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Sample records for unit demographic characteristics

  1. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients referred to psychiatric unit in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, A.W.; Kazim, M.; Jehangiri, A.U.R.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies from Pakistan have examined the profile of patients seen by psychiatrists in general hospital. The aim of this research is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients referred to the psychiatric unit of a general hospital over a one year period. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from January 1st to December 31st 2012. All patients being referred to psychiatry were included in the study over one year period. The information was recorded on a structured questionnaire and analysed the data using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of the 105 patients referred to the psychiatric unit, 74 (72.3%) were females. A total of 69 (68.5%) patients were married. More than half were uneducated and only number 4 (3%) patients had university qualification. Housewives made up 64.4% of the patient population followed by students (11%). Majority 55 (53%) had less than Rs. 5000/ monthly income. About 30% patients were shifted to psychiatry ward while, nearly one tenth were discharged. In 35% cases the psychiatrist was asked to help in the management, while in 50% cases only opinion was sought. Aggressive and threatening behaviour was source of concern in majority of patients for the primary team while 34% exhibited suicidal behaviour. Depression was most frequent diagnosis in 45 43% patients, followed by conversion disorder 19 (17%) and delirium 16 (14%). Conclusion: The rate of psychiatric referrals is dismal with only one third of the patients being transferred to the psychiatric ward. The major psychiatric diagnosis was depression. Patients with aggressive and threatening behaviour were more frequently referred. (author)

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast in the United States: incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Zakalik, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of breast accounts for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and survival of this rare malignancy. Data were extracted from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry to identify women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of breast between 1998 and 2013. SEER*Stat 8.3.1 was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence, age-wise distribution, and annual percentage change in incidence. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for survival analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine predictors of survival. A total of 445 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of breast were diagnosed during the study period. The median age of diagnosis was 67 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence between 1998 and 2013 was 0.62 per 1,000,000 per year, and the incidence has been on a decline. Approximately half of the tumors were poorly differentiated. Stage II was the most common stage at presentation. Majority of the cases were negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. One-third of the cases underwent breast conservation surgery while more than half of the cases underwent mastectomy (unilateral or bilateral). Approximately one-third of cases received radiation treatment. The 1-year and 5-year cause-specific survival was 81.6 and 63.5%, respectively. Excluding patient with metastasis or unknown stage at presentation, in multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, older age at diagnosis and higher tumor stage (T3 or T4) or nodal stage at presentation were significant predictors of poor survival. Our study describes the unique characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of breast and demonstrates that it is an aggressive tumor with a poor survival. Older age and higher tumor or nodal stages at presentation were independent predictors of poor survival for loco-regional stages.

  3. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of Yam In Delta State, Nigeria. ... analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area was male - dominated (78.8%), most of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. Comparing clinical and demographic characteristics of people with mental illness in hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation units in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom; Stedman, Terry; Parker, Stephen; Curtis, Bretine; Jones, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine care pathways and characteristics of mental health consumers participating in both hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation programs. Methods An audit of consumers (n=240) in all publicly funded residential rehabilitation units in Queensland was performed on the same day in 2013. Data collection focused on demographic characteristics, clinical information and measures of consumer functioning. Results Significant differences emerged for consumers in community- and hospital-based services with regard to age, length of stay, functioning, Mental Health Act status, guardianship status, family contact and risk of violence. Consumers in hospital-based programs have more severe and complex problems. Conclusions Consumers in residential rehabilitation units have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Nonetheless, it is likely that a sizeable proportion of consumers occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options to move patients on were available. What is known about the topic? A small subgroup of people with severe and complex mental health problems is likely to require time in a residential rehabilitation program. This group is characterised by failure to respond to treatment, severe negative symptoms and some degree of cognitive impairment. What does this paper add? Patients currently occupying residential rehabilitation beds in Queensland have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Patients in hospital-based programs are more severely disabled than those in community-based programs. What are the implications for practitioners? It is likely that a sizeable proportion of patients occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options were available. Future planning initiatives need to focus on developing a greater array of community

  5. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  6. Social-Demographic Characteristics and Awareness of Radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the socio-demographic characteristics and awareness of X-ray biohazards among technicians and sub-staff of radiology units in Benue State, North-Central Nigeria. One hundred questionnaires were distributed but only 61 respondents took part in the study comprising 55(90.2%) males ...

  7. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  8. [Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, A

    1993-06-01

    "This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  9. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Amjad, N.; Chand, P.; Ahmed, K.; Ibrahim, S.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Rana, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary Hospital. ... Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. Journal Home ... Keywords: Socio-demographics, HIV/AID, Retrospective, Teaching hospital ...

  11. Demographic characteristics of nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of a nuclear installations sites can not be conceived without a deep analysis of demographic context. This analysis permits to define the critical populations around the installation and is an essential element of emergency plans. 1 tab., 2 refs. (F.M.)

  12. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ižnanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 retrospectively.Results: 366%u2019si 88 were ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke. 54.6% by sex male,% 45.4 were women. Average age: 67.86 di.56.3% radiologically roaming the front circulation infarct brain infarct% found the rear 23.2. Hospital stay duration: 9.27 day.. Hemorrhagic stroke was longer this Sura in the group. Mortality rate 4.6% in all in packaging (21 patients, ischemic in boots in 1.9% (7 patients, hemorrhagic of boots were found at 15.9% (14 patients.Discussion: our study of Sanliurfa province stroke data in terms of the region together, although a portion of their valuable results. In the summer, the ischemic stroke incidence is higher.

  13. Radiation oncologists in 2000: demographic, professional, and practice characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cypel, Yasmin; Sunshine, Jonathan H.; Schepps, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the demographic, professional, and practice characteristics of radiation oncologists, emphasizing comparisons to data from a similar 1995 Survey. Methods and Materials: In spring 2000, we surveyed 603 randomly selected radiation oncologists by mail, using a one-page questionnaire - 455 responded. We weighted responses to make answers representative of all radiation oncologists in the United States. Results: Approximately 45% of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were <45 years old and 22% were women. Forty-two percent of radiation oncologists in training were women. Thirty-three percent of radiation-oncology-only practices were solo practices. The greatest percentage of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were in nonacademic private radiation oncology practices. Fifty-three percent of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists reported that their workload was about right. Eighteen percent of individuals 60-64 years old and approximately two-thirds of those ≥65 years old were not working (retired). The full-time equivalency of those aged 55-74 fell by 12 percentage points between 1995 and 2000. Conclusions: Most demographic, professional, and practice characteristics remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2000, with the exception of work status patterns. Radiation oncologists reported a more balanced workload than that reported by diagnostic radiologists. The surplus of radiation oncologists, which was predicted in the mid-1990s, was not demonstrated

  14. Clinical and Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Children who receive Emergency Blood Transfusion in Orlu, Imo State Nigeria. ... Malaria was the commonest case of severe anaemia requiring urgent blood transfusion either singly (52.8%) ...

  15. Demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons denied unescorted access on the basis of psychological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the demographic, behavioral, and psychometric characteristics of persons who were denied unescorted access authorization for protected areas and vital islands of nuclear power plants, in accordance with the relevant proposed rule of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Demographic characteristics examined include age, sex, occupation, education, marital status, and number of children. Behavioral characteristics examined include substance use/abuse/treatment and instances of antisocial behavior. Psychometric characteristics examined include elevations on basic MMPI clinical scales, elevations on special indices of psychosis and substance abuse, and endorsement of so-called critical items

  16. Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Dog Meat Consumers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to understand consumer spread prompted this study, which had the general objective of understanding the socio-demographic characteristics of dog meat consumers Calabar area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Thirty two (32) dog meat joints, 16 in Calabar Municipality, and 16 in Calabar South Local Government ...

  17. Maternal mortality and delay: Socio-demographic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the contribution of delay to maternal deaths and also determined the socio¬demographic characteristics of patients with maternal deaths with associated delay. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of all maternal deaths in Irrua specialist Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between January 1999 ...

  18. Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age  = 32.63, SD age  = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age  = 26.14, SD age  = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead

  19. Demographic characteristics of MS patients in Poland's upper Silesia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzchala, Krystyna; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Dobrakowski, Pawel; Kubicka-Baczyk, Katarzyna; Niedziela, Natalia; Sowa, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.

  20. Relationship between students’ motivation and their socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Cigan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the relationship between indicators of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students attending higher education institutions, and their socio-demographic characteristics: the type of upper secondary education completed, secondary education grade point average, year of study, gender, and parents’ education.  The research was conducted in March 2012, through a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 604 respondents. The questionnai...

  1. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmin Rusmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (date of entry, gender, human development index (HDI and size of local governments to explain differences in the financial condition of Indonesia’s local government. Local government financial condition is proxied by quick ratio, debt ratio, services ratio, and ratio of local to total revenues. The results suggest that scope and location of local government units help explain all of the financial condition variables. The findings further infer that local government units domiciled in Java tend to report better financial conditions relative to those domiciled in other islands. Our results also show that local government units with greater female populations and higher HDI are more likely to have a local authority that (1 has better ability to finance their general services from their unrestricted net assets, and (2 has greater ability to earn more revenues from local sources. Finally, this study documents that the larger the population of a local government unit, the higher its liquidity position, the stronger its ability to funding general services, and the greater its possibility earning revenues from its local sources.

  2. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Mitchell

    Full Text Available We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1 a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2 annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  3. The geography of happiness: connecting twitter sentiment and expression, demographics, and objective characteristics of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates.

  4. The Geography of Happiness: Connecting Twitter Sentiment and Expression, Demographics, and Objective Characteristics of Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lewis; Frank, Morgan R.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a detailed investigation of correlations between real-time expressions of individuals made across the United States and a wide range of emotional, geographic, demographic, and health characteristics. We do so by combining (1) a massive, geo-tagged data set comprising over 80 million words generated in 2011 on the social network service Twitter and (2) annually-surveyed characteristics of all 50 states and close to 400 urban populations. Among many results, we generate taxonomies of states and cities based on their similarities in word use; estimate the happiness levels of states and cities; correlate highly-resolved demographic characteristics with happiness levels; and connect word choice and message length with urban characteristics such as education levels and obesity rates. Our results show how social media may potentially be used to estimate real-time levels and changes in population-scale measures such as obesity rates. PMID:23734200

  5. Prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleu, Dirk; Mir, Danial; Al Tabouki, Ahmed; Mesraoua, Rim; Mesraoua, Boulenouar; Akhtar, Naveed; Al Hail, Hassan; D'souza, Atlantic; Melikyan, Gayane; Imam, Yahia Z B; Osman, Yasir; Elalamy, Osama; Sokrab, Tageldin; Kamran, Sadaat; Ruiz Miyares, Francisco; Ibrahim, Faiza

    2013-05-01

    No published epidemiologic data on multiple sclerosis (MS) in Qatar exist. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence, demographics and clinical characteristics of MS in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. We analyzed data for Qatari MS patients fulfilling the McDonald diagnostic criteria. A total of 154 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On 31 April 2010, the crude prevalence of MS in Qatar was 64.57 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 58.31-70.37). The female-to-male ratio was 1.33:1. A positive family history was found in 10.4% of included MS patients. We conclude that Qatar is now a medium-to-high risk area for MS, with some important differences in clinical characteristics as compared to other countries in the region.

  6. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  7. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Kreuzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. OBJECTIVE: By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. MATERIALS: A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL. RESULTS: Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and

  8. Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin; Staudinger, Susanne; Langguth, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still incompletely understood. Additionally, it remains a matter of debate whether the etiology of tinnitus constitutes a relevant criterion for defining tinnitus subtypes. By investigating a worldwide sample of tinnitus patients derived from the Tinnitus Research Initiative (TRI) Database, we aimed to identify differences in demographic, clinical and audiological characteristics between tinnitus patients with and without preceding trauma. A total of 1,604 patients were investigated. Assessment included demographic data, tinnitus related clinical data, audiological data, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, the Tinnitus Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, various numeric tinnitus rating scales, and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Scale (WHOQoL). Our data clearly indicate differences between tinnitus patients with and without trauma at tinnitus onset. Patients suffering from trauma-associated tinnitus suffer from a higher mental burden than tinnitus patients presenting with phantom perceptions based on other or unknown etiologic factors. This is especially the case for patients with whiplash and head trauma. Patients with posttraumatic noise-related tinnitus experience more frequently hyperacousis, were younger, had longer tinnitus duration, and were more frequently of male gender. Trauma before tinnitus onset seems to represent a relevant criterion for subtypization of tinnitus. Patients with posttraumatic tinnitus may require specific diagnostic and therapeutic management. A more systematic and - at best - standardized assessment for hearing related sequelae of trauma is needed for a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and for developing more tailored treatment approaches as well.

  9. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  10. Trends and demographics in hip arthroscopy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Scott R; Ngo, Stephanie S; Hobson, Taylor; Nguyen, Shawn; Alluri, Ram; Wang, Jeffrey C; Hame, Sharon L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends and report on the demographics of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy in the United States. Patients who underwent hip arthroscopy from 2004 to 2009 were identified by searching Current Procedural Terminology codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN), a national database of orthopaedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 10,000 patients searched in the database. In total, 3,447 cases of hip arthroscopy were identified between 2004 and 2009. The incidence of procedures increased significantly over the study period, from 1.20 cases per 10,000 patients in 2004 to 5.58 in 2009 (P arthroscopy was performed most commonly in patients aged 20 to 39 years (P arthroscopy was observed in the Western region with an incidence of 5.24 cases identified compared with 2.94, 2.70, and 2.56 in the Northeast, Midwest, and South, respectively (P arthroscopy was observed in the examined cohort of patients between 2004 and 2009. The majority of cases were performed in patients aged 20 to 39 years, with no difference in gender. The Western region of the United States was found to have a higher incidence of hip arthroscopy compared with the Midwest, South, and Northeast. Level IV, cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  12. [Some unique characteristics of the demographic situation in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brui, B; Mikhailov, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors briefly describe the demographic situation in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, using data from the 1989 census and current demographic research. Changes in the birth rate and population growth are examined, and migration flows in the various regions of the republic are compared. Factors affecting low birth rates are analyzed, and trends in marriage, divorce, mortality, and life expectancy are explored.

  13. Relationship between students’ motivation and their socio-demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Cigan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on the relationship between indicators of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in students attending higher education institutions, and their socio-demographic characteristics: the type of upper secondary education completed, secondary education grade point average, year of study, gender, and parents’ education.  The research was conducted in March 2012, through a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of 604 respondents. The questionnaire examined, among other things, students’ motivation for learning, self-assessment of motivation for learning English and further professional development, and self-assessment of overall satisfaction with the study programme.  According to the self-determination theory developed by Deci and Ryan (2000, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are essential for undertaking any activity, including learning. As a social agent, each individual interacts with different social groups in an action-oriented set of circumstances, and develops his/her personality (CEFR. Social contexts that catalyse intrapersonal and interpersonal differences also have a significant influence on motivation. Gardner’s theory of motivation emphasizes the importance of social components and the extrinsic nature of instrumental and integrative ­orientation. Instrumental-integrative dichotomy was further developed by Dörnyei (1994: 279, who introduced a motivational framework consisting of three levels: the language level, the learner level and the learning situation level. Survey results show that the respondents are generally highly-motivated to learn, and that intrinsic motivation is predominant. Statistically significant differences were found between gender, secondary education grade point average, and year of study and the type and intensity of motivation, whereas the type of upper secondary education completed, and parents’ education, were not found to be statistically

  14. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Pazin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p277 The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (p<.05. The majority of the runners were aged between 18 and 50 years (63.2%, with 36.8% older than 50 years. In terms of educational level 24.3% had attended only elementary school, 35.4% high school, and 40% degree courses. Monthly family income (based on Brazilian minimum wage in Reais - R$ 380.00 varied between R$ 300 and R$ 999 for 23.3% of the runners, between R$ 1000 and R$ 2900 for 45.2%, and above R$ 3000 for 31.3% of them. Seventy two percent of them have been running regularly for more than 6 years, and 57% had received specialist guidance for running; 56.5% run more than 64 km/week. The injury prevalence for one year was 37.7%; BMI and waist circumference were within healthy limits. No associations were found between injury prevalence and other variables studied.

  15. The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrestha, Laura B

    2006-01-01

    ...." The objective of this report is to highlight some of the demographic changes that have already occurred since 1950 and to illustrate how these and future trends will reshape the nation in the decades to come (through 2050...

  16. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of asthmatic children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with variable air flow obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It is characterised clinically by recurrent episodes of cough, difficulty in breathing and wheezing which resolves spontaneously or with treatment. The socio-demographic and clinical ...

  17. Event characteristics and socio-demographic features of rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: On account of increasing awareness of the need for Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and availability of requisite drugs, victims of rape are now presenting at health facilities including ours to access PEP for HIV. This study set to document the socio-demographic features of these victims and the event ...

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with HIV and syphilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate socio-demographic factors associated with HIV and syphilis seroreactivity in pregnant Malawians presenting for antenatal care in late third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Between December 2000 and March 2004 at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital Blantyre, Malawi, we collected ...

  19. A study of the demographic characteristics of domestic tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Liu, X; Zhao, R

    1996-01-01

    "A sample survey was conducted [in China]: more than 6,000 questionnaires were submitted and retrieved from domestic tourists in Shanghai, Xi'ian, Huangshan, and Huashan in order to provide data for demographic analysis of the special fluid population of tourists. The paper looks at the relationship between tourists' gender, age, income, occupation, education, and family structure, as well as their tourist activity, selection of destinations, shopping, and other tourist behaviors." excerpt

  20. [Demographic influence on economic stability: the United States experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterlin, R A; Wachter, M; Wachter, S M

    1978-01-01

    Up to the 1930s the international migration rate into the U.S. was very high, while birth and mortality rates had little variation; migration was, therefore, the principal responsible for population growth rate. Migration cycles were induced by economic conditions, and had, in their turn, important effects on economic feedback. The growing of urban areas, i.e., accelerated demand for new homes and urban services in general, prolonged the economic expansion. After World War 2 a new period opened in the relation between demographic and economic cycles. At the end of the 1950s the U.S. experienced a considerable growth in the number of people between 15-29, due to corresponding birth rate increase, which initiated around 1940. This marked difference in the relative number of young adults, or manpower, resulted in an economic situation relatively unfavorable. For the future a decrease in the relative number of young adults is expected, reflecting the decrease in birth rate experienced around 1960. If the U.S. should experience a new "baby boom" in the next few decades, radical changes in the demographic composition of manpower will have to be expected.

  1. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  2. Moyamoya vasculopathy - Patient demographics and characteristics in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Marika; Mustanoja, Satu; Pekkola, Johanna; Tyni, Tiina; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kivipelto, Leena; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Moyamoya vasculopathy, a rare steno-occlusive progressive cerebrovascular disorder, has not been thoroughly studied in Caucasian populations. We established a registry of Finnish patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, to collect and report demographic and clinical data. Methods We collected data both retrospectively and prospectively from all the patients with a moyamoya vasculopathy referred to our hospital between January 1987 and December 2014. All patients underwent a neurological outpatient clinic visit. Results We diagnosed 61 patients (50 females, 10 children) with moyamoya vasculopathy. The mean age at the disease-onset was 31.5 ± 17.9 years. The two most common presenting symptoms were ischemic stroke (n = 31) and hemorrhage (n = 8). Forty-four percent underwent revascularization surgery, and 70% were prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The results support in part the Western phenotype of the disease considering the later presentation and larger female predominance compared to the Asian moyamoya vasculopathy reports. However, the proportion of ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes is closer to Japanese population than German population. The absence of familial cases points to a different genetic profile in the Finnish patients.

  3. Examination of the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics of the Family and the Language Development of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the demographic characteristics and the language development of children. In the research, a "Personal Information Form" consisting of 14 items containing information about the demographic structure of the family was used and a "Language Development Checklist"…

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of a semi-urban community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study revealed that more frequent ad-hoc small-scale intensive surveys are needed to obtain valid, reliable demographic information for planning health intervention programmes and allocation of scarce resources to relevant sectors. KEY WORDS: Socio-Demographic characteristics; Semi urban ...

  5. [The demographic and occupational characteristics of Italian migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1984-09-01

    "This essay studies...the demographic and socio-professional characteristics of the Italian emigrants in Argentina during the period 1880-1930. Besides a reconstruction of the demographic variables (age, sex, mortality, and fertility) in the historical series, the essay also depicts the professional profile of the Italians in Argentina...." (summary in ENG, FRE) excerpt

  6. The demographic divide : Population dynamics, race and the rise of mass incarceration in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, Michael C.; Vogel, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript examines whether certain fundamental demographic changes in age structures across racial groups might help explain incarceration rates in the United States. We argue that a “demographic divide”—a growing divergence in the age structures of blacks and whites—was an important factor

  7. Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory. Material and Methods: In the study, 119 patients with CTS to evaluate our ENMG laboratory were received. All patients age, sex, dominant and affected hand, duration of education, marital status, height, weight, additional diseases, occupational, hand and wrist repetitive motion made, use of computer and smoking status was assessed. Patients’ body mass index (BMI was calculated. Results: 102 cases (85.7% females, mean age was 46.32 years ± 12: 18. While in 115 (96.6% cases using the right hand is dominant, in 85 cases (76.6% with bilateral involvement were at hand. While the rate of patient who between five to eight year duration of education had was 47.1%, 84% patients were married. Also, BMI were determined as 29.33± 3.01. According to the state in 22 patients with additional diseases, diabetes mellitus in 22, hypothyroidism in 4, also 1 patient had arthritis. The majority of our patients (70.6% housewives formed. The 67.2% rate of repetetive activities as making crafts, the computer usage at a rate of 11.8% had history. The rate of smoking was 19.3%.  Conclusions:  As a result, CTS, especially in middle-aged housewives and obese is a common syndrome. Despite many reasons to be reported in the etiology of idiopathic 85%. At a rate of 25.4% of women in our society is considered paid work, especially in terms of determining the etiology of the more detailed studies are needed to ousewives.

