved in adolescence and what qualities 4th grade primary students should have for this skill. Evaluation of 4th grade elementary school students for developmental characteristics and qualifications they need to have to be able to gain appropriate decision making ability by puberty emerges as an important issue. Even though age 9-10 is not a period when important or life changing decisions are made, it is still considered the period that individuals start to make real decisions in their life. In this age period, we believe that attempts can be made to help children use their decision making ability more effectively by identifying factors affecting this behavior. In this regard, the aim of this study is to determine factors that have impact on children’s decision making process. This study is designed as a case study and conducted according to qualitative research approach. The study was conducted with 34 elementary school students and 3 teachers. Student interview forms developed by researchers were used to collect the data. In accordance with the data obtained, interviews were conducted with the teachers. The content analysis is included during data analysis process. In our study, we have shown that TV-media, family- close family/friends, neighborhood, the teaching process and some developmental characteristics are found to have affected children’s decision making.
Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.
This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…
Kupkowski, Gary; And Others
The curriculum in this program has been developed for the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Each level builds on the other, and forms a "thread of skills" that are upgraded at each level. The program is divided into two components. The first component is for the development of a school arboretum, tree walk, and herbarium. The second…
Mallett, Jan Davis
Elementary education has theoretical underpinnings based on cognitive psychology. Ideas from cognitive psychologists such as James, Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky coalesce to form constructivism (Cooper, 1993; Yager, 2000; Yilmaz, 2011). Among others, the Montessori Method (1912/1964) is an exemplar of constructivism. Currently, public education in…
Walfish, Ruth A.; Brody, David L.
Bible teachers in contemporary society confront serious problems related to the nature of the biblical text and the socio-cultural context of their teaching. This study, based on semi-structured interviews, examines the problems that five expert religious Israeli elementary school teachers encounter in their teaching and the solutions they employ.…
De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde; Merchie, Emmelien
In Flanders, there are neither Flemish assessments nor teacher surveys to provide insights into the current practice and outcomes of writing instruction. In the present study, we provide a-state-of-the-art study of the practice of writing instruction in Flemish late elementary education by investigating: (a) how writing is taught, (b) how teachers…
Yan, Elizabeth M.; Evans, Ian M.; Harvey, Shane T.
Fostering emotional skills in the elementary (primary) school classroom can lead to improved learning outcomes, more prosocial behavior, and positive emotional development. Incorporating emotional skill development into the naturalistic and implicit teaching environment is a key feature of what is meant by the emotional climate of the classroom.…
Yang, Chunyan; Sharkey, Jill D.; Reed, Lauren A.; Chen, Chun; Dowdy, Erin
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including traumatic responses. This study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the multilevel moderating effects of school climate and school level (i.e., elementary, middle, and high schools) on the association between bullying…
Peralta, Louisa R; Dudley, Dean A; Cotton, Wayne G
School-based programs represent an ideal setting to enhance healthy eating, as most children attend school regularly and consume at least one meal and a number of snacks at school each day. However, current research reports that elementary school teachers often display low levels of nutritional knowledge, self-efficacy, and skills to effectively deliver nutrition education. The purpose of this review was to understand the availability and quality of resources that are accessible for elementary school teachers to use to support curriculum delivery or nutrition education programs. The review included 32 resources from 4 countries in the final analysis from 1989 to 2014. The 32 resources exhibited 8 dominant teaching strategies: curriculum approaches; cross-curricular approaches; parental involvement; experiential learning approaches; contingent reinforcement approaches; literary abstraction approaches; games-based approaches; and web-based approaches. The resources were accessible to elementary school teachers, with all the resources embedding curriculum approaches, and most of the resources embedding parental involvement strategies. Resources were less likely to embed cross-curricular and experiential learning approaches, as well as contingent reinforcement approaches, despite recent research suggesting that the most effective evidence-based strategies for improving healthy eating in elementary school children are cross-curricular and experiential learning approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Wasserberg, Martin James
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested together at an urban elementary school in Miami, Florida. Design/methodology/approach: To analyze the effect of stereotype threat on participants' reading test…
Peralta, Louisa R.; Dudley, Dean A.; Cotton, Wayne G.