  8. Demographic Characteristics of Stroke Types in Adıyaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Altun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the etiologic, demographic, clinical features, and risk factors of patients who were hospitalized, followed up, and treated due to stroke in our hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, the hospital records of patients diagnosed as having stroke or cerebrovascular disease (CVD between January 2013 and January 2015 in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital, where patients with stroke are frequently admitted or transferred, were retrospectively investigated. Results: In the past two years, 683 patients were followed-up or treated for stroke and CVD in our hospital. Stroke patients constituted 0.06% of all emergency admissions. Of these patients, 87.8% were diagnosed as having ischemic stroke and 8.6% were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic stroke. The sex distribution was almost equal (50.8% were males and 49.2% were females. Based on the results of brain scans performed during admission, radiologically, 498 (81.1% patients showed evidence of anterior system involvement and 116 (18.9% patients showed evidence of posterior system involvement. No focal areas were observed in computed tomography scans in 508 patients. However, diffusion magnetic resonance findings of these 508 patients were pathologic. Most of the patients with stroke were aged above 65 years (74.9%. The most common symptom during admission was unilateral muscle weakness (63.3%, and 58.6% of the patients were brought to the hospital by ambulance. Conclusion: As well as the results of our study being parallel to previous studies, our study also reflects the majority of stroke data in Adıyaman, Turkey, and provides significant results regarding our geographic region

  9. Social Security Disability: Demographic and Economic Characteristics of New Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    I 6% low Iq fe "Ai Ot v,!M ’Fe r : ’Sit 61 It #40 Q N) United State.CTAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Hunman Resources Division B...to do any work at all because of their health, they said. Almost one-fourth reported being either bedridden or wheelchair-bound. 2 FAM % rN9wrW TI...Committee on Aging, requested t at we conduct a broad study of disabled persons. On February 4, 1 86, James R . Jones, then Chairman of the Subcommittee

  10. Demographic characteristics in patients with short-gap and long-gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis of this topic is warranted ... Keywords: demographic characteristics, long-gap esophageal atresia, short-gap ... Thus, we conducted the present study to analyze the character- ..... this issue, providing fundamental information.

  11. Demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of seronegative spondyloarthritis Egyptian patients: A rheumatology clinic experience in Mansoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelsalam

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of Egyptian SpA patients are comparable to those from other countries except for the lower prevalence of extra-articular manifestations.

  12. Comparison of the Five Danish Regions Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Healthcare Utilization, and Medication Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Rasmussen, Lotte; Hansen, Morten Rix

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers: The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, The Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and The Danish National Health Service Register for Primary Care. We compared the Danish regions regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics...

  13. Demographic and fertility characteristics of 4 squatter settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, K; Zulkifli, S N

    1985-01-01

    The demographic and fertility profiles of 4 squatter areas, 2 with Sang Kancil, a community development project designed specifically for squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur, are described. Data were taken from a census conducted in 1982. Figure 1 maps out the location of the study areas in the Federal Territory. The squatter household (5.4 members) varied little from the average Malaysian household. The average age of the male head of household was 40 years, i.e., not within the high fertility group; the mean duration of stay was 10 years. Household income/month averaged M$760, falling between estimates for urban and rural mean. Comparing the data on the 2 squatter areas, the non-Sang Kancil head of household was, on average, slightly older and had stayed about 2 years longer than his Sang Kancil counterpart. These differences were statistically significant. Both areas were comparable with regard to household income and size. Ethnically, the Sang Kancil areas were predominantly Malay, comprising 86% of total households. The control areas had a more mixed ethnic structure. From 1978-81, annual increases in total population had been fairly uniform, at around 2%, in non-Sang Kancil Areas. Yet, the Sang Kancil population experienced a growth spurt in 1980, which subsequently declined and appeared to level off. 1982 figures were disregarded in this analysis as they were based on a 1/2 year enumeration only. The age distribution pattern of all squatter areas combined was fairly similar to the national distribution pyramid but for a higher proportion of people in the 15-44 age group than national figures. The proportion of dependents, 0-14 years, was comparable despite having more people in this fertile age group. The proportion of infants (0-11 months) in the control population was constant, but there was a decline down to control values by the end of the surveyed period in the Sang Kancil group. In the toddler group, decreases were evident for both populations

  14. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...... and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6...

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...... and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6...

  17. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  18. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Financial Literacy Moderate the Relationship among Demographic Characteristics and Financial Risk Tolerance? Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Shusha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk tolerance is certainly an important topic for researchers, investors and personal financial planners or consultants. This study purposed to investigate the effect of demographic characteristics on financial risk tolerance among Egyptians. A literature review of demographic determinants of financial risk tolerance showed dialectical results. Therefore, this study attempts to clarify the debatable issues in these results by studying the moderating role of financial literacy in relationships among demographic characteristics and financial risk tolerance. The study sample included 386 respondents representing different segments of Egyptian people. Using the hierarchical regression analysis, the results demonstrated that there were significant effects of gender, age, educational level and annual income on financial risk tolerance. Moreover, the financial literacy moderates the relationships among demographic characteristics of individuals and their tendency to take a risk.

  20. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  1. [Nutritional status associated with demographic characteristics in older Peruvian adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Alvarez-Dongo, Doris; Espinoza-Oriundo, Paula; Gomez-Guizado, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the nutritional status in older adults and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Sampling was probabilistic, stratifi and multistage. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) according to the classifi of nutritional status for the elderly from the Ministry of Health of Peru. The statistical analysis considered the necessary weight for complex samples. The study included 7,267 older adults. 26.8% of participants were underweight, 21.7% overweight, 10.6% obese and 40.8% normal. The average age in the sample was 70.1 ± 8.3 years. Illiteracy (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-3.0), primary education (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9), extreme poverty (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in rural areas (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.1), living in the mountains (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.2) or jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) were found associated with underweight. Females (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.1), living in urban areas (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5), living in the coastal region (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2- 1.8); and not classifi as poor (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9) were associated with overweight. Female sex (OR 3.1; 95% CI 2.3-4.1), primary education (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-4.0) and secondary (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.4); live in urban areas (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6-2.9), inhabiting the coast (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.4), Metro (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) and jungle (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.2), and not classifi as poor (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.8-7.0) were associated with obesity. The data suggest that both underweight and overweight are common in the elderly population studied.

  2. United States Changing Demographics - English/Spanish Space Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, R.

    2002-01-01

    Accordingly the United States Census Bureau, the ethnic group adding the largest number of people to the national population is the Hispanic exceeding 12 percent of the population and growing by almost 60 percent between 1990 and 2000. The status of the nation's educational system with respect to Hispanic students is perhaps one of the most influential issues facing the largest economy of the world. The low income, lack of language skills, highest drop-out rate in the nation, are some of the reasons why Hispanics are less likely to receive a university degree than any other ethical group. In short, the government requires to implement compensatory programs and bilingual education to ensure global leadership. Because of ongoing immigration, Spanish persists longer among Hispanics than it did among other immigrant groups. Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world after Mandarin, Hindustani and English. Although not all U.S. Hispanics speak Spanish, almost all U.S. Spanish speakers are Hispanics. This paper is intended to outline the challenging implementation of a bilingual education project affiliated to NASA Johnson Space Center encouraging greater academic success of Hispanics in engineering, math and science. The prospective project covers the overall role of space activities in the development of science and technology, socioeconomic issues and international cooperation. An existent JSC project is the starting stage to keep on developing an interactive video teleconference and web-media technology and produce stimulating learning products in English and Spanish for students and teachers across the nation and around the world.

  3. Cancer-related Fatigue and its Relationship with Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Chehrehgosha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fatigue experience is a psychological experience therefore, the relevant caregivers’ acquaintance with this issueis the most important step in offering optimal care for the patients. Accordingly, this study was conductedto determine Cancer-related Fatigue and its Relationship with Demographic and Clinical Characteristics inCancer Patients.A cancer diagnosis is a highly undesirable event for anyone.Methods: characteristics form and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The data were analyzed with the SPSS-18 software and t-test and ANOVA and tukey post hoc test were used.In this analytical study, 150 cancer patients visiting the oncology unit, the Shafa Radiotherapy Center,and Gorgan’s 5th Azar Teaching Hospital in 2012, who were selected with a purposive sampling method,participated in the study for 4 months. The required information was collected using a demographic and clinicalResults: of treatment, 51.3% used chemotherapy-surgery-radiotherapy regimen, 24.7% surgery-chemotherapy regimen,14% used chemotherapy, 7.3% used radiotherapy, and 2.7% used surgery. The overall mean scoreof fatigue was 54.65±8.78 from 100. The variables of residence (P=0. 018, the duration of marriage(P=0.018, the treatment regimen type (P<0.001, and the family’s economic status (P<0.000 were found toThe patients’ mean age was 48.39±1.5 Of the patients, 55.3% had undergone less than 12 monthshave a significant relationship with fatigue.Conclusion: Psychological interventions, besides physical caring and nursing interventions play a significantrole in the all-inclusive management of cancer patients’ problems, in particular, their fatigue.

  4. Do Demographic Characteristics Make Differences? Demographic Characteristics as Moderators in the Associations between Only Child Status and Cognitive/Non-cognitive Outcomes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Yiting; Yang, Xiangdong; Hu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Different family compositions and sizes may affect child development through the different modes of interaction between family members. Previous studies have compared only children with non-only children in cognitive/non-cognitive outcomes. However, relatively little research has systematically investigated the potential moderators among them. Using a large and representative sample of Chinese students (Grades 7?8; N = 5,752), this study examines the roles of demographic characteristics, such...

  5. Comorbid Depressive Disorders in Anxiety-Disordered Youth: Demographic, Clinical, and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…

  6. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  7. The Effects of Faculty Demographic Characteristics and Disciplinary Context on Dimensions of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Umbach, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies Kalleberg's framework to better understand the effects of diverse demographic faculty characteristics on dimensions of job satisfaction. We also extend his work and the work of others to explore the contextual effects of academic disciplines on faculty job satisfaction. We find that women are consistently less satisfied than…

  8. An Exploration of Adolescent Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Nicholas R.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) was measured in 200 youth ages 16-19. EI scores were compared to demographic characteristics of the individuals (age, sex, household income, parents' level of education, and location of residence). Findings indicate that EI levels were positively related to females, parents' education, and household income. The study…

  9. Student Media in U.S. Secondary Schools: Associations with School Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkowski, Piotr S.; Goodman, Mark; Bowen, Candace Perkins

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an up-to-date counting of student media in U.S. public high schools. The analysis underscores the importance of school demographic characteristics in predicting whether schools offer student media. The disparities identified here should inform how journalism schools, scholastic journalism organizations, funding agencies, and…

  10. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, L.; Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses.

  11. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  12. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  13. Students' Demographic, Academic Characteristics and Performance in Registered General Nursing Licensing Examination in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Patience Fakornam; Oppong, Elizabeth Agyeiwaa; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2018-01-01

    The decreasing performance of student nurses in the professional licensure examinations (LE) in Ghana is a major concern to stakeholders, especially at a time when the nurse-patient ratio stands at 1: 1500. The study sought to determine the effect of students' demographic and academic characteristics on performance in the Registered General…

  14. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  15. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  16. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    As consumers have become more interested in understanding how their food is produced, scrutiny and criticism have increased regarding intensified food animal production methods. Resolution of public concerns about animal agricultural practices depends on understanding the myriad factors that provide the basis for concerns. An online survey of 798 U.S. households was conducted to investigate relationships between household characteristics (demographics, geographic location, and experiences) and level of concern for animal welfare as well as sources used to obtain information on the subject. Because recent media attention has focused on animal care practices used in the U.S. swine industry, respondents were also asked specific questions pertaining to their perceptions of pig management practices and welfare issues and their corresponding pork purchasing behavior. Respondents reporting higher levels of concern about animal welfare were more frequently female, younger, and self-reported members of the Democratic Party. Fourteen percent of respondents reported reduction in pork consumption because of animal welfare concerns with an average reduction of 56%. Over half of the respondents (56%) did not have a primary source for animal welfare information; those who identified a primary information source most commonly used information provided by animal protection organizations, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Midwest participants were significantly, at the 5% significance level, less concerned about domestic livestock animal welfare and more frequently reported not having a source for animal welfare information than those from other regions of the United States. Overall, the U.S. livestock and poultry industries and other organizations affiliated with animal agriculture appear to be less used public sources of information on animal welfare than popular animal protection organizations. Improved

  17. Interior Design Styles and Socio-demographic Characteristics in Egypt: From the concept of Zeitgeist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interior design plays an important role in reflecting the social and cultural environments of countries and showing the characteristics of the age. The previous literature has suggested that people’s preferences for interior design styles are influenced by social distinctions, based on education level and age. In this study, we have argued more precisely socio – demographic factors (gender, age, income, major and city that affect the Egyptians’ preferences for interior design styles, and have discussed to what extent do the people preferences reflect Zeitgeist in Egypt. The findings supported the idea that socio-demographic factors can explain people’s design preferences.

  18. Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; León, Elsa; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Dongo, Mario; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.; Munayco, César V.; Programa Nacional Vida Digna (PNVD), Ministerio de la Mujer y Poblaciones Vulnerables. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program “Vida Digna” and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. Materials ande methods. We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time ...

  19. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  20. Demographic characteristics and employment among people with severe mental illness in a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Miller, Jane K; Cook, Judith A; Grey, Dennis D; Razzano, Lisa A; Blyler, Crystal R; Leff, H Stephen; Gold, Paul B; Goldberg, Richard W; Mueser, Kim T; Cook, William L; Hoppe, Sue K; Stewart, Michelle; Blankertz, Laura; Dudek, Kenn; Taylor, Amanda L; Carey, Martha Ann

    2006-04-01

    People with psychiatric disabilities experience disproportionately high rates of unemployment. As research evidence is mounting regarding effective vocational programs, interest is growing in identifying subgroup variations. Data from a multisite research and demonstration program were analyzed to identify demographic characteristics associated with employment outcomes, after adjusting for the effects of program, services, and study site. Longitudinal analyses found that people with more recent work history, younger age, and higher education were more likely to achieve competitive employment and to work more hours per month, while race and gender effects varied by employment outcome. Results provide strong evidence of demographic subgroup variation and need.

  1. The influence of farmer demographic characteristics on environmental behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J F

    2014-03-15

    Many agricultural studies have observed a relationship between farmer demographic characteristics and environmental behaviours. These relationships are frequently employed in the construction of models, the identification of farmer types, or as part of more descriptive analyses aimed at understanding farmers' environmental behaviour. However, they have also often been found to be inconsistent or contradictory. Although a considerable body of literature has built up around the subject area, research has a tendency to focus on factors such as the direction, strength and consistency of the relationship - leaving the issue of causality largely to speculation. This review addresses this gap by reviewing literature on 4 key demographic variables: age, experience, education, and gender for hypothesised causal links. Overall the review indicates that the issue of causality is a complex one. Inconsistent relationships can be attributed to the presence of multiple causal pathways, the role of scheme factors in determining which pathway is important, inadequately specified measurements of demographic characteristics, and the treatment of non-linear causalities as linear. In addition, all demographic characteristics were perceived to be influenced (to varying extents) by cultural-historical patterns leading to cohort effects or socialised differences in the relationship with environmental behaviour. The paper concludes that more work is required on the issue of causality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of demographic and psychological characteristics and cost behaviors on views towards the luxury restaurant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Haji Mirza Hossein Yazdi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of psychological characteristics, materialism, unity, uniqueness, hedonism, and perfectionism, and demographic characteristics including gender, age and income as well as the costing behavior (price on the views towards the luxury restaurant. The results show that perfectionism and uniqueness had a direct impact on the consumer's views towards luxury restaurant. On the other hand, the demographic characteristics such as age, income and education had a positive relationship with the consumer's views towards the luxury restaurant. Finally, a new hypothesis as the relationship between price and service quality and customer atti-tudes was examined in this study and it was concluded that there was a significant positive rela-tionship between price and customer’s views. The results of the research data also confirmed the relationship between price and service quality.

  3. Cross-national differences in women's repartnering behaviour in Europe: The role of individual demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gałęzewska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rising union instability across Europe, more individuals now re-enter the partner market and eventually repartner. The increase in cohabitation may also be influencing repartnering behaviour. While several studies examine individual-level characteristics related to repartnering, few take a broader view and compare repartnering levels or explore how demographic characteristics associated with repartnering differ across Europe. Objective: We describe levels of repartnering and the characteristics of those exposed to repartnering in 11 European countries. We then examine whether the relationship between women's demographic characteristics at union dissolution and repartnering are similar or different across countries. Given the recent increase in cohabitation, we pay particular attention to prior cohabitation and marriage, but we also compare age at first union dissolution, first union duration, and presence of children. Methods: Using the Harmonized Histories database, we apply discrete-time hazard models separately by country and to pooled cross-national data. Results: Despite large differences in levels of repartnering, in most countries we find similar associations between demographic characteristics and repartnering. First union type did not matter after controlling for age and children, except in France, where those who previously cohabited had significantly lower risks of repartnering. Age at union dissolution and presence of children are negatively associated with repartnering in almost all countries. Conclusions: Although cohabitation has increased everywhere, prior experience of a coresidential partnership outside of formal marriage makes little difference to repartnering behaviour after controls (except in France. However, regardless of country, older women and/or mothers are less likely to form second unions. Contribution: This study contributes to previous research by examining whether the effects of women

  4. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Omani Children - Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Al-Yaarubi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the Pediatric Endocrine Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2006 to May 2013. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients were included in the study. The mean±SD of age at diagnosis was 6.7 ± 3.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 10 days (IQR; 5-14. The most commonly reported presenting symptoms were polyuria (94%, polydipsia (82%, and weight loss (59%. Diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation was diagnosed in 31% of the patients. Different insulin regimens were prescribed: multiple daily injections in 109 (76% patients, twice daily insulin regimen in 23 (16% patients, and insulin pump therapy in 12 (8% patients. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus was present in 31 (22% patients. There were no significant differences in presenting complaints (polyuria, p=0.182; polydipsia, p=0.848, duration of symptoms (p=0.331, reported weight loss (p=0.753, or diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (p=0.608 between patients with and without family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the studied patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was found to be less common in Oman compared to other diabetes centers in the Middle East.

  5. Changes in the Demographic Characteristics of the American Geophysical Union Membership, 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    Significant change occurred in the demographic properties of the American Geophysical Union membership during the period April 2006- January 2010. During this period AGU membership decreased from 48,332 to 38,847, a drop of 19.6%. Most of the change appears to have been driven by the aging membership of the Union, especially in the United States, and the effects of the global economic crisis on employment in all sectors of economy. Of the 38,847 members in January 2010, data on the birth year and gender were available for 33,610 members including 21,567 who reside in the United States. These data were compared to a similar data set captured in April 2006. The following observations are based on this subset of the total AGU membership for who country of residence and both age and gender are known. The number of AGU members residing in the United States decreased by 18.6% during the study period. As should be expected, the changes were not spread evenly between the genders or across birth-year cohorts. Membership among males decreased by 19%, while there were 17% fewer female members. The female cohorts that experienced the greatest losses were those including women from 30-40 years old (born 1970-1979). These data appear to echo multiple studies that show women leaving the sciences for gender-specific reasons. For the purposes of this analysis, the birth-year cohorts are divided into three groups. Members born prior to 1945 compose the oldest cohort. The Baby-Boom generation includes members born between 1945 and 1964. The youngest group includes members born from 1965 onward. Because of the very small number of women in the oldest group (only 4.7%) most of the change occurred among males. The total membership loss from this group was 1,140 members, 23% of the total. The largest change occurred among Baby Boomers. The group decreased by 2,760 members, accounting for 56% of the total decline in membership among US residents. Males accounted for most of the change (2

  6. Clinical and Demographical Characteristics of Patients with Medication Overuse Headache in Argentina and Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shand, Beatriz; Goicochea, Maria Teresa; Valenzuela, Raul

    2015-01-01

    population was formed by 240 MOH subjects, 110 from Chile and 130 from Argentina, consecutively attending the local headache centres. In each centre, specifically trained neurologist interviewed and confirmed the diagnosis according to the ICHD-II criteria. A detailed history was collected on an electronic......BACKGROUND: Data on the characteristics of Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) in Latin American (LA) are scarce. Here we report the demographic and clinical features of the MOH patients from Argentina and Chile enrolled in the multinational COMOESTAS project in the period 2008-2010. METHODS: The LA......, where it affects mostly women, in the most active decades of life. Some differences emerge as regards the demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH in this population as compared to Europe or Northern America. What seems more worrying about MOH in Argentina and Chile is that most patients overuse...

  7. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  8. Comparison of Conflict Management Strategies of Physical Education Office Managers Based on some Demographic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ghorbanalizadeh Ghaziani; Mohsen Moadi; Siavash Khodaparast Sareshkeh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study was comparison of conflict management strategies of physical education office managers based on their some demographic characteristics. All of managers of physical education office of Mazandaran (n = 15) and Guilan (n = 16) province and their assistant [(n = 15) and (n =16) respectively] response to Putnam and Wilson’s “organizational communication conflict instrument (OCCI)”.Analysis showed that Mazandaran’s and Guilan’s managers and their assistant hadn’t differences to...

  9. Survey of relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and conflict management style choices

    OpenAIRE

    SEDIGHEH MOKHTARPOUR; MOHSEN KHADEMI; HOSSEIN MOKHTARPOUR

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Conflict is inevitable in workplaces and it is very important to manage it in a proper way to minimize the problems that might arise. The aim of this research is surveying the relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and the choice of conflict management styles. Methods: The statistical society included 213 employed principals of Shiraz high schools. The data on conflict management style choices were gathered using the conflict management qu...

  10. Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007?2010 among adults (N?=?9,690). For each of the outcome variables ? use of packed food and fast food menu labels ? multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteris...

  11. A study of communication skills in health care management students and its association with demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Karimzadeh; Rita Rezaee; Peivand Bastani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Communication skills are one of the most important skills for health care managers and play an important role in their personal life and future occupation. The present study aimed to evaluate the students’ communication skills as well as its relationship with the students’ demographic characteristics. Method: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 153 university students majoring in healthcare management in 2014. A self-administered communication skills questionna...

  12. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Agai–Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. AIM: To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. METHODOLOGY: W...

  13. Perfectionism, selected demographic and job characteristics as predictors of burnout in operating suite nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Włodarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed at verifying the predictive power of perfectionism for professional burnout among nurses exposed to distress resulting from work in an operating suite and testing whether this effect exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 nurses (93 women; mean age: 38.67 years. The majority in the group worked in public facilities (68%, in duty system (62%, as operating (75% or anesthesiology (25% nurses. To test perfectionism The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (AMPQ (Perfekcjonizm Adaptacyjny i Dezadaptacyjny - PAD, developed by Szczucka, was used. To examine burnout the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI by Demerouti et al. was adopted. The effects of selected demographic and job characteristics were controlled. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics maladaptive perfectionism was a significant predictor of disengagement and exhaustion whereas adaptive perfectionism predicted a better work engagement. Significant predictors were also: education, number of workplaces, duty system and marital status. Conclusions: The study allowed to confirm the hypothesis on a harmful role of maladaptive perfectionism in shaping burnout among operating suite nurses. The hypothesis on protective function of adaptive perfectionism was confirmed only partially, with regard to disengagement. The results of the study also highlighted some risk factors of burnout which may exist in this occupational group. This confirms the need to continue research in this area. Med Pr 2013;64(6:761–773

  14. The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C

    This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD-SWoD differences at Grade 3 were moderated by student sex, while Black race/ethnicity and free or reduced lunch (FRL) status moderated LD-SWoD differences at all grades. These results provide practitioners and policy makers with more specific information about which particular LD students show faster or slower growth in mathematics. Our results show that simply including predictors in a regression equation may produce different results than direct testing of interactions and achievement gaps may be larger for some LD subgroups of students than previously reported.