Background: School-based programs represent an ideal setting to enhance healthy eating, as most children attend school regularly and consume at least one meal and a number of snacks at school each day. However, current research reports that elementary school teachers often display low levels of nutritional knowledge, self-efficacy, and skills to…
Hopper, Lora E.
Although research has provided a substantial amount of information about key characteristics of effective school leaders, there is a growing need for continued improvement and reflective practice on the continuous development of instructional leaders. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent elementary principals perceive they are…
Goldstein, Jane McCarthy
The classroom management techniques of elementary school teachers were observed to determine their effectiveness in promoting desirable on-task behavior on the part of pupils. Seven approaches to class management were used as a framework for observation--authoritarian, behavior modification, common sense, group process, instructional emphasis,…
Andini, S.; Fitriana, L.; Budiyono
This study presents partial result from the project “Geometry in Flipbook Multimedia: A Technology Role in Improving Mathematical Learning Quality in Madiun”, which was undertaken to explore the skill of geometry and passing rate of van Hiele’s geometric thinking level, especially for the first three level. The material focus of the study is a two-dimensional figure and reviewed from basic skill aspect of geometry (visual, verbal, drawing, logic, and application). The participants were 30 students in the 6 grade of elementary school in Madiun, East Java. The data collecting technique for this study there are a test instrument of van Hiele geometry (VHG) and an interview’s instrument about characteristics geometry basic skill. After the test, twelve students from participants were randomly selected interviewed to determine their geometry basic skill. This study found that (1) most of the students of 6 grade can only reach the first level is about 69%, the passing rate at the second level test is about 49%, and at the third level, the average of students' achievement is 35%, (2) if viewed from five basic skills of geometry, most of the students have a low mastery, and (3) the achievement of grade six students are inclined high in first level and low in third level based on van Hiele’s Geometric Thinking Level.
Mun, So Youn; Lee, Byoung Sook
The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated internet addiction prevention program and test its effects on the self-regulation and internet addiction of elementary students who are at risk for internet addiction. A quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=28) or control group (n=28). Contents of the program developed in this study included provision of information about internet addiction, interventions for empowerment and methods of behavioral modification. A pre-test and two post-tests were done to identify the effects of the program and their continuity. Effects were testified using Repeated measures ANOVA, simple effect analysis, and Time Contrast. The self-regulation of the experimental group after the program was significantly higher than the control group. The score for internet addiction self-diagnosis and the internet use time in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. The effects of the integrated internet addiction prevention program for preventing internet addiction in elementary students at risk for internet addiction were validated.
Noda, Wataru; Okada, Ryo; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Naoto, Mochizuki; Nakajima, Syunji; Tsujii, Masatsugu
The present study examines the relationship among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression in elementary school and junior high school students. The participants were 3,885 children and their teachers and caregivers. Children's inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior was rated by their teachers and caregivers (ADHD-RS). Children rated aggression (HAQ-C) and depression (DSRS-C) themselves. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior rated by teachers and caregivers were positively related to aggression and depression. Inattention predicted higher levels of aggression and depression. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior as rated by teachers was more highly related to depression than those behaviors as rated by caregivers. The relationships among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression were almost the same for both elementary school and junior high school students. This study suggests the importance of assessing inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior from multiple views to examine the relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior and mental health problems.
Coggins, Porter E.
The purpose of this paper is (1) to present how general education elementary school age students constructed computer passwords using digital root sums and second-order arithmetic sequences, (2) argue that computer password construction can be used as an engaging introduction to generate interest in elementary school students to study mathematics related to computer science, and (3) share additional mathematical ideas accessible to elementary school students that can be used to create computer passwords. This paper serves to fill a current gap in the literature regarding the integration of mathematical content accessible to upper elementary school students and aspects of computer science in general, and computer password construction in particular. In addition, the protocols presented here can serve as a hook to generate further interest in mathematics and computer science. Students learned to create a random-looking computer password by using biometric measurements of their shoe size, height, and age in months and to create a second-order arithmetic sequence, then converted the resulting numbers into characters that become their computer passwords. This password protocol can be used to introduce students to good computer password habits that can serve a foundation for a life-long awareness of data security. A refinement of the password protocol is also presented.