  15. Validity of self-reported periodontal measures, demographic characteristics and systemic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Cisneros, Alejandro; Sanchez, Miguel; Lunos, Scott; Wolff, Larry F

    2018-04-06

    The objective of the present study was to assess self-reported periodontal screening questions, demographic characteristics, systemic medical conditions and tobacco use for predicting periodontal disease among individuals seeking dental therapy in a university dental clinic. In this retrospective study, a total of 4,890 randomly selected dental charts were evaluated from among patients who had attended the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry clinics for treatment. Radiographic bone loss measurements were utilized to assess the severity of periodontal disease. Demographic characteristics as well as medical history of the patients were also recorded. Five self-reported periodontal screening questions were included with the range of answers limited to Yes/No. Generalized logit models were used to assess the association between bone loss and the predictors. The sample mean age was 54.1 years and included 52.6% males and 14.9% smokers with a mean number of missing teeth of 3.5. Self-reported tooth mobility, history of "gum treatment" and the importance to keep the teeth as well as age, tobacco use and cancer were statistically significant (p brushing", gender, diabetes, anxiety and arthritis. Self-reported periodontal screening questions as well as demographic characteristics, smoking and systemic medical conditions were significant predictors of periodontal disease and they could be used as valid, economical and practical measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  16. A profile of the demographics and training characteristics of professional modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David S; Shah, Selina; Burchette, Raoul J

    2008-01-01

    Modern dancers are a unique group of artists, performing a diverse repertoire in dance companies of various sizes. In this study, 184 professional modern dancers in the United States (males N=49, females N=135), including members of large and small companies as well as freelance dancers, were surveyed regarding their demographics and training characteristics. The mean age of the dancers was 30.1 +/- 7.3 years, and they had danced professionally for 8.9 +/- 7.2 years. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.6 +/- 2.4 for males and 20.5 +/- 1.7 for females. Females had started taking dance class earlier (age 6.5 +/- 4.2 years) as compared to males (age 15.6 +/- 6.2 years). Females were more likely to have begun their training in ballet, while males more often began with modern classes (55% and 51% respectively, p professional modern dancers surveyed spent 8.3 +/- 6.0 hours in class and 17.2 +/- 12.6 hours in rehearsal each week. Eighty percent took modern technique class and 67% reported that they took ballet technique class. The dancers who specified what modern technique they studied (N=84) reported between two and four different techniques. The dancers also participated in a multitude of additional exercise regimens for a total of 8.2 +/- 6.6 hours per week, with the most common types being Pilates, yoga, and upper body weightlifting. The dancers wore many different types of footwear, depending on the style of dance being performed. For modern dance alone, dancers wore 12 different types of footwear. Reflecting the diversity of the dancers and companies surveyed, females reported performing for 23.3 +/- 14.0 weeks (range: 2-52 weeks) per year; males reported performing 20.4 +/- 13.9 weeks (range: 1-40) per year. Only 18% of the dancers did not have any health insurance, with 54% having some type of insurance provided by their employer. However, 23% of the dancers purchased their own insurance, and 22% had insurance provided by their families. Only 16% of dancers

  17. Using deep learning and Google Street View to estimate the demographic makeup of neighborhoods across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Timnit; Krause, Jonathan; Wang, Yilun; Chen, Duyun; Deng, Jia; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Fei-Fei, Li

    2017-12-12

    The United States spends more than $250 million each year on the American Community Survey (ACS), a labor-intensive door-to-door study that measures statistics relating to race, gender, education, occupation, unemployment, and other demographic factors. Although a comprehensive source of data, the lag between demographic changes and their appearance in the ACS can exceed several years. As digital imagery becomes ubiquitous and machine vision techniques improve, automated data analysis may become an increasingly practical supplement to the ACS. Here, we present a method that estimates socioeconomic characteristics of regions spanning 200 US cities by using 50 million images of street scenes gathered with Google Street View cars. Using deep learning-based computer vision techniques, we determined the make, model, and year of all motor vehicles encountered in particular neighborhoods. Data from this census of motor vehicles, which enumerated 22 million automobiles in total (8% of all automobiles in the United States), were used to accurately estimate income, race, education, and voting patterns at the zip code and precinct level. (The average US precinct contains ∼1,000 people.) The resulting associations are surprisingly simple and powerful. For instance, if the number of sedans encountered during a drive through a city is higher than the number of pickup trucks, the city is likely to vote for a Democrat during the next presidential election (88% chance); otherwise, it is likely to vote Republican (82%). Our results suggest that automated systems for monitoring demographics may effectively complement labor-intensive approaches, with the potential to measure demographics with fine spatial resolution, in close to real time. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. The Association of Point-of-Sale E-cigarette Advertising with Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Ramos, Athena; Correa, Antonia

    2018-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area. We used Geographic Information Systems to map POS e-cigarette advertisement density for the entire study area. Linear regression was used to examine the association between socio-demographic factors and POS e-cigarette advertising density. E-cigarette advertising density exhibited an obviously uneven geographic pattern in Omaha. Higher level of POS e-cigarette advertising was significantly related to lower median household income, higher percentage of Hispanics, and higher percentage of young adults. However, after adjusting for covariates, only median household income remained significantly associated with POS e-cigarette advertising. We found geographic, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic disparities in exposure to POS e-cigarette advertising in Omaha, Nebraska. Future studies are needed to understand how these disparities influence e-cigarette adoption by different social groups and how to use such information to inform e-cigarette prevention strategies.

  19. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of differences in perception of local gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to research differences in socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in consumption of local food in the city centres Belgrade and Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia. The research was conducted on a sample of 673 respondents. The results of this study point out the importance of socio-demographic variables in research of local gastronomy as a significant component of tourism product. The research included the determining of the impact of the city the tourists stayed at. The differences were examined via two-factor ANOVA analysis of variance. The obtained results indicate that there are differences between age groups, in the level of education, monthly income and countries that foreign tourists come from, whereas there is no difference between genders in relation to the perception of local gastronomy. At the same time, the findings indicate that there are no differences in the perception of local gastronomy between the cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The results confirm previous studies and point out the significance of socio-demographic characteristics of foreign tourists in their perception of local gastronomy and adapting it to the visitors, regardless of the city they visited.

  20. A study of communication skills in health care management students and its association with demographic characteristics

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    Shiva Karimzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communication skills are one of the most important skills for health care managers and play an important role in their personal life and future occupation. The present study aimed to evaluate the students’ communication skills as well as its relationship with the students’ demographic characteristics. Method: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 153 university students majoring in healthcare management in 2014. A self-administered communication skills questionnaire and demographic information form were used to collect the data. Then, the data were analyzed by using SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests including T-Test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that the students on average got 77.60 out of possible 100 in communication skills. The relationship between communication skills and demographic characteristics, except age, was not statistically significant (p<0.001. The total Cronbach’s alpha was estimated 0.7. There was a statistically significant difference between the communication skills scores of participants in terms of different age groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present findings showed a moderate score in communicative skills in students of health care management. Although the communication skill levels in these students were not low, due to the importance of these skills in their future occupation, serious attention is needed to improve their communication skills.

  1. Diabetic Prevalence in Bangladesh: The Role of Some Associated Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Tasneem

    2012-12-01

    The study attempts at examining the association of a few selected socio-economic and demographic characteristics on diabetic prevalence. Nationally representative data from BIRDEM 2000 have been used to meet the objectives of the study. Cross tabulation, Chi-square and logistic regression analysis have been used to portray the necessary associations. Chi- square reveals significant relationship between diabetic prevalence and all the selected demographic and socio-economic variables except ìeducationî while logistic regression analysis shows no significant contribution of ìageî and ìeducationî in diabetic prevalence. It has to be noted that, this paper dealt with all the three types of diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

  2. The Relationship Between Demographic Characteristics and Retirement Satisfaction in Elderly Retirement

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    Fatemeh Kianpour Ghahfarokhi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between demographic characteristics and retirement satisfaction in elderly members of registered retirement Education Center in Ahwaz. Methods & Materials: This study was descriptive-correlative. The sample of study includes ninety-six retirees referring to retirement center of Ahvaz Using Convenience of haphazard sampling in year 1388. Participants were requested to fill in Retirement Descriptive Index as well as a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic, Simple correlation and regression repeatedly analysis (by SPSS 16 versions. Results: There are significant positive correlation between health, employment, financial status, usefulness feeling, spouse employment with retirement satisfaction and negative correlation between retirement age and spouse retirement with retirement satisfaction. Conclusion: This study reveals that health, re-employment after retirement, having a good financial status and usefulness feeling increase retirement satisfaction. But retirement age and retirement satisfaction‌ decrease it.

  3. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  4. Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2015-12-22

    Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 among adults (N = 9,690). For each of the outcome variables - use of packed food and fast food menu labels - multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteristics by weight loss activities and demographic characteristics. Overall, 69 percent of adults reported they would use fast food information and 76 percent reported using the nutrition facts panel on packaged foods. Adults trying to lose weight had a greater likelihood of reporting use of nutrition information to choose fast foods (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI: 1.29, 2.29) and using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.60, 2.30). Black and Hispanic adults were more likely to report using ingredients lists on packaged foods compared to Whites (White -63 %, Black/Hispanic -68 %, p fast food nutrition information.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF TOP MANAGEMENT DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON DECISION MAKING APPROACHES

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    Ivana Bulog

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organizational environment requires managers to be an excellent decision maker with the ability to make effective decisions which will shape business performance. Because of the role that managers have in today’s business settings, research interest in the relationship between individual characteristics and managerial decision making in all its aspects has increased over the last decade. This paper aims to provide an overview and discussion of how individuals make choices and decisions by examining the influence of top management demographic characteristics on decision making approaches. Findings suggest that demographic characteristics appear to be valuable for predicting which decision making approach managers prefer. The results of the study show that the average age and education level of decision makers is positively related to the rational decision making approach and negatively to the intuitive decision making approach. Tenure is positively related to the intuitive decision making approach, but the influence is not statistically significant. Also, a difference in the decision making approach was found with respect to gender. In light of the research findings, implications and limitations were discussed and some possibilities for future research are suggested.

  6. Demographics, phenotypic health characteristics and genetic analysis of centenarians in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan

    2017-01-01

    -old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities. We then compare five......After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young...

  7. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  8. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

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    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  9. Demographic aging in the United States: implications for population and income redistribution to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J; Spar, M A

    1982-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt

  10. Influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of life is a multidimensional concept, which is best expressed by the subjective well-being. Evaluation of the quality of life is the basis for measuring the well-being, and the determination of factors that determine the quality of life quality is the basis for its improvement Objective. To evaluate and assess the determinants of the perceived quality of life of group distinguishing features which characterize demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the population in Serbia aged over 20 years (9479 examinees. The quality of life was expressed by the perception of well-being (pleasure of life. Data on the examinees (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected by using a questionnaire for adults of each household. To process, analyze and present the data, we used the methods of parametric descriptive statistics (mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, variance analysis and factor analysis. Results. Although men evaluated the quality of life with a slightly higher grading, there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of the quality of life in relation to the examinee’s gender (p>0.005. Among the examinees there was a high statistically significant difference in grading the quality of life depending on age, level of education, marital status and type of job (p<0.001. In relation to the number of children, there was no statistically significant difference in he grading of the quality of life (p>0.005. Conclusion. The quality of life is influenced by numerous factors that characterize each person (demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individual. Determining factors of the quality of life are numerous and diverse, and the manner and the strength of their influence are variable.

  11. Seasonal distribution and demographical characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome in 1039 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Irênio; Becker, Jefferson; Ehlers, João Arthur; Kapczinski, Flávio; Nora, Daniel Bocchese

    2004-09-01

    To describe the demographic characteristics of gender, age, and presence of repetitive movements, intake of alcohol and non-steroid anti-inflammatories (NSAI), medical specialties that referred patients to nerve conduction studies and electromyography (NCS-EMG), school attainment, and seasonal distribution in patients with a neurophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A series of 1039 patients (1549 hands) with neurophysiologically defined CTS was studied. Patients were referred for NCS-EMG in 3 universities and 2 private services, from August 2001 to January 2003. All patients completed a questionnaire containing demographic information. The diagnosis of CTS was established following a pre-established protocol, with defined diagnostic criteria. Around one fourth of patients had already performed NCS-EMG; the greatest frequency of CTS was observed in women (5.6:1) and in patients above the age of 40. Most patients reported performing repetitive movements in their daily routine (69.7%); 12.9% reported use of NSAI and 14.9% regular intake of alcoholic beverages. A greater frequency of CTS was observed in the months of July and August, when compared to the other months of the year. Around 2/3 of the study population had completed at least secondary school. Most requests of nerve conduction studies did not provide a diagnostic hypothesis (59.9%) and neurophysiologic studies were requested mostly by traumatology/orthopedics (71.1%). We have concluded that, in our environment, CTS shows some demographical characteristics that are similar to what the literature describes. Also, we have found that most of our sample concluded at least secondary school, and was referred to neurophysiologic studies by orthopedists. To be pointed out is the seasonal distribution of CTS, which demonstrates a significant association with winter months.

  12. Relationship between Socioeconomic Demographic Characteristics with Antibiotic Self-Medication in Community Dwelling Adults

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    Michael Aditya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases escalation in developing countries especially in Indonesia lead to increasing use of antibiotics in the community. Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of resistant bacteria and irrational use of antibiotics. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic -demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted on people from Sayang Village in West Java Indonesia aged over 18 years and had experience in using antibiotics. A total of 146 respondents were selected as the sample of this study. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic demographic characteristics with antibiotic self-medication. Results: Out of 146 questionnaires that were completed, 111 were female and 35 male respondents, 75 respondents had experience in using antibiotics without prescription. The survey showed significant relation between antibiotics use with monthly income (p=0,031 and source of income (p=0,009. Conclusions: The study confirms that there is relation between monthly income and source of income with antibiotic self-medication.

  13. Survey of relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and conflict management style choices

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    SEDIGHEH MOKHTARPOUR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conflict is inevitable in workplaces and it is very important to manage it in a proper way to minimize the problems that might arise. The aim of this research is surveying the relationship between principals’ demographic characteristics and the choice of conflict management styles. Methods: The statistical society included 213 employed principals of Shiraz high schools. The data on conflict management style choices were gathered using the conflict management questionnaire. The t-test, ANOVA and regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The results of this research showed that the compromise style was the most frequently used method by principals followed by collaboration and accommodation, domination and avoidance, respectively. There was a significant association between the principals’ level of income and the use of collaboration and accommodation styles. There was a statistically significant difference between gender and the use of the five fold approach in the domination style. Overall, there was a significant association between the principals’ demographic characteristics and the conflict management style choices. Concolusion: The principals should notice that conflict is inevitable in organizations and they should consider the opinions and ideas of both parties involved in the conflict. So the best approach for conflict management by principals is to pay attention to its outcomes and choose the style which has the most benefit for the involved parties.

  14. Importance of demographic characteristics and nurses' role in women's perceptions and experiences of gynaecological examination

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    Dušanka Zaić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gynaecological examination is crucial for protecting the reproductive health of women. The purpose of the study was to explore the perception of women towards gynaecological examination, the importance of some demographic characteristics and the role of a nurse. Methods: A quantitative methodology was used for study purposes. A structured web questionnaire was applied on a non-random, convenience sample of women (n = 476. The questionnaire was published on the most popular Slovenian web forums. Prior to the main research project, a pilot study was conducted on a sample of 10 women. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Results of the study show a statistically significant correlation between the respondents' residential environment (t = -2.436, p = 0.015, the level of educational attainment (rs=-0.153, p = 0.001 and the presence of discomfort and fear before the gynaecological examination. The role of a nurse in reducing the level of discomfort and fear before (t = -0.931, p = 0.352 and during (t = -0.888, p = 0.375 the gynaecological examination was not proven statistically significant. Discussion and conclusions: Besides the demographic characteristics, a number of personal and societal factors influence women's attitudes towards gynaecological examination and the associated discomfort and fear. The study suggests that further qualitative studies are needed to gain a deeper understanding of how women experience a pelvic examination.

  15. Demographic and clinical characteristics in relation to patient and health system delays in a tuberculosis low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter; Madsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are commonly encountered. Methods: A study was undertaken among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) patients in a Danish university hospital to describe demographic and clinical characteristics...

  16. Understanding nurses' and physicians' fear of repercussions for reporting errors: clinician characteristics, organization demographics, or leadership factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Evan S; Ginsburg, Liane R; Zaheer, Shahram; Tamim, Hala

    2015-08-14

    Identifying and understanding factors influencing fear of repercussions for reporting and discussing medical errors in nurses and physicians remains an important area of inquiry. Work is needed to disentangle the role of clinician characteristics from those of the organization-level and unit-level safety environments in which these clinicians work and learn, as well as probing the differing reporting behaviours of nurses and physicians. This study examines the influence of clinician demographics (age, gender, and tenure), organization demographics (teaching status, location of care, and province) and leadership factors (organization and unit leadership support for safety) on fear of repercussions, and does so for nurses and physicians separately. A cross-sectional analysis of 2319 nurse and 386 physician responders from three Canadian provinces to the Modified Stanford patient safety climate survey (MSI-06). Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple linear regression, and hierarchical linear regression. Age, gender, tenure, teaching status, and province were not significantly associated with fear of repercussions for nurses or physicians. Mental health nurses had poorer fear responses than their peers outside of these areas, as did community physicians. Strong organization and unit leadership support for safety explained the most variance in fear for both nurses and physicians. The absence of associations between several plausible factors including age, tenure and teaching status suggests that fear is a complex construct requiring more study. Substantially differing fear responses across locations of care indicate areas where interventions may be needed. In addition, since factors affecting fear of repercussions appear to be different for nurses and physicians, tailoring patient safety initiatives to each group may, in some instances, be fruitful. Although further investigation is needed to examine these and other factors in detail, supportive

  17. Spatially Analyzing the Inequity of the Hong Kong Urban Heat Island by Socio-Demographic Characteristics

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    Man Sing Wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs. Lastly, inequity “hotspots” were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.

  18. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-578

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Camille L.; Bauman, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The report examines educational attainment of the adult population by demographic and social characteristics such as age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and disability status, as well as differences in…

  19. Predicting voluntary turnover in employees using demographic characteristics: A South African case study

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    Anton F. Schlechter

    2016-03-01

    Design: An exploratory research design was employed. Secondary quantitative data were extracted from an existing human resources database and analysed. Data obtained for 2592 employees in a general insurance company based in South Africa and Namibia formed the basis for the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was employed to predict employee turnover using various demographic characteristics available within the database. A likelihood ratio test was used to build a predictive model and the Akaike information criterion and Schwarz criterion were used to test how much value each variable added to the model and if its inclusion was warranted. The model was tested by conducting statistical tests of the significance of the coefficients. Deviance and Pearson goodness-of-fit statistics as well as the R-square test of significance were used. The overall goodness-of-fit of the model was also tested using the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Findings: The current findings provide partial support for a predictive model explaining employee turnover. The model tested 14 demographic variables and the following five variables were found to have statistically significant predictive value: age, years of service, cost centre, performance score and the interaction between number of dependants and years of service. It is proposed that these five demographic variables be used as a model to help identify employees at risk of turnover or termed as flight risks. Practical implications: Gaining an understanding of the factors that influence employee voluntary turnover can be instrumental in sustaining workforce stability. The proposed model could help human resources professionals identify employees at risk of turnover using data that are readily available to them. This will further enable the use of targeted interventions to prevent turnover before it happens. Decreased levels of turnover will result in cost saving, enhanced talent management and greater competitive advantage.

  20. Socio-demographic characteristics and career choices amongst Chilean dental students.

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    Karla Gambetta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and career choice characteristics of dental students in two publicly funded universities in Chile. A total of 601 dental students participated in the study with a 53% response rate.The written survey covered age, gender, type of school attended, place of residence, parental occupation, level of education, tuition fees payment methods, along with motivations and preferences towards dentistry as a career. The respondents had an average age of 22 years old. Sixty one percent of respondents were female, and the majority had completed secondary education in private and subsidized schools with only 21.5% having finished in public schools. Most of the students covered their tuition fees with parental money (37.1%, followed by any type of loan (27.9%. The majority of students (63.8% had placed dentistry as their first career choice with self-motivation being the most important reason for their decision. This study provides a description of the socio-demographic and economic profile of Chilean dental students and provides insights about career decision issues. It also purposes areas for further research and management by academics for future program development.

  1. The Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Snorkeling Satisfaction in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah

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    Nurbaidura Salim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its popularity and lucrative business opportunity, snorkeling has become the predominant activity in many marine parks. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes to pass over the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are seen bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist experience and satisfaction level as they need to cram in with others at the designated snorkeling areas. This study analyzes the influence of tourist demographic profile on the satisfaction level with snorkeling experience in the Pulau Payar Marine Park, a small coral island in Malaysia. A total of 259 snorkelers answered the survey that forms the basis of this paper. The results tested using t-tests and ANOVA, show significant differences between satisfaction level and respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Findings of the study indicated that only origin and education level positively associated with visitor satisfaction. Several issues, such as limiting the numbers of boats to be allowed at the site and facilities management such as toilets, changing rooms and solid waste management were among issues need to be considered by the Marine Park Department, in order to protect the island and its sustainability. This study highlights the importance of site management, in environmentally sensitive areas, for marine park managers and tour operators toward developing strategic marketing mixes for the different market segments.

  2. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction

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    Dorota Merecz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Material and Methods: Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS. Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Results: Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%, negative WHI (15.9%, no interaction (29.3%, mutual positive interactions (15.4% and positive HWI (21.4%. The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71% experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Conclusions: Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands – it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  3. Burnout and demographic characteristics of workers experiencing different types of work-home interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore configurations of positive versus negative interactions between work and home (WHI) and their relation to burnout and demographic characteristics. Sample of 533 Polish workers were interviewed by means of self-administered questionnaires (SWING and MBI-GS). Demographic and work characteristics were also controlled. Cluster analysis distinguished 5 types of WHIs: positive WHI (18%), negative WHI (15.9%), no interaction (29.3%), mutual positive interactions (15.4%) and positive HWI (21.4%). The quality of WHI was associated with number of work hours and tenure at main place of employment. The effect of gender on the quality of work-home interaction was not significant. Configuration of WHIs affected the level of burnout. Again, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of burnout and its sub-dimensions. The least burned-out were people from positive WHI, positive HWI and mutual positive interaction groups. The most burned-out were people who experienced negative WHI the most often. In this group, predominance of men working more than 10 h per day was observed. The majority of study group (71%) experienced rather integration than segmentation of both spheres. Our results suggest that segmentation is not an universal and effective strategy of coping with work and home demands - it may prevent the positive home-work spillover, which can be buffer or remedy against stress or burnout. We consider cluster analysis the appropriate method in research on relation to work-family balance issue, which may be useful in unraveling relationships between this phenomenon and attitudes and behaviors.