McLaughlin, Karen A; Glang, Ann
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Bike Smart" program, an eHealth software program that teaches bicycle safety behaviors to young children. Participants were 206 elementary students in grades kindergarten to 3. A random control design was employed to evaluate the program, with students assigned to either the treatment condition (Bike Smart) or the control condition (a video on childhood safety). Outcome measures included computer-based knowledge items (safety rules, helmet placement, hazard discrimination) and a behavioral measure of helmet placement. Results demonstrated that regardless of gender, cohort, and grade the participants in the treatment group showed greater gains than control participants in both the computer-presented knowledge items (p > .01) and the observational helmet measure (p > .05). Findings suggest that the Bike Smart program can be a low cost, effective component of safety training packages that include both skills-based and experiential training.
Four case studies in two American and two Turkish science methods classrooms were conducted to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) beliefs during their course periods. The findings indicated that while Turkish preservice elementary teachers (TR sample) started the science methods course semester with higher PSTE than their American peers (US sample), due to a significant increase in the US sample's and an insignificant decline in the TR sample's PSTE scores, both groups completed the science methods course with similar PSTE levels. Consistent with Bandura's social cognitive theory, describing four major sources of self-efficacy, the inclusion of mastery experiences (inquiry activities and elementary school micro-teaching experiences) and vicarious experiences (observation of course instructor and supervisor elementary teacher) into the science methods course, providing positive social persuasion (positive appraisal from the instructor and classmates), and improving physiological states (reduced science anxiety and positive attitudes toward becoming elementary school teachers), were found to contribute to the significant enhancement of the US sample's PSTE beliefs. For the TR sample, although some of the above sources were present, the lack of student teaching experiences and inservice teacher observations, as well as the TR samples' negative attitudes toward becoming elementary school teachers and a lack of positive classroom support were found to make Turkish preservice teachers rely mostly on their mastery in science concepts, and therefore resulted in not benefiting from their science methods course, in terms of enhancing their PSTE beliefs. Calls for reforms in the Turkish education system that will include more mastery experiences in the science methods courses and provide more flexibility for students to choose their high school majors and college programs, and switch between them are made. In
Full Text Available Lack of critical thinking skills of elementary schools’ students was influenced by teachers’ domination in instructional activities; meanwhile students did not play independently as the learners. Theoretically, multiple intelligences based instruction is an appropriate solution. For that reason, this research aims to know the impact of multiple intelligences based instruction on students' critical thinking skills. The research was conducted at Al-Amanah and Buahati Islamic Elementary Schools by using a quantitative approach with case study method. Data collected through critical thinking tests was analyzed by using independent sample t-test to examine the impact of instruction on students' critical thinking skills. The results showed that the implementation of multiple intelligences based intruction had significant effect on students’ critical thinking skills. From the finding, some recommendations are given as follows: 1 The teacher’s role is not only for transferring knowledge based on his/her competencies but also students’ characteristics reflecting their instruction styles; and 2 for further researcher, it is suggested to investigate this issues more specifically and comprehensively. Kurangnya keterampilan berpikir kritis dari siswa sekolah dasar dipengaruhi oleh dominasi guru dalam kegiatan pembelajaran; Sementara itu siswa tidak bermain secara independen sebagai peserta didik. Secara teoritis, pendekatan berbasis kecerdasan ganda merupakan solusi yang tepat. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak pendekatan berbasis kecerdasan ganda pada keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Sekolah Dasar Islam Al-Amanah dan Buahati dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode studi kasus. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes berpikir kritis dianalisis dengan menggunakan sampel independent t-test untuk menguji dampak dari pendekatan pada keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa. Hasil penelitian
Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.
Current reform efforts in science education in the United States call for students to learn science through the integration of science and engineering practices. Studies have examined the effect of engineering design on students' understanding of engineering, technology, and science concepts. However, the majority of studies emphasize the accuracy…
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan
Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children's long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Our population-based study included students in grades 4-6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.
Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac
Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan
Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537
Kazem, Sayyed M.