  4. Australian perspectives on surrogacy: the influence of cognitions, psychological and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Deborah; Cook, Roger

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore current Australian support levels for surrogacy treatments and also whether this support differed between traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy. The focus was also on understanding the underlying influences on surrogacy attitudes. It was hypothesized that cognitions, psychological and demographic characteristics would all predict attitudes to surrogacy and that cognitive concerns about surrogacy would be the strongest predictor. Participants (N = 195: 79 male, 116 female; age range 18-76 years) were first-year psychology undergraduates (47%) and friends and associates of the authors (53%). They completed a survey pack which assessed attitudes and knowledge about surrogacy, as well as empathy and other personality characteristics. The results indicated that there has been a marked increase in support for surrogacy treatment in recent years, with nearly 80% of participants supporting surrogacy, and that support for gestational surrogacy was greater than that for traditional surrogacy (Psurrogacy were the strongest predictors of surrogacy attitudes (R(2)= 0.393). A limitation of the present study was the use of a non-representative, self-selected sample that tended to be well educated and perhaps liberal minded. Despite this, given the high levels of support, it could be concluded that the recent, more permissive legislative changes, which were finalized in 2010, are reflective of the values of Australian society.

  5. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Z; Arotiba, J T; Babashani, M

    2004-01-01

    There has been no description of the characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients that are referred to this antiretroviral treatment centre. The information could be useful in planning for prevention, care and support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and people affected by AIDS (PABA). To describe the socio-demographic characteristics and identify risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Analysis of a prospectively collected data on 205 consecutive patients presenting to Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital from May 2002 to June 2003. Out of the 205 HIV positive patients seen, there were 112 (54.6%) males and 93 (45.4%) females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. The age range was 18 to 61 years with an overall mean S.D of 33.7 +/- [corrected] 8 years. The mean for males was 37.3 +/- [corrected] 7.8 years compared to 29.56 years for females. This difference was statistically significant (t = 8.1 DF = 201 P homosexuality. The need for a sustained multi-sectoral preventive effort and the scaling up of treatment and community care initiatives were stressed.

  6. Demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics among Meuhedet sick fund mental health referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Arie; Cohen-Hadad, Gerard; Lang, Michal; Kofler, Esther; Vardi, Yoel; Schrira, Samuel; Heresco-Levy, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    The role of the sick funds in the delivery of mental health outpatient services is expected to increase in Israel in the near future. Consequently there is an urgent need for assessing relevant parameters of the patient populations and treatment patterns presently characterizing sick fund's mental health delivery frameworks. During a random census month all patients who referred to Kupat Holim Meuhedet mental health services in Jerusalem district completed structured questionnaires including demographic, medical and mental health history data, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The professionals who performed the screening assessments filled in a structured questionnaire referring to clinical status parameters, diagnosis and treatment decisions. Eighty-three new referrals were screened during the period studied, out of which 54 (65%) were absorbed within the treatment framework of the sick fund. Women patients were twice as numerous as men. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics and included relatively high rates of recent physical injury and medical hospitalization. Only approximately 10% of the patients had been referred by their family doctor and only approximately 3% had psychotic disorders. The symptom profile reported was characterized by mild to moderate severity and the most common DSM-IV diagnoses made were depressive, anxiety adjustment and personality disorders. About 50% of the sample was recommended individual psychotherapy and though not mutually exclusive approximately 40% psychotropic medication. Relatively small sample size and catchment area. Before generalization of the findings, larger scale studies are warranted. This pilot study offers a rigorous examination of the content of care of a small sick fund mental health delivery system. Our findings may be instrumental in the development of new services and adaptations to changes in mental health policies.

  7. Associations between demographic characteristics and physical activity practices in Nevada schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2017-02-01

    Schools are important settings for not only providing and promoting children's physical activity (PA) but also for reducing PA disparities. We investigated associations between school-level demographic characteristics (racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition, urban-rural status, and student-to-teacher ratio) and 16 PA-promoting practices in 347 Nevada public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2014. We found that low-cost and easy-to-implement practices are most prevalent. There is relative demographic equity in ten of 16 PA practices and significant differences in six PA practices in Nevada schools. Schools with comparatively larger percentages of Black students are the most disadvantaged, as they have the fewest PA-supportive practices in place. Higher percent black was associated with lower odds of providing classroom activity breaks (AOR=0.632, 95% CI=0.453-0.881) and bike racks (AOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.362-0.996), greater odds of withholding recess/PE for disciplinary reasons (AOR=1.377, 95% CI=1.006-1.885), and lower odds of having recess supervisors who are trained to promote PA (AOR=0.583, 95% CI=0.374-0.909). Schools with greater percentages of Hispanic students have lower odds of providing before-school PA programs (AOR=0.867, 95% CI=0.761-0.987), whereas schools with greater percentages of low-SES students have greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Higher student-to-teacher ratio was also associated with greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Urban-rural status was unrelated to all PA practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship of neighborhood demographic characteristics to point-of-sale tobacco advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Brock, Betsy; Noble, Petra; Forster, Jean L

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco marketing has been associated with an increased likelihood that youth start smoking and may interfere with tobacco cessation. We aimed to describe the prevalence, placement, and features of tobacco advertising at the point of sale by race, ethnicity, and other neighborhood demographics, as well as by store type. A cross-sectional assessment of the advertising environment in establishments that held tobacco licenses in our study region (a metropolitan area in the Midwest USA) was conducted in 2007. Stores were geocoded and linked with block group demographic data taken from the Year 2000 US census. We calculated associations between our hypothesized predictors, race, ethnicity, and other neighborhood demographics, and two types of outcomes (1) amount and (2) characteristics of the advertising. Tobacco advertising at the point of sale was most common in gas stations/convenience stores, liquor stores, and tobacco stores. A 10% difference in a block group's African-American/Black population was associated with 9% (95% confidence interval [CI]=3%, 16%) more ads as well as a greater likelihood that ads would be close to the ground (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.15 [95% CI=1.04, 1.28]). Block groups with greater African-American/Black, Asian, people on public assistance or below 150% of the poverty threshold, or people under the age of 18 years had more ads for menthol brands. Block groups with greater proportions of Whites were more likely to have ads that used health words, such as 'light' or 'natural' (PR for 10% difference in White population=1.41 [95% CI=1.17-1.70]). Chain stores were more likely to have greater amounts of advertising, ads close to the ground, ads for price deals, or ads that use words that imply health. Tobacco advertising targets communities with various racial and ethnic profiles in different ways. Now that US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the marketing and sale of tobacco products, there is new

  9. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstrua...

  10. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Demographic Change in the American Geophysical Union's United States Membership, 2006-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    AGU's demographic characteristics changed during the period 2006-2014 in response to the aging of the Baby Boom generation and an increase in the number of women geoscientists. This analysis deals only with the portion of AGU's membership with mailing addresses within the US, a group that comprised 65% of the worldwide total in 2006 and 61% of the total membership in 2014. Using the US membership data that include both the members' birthdate and gender, a comparison of the population structures in 2006 and 2014 reveals characteristics of the changing US workforce. Since 2006, the percent of the US membership represented by the Baby Boom has decreased 5.2%, from 37.2% to 32.0%. That trend will continue for the next 20 years and the rate will accelerate before slowing again. At the same time the Boomers are decreasing in number, the percentage of the membership represented by the more recent age-cohorts (born 1965-1989) has grown. For example, in 2006, the 1985-1989 cohort was barely represented (0.14%). By February 2014, the cohort had become 8.25% of the U.S. membership. The four cohorts covering birth years 1965 through 1984, each increased slightly in size. In addition, each had a larger number of women, reflecting AGU's increased female membership from 22.5% to 25.3%. The 1985-1989 cohort is somewhat smaller than the previous four cohorts. If the smaller size of this represents a reversal of the growth trend over the last 25 years, the implications for the size of the US workforce are important. Perhaps the most significant change in the demographic structure of AGU's US membership is that the general shape of the age-gender diagram, while still asymmetrical because of the larger number of men, is becoming more straight sided due to the similar size of recent cohorts. This shape is characteristic of stable populations when dealing with self-reproducing groups. The implications for the future of a scientific society are less clear, but the cause reflects a period

  12. [Demographic features and difficulties in rehabilitation in patients referred to hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Füsun; Yücel, Serap Dalgiç; Yilmaz, Figen; Ergöz, Ernur; Kuran, Banu

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated demographic and occupational features of patients with phalangeal fractures of the hand, etiologies and types of injuries, and the results of rehabilitation. The study included 91 fingers of 62 patients (54 males, 8 females; mean age 28+/-13 years; range 4 to 59 years) who were referred to our hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures. Demographic features, the cause and localization of injury, the type of surgery, time from surgery to rehabilitation, and the follow-up period were determined. At the end of rehabilitation, range of motion (ROM) of the phalangeal joint and total ROM of the injured fingers were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac rating system. A great majority of injuries were caused by work accidents, followed by sport injuries and falls occurring in students. Sixty patients (96.8%) were right-handed. The fractures occurred in the dominant hand in 29 patients (46.8%). The majority of patients (n=45) were primary school graduates. The most common mechanism of injury was accidents related to heavy work machinery (n=18). The most commonly injured finger and the phalanx were the third finger (n=25, 27.5%) and the proximal phalanx (n=59, 56.7%), respectively. Only 27 patients (43.6%) had a sufficient follow-up with a mean of 79.7+/-46.6 days (range 30 to 254 days). Following rehabilitation, the mean ROM and the total ROM were 45.0+/-22.9 degrees and 63.3+/-16.1 degrees for the injured joint and the thumb, and 31.3+/-22.5 degrees and 122+/-60.3 degrees for the injured joint and the other fingers, respectively. Our data provide important insight into appropriate treatment and rehabilitation of phalangeal fractures, in particular, shortcomings in the treatment and follow-up.

  13. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  14. TNM and Modified Dukes staging along with the demographic characteristics of patients with colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Ayşe Neslin; Yanık, Serdar; Özdemir, Zeynep Tuğba; Cihan, Fatma Gökşin; Sayar, Süleyman; Cincin, Tarık Gandi; Çam, Akın; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Colon adenocarcinoma, is the most common cancer in gastrointesinal system (GIS). The whole world is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. TNM and modified Dukes classification which has great importance in the diagnosis and treatment of Colorectal cancer (CRC). TNM and Modified Dukes classification results of histopathological examination and the demographic characteristics of patients and their relation were investigated. Materials and methods: Lower gastrointestinal operation results of 85 patients were examined accepted to clinical Pathology between January 1997-November 2013. Colon cancer had been diagnosed at 85 patients with pathology materials and staging was done according to the TNM and Modified Duke classification. The demographic characteristics of patients, differentiation grade, lymph node involvement, serous involvement were evaluated retrospectively. Results: In this study 37 patients (43.52%) were men and 48 (56.47%) were women. Ages of patients were between 19 and 87 with a mean age of 57.31 ± 15.31. Lymph node, differentiation, serosa involvement, Modified Dukes and TNM classification was assessed according to sex and age. TNM classification by sex was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between age and differentiation (p = 0.085). Value of differentiation increased towards from 1 to 3 inversely proportional to age. So young patients defined as well-differentiated at the conclusion. Negative relationship was evaluated between age and TNM Class variables. As a result, the relationship between age and TNM was not significant (p > 0.05). However, with increasing age the degree of staging was also found to increase. TNM classification was associated with the differentiation and it was significant (p = 0.043). Conclusion: Colon cancer, when contracted at an early stage, it is suitable for surgery and curative treatment can be done with minimal morbidity and mortality. However

  15. Antropometric assessment of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics in children up to 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, A.; Ramzan, A.; Memon, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)

  16. An analysis of depressive symptoms in stroke survivors: verification of a moderating effect of demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2017-04-08

    The rehabilitation of depressed stroke patients is more difficult because poststroke depression is associated with disruption of daily activities, functioning, and quality of life. However, research on depression in stroke patients is limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interaction of demographic characteristics including gender, age, education level, the presence of a spouse, and income status on depressive symptoms in stroke patients and to identify groups that may need more attention with respect to depressive symptoms. We completed a secondary data analysis using data from a completed cross-sectional study of people with stroke. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. In this study, depressive symptoms in women living with a spouse were less severe than among those without a spouse. For those with insufficient income, depressive symptom scores were higher in the above high school group than in the below high school group, but were lower in patients who were living with a spouse than in those living without a spouse. Assessing depressive symptoms after stroke should consider the interaction of gender, economic status, education level, and the presence/absence of a spouse. These results would help in comprehensive understanding of the importance of screening for and treating depressive symptoms during rehabilitation after stroke.

  17. The Familial Factors and Demographic Characteristics of Children with Drug Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Özenir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic characteristics, role of family factors, etiology and the factors affecting the prognosis in children who had been admitted to our hospital between 04 August 2007 and 24 January 2009 due to intoxication and, based on these data, to determine the preventive measures that can be taken. Methods: One hundred and one children (61 girls and 33 boys were included in the study. Patient age and sex, manner of poisoning, time between ingestion of poison and hospital admission, and attitudes and behaviors of families were recorded. Results: The poisoned patients represented 1.23%of all pediatric emergency admissions. The mean age of the patients was 6.75±5.30 years (range: 2-16. Self-poisoning was detected in 49 cases and 52 cases were accidental poisoning. It was seen that adolescent over 12 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning and children aged 2-6 years were more susceptible to accidental poisoning. Paracetamol (13.8% and amitriptyline (10.7% were the most common drugs. Conclusion: Although there are important improvements in the management of intoxication,family education and preventive measurements are of great importance. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:157-61

  18. Incidence of workers compensation indemnity claims across socio-demographic and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-10-01

    We hypothesized that low socioeconomic status, employer-provided health insurance, low wages, and overtime were predictors of reporting workers compensation indemnity claims. We also tested for gender and race disparities. Responses from 17,190 (person-years) Americans participating in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1997-2005, were analyzed with logistic regressions. The dependent variable indicated whether the subject collected benefits from a claim. Odds ratios for men and African-Americans were relatively large and strongly significant predictors of claims; significance for Hispanics was moderate and confounded by education. Odds ratios for variables measuring education were the largest for all statistically significant covariates. Neither low wages nor employer-provided health insurance was a consistent predictor. Due to confounding from the "not salaried" variable, overtime was not a consistently significant predictor. Few studies use nationally representative longitudinal data to consider which demographic and job characteristics predict reporting workers compensation indemnity cases. This study did and tested some common hypotheses about predictors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Migrant nurses in Brazil: demographic characteristics, migration flow and relationship with the training process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Tavares, Tatiana Silva; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Maas, Lucas Wan Der

    2016-01-01

    Objective to analyze the migration of nurses in Brazil, describe the demographic characteristics of migrant nurses, the main migration flows, and establish relationships with the training process. Method a descriptive, exploratory study, based on 2010 Census data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result there were 355,383 nurses in Brazil in 2010. Of these, 36,479 (10.3%) reported having moved compared to the year 2005: 18,073 (5.1%) for intrastate migration, 17,525 (4.8%) interstate migration, and 871 (0.2%) international migration. Females (86.3%), Caucasians (65.2%), and unmarried (48.3%) nurses prevailed in the population, without considerable variation between groups according to migration situation. The findings indicate that the migration flows are driven by the training process for states that concentrate a greater number of courses and positions in undergraduate and graduate studies, and the motivation of employment opportunity in regions of economic expansion in the country. Conclusion it is necessary to deepen the discussion on the movement of nurses in Brazil, their motivations, and international migration. PMID:27027681

  20. Demographics, phenotypic health characteristics and genetic analysis of centenarians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W

    2017-07-01

    After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world's largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young-old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested health indicators of centenarians in China, with an emphasis on gender differences and rural/urban disparities. We then compare five-year-age-specific trajectories of physical and cognitive functions, self-reported health, and life satisfactions from ages 65-69 to 100+, concluding that good psychological resilience and optimism are keys to the exceptional longevity enjoyed by centenarians. We discuss recent findings of novel loci and pathways that are significantly associated with longevity based on the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the CLHLS centenarian sample, which is 2.7 times as large as prior GWAS of longevity. We also highlight colleagues' and our own studies on longevity candidate genes and gene-environment interaction analyses. Finally, we discuss limitations inherent in our studies of centenarians in China and further research perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Migrant nurses in Brazil: demographic characteristics, migration flow and relationship with the training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Lara Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the migration of nurses in Brazil, describe the demographic characteristics of migrant nurses, the main migration flows, and establish relationships with the training process. Method a descriptive, exploratory study, based on 2010 Census data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result there were 355,383 nurses in Brazil in 2010. Of these, 36,479 (10.3% reported having moved compared to the year 2005: 18,073 (5.1% for intrastate migration, 17,525 (4.8% interstate migration, and 871 (0.2% international migration. Females (86.3%, Caucasians (65.2%, and unmarried (48.3% nurses prevailed in the population, without considerable variation between groups according to migration situation. The findings indicate that the migration flows are driven by the training process for states that concentrate a greater number of courses and positions in undergraduate and graduate studies, and the motivation of employment opportunity in regions of economic expansion in the country. Conclusion it is necessary to deepen the discussion on the movement of nurses in Brazil, their motivations, and international migration.

  2. The Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Ulcerative Colitis in a Northeast Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of UC in Bahia, a Brazilian state, and to identify the variables associated with extensive colitis, steroid therapy, immunosuppression, and colectomy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study UC patients were interviewed, and additional information was collected from the medical records. Descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson regression analysis were used. Results. This study included 267 individuals, the mean age of whom was 39.4 years at diagnosis. There was a predominance of females and left-side colitis. Extensive colitis was positively associated with male gender, diarrhea, weight loss, and a younger age at diagnosis. In contrast, active smoking and a family history of IBD were negatively associated with extensive colitis. Positive associations were observed between steroid therapy and diarrhea, weight loss, urban patients, extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs, and hospitalization. Younger age and weight loss at diagnosis, a family history of IBD, extensive colitis, EIMs, hospitalization, and steroid therapy were all positively associated with immunosuppression. In contrast, Caucasian individuals, smokers, patients with rectal bleeding, and rural patients areas were all observed to have a decreased likelihood of immunosuppression. Conclusions. Our results corroborate the association between higher prevalence of extensive colitis and younger age at diagnosis. An association between steroid therapy and clinical presentation at diagnosis was observed. The observation that white individuals and rural patients use less immunosuppressive drugs highlights the need to study the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the behavior of UC in this population.

  3. The Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Lifestyle of Consumers in Determinig Buying Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Slišković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on a three-dimensional conceptualization of the buying tendency stemming from cognitive and affective impulsivity and susceptibility to the situational factors of buying. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of different dimensions of buying tendency to basic socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles of consumers. The study was conducted using a survey on a sample of 194 respondents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results indicate greater levels of cognitive and affective buying impulsivity in women compared to men, with no gender differences identified in the susceptibility to buying situational factors. Furthermore, significant effects were obtained by the level of total monthly family income of respondents in all dimensions of buying tendency, while the level of respondents' monthly income had a significant effect only on cognitive impulsivity. Employment status and education level had no significant effect on the buying tendency. Among the four studied consumers’ lifestyles (innovative, family, social and leadership oriented, innovatively oriented lifestyle has the strongest correlation to all three dimensions of buying tendency. In other words, innovatively oriented subjects are more prone to impulsive buying and susceptible to buying situational factors. In addition to the innovative orientation lifestyle, impulsive buying was also associated with the leadership orientation, but to a lesser extent. Susceptibility to buying situational factors was associated with all lifestyle orientations, apart from the family orientation.

  4. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  5. Stress Causing Factors Among Teachers in Elementary Schools and Their Relationship with Demographic and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Zafirova, Beti

    2015-09-15

    Once high levels of work-related stress among teachers were confirmed many studies concentrated on identifying and investigating key stress factors among school teachers. Unfortunately there are very few researches made on stress causing factors among teachers in Republic of Macedonia. To determine the most frequent stress causing factors among teachers in elementary schools and to investigate their relationship with demographic and job characteristics. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study which involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. Among six categories of factors that generate work related stress (job demands, control, relationships, role, changes and support) control and support had the highest mean scores. Within the control category the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by the following factors - changes in terms and conditions without consultation and given responsibility without the authority to take decisions. 141 out of the interviewed teachers (47%) have mentioned changes in terms and conditions without consultation as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) have reported it as stressful. 123 out of interviewed teachers (41%) have stated given responsibility without the authority to take decisions as very stressful, with another 105 (35%) have reported it as stressful. In the category support the highest levels of perceived teacher's work-related stress were caused by stress factors - lack of funds/resources to do the job and limited or no access to training. Out of 300 interviewed teachers, 179 (59.67%) have reported lack of funds/resources to do the job as very stressful, while another 50 (16.67%) as stressful. There is no significant relationship between the stress factor limited or no access to training and demographic and job characteristics. Our findings confirm that

  6. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

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    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  7. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  8. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  9. Demographic and Lifestyle Characteristics, but Not Apolipoprotein E Genotype, Are Associated with Intelligence among Young Chinese College Students.

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    Xiao-Fen Chen

    Full Text Available Intelligence is an important human feature that strongly affects many life outcomes, including health, life-span, income, educational and occupational attainments. People at all ages differ in their intelligence but the origins of these differences are much debated. A variety of environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be associated with individual intelligence, yet their nature and contribution to intelligence differences have been controversial.To investigate the contribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype, which is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease, as well as demographic and lifestyle characteristics, to the variation in intelligence.A total of 607 Chinese college students aged 18 to 25 years old were included in this prospective observational study. The Chinese revision of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (the fourth edition, short version was used to determine the intelligence level of participants. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires.No significant association was found between APOE polymorphic alleles and different intelligence quotient (IQ measures. Interestingly, a portion of demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including age, smoking and sleep quality were significantly associated with different IQ measures.Our findings indicate that demographic features and lifestyle characteristics, but not APOE genotype, are associated with intelligence measures among young Chinese college students. Thus, although APOE ε4 allele is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, it does not seem to impact intelligence at young ages.

  10. Demographic and Personal Characteristics of Male and Female Chairs in Academic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Marley; Pederson, Aderonke; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representation of female psychiatrists in residency and early-career positions, the number of female faculty sharply decreases in tenured or executive leadership positions. Why there exists a marked change in representation at the level of senior leadership within academic psychiatry is unclear. The authors investigated the causative factors contributing to this observation and gathered information about the personal characteristics of women in executive leadership roles. The authors surveyed psychiatry chairs at academic institutions. They identified all female chairs and randomly selected a group of male chairs to serve as a control group. The survey assessed perceived barriers, strengths, and weaknesses and differences in demographics and leadership styles between female and male chairs. Ten percent of psychiatry chairs were female. Male chairs were more likely than female chairs to head large departments (p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI) -17.1-69.1) and had a higher H-index (p = 0.001, CI 6.6-37.2). Female chairs were more likely than male chairs to perceive barriers in their career development (p = 0.01, CI 0.7-2.2), citing little or no mentorship (p = 0.04), gender discrimination (p = 0.0001), and family obligations (p = 0.001) more often. Academic institutions must incorporate programs to decrease barriers and work to achieve equitable representation of women in upper-level leadership positions. Moreover, academic medicine must evolve to cultivate a family-friendly environment that successfully supports both genders.

  11. [Community attitudes towards mental illness and socio-demographic characteristics: an Italian study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Ponteri, Marco; Vittorielli, Michela; Corradi, Angela; Minicuci, Nadia; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    To assess the association between socio-demographic characteristics and community attitudes towards mentally ill people. We assessed a sample of 280 subjects, stratified for sex and age, which has identified using the electoral registers of Brescia. A letter was sent to everyone in order to introduce the future potential study participant to the topics of the public attitudes towards mental illness and it included an invitation to take part in the study. After, 280 subjects were contacted by telephone. Finally, 174 persons, who expressed their willingness to collaborate, were visited by a team of four trained interviewers. The instruments used were: a semi-structured interview; the Community Attitudes to the Mentally Ill (CAMI) inventory, which is composed by 40 statements, concerning the degree of acceptance of mental health services and mentally ill patients in the community; and the Fear and Behavioural Intentions (FABI) inventory, which is composed by 10 items, concerning fears and behavioural intentions towards mentally ill people. 106 subjects refused to participate. Factor analysis of the CAMI revealed three components Physical distance and fear, Social isolation and Social responsibility and tolerance. Factor 1 is associated with: people >61 years old; people being divorced/widowed/living separated; people who haven't participated in social or volunteer activities. Factor 2 is associated with: people > 41 years old; people being schooled at a level that's higher than elementary level; unemployed people. Factor 3 doesn't present any associations. The results of this study outline the need to: a) promote interventions focused to improve the general attitude towards people with mental illness; b) to favour specific actions in order to prevent or eliminate prejudices in subgroups of the population.

  12. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

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    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  13. Identity of organizational conflict framework: Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran

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    Kaveh Hasani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to Identity of organizational conflict framework:  Evaluating model factors based on demographic characteristics in Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Research method is descriptive - applied. The statistical population includes all of the employees in Iran`s Azad Universites with 600 individuals at the time of the study and statistical sample included 234 individuals who were selected using Morgan table. Beside this study, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Also, reliability approved through Cronbach alpha (0.87. Then, to detect the dimensions causes of organizational conflict, factor analysis in line with the main components was used. Through exploratory analysis, ten principal factors identified. Thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis reconfirmed these factors. Findings and originality/value: The results of study showed that there is no significant difference between the causes of organizational conflict based on the gender. Also, there are significant differences among the causes of organizational conflict based on the variables of age, education and work experience. Research limitations/implications: we adopt a cross sectional research design and as a result inferences regarding causality cannot be drawn. Future studies following a longitudinal design could provide a more dynamic perspective and contribute further to this stream of research. Originality/value: A lot of researches about the conflict management styles, organizational conflict's effects, etc. are conducted by different researchers, but a handful of researches have been conducted in the field of resources and causes of organizational conflict and this is one of the reasons that it is important for researchers to address this issue.

  14. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

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    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

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    Sattari Mohammadreza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.

  16. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Freeman, Michael A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans.

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran. PMID:24312772

  18. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

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    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  19. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Freeman, Michael A.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans. PMID:29290645

  20. Using demographic characteristics of populations to detect spatial fragmentation following suspected ebola outbreaks in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Céline; Cristescu, Romane; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Motsch, Peggy; Le Gouar, Pascaline; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly

    2017-09-01

    Demographic crashes due to emerging diseases can contribute to population fragmentation and increase extinction risk of small populations. Ebola outbreaks in 2002-2004 are suspected to have caused a decline of more than 80% in some Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. We investigated whether demographic indicators of this event allowed for the detection of spatial fragmentation in gorilla populations. We collected demographic data from two neighbouring populations: the Lokoué population, suspected to have been affected by an Ebola outbreak (followed from 2001 to 2014), and the Romani population, of unknown demographic status before Ebola outbreaks (followed from 2005 to 2014). Ten years after the outbreak, the Lokoué population is slowly recovering and the short-term demographic indicators of a population crash were no longer detectable. The Lokoué population has not experienced any additional demographic perturbation over the past decade. The Romani population did not show any of the demographic indicators of a population crash over the past decade. Its demographic structure remained similar to that of unaffected populations. Our results highlighted that the Ebola disease could contribute to fragmentation of gorilla populations due to the spatially heterogeneous impact of its outbreaks. The demographic structure of populations (i.e., age-sex and group structure) can be useful indicators of a possible occurrence of recent Ebola outbreaks in populations without known history, and may be more broadly used in other emerging disease/species systems. Longitudinal data are critical to our understanding of the impact of emerging diseases on wild populations and their conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characteristics and demographics of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: A large prospective series of Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Choi, Hanna; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To report demographics and characteristics of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) in the Korean cohort. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with definite (imaging-proven) RCVS and probable (imaging-negative) RCVS who visited Samsung Medical Center between June 2012 and September 2016. Clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, treatment, and clinical outcomes were evaluated in all patients. Characteristics of RCVS without typical causes ("idiopathic RCVS") were compared with those of RCVS with identifiable causes ("secondary RCVS"). International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-3 beta criteria for 6.7.3 RCVS and 6.7.3.1 probable RCVS were tested. Results A total of 138 patients (104 definite and 34 probable RCVS) were included in this study. Patients with definite RCVS were predominantly female (85.6%) and middle-aged (mean, 50.7 [range, 23-82] years). Probable RCVS was associated with less female predominance (70.6%, p = 0.049), more typical manifestations ( p < 0.001), and none of neurological complications. One-hundred and one (97.1%) patients with definite RCVS had headache, but the typical "recurrent and/or triggered" thunderclap headache was reported in only 83 (82.2%). In most patients with definite RCVS (84.6%), RCVS was idiopathic, while only 16 (15.4%) had secondary causes. Compared to those with secondary RCVS, patients with idiopathic RCVS were older (52.8 ± 11.42 vs. 39.1 ± 9.55 years, p < 0.001). Patients with secondary RCVS had more complications than those with idiopathic RCVS (40.5% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.018). Among idiopathic RCVS patients, 33 (37.5%) reported a preceding event or a change in lifestyle, environment, health, or medication within one month before onset. Conclusion In our cohort, RCVS was benign and idiopathic in most patients, and occurred frequently in middle-aged women. Manifestations of RCVS were more diverse than previously recognized, and forms without any

  2. URBANIZATION AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN MONTERREY METROPOLITAN REGION

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    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the process of urbanization and spatial changes in demographic features in the Monterrey Metropolitan Region (MMR, Mexico. This city is the third largest urban sector in Mexico which has around 4 million population. It is also the industrial and economic capital of the country. The present study found that rapid urbanization in the metropolitan region has a close association with process of industrialization. In population distribution and composition, study found that the metropolitan region had its “demographic transition” during the years seventies and currently the region is taking advantages of demographic bonus cohort, i.e. a higher concentration of population in economic active groups compare to children and old age population. However, this paper indentified a higher imbalance in metropolitan demographic scenario. On the one hand, there is di-populization in the city center region and in other there is a steady increment of population in peri-urban region.

  3. Demographic Differences in District-Level Policies Related to School Mental Health and Social Services--United States, 2012

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    Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…

  4. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  5. The relationship between some demographic characteristics and organizational commitment of nurses working in the Social Security Hospital of Khorramabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Faribah; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foorozan; Parvizy, Soroor; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri

    2017-06-01

    Reduction in organizational commitment of nurses results in deficiency of care services. Some demographic factors affect organizational commitment. The present study is intended to determine the organizational commitment of nurses and its relationship with demographic characteristics. This study was a descriptive correlation (cross-sectional) study in January and February of 2016 on 126 nurses who held Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) or Master of Science (M.Sc.) and at least one year of work experience in the Social Security Hospital of Khorramabad, selected using the census method. Data collection tools included a demographic characteristics form and Allen and Meyer questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. Independent-samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to determine the relationship between organizational commitment and demographic characteristics. The majority of nurses had moderate organizational commitment, the highest score belonging to the continuance commitment (22.33%), and the lowest score belonging to the normative commitment (19.16%). Also, there was a significant correlation between the continuance commitment and work experience (p=0.001), the staff posts (p=0.01) and shifts (p=0.04). Considering the moderate level of subjects' organizational commitment in the present study, managers should take necessary measures to increase the attachment and organizational commitment of nurses and provide the ground for improving nursing services.

  6. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  7. Who Tweets with Their Location? Understanding the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and the Use of Geoservices and Geotagging on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Sloan

    Full Text Available In this paper we take advantage of recent developments in identifying the demographic characteristics of Twitter users to explore the demographic differences between those who do and do not enable location services and those who do and do not geotag their tweets. We discuss the collation and processing of two datasets-one focusing on enabling geoservices and the other on tweet geotagging. We then investigate how opting in to either of these behaviours is associated with gender, age, class, the language in which tweets are written and the language in which users interact with the Twitter user interface. We find statistically significant differences for both behaviours for all demographic characteristics, although the magnitude of association differs substantially by factor. We conclude that there are significant demographic variations between those who opt in to geoservices and those who geotag their tweets. Not withstanding the limitations of the data, we suggest that Twitter users who publish geographical information are not representative of the wider Twitter population.

  8. Suicides in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia, and associated socio-demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarokov, Yury A.; Brenn, Tormod; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Nilssen, Odd

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in 2002–2012, as well as associated socio-demographic characteristics. Study design Retrospective population-based mortality study. Methods Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO in 2002–2012. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of these cases were obtained from passports and medical records at local primary health care units, and were then linked to total population data from the Censuses in 2002 and 2010. Suicide rates for the indigenous Nenets population and the non-indigenous population were standardized to the European standard population. The rates were also estimated according to different socio-demographic characteristics and compared by calculating relative risks. Results The crude suicide rates were 79.8 per 100,000 person-years (PYs) in the Nenets population and 49.2 per 100,000 PYs in the non-indigenous population. The corresponding standardized estimates were 72.7 per 100,000 PYs and 50.7 per 100,000 PYs. The highest suicide rates in the Nenets population were observed in the age group 20–29 years (391 per 100,000 PYs), and in females aged 30–39 years (191 per 100,000 PYs). Socio-demographic characteristics associated with high suicide rates in the Nenets population were age 20–39 years, male, urban residence, having secondary school or higher education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Males aged 20–29 years, and females aged 30–39 and aged 70 years and above had the highest suicide rates in the non-indigenous population (137.5, 21.6 and 29.9 per 100,000 PYs, respectively). The elevated suicide rates observed in the non-indigenous population were associated with male sex, rural residence, secondary school education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Conclusions Suicide rates in the NAO were substantially higher among

  9. Leadership and Small Firm Performance: The Moderating Effects of Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Rod L.; Bishop, Jacob L.; Brachle, Ben J.; Winn, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study builds on extant leadership literature by examining the role demographic variables (including age, tenure as a leader at the current company, experience in the industry, and level of education) play as moderating effects on the relationship between leadership style and small business financial performance in the national…

  10. General and Special Education Teachers' Relations within Teamwork in Inclusive Education: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sestic, Marina; Radovanovic, Vesna; Milanovic-Dobrota, Biljana; Slavkovic, Sanela; Langovic-Milicvic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to establish the relation between general and special education teachers within teamwork and to define socio-demographic factors that affect teamwork. The sample encompassed 223 general and special education teacher of both genders, age 25 to 60, who are employed in regular elementary schools in Serbia. The…

  11. Examining African American and white outdoor recreation participation after demographic standardization on selected characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer

    1995-01-01

    The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...

  12. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  13. Socio-Demographic Characteristics Of Adults Screened For Hiv/Aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS in Nigeria with a prevalence rate of 9.3 among adults aged 15 to 45 years. Yet, there is paucity of information on the socio-demographic factors associated with this level of prevalence. We hereby report the prevalence and ...

  14. Job Satisfaction among Jordan's Kindergarten Teachers: Effects of Workplace Conditions and Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the job satisfaction levels of Jordanian kindergarten teachers in relation to work-related dimensions and socio-demographic variables. The sample consisted of 264 randomly selected teachers working in private kindergartens in Amman. To meet the study's objectives, a two part questionnaire was…

  15. Socio-demographic Characteristics and Food Hygiene Level Assessment of Food Handlers in Cafeterias around a Federal University in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Aruwa; A. J. Akindusoye; S. I. Awala

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Globally, food hygiene/food borne illnesses remain subjects of great concern. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene; and to determine the types, prevalence and load of microbial isolates among food handlers’ in cafeterias around a University in South-Western Nigeria. It also highlighted the socio-demographic characteristics of food handlers/respondents. Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive design was used, followe...

  16. Demographic and health characteristics of the population residing within the 30-km area around the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, P.; Bliznakov, V.

    1993-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of data on demographic and health state of the population residing within the 30-km zone around the Kozloduj NPP, an attempt was made to detect any impact of the power plant on population health under normal NPP operational conditions. The health characteristics of the population revealed no unfavorable trends. Particular attention was given to diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, malignant new growths, complications of pregnancy, and congenital anomalies. (author)

  17. Relationships among mental health status, social context, and demographic characteristics in Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2006-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts, including family conflict and support, connectedness to school, and affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances, among Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents. A total of 251 aboriginal junior high school students in an isolated mountainous area of southern Taiwan were recruited, and the relationships among mental health status, demographic characteristics, and social contexts among them were examined using a structural equation model (SEM). The SEM revealed that family conflict and support had direct influences on mental health status and connectedness to school. Family conflict had a direct relationship with affiliation with peers who use substances, and family conflict and support were both indirectly linked with affiliation with peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who used substances; these were mediated by a poor mental health status. Female and older age were directly linked with a poor mental health status and were indirectly linked with a greater number of peers who exhibit delinquent behavior and who use substances via the poor mental health status. Disruptive parenting was directly linked with affiliation with peers who use substances. The authors suggest that those who devise strategies to improve aboriginal adolescents' mental health and discourage substance use should take these relationships among mental health, demographic characteristics, and social contexts into account.

  18. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language

    OpenAIRE

    Mañanes, Guillermo; Vallejo, Miguel A.; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of users of a smoking cessation programme run by the Open University of Spain (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia [UNED]). Methods: We examined the demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of 23,763 smokers who participated in the on-line smoking cessation program of the UNED. The programme was open to any smoker, free of charge, and was fully automated and with direct access. Results: A total of 93.5% of the users were Span...

  19. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Mañanes; Miguel A. Vallejo; Laura Vallejo-Slocker

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of users of a smoking cessation programme run by the Open University of Spain (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia [UNED]). Methods: We examined the demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of 23,763 smokers who participated in the on-line smoking cessation program of the UNED. The programme was open to any smoker, free of charge, and was fully automated and with direct access. Results: A total of 93.5% of the users wer...

  20. The Demographics of Canine Hip Dysplasia in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall T. Loder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is a common problem in veterinary medicine. We report the demographics of CHD using the entire hip dysplasia registry from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, analyzing differences by breed, sex, laterality, seasonal variation in birth, and latitude. There were 921,046 unique records. Each dog was classified using the American Kennel Club (AKC and Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI systems. Statistical analysis was performed with bivariate and logistic regression procedures. The overall CHD prevalence was 15.56%. The OR for CHD was higher in females (1.05, those born in spring (1.14 and winter (1.13, and those in more southern latitudes (OR 2.12. Within AKC groups, working dogs had the highest risk of CHD (OR 1.882 with hounds being the reference group. Within FCI groups, the pinscher/molossoid group had the highest risk of CHD (OR 4.168 with sighthounds being the reference group. The similarities between CHD and DDH are striking. Within DDH there are two different types, the typical infantile DDH and the late onset adolescent/adult acetabular dysplasia, with different demographics; the demographics of CHD are more similar to the later onset DDH group. Comparative studies of both disorders should lead to a better understanding of both CHD and DDH.

  1. Relationships of demographic background and practice setting among practicing physician assistants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, Richard D; Kelley, Justin; Lies, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    it is assumed that minority health care providers continue to work in primary care and in underserved areas in higher proportions than their nonminority counterparts, regardless of changing workforce practice patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether this assumption still holds true among US physician assistants (PAs) in light of recent PA specialization. This assumption is important as there is continuing evidence that a similar background between providers and patients can be beneficial to the provider-patient relationship and to patient outcomes. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationships between various demographic variables (eg, race) and current practice specialty and population served among all PAs. this cross-sectional study measured demographic and practice setting survey data. A random sample of 10,500 PAs was surveyed. the main finding was that minority PAs were more likely to care for the underserved (31.9% vs. 19.3%) and to work in primary care practices (38.8% vs. 29.3%) than were nonminorities. A significant relationship was also found between serving underserved populations and nonmarried status, as well as age over 39 (these groups were more likely to serve this population, p time of high school graduation was significantly related to caring for underserved individuals (p Minority PAs were more likely to care for the underserved and work in primary care settings. Certain other demographic variables among all respondents were also significantly related to service to the underserved and work in primary care settings.

  2. Effect of Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics on Physical Activity of Pregnant Women at Referral Hospital in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffi Ahamed Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.

  3. Counterproductive Work Behaviors: a Socio-Demographic Characteristic-Based Study among Employees in the Nigerian Maritime Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche Ignatius Ikechukwu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of counterproductive work behavior (CWB does not only differ across industries but also varies significantly according to socio-demographic characteristics. This study examines CWB and socio-demographic characteristics among selected employees in the Nigerian maritime industry. Causal research design was adopted to survey 1,000 employees selected through multistage sampling approach in three selected parastatals (Nigerian Ports Authority, Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency, and Nigerian Shippers Council. The data obtained were analyzed with ANOVA and t-test. Based on the analysis carried out, CWB was found to be significantly related to gender, age, marital status, employee cadre, and income, while employees’ level of educational attainment is not significantly related to CWB. Based on the abovementioned findings, the study concludes that the level of education is not significantly connected to the employees’ propensity towards CWB, while other socio-demographic variables are strongly associated to CWB in the workplace. The study recommends that management should develop a mechanism for identifying and selecting their potential employees as a guide against poor organizational fit of employees and that of the organization. Likewise, effort should be intensified to develop and improve organizational culture that will propel citizenship behavior in the workplace.

  4. Prevalence of Psychopathology and Socio-Demographic Characteristics among Earthquake survivors in Eastern Azerbaijan (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Askari

    2014-06-01

    Results:The results revealed that 23% in the exposed group had Acute Stress Disorder (ASD, 10% had anxiety symptoms, 7.5% depression, 4% MADD, 5% psychosomatic disorders, 10% phobia, 7% aggressive behavior and 10% suffer from insomnia. Conclusion:This article has summarized the current status of information on mental disorders caused by experiencing or witnessing a life threatening severe earthquake. The experience of fear, helplessness, and panic during the earthquake, and the appraisal by the victims of serious psychological, social and demographical consequences after the earthquake, were positively related to the subscale scores and the total score of GHQ SCL-90-R and DES.

  5. Learning Crisis Unit through Post-Crisis: Characteristics and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, Hela; Pündrich, Aline Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the characteristics that a crisis unit should have to achieve effective learning after crisis. Literature has identified many relations between learning organizations and crisis; yet, there is a dearth of research on specific studies about crisis units and their post-crisis learning features. Thus, this paper…

  6. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  7. [Demographic characteristics and mortality among indigenous peoples in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Evanir Vicente; Matsuo, Tiemi; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess mortality rates and related demographic factors among indigenous peoples in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West Brazil, compared to the State's general population. Mortality rates were estimated based on data obtained from the Health Care Database for Indigenous Peoples and monthly patient care records as well as demographic data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and mortality data from the SUS Mortality Database. Compared to the overall population, among indigenous peoples there were proportionally more individuals under 15 years of age and fewer elderly, besides higher mortality rates at early ages and from infectious and parasitic diseases. Indigenous men showed significantly higher mortality rates from external causes and respiratory and infectious diseases, while among women the mortality rates from external causes and infectious diseases were higher. Suicide rates among young indigenous individuals were also particularly alarming. Indigenous people's health conditions are worse than those of the general population in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  8. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes. PMID:20853216

  9. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  10. Effect of Light Curing Unit Characteristics on Light Intensity Output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. Objective: To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect ...

  11. Assessing economic and demographic factors that influence United States dairy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Yen, S T; Dong, D; Blayney, D P

    2011-07-01

    Low-fat dairy products are key components of a healthy diet for all Americans. As the USDA increases its focus on nutrition and healthy eating, it is important to understand the underlying demands for dairy products, both the healthy and the less healthy ones. The consumption of fluid milk products has decreased over the last decade, whereas milk used for manufactured dairy products such as cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and butter, and for use as an ingredient in other food products, has risen. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of changes in demographic variables, retail prices, and total dairy expenditure on at-home consumption of dairy products, using purchase data from Nielsen 2007 Homescan (ACNielsen, New York, NY) data. To derive the demand elasticities for 16 products, a censored Almost Ideal Demand System model is used. Results reveal that demographic variables do have effects on the purchase of the 16 products, and own-price elasticities are 1 or greater for all 16 products for both uncompensated and compensated elasticities except 4: ice cream, refrigerated yogurt, processed cheese, and margarine. A substitution relationship exists among all fluid milk categories, natural and processed cheese, low-fat ice cream, and refrigerated yogurt, butter, and margarine. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    of the area), formations and dissolutions of families, being either marriages or co-resident couples and sociodemographic background. The pivot for the study is that there is a lack of knowledge about whether local communities differ from neighbourhood to neighbourhood, how they are influenced......In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...... of the research question for an ongoing study on ‘Local community, mobility and belonging’ in Aalborg, from which we report. Contemporary municipality of Aalborg, which is the third largest in Denmark, comprises many various types of communities – from partly segregated neighbourhoods in the City, through...

  13. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.

    1996-01-01

    expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed......In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... in accordance with 8 main categories of ICD-10. Language disorders were most often found to be comorbid with conduct disorders, and the comorbidity was most frequent in the adolescent group. Boys had significantly more conduct disorders than girls, and girls had significantly more emotional disorders than boys...