Materials and Processes 1 (MET 141) is offered to freshmen by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Purdue University. The goal of MET 141 is to broaden the technical background of students who have not had any college science courses. Hence, applied physics, chemistry, and mathematics are included and quantitative problem solving is involved. In the elementary metallography experiment of this course, the objectives are: (1) introduce the vocabulary and establish outlook; (2) make qualitative observations and quantitative measurements; (3) demonstrate the proper use of equipment; and (4) review basic mathematics and science.
Wolstenholme, E Œ
Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl
Goebel, Camille A.
This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated
Ziatdinov, Rushan; Musa, Sajid
In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.
Moreno, Nancy P; Denk, James P; Roberts, J Kyle; Tharp, Barbara Z; Bost, Michelle; Thomson, William A
Unhealthy diets, lack of fitness, and obesity are serious problems in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control, Surgeon General, and Department of Health and Human Services are calling for action to address these problems. Scientists and educators at Baylor College of Medicine and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute teamed to produce an instructional unit, "Food and Fitness," and evaluated it with students in grades 3-7 in Houston, Texas. A field-test group (447 students) completed all unit activities under the guidance of their teachers. This group and a comparison group (343 students) completed pre and postassessments measuring knowledge of concepts covered in the unit. Outcomes indicate that the unit significantly increased students' knowledge and awareness of science concepts related to energy in living systems, metabolism, nutrients, and diet. Pre-assessment results suggest that most students understand concepts related to calories in food, exercise and energy use, and matching food intake to energy use. Students' prior knowledge was found to be much lower on topics related to healthy portion sizes, foods that supply the most energy, essential nutrients, what "diet" actually means, and the relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate.
Pumphrey, Karyn Christine
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals are responsible for the development of new technologies and breaking scientific discoveries. However, in the United States, racial minorities and females are vastly underrepresented in STEM professions. This problem is multiplied for individuals falling into both categories. Educators in must develop effective strategies to increase the number of minority females in STEM jobs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate if there was a difference in attitudes about future STEM educational choices and career opportunities after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The significant points reflected in the literature are statistics that demonstrate the extreme underrepresentation of this population and the importance of having all segments of the population represented in these important jobs. A descriptive non-experimental design study utilizing survey data taken before and after a STEM day at a public school was employed. The analysis tool was the Hopes and Goals Survey which has been found valid and reliable with similar samples of students. The data sets were pre-event and post-event surveys from minority females in grades 3, 4, and 5. The two data sets were compared using descriptive statistics to investigate any differences in opinions before and after the event. The results showed a difference in minority female student's attitudes regarding future STEM educational opportunities and careers after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The results indicate a need for increasing the number of STEM events in public schools. Future research may explore the differences between the opinion changes of males versus females to ascertain which gender responded most positively to STEM day.
Bridge, Jeffrey A; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Greenhouse, Joel B; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Sheftall, Arielle H; Kelleher, Kelly J; Campo, John V
Suicide is a leading cause of death among school-aged children younger than 12 years but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide in this age group. To describe trends in suicide among US children younger than 12 years by sociodemographic group and method of death. Period trend analysis of national mortality data on suicide in children aged 5 to 11 years in the United States from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed per 5-year periods, between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012. Number of suicide deaths and crude suicide rates. Period trends in rates of suicide were estimated using negative binomial regression incidence rate ratios (IRRs). The overall suicide rate among children aged 5 to 11 years remained stable between 1993 to 1997 and 2008 to 2012 (from 1.18 to 1.09 per 1 million; IRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.90-1.03). However, the suicide rate increased significantly in black children (from 1.36 to 2.54 per 1 million; IRR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.45) and decreased in white children (from 1.14 to 0.77 per 1 million; IRR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.94). The overall firearm suicide rate (IRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85) and firearm suicide rate among white boys (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88) decreased significantly during the study. The rate of suicide by hanging/suffocation increased significantly in black boys (IRR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61), although the overall change in suicide rates by hanging/suffocation or other suicide methods did not change during the study. The stable overall suicide rate in school-aged children in the United States during 20 years of study obscured a significant increase in suicide incidence in black children and a significant decrease in suicide incidence among white children. Findings highlight a potential racial disparity that warrants attention. Further studies are needed to monitor these emerging trends and identify risk, protective, and precipitating factors relevant to suicide prevention efforts
Waring, Hansun Zhang; Hruska, Barbara L.
This study describes how a novice ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) student teacher successfully navigates an instructional path in a one-on-one tutoring session with a second grade student. We document the student teacher's strategies to both engage and disengage her student, who alternately resists and cooperates throughout the…
Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A
Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p grades and gender, with the most significant decreases for students overweight or obese at baseline (p Students also showed significant increases in performance on the PACER test across grades and cohorts (p improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report
This study is an exploration of the role of physical activity in making sense of the physical world. Recent work on embodied cognition has helped to break down the barrier between the body and cognition, providing the inspiration for this work. In this study, I asked ten elementary-school students to explain to me how a toy parachute works. The methods used were adapted from those used to study the role of the body in cognition in science education, child development, and psychology. This study focused on the processes of learning rather than on measuring learning outcomes. Multiple levels of analysis were pursued in a mixed-method research design. The first level was individual analyses of two students' utterances and body motions. These analyses provided initial hypotheses about the interaction of speech and body motion in students' developing understandings. The second level was group analyses of all ten students' data, in search of patterns and relationships between body motion and speech production across all the student-participants. Finally, a third level of analysis was used to explore all cases in which students produced analogies while they discussed how the parachute works. The multiple levels of analysis used in this study allowed for raising and answering some questions, and allowed for the characterization of both individual differences and group commonalities. The findings of this study show that there are several significant patterns of interaction between body motion and speech that demonstrate a role for the body in cognition. The use of sensory feedback from physical interactions with objects to create new explanations, and the use of interactions with objects to create blended spaces to support the construction of analogies are two of these patterns. Future work is needed to determine the generalizability of these patterns to other individuals and other learning contexts. However, the existence of these patterns lends concrete support to the
Ferrara, John; Lance, Bri; Karetas, Andrew; Druker, Susan; Panza, Emily; Olendzki, Barbara; Andersen, Victoria; Pbert, Lori
Abstract Objective Interest in health videogames to stimulate health behavior change is increasing, yet little research exists on their use. This study tested the acceptability of an online health videogame called “Fitter Critters™” (Megazoid Games, Collegeville, PA) for improving healthy diet and activity in elementary school students. Subjects and Methods In October and November 2011, fifth grade students (n=97) from a school in central Massachusetts played the game for 1 week during their health class. Measures of nutrition and activity knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were completed prior to playing the game and again on the final day along with a videogame acceptability questionnaire. Results The videogame was highly acceptable to participants as measured by the acceptability questionnaire mean rating of 4.52 (SD=0.60), where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree; 73% of students played the game at least once outside of class. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward healthy eating (Pvideogame engages students in learning about healthy eating and activity. Further research should assess whether the positive changes observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy translate into behavior change. PMID:24761317
Schneider, Kristin L; Ferrara, John; Lance, Bri; Karetas, Andrew; Druker, Susan; Panza, Emily; Olendzki, Barbara; Andersen, Victoria; Pbert, Lori
Interest in health videogames to stimulate health behavior change is increasing, yet little research exists on their use. This study tested the acceptability of an online health videogame called "Fitter Critters™" (Megazoid Games, Collegeville, PA) for improving healthy diet and activity in elementary school students. In October and November 2011, fifth grade students ( n =97) from a school in central Massachusetts played the game for 1 week during their health class. Measures of nutrition and activity knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were completed prior to playing the game and again on the final day along with a videogame acceptability questionnaire. The videogame was highly acceptable to participants as measured by the acceptability questionnaire mean rating of 4.52 (SD=0.60), where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree; 73% of students played the game at least once outside of class. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward healthy eating ( P videogame engages students in learning about healthy eating and activity. Further research should assess whether the positive changes observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy translate into behavior change.
Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A
The purpose of this study was to explore the link between classroom teachers' burnout levels and students' physiological stress response. Drawing from a stress-contagion framework, we expected higher levels of teacher burnout to be related to elevated cortisol levels in elementary school students (N = 406, 50% female, Mean age = 11.26, SD = .89). Classroom teacher burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory modified for teachers. Salivary cortisol was collected as an indicator of students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. We collected salivary cortisol in children at 9 a.m., 11:30 a.m., and 2 p.m. in the classroom setting. Using Multilevel Modeling, we found that children's morning cortisol levels significantly varied between classrooms (10% variability). Higher levels of classroom teacher burnout significantly predicted the variability in morning cortisol. Teacher burnout reduced the unexplained variability in cortisol at the classroom level to 4.6%. This is the first study to show that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation. We discuss the present findings in the context of potential stress contagion in the classroom, considering empirical and practical relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shamir-Inbal, Tamar; Blau, Ina
This article investigates a pilot of integrating tablet computers in the elementary education. The research questions address the impact of tablet integration on learning and pedagogy. This qualitative case study crosschecks non-participated observations on students who work with tablet PCs, the school staff reflection on the integration as…
Cazzell, Samantha; Skinner, Christopher H.; Ciancio, Dennis; Aspiranti, Kathleen; Watson, Tiffany; Taylor, Kala; McCurdy, Merilee; Skinner, Amy
A concurrent multiple-baseline across-tasks design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer flash-card sight-word recognition intervention with elementary-school students with intellectual disability. This intervention allowed the participants to self-determine each response interval and resulted in both participants acquiring…
Transitioning from elementary school to middle school can be a difficult time for many adolescents. It is a period often correlated with a decline in students' academic achievement, perceptions of performance, potential, and value in schooling. Research has shown evidence that parents' involvement in their children's education significantly…
In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…
Baratta Posada, Ana Elisa
Semiotic paradigm and Carspecken's (1996) critical ethnography were used in a qualitative research study of elementary teachers' beliefs about minority and Latino/a immigrant students and the role of life experiences, culture and Umwelt in the formation and influence of beliefs. The participants were a kindergarten, first grade, and second grade…
An ex post facto study examined third grade students' achievement test scores both before and after the adoption of a literature-based basal reading text. The experimental groups consisted of five third grade classes at Terre Town Elementary School (Indiana) for each of the years 1988 through 1993. Mean scores were plotted and data were visually…
Supakata, Nuta; Puangthongthub, Sitthichok; Srithongouthai, Sarawut; Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Chaikaew, Pasicha
The objective of this study was to develop and implement a Reduce-Reuse-Recycle (RRR) communication strategy through environmental camp as a comprehensive communication tool to promote the RRR concept to elementary school students. Various activities from five learning bases including the folding milk carton game, waste separation relay, recycling…
Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Schwartz, Catherine Stein
This paper describes a peer coaching collaboration between graduate students in a Master's program in Instructional Technology and undergraduate pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary mathematics methods course. Integrated as a major project in a graduate level K-12 technology integration course, the Instructional Technology students…
Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti
This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…
Viakinnou-Brinson, Lucie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.; Haight, Carrie
Grammar instruction is at the center of the target language (TL) and code-switching debate. Discussion revolves around whether grammar should be taught in the TL or using the TL and the native language (L1). This study investigated the effects of French-only grammar instruction and French/English grammar instruction on elementary-level students'…
Allen, Frank B.; And Others
Unit 23 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in matrix algebra: matrix operations, the algebra of 2 X 2 matrices, matrices and linear systems, representation of column matrices as geometric vectors, and transformations of the plane. Listed in the appendix are four research exercises in…
Yukita, Kazuto; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Yasuyuki
This paper discusses the methods of implementation and improvement adopted in the energy education program of “Marugoto Taiken World” (“Total Experience World”) at Aichi Institute of Technology. The program, which is aimed at high school, junior high school and elementary school students, has been carried on at Aichi Institute of Technology for a number of years now, and the authors have been involved in the energy education project for the past four years. During that time, the following four courses have been held : 1) Let's use wind power to generate electricity, 2) Let's use flowers to build a solar battery, 3) Let's use bottles to build a fuel cell battery, 4) Let's make all sorts of batteries.