  14. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  15. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  16. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  17. Disparities in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Mesbah F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health benefits of adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption are significant and widely documented. However, many individuals self-report low F&V consumption frequency per day. This paper examines the disparities in the frequency of F&V consumption by socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Method This study uses a representative sample of 93,719 individuals from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007. A quantile regression model is estimated in order to capture the differential effects of F&V determinants across the conditional distribution of F&V consumption. Results The conditional and unconditional analyses reveal the existence of a socioeconomic gradient in F&V consumption frequency, in which the low income-education groups consume F&V less frequently than the high income-education groups. We also find significant disparities in F&V consumption frequency by demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The frequency of F&V consumption is relatively lower among: males, those in middle age, singles, smokers, individuals with weak social interaction and households with no children. The quantile regression results show that the association between F&V consumption frequency, and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors varies significantly along the conditional F&V consumption distribution. In particular, individual educational attainment is positively and significantly associated with F&V consumption frequency across different parts of the F&V distribution, while the income level matters only over the lower half of the distribution. F&V consumption follows a U-shaped pattern across the age categories. Those aged 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years consume F&V less frequently than those aged 18-29 years. The smallest F&V consumption is among the middle aged adults (40-49. Conclusions Understanding the socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of individuals with low F&V consumption frequency could increase the

  18. Serum lipid levels were related to socio-demographic characteristics in a German population-based child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathan-Stumpf, Anne; Vogel, Mandy; Rieger, Kristin; Thiery, Joachim; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Socio-demographic factors affect the development and lives of children and adolescents. We examined links between serum lipids and apolipoproteins and socio-demographic factors in the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases Child (LIFE Child) study. The Winkler index and the Family Affluence Scale were used to define characteristics of the social status of 938 boys and 860 girls aged from birth to 19 years. We then used univariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic impact on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol triglycerides and apolipoproteins A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). No significant influences on the Winkler index or the Family Affluence Scale were observed regarding the concentrations of serum lipids for total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. However, and most importantly, children and adolescents with high social status and high family affluence showed significantly higher HDL cholesterol and ApoA1 levels than those with lower individual totals. A higher Winkler index was associated with significantly lower values for triglycerides and ApoB. Adolescents with higher family wealth and social status showed a lower cardiovascular risk profile, as measured by the concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides as well as ApoA1 and B. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Demographic and clinical characteristics of consistent and inconsistent longitudinal reporters of lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Shelley R; Musci, Rashelle J; Ialongo, Nicholas; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-10-01

    Within the context of the recent release of the 2012 National Suicide Prevention Strategy, and as the third leading cause of death for individuals 10- to 24-years-old, suicide prevention is a national priority. A consistently reported and robust risk factor for suicide is a prior suicide attempt; however few studies have investigated the consistency of self-reported lifetime suicide attempts. The goal of this study is to describe the prevalence and characteristics of inconsistent reporting of suicide attempt in a longitudinal cohort of participants annually assessed in 12 waves of data collected from middle school (age 12) to early adulthood (age 22). Among this cohort (n = 678), we compared those who consistently, inconsistently, and never reported a suicide attempt according to demographic and clinical variables. Almost 90% (88.5%) of our sample inconsistently reported a lifetime suicide attempt. Consistent and inconsistent reporters of lifetime suicide attempt did not differ on demographic or clinical variables with the exception of higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation among consistent reporters (P adolescents. Inconsistent and consistent reporters of suicide attempt differ on few demographic or clinical variables; further prospective research should investigate the reasons for inconsistent reporting as well as the validity and stability of reporting in predicting future suicidal behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors in eleven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G; de Mouzon, J; Shenfield, F; Ferraretti, A P; Mardesic, T; Ruiz, A; Goossens, V

    2014-05-01

    Do the socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ in European countries? The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ considerably across countries. There have been no other international studies comparing the characteristics of oocyte donors. Regarding their motivations, most studies indicate mixed motives. The proposed study was a transversal epidemiological study. Data were collected from 63 voluntarily participating assisted reproduction technology centres practising oocyte donation in 11 European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, UK and Ukraine). The survey was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 and ran for 1-6 calendar months depending on the number of cycles of oocyte donation performed at the centre. The sample size was computed in order to allow an estimate of the percentage of a relatively rare characteristic (∼2%) with a precision (95% confidence interval) of 1%. The calculation gave 1118 donors. In total, 1423 forms were obtained from oocyte donors. All consecutive donors in these centres filled out an anonymous questionnaire when they started their hormonal stimulation, asking for their socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics, their motivations and compensation. Population characteristics were described and compared by country of donation. Motives for donation and mean amount of money were compared between countries and according to the donors characteristics. The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors varied enormously across European countries. The number of received forms corresponded with a participation rate of 61.9% of the cycles performed by the participating centres. Mean age was 27.4 years. About 49% of donors were fully employed, 16% unemployed and 15% student. The motivation in the total group of

  1. Latino Population Growth, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics, and Implications for Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Jorge; De La Rosa, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics indicate that Latinos lag behind non-Latinos in education and in other socioeconomic characteristics. Although there are some positive indications such as the decrease of individuals and children living in poverty and an increase in the number of individuals working…

  2. Effectiveness Related to Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Secondary School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Weslander, Darrell L.

    1986-01-01

    Studied 123 secondary school counselors and found significant correlations among tested personality characteristics and supervisor-rated job performance. Counselors rated as effective by supervisors expressed higher job satisfaction, tested higher in tolerance for ambiguity and in self-esteem, and had more congruent personality-environment Holland…

  3. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  4. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  5. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  6. Residential preferences towards urban and suburban areas and their relationship with demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl is, among all, also the result of voluntary or induced resettlement of population from the inner city to urban periphery, or by in-migration to peripheral parts of cities where the origin of migrants is in other settlements. The focus of this paper is on the influence that residential preferences have on suburbanization, with the emphasis on analysis of the residential choice and certain population groups' tendencies to prioritise living in suburbs or the inner-city living. Theoretical considerations which are set in this paper initiate with residential preference components and the hypothesis of change in dominant motives for residential choice throughout family and individual's lifecycle. Then, the demographic data have been analysed according to the latest Census results in the two pilot-areas of urban and suburban type in Belgrade. Additional research on residential preferences are founded on preparation of specific questionnaire which would enable application of more powerful statistical techniques, especially a wider use of measuring scales for the variables deriving from the questionnaire, and formulation of a model for prediction of different population groups' residential preferences in urban and suburban settings.

  7. Demographic characteristics associated with homelessness and risk among female and male veterans accessing VHA outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Dichter, Melissa E; Thomasson, Arwin M; Fu, Xiaoying; Roberts, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic influences on veterans' reports of homelessness or imminent risk of homelessness with a particular focus on gender. We analyzed data for a cohort of veterans who responded to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration (VHA) universal screener for homelessness and risk during a 3-month period. Multinomial mixed effects models-stratified by gender-predicted veterans' reports of homelessness or risk based on age, race, marital status, and receipt of VA compensation. The proportion of positive screens-homelessness or risk-was 2.7% for females and 1.7% for males. Women more likely to report being at risk of homelessness were aged 35 to 54 years, Black, and unmarried; those more likely to experience homelessness were Black and unmarried. Among male veterans, the greatest predictors of both homelessness and risk were Black race and unmarried status. Among both genders, receiving VA disability compensation was associated with lesser odds of being homeless or at risk. The findings describe the current population of veterans using VHA health care services who may benefit from homelessness prevention or intervention services, identify racial differences in housing stability, and distinguish subpopulations who may be in particular need of intervention. Interventions to address these needs are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Angry and Alone: Demographic Characteristics of Those Who Post to Online Comment Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Artime

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and social media afford individuals the opportunity to post their thoughts instantaneously and largely without filters. While this has tremendous democratic potential, it also raises questions about the quality of the discourse these technological changes portend. Online comment sections may be a particularly unique form of communication within social media to investigate because of their ubiquitous and often anonymous nature. A longitudinal examination of Pew Center data over the course of 4 years suggests that there are demographic differences between people who post and those who do not post to online comment sections. Specifically, in 2008 and 2010 regression analysis demonstrates there is an increased likelihood of posting among men, the unmarried, and the unemployed. However, the 2012 data tells a different story and suggests the possibility that the nature of comment sections might be changing. The findings have important implications for understanding the character of online discourse as well as the vitriol undergirding the political attitudes of disaffected citizens.

  9. Demographics and co-occurring conditions in a clinic-based cohort with Down syndrome in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Jennifer Price; Al Ahbabi, Fatima Jaber Sehmi; Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Chedid, Fares

    2017-09-01

    The majority of studies describing demographics and co-occurring conditions in cohorts with Down syndrome come from regions outside of the Middle East, mainly from Europe and North America. This paper describes demographics and co-occurring conditions in a hospital-based cohort of individuals with Down syndrome living in the Middle Eastern country of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The first dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE was established in 2012 at Tawam Hospital in Al Ain. This paper describes a clinic-based cohort of 221 participants over 4 years from the Gulf Down Syndrome Registry, a new Down syndrome database and contact registry created at Tawam Hospital. Key demographic findings include mean maternal age of 37 years, among the highest described in the literature. Sixty-two percent of mothers are >35 years. Over 90% of mothers received post-natal diagnosis of Down syndrome. High sex ratio, parental consanguinity, and large family size also characterize the group. The spectrum of many co-occurring conditions mirrors that of previously described populations, with some notable differences. Cardiovascular malformations are well represented, however, atrioventricular canal is not the most common. Genitourinary conditions are common, as evidenced by 12% of males with hypospadias and 15% with undescended testes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, alpha thalassemia trait, hypovitaminosis D, and dental caries are common in our cohort. This study describes a large hospital-based group with Down syndrome presenting to a new dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE, highlighting unique demographic and co-occurring conditions found in that population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Phylogenetic associations with demographic, epidemiological and drug resistance characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in the SITVIT2 database: Macro- and micro-geographical cleavages and phylogeographical specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This research was focused to improve the in-depth phylogenetic characterization of MTBC lineages in conjunction with epidemiological analysis of circulating clones to generate evidence-based geographical mapping of predominant clinical isolates of tubercle bacilli causing the bulk of the disease both at the country and regional levels. Further superimposition of these maps with socio-political, economical, and demographical characteristics available through Geographic Information Systems (GIS allows access to a precise view of prevailing disparities as seen at the level of the United Nation's sub-regional stratification. An in-depth comprehension of these disparities and drawbacks is important to take appropriate actions by decision-makers and public health authorities alike, in order to better monitor, understand and control the tuberculosis epidemic worldwide.

  11. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Wen J. Wang; Jacob S. Fraser; Stephen R. Shifley; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using...

  12. Association of Socio-demographic Characteristics with Pattern of Health Seeking Behavior among Hepatitis C Patients in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirani, S.; Ali, T.S.; Allana, S.; Ismail, F.W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients in Karachi, Pakistan. Study design, settings and duration: A descriptive, cross-sectional study done at Aga Khan University Hospital and the Civil Hospital Karachi between March and May 2013. Patients and Methods: Hepatitis C patients who were coming for treatment at the above 2 sites underwent a filling of questionnaire by the researcher. The questionnaire collected basic demographic information and their health seeking behavior i.e. visit to traditional healer or spiritual healer or medical doctor. Sample size of 250 patients was calculated. Analysis was done by using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. p-value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 250 hepatitis patients were interviewed. The study showed that patient's occupation and educational level had significant association with their first visit either to a spiritual healer or traditional healer. More educated group consulted the medical doctor while those with none or low education initially went to see spiritual healers (p < 0.008) and second visit was made to traditional healers (p < 0.002). Patients with larger number of children went less often to visit a medical doctor on their second visit (p = 0.007), and family members belonging to the medical field were more likely to make their first visit to doctors (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-demographic characteristics greatly influence the pattern of health seeking behavior among hepatitis C patients. (author)

  13. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  14. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  15. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  16. Trend and Demographic Characteristics of Maxillofacial Fractures in Level I Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Omri; Wolff, Amir; Srouji, Hanna; Bahouth, Hany; Noy, Dani; Abu El Naaj, Imad; Rachmiel, Adi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and treatment of craniomaxillofacial injuries in the northern part of Israel, within a Jewish majority and large Arab minority population. A 5-year retrospective study evaluated patients treated for craniomaxillofacial fractures. Fracture cause, type, site, and patient demographics were evaluated. Patient age ranged from 1 to 94 years with an average age of 36.7 years; 52% of the victims were Jews and 48% Arabs. There was male predilection in both sectors (78.3% vs 21.7%). The main site of injury was the zygomatic bone (33.5%) followed by nasal bone, orbital, mandible, frontal sinus, and maxillary fractures. The main etiology of injuries was falls (45.4%) with significantly more falls reported by females (52.1% vs 43.2% in males). Motor vehicle accidents caused injuries more frequent in males. Arabs experienced CMF fractures at a younger age compared to Jews (27.8 and 44.8 average age, respectively). In the elderly, the trend reversed where Jews were more prone to craniomaxillofacial fractures. Compared to their weight in the population, the Arab sector experiences more craniomaxillofacial injuries. The Jewish elderly population tends to reside in nursing homes where they are more susceptible to accidental falls, whereas young Arab males are more exposed to motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence. Falls were the main cause of injuries particularly in women. This may reflect the women's fear of reporting domestic violence. We believe that increased government investments in infrastructures and education will lower the incidence of craniomaxillofacial trauma and balance the gap between both sectors and sexes.

  17. Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8±12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%, perifollicular erythema (48%, perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%. Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%, perifollicular scales (92.9% and perifollicular erythema (50% were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findingsmwere follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88% and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%. Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75% of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed

  18. Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-Garavito, Natalia; Dlamini, Nomcebo; Pindolia, Deepa; Soble, Adam; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Alegana, Victor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Dlamini, Bongani; Smith, David L; Tatem, Andrew J; Kunene, Simon

    2017-09-08

    As Swaziland progresses towards national malaria elimination, the importation of parasites into receptive areas becomes increasingly important. Imported infections have the potential to instigate local transmission and sustain local parasite reservoirs. Travel histories from Swaziland's routine surveillance data from January 2010 to June 2014 were extracted and analysed. The travel patterns and demographics of rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed positive cases identified through passive and reactive case detection (RACD) were analysed and compared to those found to be negative through RACD. Of 1517 confirmed cases identified through passive surveillance, 67% reported travel history. A large proportion of positive cases reported domestic or international travel history (65%) compared to negative cases (10%). The primary risk factor for malaria infection in Swaziland was shown to be travel, more specifically international travel to Mozambique by 25- to 44-year old males, who spent on average 28 nights away. Maputo City, Inhambane and Gaza districts were the most likely travel destinations in Mozambique, and 96% of RDT-positive international travellers were either Swazi (52%) or Mozambican (44%) nationals, with Swazis being more likely to test negative. All international travellers were unlikely to have a bed net at home or use protection of any type while travelling. Additionally, paths of transmission, important border crossings and means of transport were identified. Results from this analysis can be used to direct national and well as cross-border targeting of interventions, over space, time and by sub-population. The results also highlight that collaboration between neighbouring countries is needed to tackle the importation of malaria at the regional level.

  19. Clamping characteristics study on different types of clamping unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhiwei; Liu, Haichao; Xie, Pengcheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China); Yang, Weimin [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing China 100029 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Plastic products are becoming more and more widely used in aerospace, IT, digital electronics and many other fields. With the development of technology, the requirement of product precision is getting higher and higher. However, type and working performance of clamping unit play a decisive role in product precision. Clamping characteristics of different types of clamping unit are discussed in this article, which use finite element numerical analysis method through the software ABAQUS to study the clamping uniformity, and detect the clamping force repeatability precision. The result shows that compared with toggled three-platen clamping unit, clamping characteristics of internal circulation two-platen clamping unit are better, for instance, its mold cavity deformation and force that bars and mold parting surface suffered are more uniform, and its clamping uniformity and repeatability precision is also better.

  20. Some performance characteristics of a fluidized bed heat recovery unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Militzer, J.; Basu, P.; Adaikkappan, N.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of using fluidized bed heat recovery units with diesel engines are well documented. Two of those are: significantly less tube fouling and heat transfer coefficient four to five time higher than that of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. The high concentration of soot in the exhaust gases of diesel engines make fouling a major concern in design of any kind of heat recovery unit. In the experiment a conventional fluidized bed heat exchanger was connected to the exhaust of a diesel engine mounted on a dynamometer. With this arrangement it was possible to test the heat recovery unit under a wide range of operating conditions. The main objective of this experiment was the determination of the performance characteristics of the heat recovery unit, especially with reference to its heat transfer and fouling characteristics. (author)

  1. Demographic and Mental Health Characteristics of Individuals Who Present to Community Health Clinics With Substance Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praise O. Iyiewuare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community health clinics (CHCs are an opportune setting to identify and treat substance misuse. This study assessed the characteristics of patients who presented to a CHC with substance misuse. Methods: Personnel at a large CHC administered a 5-question screener to patients between June 3, 2014, and January 15, 2016, to assess past 3-month alcohol use, prescription opioid misuse, or illicit drug use. We stratified screen-positive patients into 4 diagnostic groups: (1 probable alcohol use disorder (AUD and no comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD; (2 probable heroin use disorder; (3 probable prescription OUD, with or without comorbid AUD; and (4 no probable substance use disorder. We describe substance use and mental health characteristics of screen-positive patients and compare the characteristics of patients in the diagnostic groups. Results: Compared to the clinic population, screen-positive patients (N = 733 included more males ( P < .0001 and had a higher prevalence of probable bipolar disorder ( P < .0001 and schizophrenia ( P < .0001. Eighty-seven percent of screen-positive patients had probable AUD or OUD; only 7% were currently receiving substance use treatment. The prescription opioid and heroin groups had higher rates of past bipolar disorder and consequences of mental health conditions than the alcohol only or no diagnosis groups ( P < .0001. Conclusions: Patients presenting to CHCs who screen positive for alcohol or opioid misuse have a high likelihood of having an AUD or OUD, with or without a comorbid serious mental illness. Community health clinics offering substance use treatment may be an important resource for addressing unmet need for substance use treatment and comorbid mental illness.

  2. Demographic Characteristics, Phenomenology, Comorbidity, and Family History in 200 Individuals With Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Weisberg, Risa

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in the largest sample for which a wide range of clinical features has been reported. The authors also compared psychiatrically treated and untreated subjects. Body dysmorphic disorder usually began during adolescence, involved numerous body areas and behaviors, and was characterized by poor insight, high comorbidity rates, and high rates of functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. There were far more similarities than differences between the currently treated and untreated subjects, although the treated subjects displayed better insight and had more comorbidity. PMID:16000674

  3. Demographic, Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Child Gaucher Disease Patients in Russia: Pediatric Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Movsisyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Registers are an effective tool for tracing the dynamics of patients with rare pathologies.Objective: Our aim was to examine the demographic, clinical and genetic features of child Gaucher disease patients in Russia.Methods: We held a retrospective survey of the pediatric register data with regard to children suffering from Gaucher disease. The period of data accounting was from 2006 to 2016.Results: 115 children with Gaucher disease aged from 3 months to 17 years (the median age of diagnosis is 5 years were registered; 62 them (53.9% are girls. The prevalence of the disease was 0.32 cases for 100,000 children. 95 (82.6% children had 1st type of Gaucher disease, 6 (5.2% — 2nd, and 1 (12.2% — 3rd. Maximum morbidity was in Central (27; 23.5% and Volga (27; 23.5% Federal Districts; minimal — in the Far East (3; 2.6%. By the time of diagnosis all the patients were suffering from splengomegaly. The genotype and phenotype correlations in 90 children with Gaucher disease were as follows: in case of 1st type (n = 77, in 21 (27.3% cases, the p.N370S/р.L444P genotype was set, in 12 (15.6% — the р.N370S/other mutation; in case of 2nd and 3rd types, in 13 children with neuropathic forms, in 9 (62.9% cases — the p.L444P/p.L444P, in 3 (231% — the p.L444P/p. D409H. The rest of genotypes were presented by other mutations, 13 of which were revealed for the first time. The p.W223R (p.W184R mutation is specific for Russian patients. Enzyme replacement therapy was carried out for 109 patients (94.8%: in 105 (96.3% children (1st and 3rd types of Gaucher disease with imiglucerase, in 4 (3.7% children with 1st type — with velaglucerase alfa. Pathogenetic treatment stops the main symptoms in most patients.Conclusion: The pediatric Gaucher disease register allows to systemize the data concerning the disease course in children and optimizing the approaches to its monitoring in Russia.

  4. Demographic Characteristics of a Maine Woodcock Population and Effects of Habitat Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; Sepik, G.F.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A population of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was studied on a 3,401-ha area of the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Maine from 1976 through 1985. During 1976-83, from 4 to 64 clearcuts were created each year, opening up large contiguous blocks of forest. A combination of mist nets, ground traps, nightlighting techniques, and trained dogs were used to capture and band 1,884 birds during the first 5 years. Capture and recapture data (totaling 3,009 observations) were used with both demographically closed and open population models to estimate population size and, for open population models, summer survival. Flying young, especially young males, represented the greatest proportion of all captures; analysis showed that young males were more prone to capture than young females. Male courtship began about 24 March each year, usually when there was still snow in wooded areas. Males ~2 years old dominated singing grounds during April each year, but this situation changed and first-year males dominated singing grounds in May. Singing males shifted from older established singing grounds to new clearcuts soon after we initiated forest management. Many males were subdominant at singing grounds despite an abundance of unoccupied openings. Three hundred adult females were captured and, except for 1978, the majority were ~2 years old. The year in which female homing rate was lowest(1979) was preceded by the year with the largest number of l-year-old brood female captures and a summer drought. Summer survival of young was lowest in 1978 and was attributed to summer drought. The year 1979 had an abnormally cool and wet spring, and was the poorest for production of young. Capture ratios of young-to-adult females obtained by nightlighting could be used to predict production on our study area. Closed population model estimates did not seem to fit either young or adult data sets well. Instead, a partially open capture-recapture model that allowed death but no

  5. Coping strategies and socio-demographic characteristics among Jordanian caregivers of patients receiving hemodialysis

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    Eman Alnazly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver′s sociodemographic characteristics.

  6. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  7. Demographic and Travel Characteristics of Travel-Associated Zika Virus Infection Case-Patients in San Diego County, California (January 1, 2016-March 31, 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escutia, Gabriela; McDonald, Eric; Rodríguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Healy, Jessica

    2018-06-01

    Most Zika disease cases diagnosed in the continental US have been associated with travel to areas with risk of Zika transmission, mainly the Caribbean and Latin America. Limited information has been published about the demographic and travel characteristics of Zika case-patients in the United States, besides their age and gender. During 2016-2017 the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, California, expanded the scope and completeness of demographic and travel information collected from Zika case-patients for public health surveillance purposes. The majority (53.8%) of travel-related Zika virus infection case-patients (n = 78) in the county were Hispanic, significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than the 33.0% of Hispanics in the county. Foreign-born residents, mainly from Mexico, were also overrepresented among cases compared to their share in the county population (33.3 vs. 23.0%; p ≤ 0.05). Seventeen (21.8%) patients reported a primary language other than English (14 Spanish). Most case-patients traveled for tourism (54%) or to visit friends and relatives (36%). This surveillance information helps identify higher-risk populations and implement culturally targeted interventions for Zika prevention and control.

  8. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

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    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  9. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Baron

    Full Text Available Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011, consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE. Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 7.0-15.4, being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7 and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0. Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5. Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.

  10. [Socio-demographic and food insecurity characteristics of soup-kitchen users in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Kátia Cruz; Sávio, Karin Eleonora Oliveira; Akutsu, Rita de Cássia; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize users of a government soup-kitchen program and the association with family food insecurity, using a cross-sectional design and random sample of 1,637 soup-kitchen users. The study used a questionnaire with socioeconomic variables and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and measured weight and height. The chi-square test was applied, and the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Prevalent characteristics included per capita income ranging from one-half to one minimum wage (35.1%), complete middle school (39.8%), and food security (59.4%). Users in the North of Brazil showed the worst data: incomplete primary school (39.8%), per capita income up to one-half the minimum wage (50.8%), and food insecurity (55.5%). Prevalence ratios for food insecurity were higher among users with per capita income up to one-fourth the minimum wage (p soup-kitchen users with food insecurity can help orient the program's work, location, and operations.

  11. Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-I, Lee; Wang, Yuan Pang

    2008-06-01

    To compare clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder symptoms between children and adolescents. The subjects were 58 patients of a Child and Adolescent Affective Disorder Clinic consecutively admitted during a six-month period. Children aged 5-9 years old and adolescents from 10-17 years old currently meeting DSM-IV criteria diagnosis of major depressive disorder were chosen. Current MDD diagnosis and depressive psychopathology were assessed by a clinical interview and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-DSM-IV version. The Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised Version and the Children Global Assessment Scale rated the severity and global functioning of major depressive disorder. The most common depressive symptoms were: anhedonia (72.4%), depressed mood (72.4%), decreased concentration (62.1%), and irritability (58.6%). The intensity of depressive episodes of this sample ranged from mild to moderate. Fifty percent reported thoughts of death, and 29.3% presented a variety of psychotic symptoms. When compared with children, adolescents reported a significantly more depressed mood (p = 0.043), lower self-esteem (p = 0.002), and had more difficulty concentrating (p = 0.020). Female adolescents had lower self-esteem (p = 0.003), and male adolescents showed more decreased concentration (p = 0.016). This study suggests that age and gender differences might influence the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. Further studies with larger samples are needed.

  12. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with occupational contact dermatitis: A 3-year single center experience

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    Aslı Aytekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD is responsible for 80-90% of the occupational dermatoses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical features of patients with OCD admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: The records of patients, who were admitted to our hospital with OCD between December 2009 and January 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred fifty-nine patients, who were diagnosed with OCD according to the Mathias criteria, were included in the study. Age, sex, location of the lesions, atopic status, glove use, occupational exposure time and total IgE levels of the patients were assessed. Patients with positive allergic reaction with "European Standard Series Skin Patch Test" were identified as allergic OCD and patients with negative test results as "irritant OCD". The clinical features and patch results of patients are evaluated. Results: One hundred fifty-nine patients with a mean age of 39±7.9 years consisted of 151 men and 8 women. The hands were the most common site of OCD; the palms were the most common affected areas of hand eczema. Eighty-one patients (50.1% were identified to have allergic OCD and 78 (49.9% as irritant OCD. Irritant OCD was most commonly seen in dental technicians, whereas allergic OCD was most commonly seen in tailors. The top 3 most frequent allergens were potassium dichromate (15.1%, nickel sulfate (9.11% and cobalt chloride (10.7%. Conclusion: In our country, there has been no comprehensive study presenting the clinical and descriptive characteristics of OCD. For preventing OCD and reducing sick leave we need to have data that belong to our country. Consequently, multicenter studies should be performed for establishing our own database on OCD.

  13. Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic characteristics and burden

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    Tatiana Ferreira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages. RESULTS Significant averages in quality of life were demonstrated in association with female caregivers and those over 60 years in the field 'functional capacity,' and in the domains of 'mental health' and 'vitality' for those with higher income. Regarding burden association, the highlighted areas were 'functional capacity,' 'physical aspects,' 'emotional aspects' and 'pain.' CONCLUSION The creation of public policies and social support to effectively reduce the burden on caregivers is a necessity.

  14. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Individuals with History of Crack Cocaine Use in the US General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Akerele, Evaristo

    2016-11-01

    This study explores socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with history of crack cocaine use. Data from the 29th Round of General Social Survey was used. Respondents with history of crack cocaine use were compared to respondents without such history. T test was applied to identify differences between groups. Approximately 6 % of respondents reported lifetime history of crack cocaine use. Groups with and without history of crack cocaine use differed significantly in gender, marital status, education, income distribution, employment, health perception, family and financial satisfaction, criminal history, happiness, sexual history, history of injection drug use, and HIV testing. There were no significant differences for race. The study provides insights that could improve identification and prevention of substance use disorders.

  15. [Quality of life of caregivers for patients of cerebrovascular accidents: association of (socio-demographic) characteristics and burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tatiana Ferreira da; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Martins, Kaisy Pereira; Brito, Silmery da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Investigating the association between quality of life with socio-demographic characteristics and the burden of caregivers for individuals with cerebrovascular accident sequelae. A descriptive, cross-sectional study with a sample composed of 136 caregivers. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire, the Barthel, Burden Interview and Short-Form-36 scales were used. Correlation analysis, t-Student test and F-test were used for the analysis in order to compare averages. Significant averages in quality of life were demonstrated in association with female caregivers and those over 60 years in the field 'functional capacity,' and in the domains of 'mental health' and 'vitality' for those with higher income. Regarding burden association, the highlighted areas were 'functional capacity,' 'physical aspects,' 'emotional aspects' and 'pain.' The creation of public policies and social support to effectively reduce the burden on caregivers is a necessity.

  16. Impact of socio-demographic characteristics on travel expenditures of Hungarian tourists in the village of Skorenovac

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    Krejić Živana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of rural tourism in Vojvodina affects the survival of village and livelihoods of its people. Despite the numerous problems that villages of Vojvodina face, an example of good practice is the village of Skorenovac in the municipality of Kovin in Banat. Local culture, traditions and legends of the distant past, and a unique way of life of the population of this village are the primary motives and grounds of the arrival of tourists and they affect the development of rural tourism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the consumption of Hungarian tourists in the village Skorenovac in relation to age, level of education and gender. The results of research should serve as encouragement of rural households to monitor socio-demographic characteristics of tourists to suitably form the tourist offer in order to increase profit.

  17. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  18. Personal and socio-demographic characteristics as correlates of value orientations and interests of students in Vojvodina

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    Gajić Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social transition and changes in the cultural context inevitably impose the need of redefining the value systems which are particularly reflected through the differences of the multicultural framework such as, for example, Vojvodina. The paper presents the results of a theoretical and empirical study of students’ interests and value orientations. The results are viewed through the prism of influence of respondents’ individual and socio-demographic characteristics. Non-experimental causal method was used to study the correlation between variable groups. Interviewing was the research technique. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire constructed for the purposes of the research. The study was conducted during the school year 2007/08 in Novi Sad, on the sample of 480 respondents - students of the University of Novi Sad, aged 19 to 24. Gender was studied in the group of personal (individual, constitutional features and it proved out to be a significant correlate of certain interests: sport, cultural and creative, as well as relational values (nourishing harmonious family relations, marriage, parenthood, partnership, feeling of belonging et al.. In the group of socio-demographic characteristics (structural forms of the family, financial status, social background, socio-cultural space: rural-urban it was established that social background correlates with interest in sport activities, educational and artistic interests, while variables social background and place of residence correlate with social life and social relations as dominant value orientations. Research results provide pedagogical implications for educational work with youth aimed at developing the values connected with constructive activities and encouragement of proactive orientation with respect to one’s own surroundings and existence, as well as the guidelines for introducing new contents into the existing curricula, in accordance with the expressed values and

  19. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

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    Bagheri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  20. Demographic characteristics and intravenous drug use among hepatitis C patients in the Kota Setar district, Kedah, Malaysia

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    Wei Leong Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored the demographic characteristics of hepatitis C patients in the Kota Setar (KS district, Kedah, Malaysia, the prevalence of intravenous drug use (IVDU as a risk factor among these patients, and the associations between IVDU and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective data pertaining to 713 patients from January 2009 to December 2013 were retrieved from hospital and disease notification records for analysis. The risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection were grouped into IVDU and non-IVDU risk factors for analysis using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the hepatitis C patients included in this study, the most common age group was 31 to 40 years (30.2%, and male patients (91.2% made up the overwhelming majority. Ethnic Malays constituted approximately 80.4% of the patients, and IVDU was the main risk factor (77.8% for HCV infection. Multiple logistic regression showed that male patients were 59 times more likely to have IVDU as a risk factor for HCV infection. Single patients were 2.5 times more likely to have IVDU as a risk factor. Patients aged ≥71 years were much less likely than patients aged ≤30 years to have IVDU as a risk factor for HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: IVDU was found to be an important risk factor for HCV infection among patients in the KS district. The factors associated with IVDU included age, sex, and marital status. Appropriate preventive measures should be developed to target the groups in which IVDU is most likely to be a risk factor for HCV infection.

  1. Qualified nurses' perceptions of nursing graduates' abilities vary according to specific demographic and clinical characteristics. A descriptive quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missen, Karen; McKenna, Lisa; Beauchamp, Alison; Larkins, Jo-Ann

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from the literature and anecdotally from clinical settings suggests that newly graduated nurses are not fully prepared to be independent practitioners in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of qualified nurses in relation to the practice readiness of newly registered nursing graduates and determine whether these views differ according to specific demographic characteristics, clinical settings, and geographical locations. A descriptive quantitative design was used. An online survey tool was used to assess how qualified nurses (n=201) in Victoria, Australia, rated newly graduated nurses' abilities on 51 individual clinical skills/competencies in eight key skill areas. A composite score was calculated for each skill area and a comparative analysis was undertaken on the various cohorts of participants according to their demographic and clinical characteristics using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Newly graduated nurses were found to be lacking competence in two key skill areas and were rated as performing adequately in the remaining six skill areas assessed. Significant differences (p≤0.05) in performance were found according to the age of the nurse, number of years registered, the educational setting in which they undertook their nurse education, their role, and the clinical area in which they worked. There were no significant differences according to whether the nurse worked in the private or public healthcare sector. Few differences were found between nurses working in a metropolitan vs. regional/rural healthcare setting. This is the first study to quantify the scale of this problem. Our findings serve as a reference for both nurse education providers and healthcare settings in better preparing nursing graduates to be competent, safe practitioners in all clinical areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast food intake in Canada: Differences among Canadians with diverse demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-03

    To estimate the contribution of fast food to daily energy intake, and compare intake among Canadians with varied demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Using the National Cancer Institute method, nationally representative estimates of mean usual daily caloric intake from fast food were derived from 24-hour dietary recall data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 (n = 17,509) among participants age ≥ 2 years. Mean daily intake and relative proportion of calories derived from fast food were compared among respondents with diverse demographic (age, sex, provincial and rural/urban residence), socio-economic (income, education, food security status) and health and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, vitamin/ mineral supplement use, smoking, binge drinking, body mass index (BMI), self-rated health and dietary quality). On average, Canadians reported consuming 146 kcal/day from fast food, contributing to 6.3% of usual energy intake. Intake was highest among male teenagers (248 kcal) and lowest among women ≥ 70 years of age (32 kcal). Fast food consumption was significantly higher among respondents who reported lower fruit and vegetable intake, poorer dietary quality, binge drinking, not taking vitamin/mineral supplements (adults only), and persons with higher BMI. Socio-economic status, physical activity, smoking and self-rated health were not significantly associated with fast food intake. While average Canadian fast food consumption is lower than national US estimates, intake was associated with lower dietary quality and higher BMI. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should focus on dietary practices of children and adolescents, whose fast food intakes are among the highest in Canada.

  3. Demographic epidemiology of unstable pelvic fracture in the United States from 2000 to 2009: trends and in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke

    2014-02-01

    Unstable pelvic fracture is predominantly caused by high-energy blunt trauma and is associated with a high risk of mortality. The epidemiology in the United States is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology of unstable pelvic fracture based on patient and hospital demographics in the United States during the last decade. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify patients who were hospitalized with unstable pelvic fracture from 2000 to 2009, using the International Classification of Diseases--9th Rev.--Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The primary outcome parameter consisted of analyzing the temporal trends of in-hospital admissions for unstable pelvic fracture and the associated in-hospital mortality. The data were stratified by demographic variables, including age, sex, race, and hospital region in the United States. From 2000 to 2009, there were 24,059 patients in total; among these, 1,823 (7.6%) had open fractures, and 22,236 (92.4%) had closed fractures. The population growth-adjusted incidence was stable over time (p = 0.431). The incidence was the lowest in the northeastern region. The in-hospital mortality rate in patients with unstable pelvic fracture was 8.3% (21.3% for open fracture, 7.2% for closed fracture) and remained stable over time (p = 0.089). The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in several subgroups of patients, such as older patients, male patients, African-American patients, and patients in the northeastern region. During the last decade, the incidence of unstable pelvic fracture has remained stable over time in the United States. The in-hospital mortality rate in patients with unstable pelvic fracture was 8.3% and remained stable over time. The rate in patients with an open fracture was approximately three times higher than that in patients with a closed fracture. The incidence was the lowest, but the in-hospital mortality rate was the highest in the northeastern region compared with the

  4. Demographic variation in incidence of adult glioma by subtype, United States, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S

    2011-07-29

    We hypothesized that race/ethnic group, sex, age, and/or calendar period variation in adult glioma incidence differs between the two broad subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM) and non-GBM. Primary GBM, which constitute 90-95% of GBM, differ from non-GBM with respect to a number of molecular characteristics, providing a molecular rationale for these two broad glioma subtypes. We utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1992-2007, ages 30-69 years. We compared 15,088 GBM cases with 9,252 non-GBM cases. We used Poisson regression to calculate adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The GBM incidence rate increased proportionally with the 4th power of age, whereas the non-GBM rate increased proportionally with the square root of age. For each subtype, compared to non-Hispanic Whites, the incidence rate among Blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives was substantially lower (one-fourth to one-half for GBM; about two-fifths for non-GBM). Secondary to this primary effect, race/ethnic group variation in incidence was significantly less for non-GBM than for GBM. For each subtype, the incidence rate was higher for males than for females, with the male/female rate ratio being significantly higher for GBM (1.6) than for non-GBM (1.4). We observed significant calendar period trends of increasing incidence for GBM and decreasing incidence for non-GBM. For the two subtypes combined, we observed a 3% decrease in incidence between 1992-1995 and 2004-2007. The substantial difference in age effect between GBM and non-GBM suggests a fundamental difference in the genesis of primary GBM (the driver of GBM incidence) versus non-GBM. However, the commonalities between GBM and non-GBM with respect to race/ethnic group and sex variation, more notable than the somewhat subtle, albeit statistically significant, differences, suggest that within the context of a fundamental difference, some aspects of the complex process of

  5. Demographic variation in incidence of adult glioma by subtype, United States, 1992-2007

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    Darefsky Amy S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that race/ethnic group, sex, age, and/or calendar period variation in adult glioma incidence differs between the two broad subtypes of glioblastoma (GBM and non-GBM. Primary GBM, which constitute 90-95% of GBM, differ from non-GBM with respect to a number of molecular characteristics, providing a molecular rationale for these two broad glioma subtypes. Methods We utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1992-2007, ages 30-69 years. We compared 15,088 GBM cases with 9,252 non-GBM cases. We used Poisson regression to calculate adjusted rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results The GBM incidence rate increased proportionally with the 4th power of age, whereas the non-GBM rate increased proportionally with the square root of age. For each subtype, compared to non-Hispanic Whites, the incidence rate among Blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives was substantially lower (one-fourth to one-half for GBM; about two-fifths for non-GBM. Secondary to this primary effect, race/ethnic group variation in incidence was significantly less for non-GBM than for GBM. For each subtype, the incidence rate was higher for males than for females, with the male/female rate ratio being significantly higher for GBM (1.6 than for non-GBM (1.4. We observed significant calendar period trends of increasing incidence for GBM and decreasing incidence for non-GBM. For the two subtypes combined, we observed a 3% decrease in incidence between 1992-1995 and 2004-2007. Conclusions The substantial difference in age effect between GBM and non-GBM suggests a fundamental difference in the genesis of primary GBM (the driver of GBM incidence versus non-GBM. However, the commonalities between GBM and non-GBM with respect to race/ethnic group and sex variation, more notable than the somewhat subtle, albeit statistically significant, differences, suggest that within the context of a

  6. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  7. Factors associated with socio-demographic characteristics and antenatal care and iron supplement use in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Allison; Reed, Barbara A; Lumumba, Jude B; Kung'u, Jacqueline K

    2018-02-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) offers remarkable opportunities to reach a large number of women with effective nutrition and health interventions, including iron (Fe) supplementation. However, all women do not equally seek nor benefit from ANC. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with ANC and Fe use among women in hard-to-reach areas in Afar, Ethiopia; Sedhiou and Kolda, Senegal; and Kakamega, Kenya. Women who gave birth within 1 year preceding the survey (n = 4,575) from 15 different sub-regions were randomly selected and surveyed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations of socio-demographic characteristics with ANC and Fe use. Factors that showed positive associations with ANC uptake included education, income, possession of a mobile phone, and the occupation of the mother or another household member. Beginning ANC in the first trimester associated positively with achievement of 4 or more ANC visits, and having any ANC visits related positively with Fe intake. Distance to the nearest health facility was negatively associated, and type of nearest facility and counselling and health education were positively associated with some outcomes. The results from these surveys demonstrate the need to ensure access of services across all population groups and can help identify ANC programming needs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of users of an on-line smoking cessation programme in the Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañanes, Guillermo; Vallejo, Miguel A; Vallejo-Slocker, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of users of a smoking cessation programme run by the Open University of Spain (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia [UNED]). We examined the demographic, psychological and smoking characteristics of 23,763 smokers who participated in the on-line smoking cessation program of the UNED. The programme was open to any smoker, free of charge, and was fully automated and with direct access. A total of 93.5% of the users were Spaniards, with an equal percentage of participation among men and women. The mean age was 39 years. Somewhat less than half were married and had a university education. The participants smoked a mean of 19.3 cigarettes per day, showing a mid-range level of nicotine dependence according to the Heaviness of Smoking Index. The results of the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Perceived Stress Scale were not clinically significant. In a secondary analysis of the data, we found gender differences in all the variables measured. The results of this study confirm the digital divide, with lower participation among people with a lower educational level. No association was observed between stress, anxiety or depression and cigarette consumption. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  10. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Massimo; Balla, Maria Paola; Greco, Antonio; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Ricci, Pasquale; Turchetta, Rosaria; de Virgilio, Armando; de Vincentiis, Marco; Ricci, Serafino; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2017-09-08

    Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A) characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B) differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  11. Demographic characteristics and clinical predictors of patients discharged from university hospital-affiliated pain clinic due to breach in narcotic use contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, Shushovan; Gupta, Deepak; Rustom, David; Berry, Hussein; Rai, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    The current retrospective study was completed with the aim to identify demographic characteristics and clinical predictors (if any) of the patients discharged from our pain clinic due to breach in narcotic use contract (BNUC). Retrospective patient charts' review and data audit. University hospital-affiliated pain clinic in the United States. All patient charts in our pain clinic for a 2-year period (2011-2012). The patients with BNUC were delineated from the patients who had not been discharged from our pain clinic. Pain characteristics, pain management, and substance abuse status were compared in each patient with BNUC between the time of admission and the time of discharge. The patients with BNUC discharges showed significant variability for the discharging factors among the pain physicians within a single pain clinic model with this variability being dependent on their years of experience and their proactive interventional pain management. The patients with BNUC in our pain clinic setting were primarily middle-aged, obese, unmarried males with nondocumented stable occupational history who were receiving only noninterventional pain management. Substance abuse, doctor shopping, and potential diversion were the top three documented reasons for BNUC discharges. In 2011-2012, our pain clinic discharged 1-in-16 patients due to breach in narcotic use contract.

  12. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulnerability to exercise addiction, socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics of runners at risk for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lodovico, Laura; Dubertret, Caroline; Ameller, Aurely

    2018-02-01

    Excessive exercise is frequently associated with eating disorders and may degenerate into exercise addiction. We still don't know whether runners at risk for eating disorders are at risk for exercise addiction. Our aim is to assess: 1) risk for exercise addiction in runners at risk for eating disorders and 2) socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing runners at-risk from not-at-risk for eating disorders. We assessed risk for eating disorders and exercise addiction using the SCOFF questionnaire and the Exercise Addiction Inventory personality traits with the Big-Five Inventory Test, socio-demographic data, eating and training habits in a sample of 154 healthy runners. Twenty five subjects had a score of ≥2 at the SCOFF and were included in the group "at risk for eating disorders". In this group, we found a higher percentage of subjects at risk for exercise addiction (p=0.01) and higher average scores at the Exercise Addiction Inventory (p=0.01) than runners not at risk (N=136). Runners at risk were statistically younger (p=0.03), women (p=0.001), started running to lose weight more often (p=0.03), lost more kilos since affiliation in their running club (p=0.04), and were characterized by neurotic traits using the Big-Five-Inventory Test (p=3.10 -6 ). Screening for exercise addiction and mood disorders could lead to a more accurate management of runners at risk for eating disorders. Identifying vulnerable individuals will facilitate the prevention of eating disorders and preserve the benefits of sport practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Demographic Characteristics and Clinical Outcome of Work-related Open Globe Injuries in the Most Industrialised Region of Turkey

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    Sertaç Argun Kıvanç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes of work-related open globe injuries in the most industrialized region of Turkey. Materials and Methods: The demographic and medical records of patients with work-related open globe injuries who presented to the ophthalmology or emergency departments with an official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. Visual acuity categories were defined according to the World Health Organization. The injury types and zones of the open globes were classified according to Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. Results: Among 479 patients with work-related eye injuries in 5 years, there were 102 eyes of 101 patients with open globe injuries (21%. The mean age of the patients was 34.5±8.9 years with a mean follow-up of 12.5±12.6 months. The injuries peaked in June in the hour between 12:00 and 13:00. Eighty-six percent presented to emergency services within 12 hours after the injury. Twenty-two percent of the patients had been wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The open globe injuries were penetrating in 51%, intraocular foreign body in 40%, rupture in 7% and perforation in 2% of the eyes. The most frequent finding was traumatic cataract. Final visual acuity of 33.3% of patients was below 3/60. Seventy-eight percent of patients that had visual acuity worse than 6/18 at presentation had visual acuity of 6/18 or better at final visit. Sixty-three percent of eyes which had injuries involving all 3 zones resulted in phthisis bulbi, enucleation or evisceration. Conclusion: Work-related open globe injuries may have severe consequences such as visual impairment and blindness among the young male working population in industrialized areas. Nearly half of the occupational open globe injuries resulted in visual impairment and blindness.