Nuallaong, Winitra; Nuallaong, Thanya; Preechadirek, Nongluck
To measure academic achievement of the multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet device. This is a quasi-experimental research study (non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design) in 62 grade 1 elementary students (33 males and 29 females). Thirty-one students were included in an experimental group using purposive sampling by choosing a student who had highest multiple intelligence test scores in logical-mathematic. Then, this group learned by the new learning medium via a tablet which the application matched to logical-mathematic multiple intelligence. Another 31 students were included in a control group using simple random sampling and then learning by recitation. Both groups did pre-test and post-test vocabulary. Thirty students in the experimental group and 24 students in the control group increased post-test scores (odds ratio = 8.75). Both groups made significant increasing in post-test scores. The experimental group increased 9.07 marks (95% CI 8.20-9.93) significantly higher than the control group which increased 4.39 marks (95% CI 3.06-5.72) (t = -6.032, df = 51.481, p learning from either multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet or recitation can contribute academic achievement, learningfrom the new medium contributed more achievement than recitation. The new learning medium group had higher post-test scores 8.75 times than the recitation group. Therefore, the new learning medium is more effective than the traditional recitation in terms of academic achievement. This study has limitations because samples came from the same school. However, the previous study in Thailand did notfind a logical-mathematical multiple intelligence difference among schools. In the future, long-term research to find how the new learning medium affects knowledge retention will support the advantage for life-long learning.
Students in Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs (DAEPs) have a variety of behavior problems. School counselors in DAEPs have the opportunity to address emotional, academic, social, and behavioral concerns of these students. Counselors may use the strengths-based wellness paradigm as an alternative method of addressing students' holistic…
The relationship between weight status and academic performance among 2nd grade students was examined. We hypothesized that overweight and obese students would have poorer grades than students who were normal weight. The sample was composed of 798 ethnically diverse children (White=28%, Black=23%, H...
Zilanawala, Afshin; Martin, Margary; Noguera, Pedro A.; Mincy, Ronald B.
In this article, we analyze the variation in math achievement trajectories of Black male students to understand the different ways these students successfully or unsuccessfully navigate schools and the school characteristics that are associated with their trajectories. Using longitudinal student-level data from a large urban US city (n = 7,039),…
Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shadiev, Rustam; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Shu-Lin
This study designed learning activities supported by a mobile learning system for students to develop listening and speaking skills in English as a foreign language (EFL). How students perceive learning activities and a mobile learning system were examined in this study. Additionally, how different practices relate to students' language…
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acceleration age of menarche, can increase the chances of endometrial hyperplasia. The incidence of uterine and breast cancer are associated with early menarche. Junk food is indicated as one of the triggers of early menarche. With observational-analytic research and case-control research design, it was conducted to determine the effect of junk food in early menarche at elementary school student. The population of the study was the 6th grade elementary school students who had been menstruated, yet the sample was chosen randomly. Data collected using questionnaires, also measuring weight and height, then analysed using chi-square. The results shows a relationship between junk food consumption with early menarche incidence (p = 0.021 and OR 1.889. This is due to the high consumption patterns of junk food/fast food in teenages. Affected by behavioral patterns of people who tend to choose practical food, easy to get and ready to eat. ABSTRAK Percepatan usia menarche dapat memperbesar peluang terjadI hyperplasia endometrium. Insiden kanker uterus dan kanker payudara dihubungkan dengan menarche dini. Junk food diindikasi sebagai salah satu pemicu menarche dini. Dengan penelitian observasional-analitik dan desain penelitian case-control, dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh junk food pada menarche dini di usia SD. Populasi penelitian adalah siswi SD kelas VI yang sudah haid /belum, sampel dipilih secara random. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner kepada siswi, menimbang berat badan serta mengukur tinggi badan. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square. Hasil penelitian bahwa ada hubungan konsumsi junk food dengan kejadian menarche dini (p=0,021 dan OR 1,889. Hal ini disebabkan Tingginya pola konsumsi junk food/fast food pada remaja dipengaruhi oleh pola perilaku masyarakat yang cenderung memilih makanan praktis, mudah didapat dan siap saji.