  15. Choice in maternity care: associations with unit supply, geographic accessibility and user characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite national policies to promote user choice for health services in many European countries, current trends in maternity unit closures create a context in which user choice may be reduced, not expanded. Little attention has been paid to the potential impact of closures on pregnant women’s choice of maternity unit. We study here how pregnant women’s choices interact with the distance they must travel to give birth, individual socioeconomic characteristics and the supply of maternity units in France in 2003. Results Overall, about one-third of women chose their maternity units based on proximity. This proportion increased steeply as supply was constrained. Greater distances between the first and second closest maternity unit were strongly associated with increasing preferences for proximity; when these distances were ≥ 30 km, over 85% of women selected the closest unit (revealed preference) and over 70% reported that proximity was the reason for their choice (expressed preference). Women living at a short distance to the closest maternity unit appeared to be more sensitive to increases in distance between their first and second closest available maternity units. The preference for proximity, expressed and revealed, was related to demographic and social characteristics: women from households in the manual worker class chose a maternity unit based on its proximity more often and also went to the nearest unit when compared with women from professional and managerial households. These sociodemographic associations held true after adjusting for supply factors, maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Choice seems to be arbitrated in both absolute and relative terms. Taking changes in supply into consideration and how these affect choice is an important element for assessing the real impact of maternity unit closures on pregnant women’s experiences. An indicator measuring the proportion of women for whom the distance between the first

  16. Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Dodd, Kevin W; Vogtmann, Emily; Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized. Objective: We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors. Methods: Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003–2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003–2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y. Results: An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09). Conclusions: Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in drinking patterns over the lifetime. PMID:27489008

  17. Compliance with different physical activity recommendations and its association with socio-demographic characteristics using an objective measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-02-14

    In the past decades, several public health guidelines concerning physical activity have been published. This study evaluated compliance with various physical activity guidelines and examined the associations between meeting the guidelines and socio-demographic characteristics. Data were obtained from 357 Flemish men and women (41.9 ± 9.6 years). Physical activity was assessed for seven consecutive days using the SenseWear Armband. The prevalence of sufficient physical activity was calculated according to various public health guidelines. Logistic regressions examined the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of meeting the different guidelines. 87.2% of men and 68.1% of women achieved ≥150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but only 57.6% and 37.3% accumulated this amount as ≥30 min/day on ≥5 days/week. With regard to vigorous physical activity, 27.9% of men and 15.7% of women achieved ≥75 min/week and 12.8% and 7.0% achieved ≥20 min/day on ≥3 days/week. In addition, 34.9% of men and 21.6% of women attained an average physical activity level (PAL) of 1.75 MET and thus met the criteria for weight maintenance. Only 16.3% of men and 14.1% of women took 10000 steps/day on 7 days/week. Women had a lower probability of achieving 30 min/day MVPA on 5 days/week (OR: 0.40), or a weekly total of 150 min or 500 MET.min MVPA or 75 min of vigorous activity compared to men (OR: 0.27-0.46). In addition, they were 50% less likely to meet the guidelines for weight maintenance. The odds of engaging in 150 min/week MVPA or attaining a PAL of 1.75 was lower with higher age. Educational level was positively related with accumulating 75 min/week of vigorous activity, but negatively with taking 10000 steps/day. Smokers were 60% less likely to participate weekly in 150 min of MVPA compared to non-smokers. The prevalence of sufficient physical activity differed greatly depending on the definition used. Women and subjects

  18. Visual Impairment in Preschool Children in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations From 2015 to 2060.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Jiang, Xuejuan

    2017-06-01

    Visual impairment (VI) in early childhood can significantly impair development. To determine demographic and geographic variations in VI in children aged 3 to 5 years in the United States in 2015 and to estimate projected prevalence through 2060. Descriptive study reporting statistics estimated based on prevalence data from 2 major population-based studies conducted in the United States between 2003 and 2011. Using US census projections, prevalence of VI and cause-specific VI in the better eye were reported by race/ethnicity, state and region, and per capita prevalence of VI by state. The study included preschool children in the United States. Analyses for this study were conducted between February 2016 and March 2017. Prevalence of VI among children aged 3 to 5 years in the United States. In 2015, more than 174 000 children aged 3 to 5 years in the United States were visually impaired. Almost 121 000 of these cases (69%) arose from simple uncorrected refractive error, and 43 000 (25%) from bilateral amblyopia. By 2060, the number of children aged 3 to 5 years with VI is projected to increase by 26%. In 2015, Hispanic white children accounted for the highest number of VI cases (66 000); this group will remain the most affected through 2060, with an increasingly large proportion of cases (37.7% in 2015 and 43.6% in 2060). The racial/ethnic group with the second most VI is projected to shift from non-Hispanic white children (26.3% in 2015 decreasing to 16.5% in 2060) to African American children (24.5% in 2015 and 22.0% in 2060). From 2015 to 2060, the states projected to have the most children with VI are California (26 600 in 2015 and 38 000 in 2060), Texas (21 500 in 2015 and 29 100 in 2060), and Florida (10 900 in 2015 and 13 900 in 2060). These data suggest that the number of preschool children with VI is projected to increase disproportionally, especially among minority populations. Vision screening for refractive error and related eye

  19. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  20. PSA testing without clinical indication for prostate cancer in relation to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Randi V; Larsen, Signe B; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background. Social differences in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality might be related to testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Although routine PSA screening is not recommended in Denmark, testing without clinical indication increased during the past decade. We evaluated...... associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Material and methods. In the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort, we identified 1051 men with PC diagnosed in 1993-2008. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics were obtained from medical records......, and socio-demographic information was retrieved from administrative registers. We used general logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and PSA testing without clinical indication. Cox...

  1. Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.

  2. Prevalence of Sun Protection Use and Sunburn and Association of Demographic and Behaviorial Characteristics With Sunburn Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Ding, Helen; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary. Data analysis was performed from August 16, 2016, to September 6, 2017. The prevalence of sunburn and use of sun protection and their association with demographic characteristics, sun sensitivity, and health-related behaviors and conditions using multivariable logistic regression modeling. A total of 31 162 respondents (mean [SD] age, 47.0 [0.36] years; 13 932 male [44.7%] and 17 230 female [55.3%]) were included in the analyses, with 34.2% experiencing sunburn in 2015. Sunburn prevalence was higher among younger age groups (51.2% in adults 18-29 years old; 95% CI, 48.8%-53.7%), non-Hispanic white individuals (42.5%; 95% CI, 41.2%-43.9%), and those with sun-sensitive skin (50.2%). However, sunburn was also prevalent among black (13.2%; 95% CI, 11.6%-15.1%) and Hispanic (29.7%; 95% CI, 27.6%-31.9%) individuals, demographic groups that are often considered to be at low risk of skin cancer. The most frequent sun protection behaviors were staying in the shade (37.1%; 95% CI, 36.3%-38.0%) and using sunscreen (31.5%; 95% CI, 30.7%-32.3%) followed by wearing long clothing to the ankles (28.4%; 95% CI, 27.6-29.1). Sun avoidance behaviors (seeking shade and not going in the sun) were significantly (39.5% vs 35.1%; P sunburn. Those who used self-applied sunless tanning

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics as determinants of quality of life and depression of older people in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the process of aging and old age is an important question in social sciences. The quality of life at this age, among other things, is being enriched with new life opportunities and challenges, as well as developmental tasks every single individual has to face with. Therefore the focus of this research is the correlation of the quality of life and depressiveness with different demographic characteristics of older people in Serbia. The demographic variables included: gender, age, education, marital status and monthly income of the respondents. The quality of life is measured using the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire - OPQOL (Bowling, 2009, as well as several questions on life domain satisfaction and chronical disease, while depressiveness was measured using Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS (Greenberg, 2007. The sample was a convenience one, consisted of 497 respondents, 50,35% of men and 49,7% of women, 65-92 years old. The final results show that the quality of life of older people in Serbia is within the average range, and depressiveness belongs to the -category with the level of mild occurence. Men are more satisfied with a job they have or used to have, while women better estimate their independence and control over their life. The age of respondents positively correlates with marital satisfaction, satisfaction with job, with parental role, health, social relations, independence and monthly incomes. The amount of monthly income positively correlates with job satisfaction and well-being, while it is negatively correlated with health, social relations, independence, home and neighbourhood, financial status and the depressiveness of the respondents. The level of education is significantly correlated with marital satisfaction, job, whole life, health, social relations and activities, satisfaction with home and neighbourhood, emotional and psychic well-being, financial status and the level of depressiveness of the respondents

  4. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  5. Work participation in adults with Marfan syndrome: Demographic characteristics, MFS related health symptoms, chronic pain, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velvin, Gry; Bathen, Trine; Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Geirdal, Amy Østertun

    2015-12-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a severe autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that might influence peoples work ability. This cross sectional study aims to investigate work participation in adults with verified MFS diagnosis and to explore how the health related consequences of MFS and other factors might influence work participation. The prevalence of health problems in young adults compared to older adults with MFS was examined in association to work participation. A postal questionnaire including questions about work participation, demographic characteristics, MFS related health problems, chronic pain, and fatigue was sent to 117 adults with verified MFS (Ghent 1), and 62% answered. Fifty-nine percent were employed or students, significantly lower work participation than the General Norwegian Population (GNP), but higher than the Norwegian population of people with disability. Most young adults worked full-time despite extensive health problems, but the average age for leaving work was low. Few had received any work adaptations prior to retiring from work. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only age, lower educational level and severe fatigue were significantly associated with low work participation; not MFS related health problems or chronic pain. Fatigue appears to be the most challenging health problem to deal with in work, but the covariance is complex. Focus on vocational guidance early in life, more appropriate work adaptations, and psychosocial support might improve the possibility for sustaining in work for adults with MFS. More research about work challenges in adults with MFS is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and sunburn among U.S. adults - National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and sunburn among U.S. adults. We used 2010 National Health Interview Survey data (N=24,970) to conduct multivariable logistic regressions examining associations with having 1 or more sunburns in the past year and having 4 or more sunburns in the past year. Overall, 37.1% of adults experienced sunburn in the past year. The adjusted prevalence of sunburn was particularly common among adults aged 18-29years (52.0%), those who repeatedly burn or freckle after 2weeks in the sun (45.9%), whites (44.3%), indoor tanners (44.1%), those with a family history of melanoma (43.9%), and those who are US-born (39.5%). Physical activity, alcohol consumption, and overweight/obesity were positively associated with sunburn (all Psunburn (P=0.35). Among those who were sunburned in the past year, 12.1% experienced 4 or more sunburns. Sunburn is common, particularly among younger adults, those with a more sun-sensitive skin type, whites, those with a family history of melanoma, the highly physically active, and indoor tanners. Efforts are needed to facilitate sun-safety during outdoor recreation, improve the consistency of sun protection practices, and prevent sunburn, particularly among these subgroups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Relationship between adolescents’ family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu S. Muyibi

    2010-10-01

    Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors. Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents. Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00. Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.

  8. Psychopathological and demographic characteristics of hallucinating patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an analysis based on AMDP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Christopher; Jänner, Michaela; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Malevani, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10). Hallucinating versus non-hallucinating patients and age- and gender-matched hallucinating schizophrenic versus schizoaffective patients were compared with regard to key psychopathological and demographic characteristics. Relative to patients with schizoaffective disorder, patients with schizophrenia more often hallucinated at admission (36.6 vs. 16.2 %, RR: 2.3, p  other auditory > visual > somatic/tactile > olfactory/gustatory. Hallucinating patients of either disorder were more often affected with respect to delusions (83 vs. 62 % and 81 vs. 48 % among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively [both p schizoaffective disorder did not differ from hallucinating patients with schizophrenia. This is one of the few studies providing data on hallucinations in a routine clinical care setting. Hallucinations are a sign and likely a cause of greater illness severity. Patients with schizoaffective disorder less often experience hallucinations than patients with schizophrenia, but if they do, they seem to resemble patients with schizophrenia with regard to illness severity.

  9. Demographics, health and travel characteristics of international travellers at a pre-travel clinic in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Camille; Gaudart, Jean; Gaillard, Catherine; Delmont, Jean; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    With the aim to identify at-risk individuals among a cohort of international travellers, 3442 individuals who sought advice at Marseille travel health centre in 2009 were prospectively included. Demographics, travel characteristics, chronic medical conditions, vaccinations and antimalarial chemoprophylaxis were documented. Chronic medical conditions were reported by 11% of individuals, including hypertension (39%), asthma (20%), thyroid disease (15%) and depression (13%). 4% reported taking a daily medication, and psychotropic and cardiovascular medications were the most commonly used. Older travellers (≥60 years) accounted for 10% of the travellers and the prevalence of chronic medical conditions was 27% in this group. Individuals aged 15 years or less accounted for 13% of the travellers. Age, last minute travel (17%) and neurological and psychiatric diseases were the most frequent factors that influenced Yellow fever vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis, with more than one tenth of the travellers reporting at least one risk factor for which adjusted advice may be necessary. Migrants visiting their relatives in their origin country accounted for 14% of travellers and 73% of this group travelled with their family including young children. We demonstrate that a significant proportion of travellers are at-risk (43%) because of their travel conditions (VFR), their age, or their health status, and should be targeted for risk reduction strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder among psychiatric outpatients with mood, anxiety or somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Job; van Rood, Yanda R; van der Wee, Nic J; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-09-01

    To describe the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) compared with other psychiatric outpatients with a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Outpatients referred for treatment of a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder were routinely assessed at intake. A structured interview (MINI-Plus), observer-based and self-rating instruments were administered by an independent assessor. Among our sample of 3798 referred patients, 2947 patients were diagnosed with at least one DSM-IV mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Of these patients 1.8% (n = 54) met the diagnostic criteria for BDD. In comparison with other outpatients, patients with BDD were on average younger, less often married and were more often living alone. Highly prevalent comorbid diagnoses were major depression (in 46.3% of cases), social anxiety disorder (in 35.2% of cases) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (in 16.7% of cases). Furthermore, patients with BDD had higher scores on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) as well as lower scores on the Short Form 36 social role functioning. BDD is frequently associated with depression, social phobia and OCD. Patients with BDD have more distress and more impaired interpersonal functioning.

  11. Lung Cancer Risk and Demographic Characteristics of Current 20-29 Pack-year Smokers: Implications for Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-11-01

    Based on current recommendations, 30+ pack-years of smoking are required for eligibility for low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening; former smokers must have quit within 15 years. We investigated whether current smokers with 20 to 29 pack-years have similar lung cancer risks as eligible former smokers and also whether they have a different demographic profile. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) was a randomly assigned screening trial of subjects age 55 to 74 years with chest radiographs (CXR) used for lung cancer. Subjects completed a baseline questionnaire containing smoking history questions. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and sex, were utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for various smoking history groups. Next, we utilized the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which inquired about smoking history and race/ethnicity, to analyze the demographic profiles of various high-risk smoking history categories. All statistical tests were two-sided. The PLCO cohort included 18 114 former and 12 243 current LDCT-eligible smokers, plus 2283 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The hazard ratio for 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers compared with eligible (30+ pack-year) former smokers was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.5). Based on the NHIS, 10 million persons in the United States are currently LDCT eligible; an additional 1.6 million (16%, 95% CI = 13.6% to 19.0%) are 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The percentage increase in eligibles if 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers were included was substantially greater for women than men (22.2%, 95% CI = 17.9% to 26.7%; vs 12.2%, 95% CI = 9.3% to 15.3%, P non-Hispanic whites (30.0%, 95% CI = 24.2% to 36.0%; vs 14.1%, 95% CI = 11.1% to 17.0%, P smokers should be assessed. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Noguchi, Satomi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kajii, Eiji

    2009-02-18

    In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with the physician population and show which characteristics of a community determine its "attractiveness" to physicians. Associations between the number of physicians and selected demographic/economic/life-related variables of all of Japan's 3132 municipalities were examined. In order to exclude the confounding effect of community size, correlations between the physician-to-population ratio and other variable-to-population ratios or variable-to-area ratios were evaluated with simple correlation and multiple regression analyses. The equity of physician distribution against each variable was evaluated by the orenz curve and Gini index. Among the 21 variables selected, the service industry workers-to-population ratio (0.543), commercial land price (0.527), sales of goods per person (0.472), and daytime population density (0.451) were better correlated with the physician-to-population ratio than was population density (0.409). Multiple regression analysis showed that the service industry worker-to-population ratio, the daytime population density, and the elderly rate were each independently correlated with the physician-to-population ratio (standardized regression coefficient 0.393, 0.355, 0.089 respectively; each pindustry population (Gini index=0.26) and daytime population (0.28) than against population (0.33). Daytime population and service industry population in a municipality are better parameters of community attractiveness to physicians than population. Because attractiveness is supposed to consist

  13. Community characteristics that attract physicians in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of community demographic and economic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyokawa Satoshi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, there is a surplus of physicians in some communities and a shortage in others. Population size is known to be correlated with the number of physicians in a community, and is conventionally considered to represent the power of communities to attract physicians. However, associations between other demographic/economic variables and the number of physicians in a community have not been fully evaluated. This study seeks other parameters that correlate with the physician population and show which characteristics of a community determine its "attractiveness" to physicians. Methods Associations between the number of physicians and selected demographic/economic/life-related variables of all of Japan's 3132 municipalities were examined. In order to exclude the confounding effect of community size, correlations between the physician-to-population ratio and other variable-to-population ratios or variable-to-area ratios were evaluated with simple correlation and multiple regression analyses. The equity of physician distribution against each variable was evaluated by the orenz curve and Gini index. Results Among the 21 variables selected, the service industry workers-to-population ratio (0.543, commercial land price (0.527, sales of goods per person (0.472, and daytime population density (0.451 were better correlated with the physician-to-population ratio than was population density (0.409. Multiple regression analysis showed that the service industry worker-to-population ratio, the daytime population density, and the elderly rate were each independently correlated with the physician-to-population ratio (standardized regression coefficient 0.393, 0.355, 0.089 respectively; each p Conclusion Daytime population and service industry population in a municipality are better parameters of community attractiveness to physicians than population. Because attractiveness is supposed to consist of medical demand and the amenities

  14. Disability acquisition and mental health: effect modification by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using data from an Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Simpson, Julie Anne; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne Marie

    2017-09-18

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001. Four waves of data were included in this analysis, from 2011 to 2014. Individuals who acquired a disability (n=387) were compared with those who remained disability-free in all four waves (n=7936). Mental health was measured using the mental health subscale of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological well-being. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health, testing for effect modification by key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. To maximise causal inference, we used a propensity score approach with inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding and multiple imputation using chained equations to assess the impact of missing data. On average, disability acquisition was associated with a 5-point decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: -5.1, 95% CI -7.2 to -3.0). There was strong evidence that income and relationship status modified the effect, with more detrimental effects in the lowest (-12.5, 95% CI -18.5 to -6.5) compared with highest income quintile (-1.1, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.7) and for people not in a relationship (-8.8, 95% CI -12.9 to -4.8) compared with those who were (-3.7, 95% CI -6.1 to -1.4). Our results suggest that the detrimental effect of disability acquisition on mental health is substantially greater for socioeconomic

  15. The co-occurrence of substance use and bullying behaviors among U.S. adolescents: understanding demographic characteristics and social influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of subtypes of substance use and bullying behaviors using latent class analysis and evaluated latent class differences in demographic characteristics, peer and parental influences. Self-reported questionnaire data were collected from a nationally representative sample (N = 7508) of 6-10th grade adolescents in the United States. Four latent classes were identified: the non-involved (57.7%), substance users (19.4%), bullies (17.5%), and substance-using bullies (5.4%). Older and Hispanic adolescents were more likely to be substance users and substance-using bullies, whereas younger and African American adolescents were more likely to be bullies. Females were more likely to be substance users, whereas males were more likely to be bullies and substance-using bullies. Spending more evenings with peers posed greater risks for substance use, bullying, and the co-occurrence of both problem behaviors. Paternal knowledge exerted protective effects over-and-above the effects of maternal knowledge. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  16. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Sloan

    Full Text Available This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK. Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/ relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups but further confirmatory work is needed.

  17. Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900

  18. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  19. The Influence of Self-Esteem and Selected Demographic Characteristics on First Semester Academic Achievement of Students Enrolled in a College of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Mae B.; Burnett, Michael F.; Gaspard, Camile P.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem and selected demographic characteristics on academic achievement among students at the freshman level in the College of Agriculture at Louisiana State University. The sample of the study was all students at Louisiana State University enrolled in the Introduction to…

  20. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder : A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample

  1. Out-of-School and "At Risk?" Socio-Demographic Characteristics, AIDS Knowledge and Risk Perception among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…

  2. The role of behavioral economic incentive design and demographic characteristics in financial incentive-based approaches to changing health behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, Nancy; Patel, Mitesh S; Lim, Raymond; Zhu, Jingsan; Troxel, Andrea B; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the use of behavioral economics to design financial incentives to promote health behavior change and to explore associations with demographic characteristics. Studies performed by the Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics at the University of Pennsylvania published between January 2006 and March 2014. Randomized, controlled trials with available participant-level data. Studies that did not use financial incentives to promote health behavior change were excluded. Participant-level data from seven studies were pooled. Meta-analysis on the pooled sample using a random-effects model with interaction terms to examine treatment effects and whether they varied by incentive structure or demographic characteristics. The pooled study sample comprised 1403 participants, of whom 35% were female, 70% were white, 24% were black, and the mean age was 48 years (standard deviation 11.2 years). In the fully adjusted model, participants offered financial incentives had higher odds of behavior change (odds ratio [OR]: 3.96; p financial incentives and gender, age, race, income, or education. When further adjusting for incentive structure, blacks had higher odds than whites of achieving behavior change (OR: 1.67; p Financial incentives designed using concepts from behavioral economics were effective for promoting health behavior change. There were no large and consistent relationships between the effectiveness of financial incentives and observable demographic characteristics. Second-order examinations of incentive structure suggest potential relationships among the effectiveness of financial incentives, incentive structure, and the demographic characteristics of race and income.

  3. Academic, Socio-Emotional and Demographic Characteristics of Adolescents Involved in Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying, or Both: Looking at Variables and Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The present paper (1) examined variables, which could predict traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization and cybervictimization and (2) looked at persons to examine whether academic, socio-emotional and demographic characteristics differed between traditional, cyber and mixed bullies, victims and bully-victims. A sample of…

  4. What Matters Most? Assessing the Influence of Demographic Characteristics, College-Specific Risk Factors, and Poly-Drug Use on Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Christina; Farley, Erin J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although prior recent research has revealed a significant relationship between the nonmedical use of prescription drugs, demographic characteristics, college-specific risk factors, and other substance use among college students, there remains a need to conduct a comparative analysis on the differential impact these factors may have on…

  5. Demographics and patient characteristics of 1209 patients with Gaucher disease: Descriptive analysis from the Gaucher Outcome Survey (GOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmatoug, Nadia; Bembi, Bruno; Deegan, Patrick; Elstein, Deborah; Fernandez‐Sasso, Diego; Giraldo, Pilar; Goker‐Alpan, Ozlem; Lau, Heather; Lukina, Elena; Panahloo, Zoya; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Gaucher Outcome Survey (GOS) is an international Gaucher disease (GD) registry established in 2010 for patients with a confirmed GD diagnosis, regardless of GD type or treatment status, designed to evaluate the safety and long‐term effectiveness of velaglucerase alfa and other GD‐related treatments. As of February 25, 2017, 1209 patients had enrolled, the majority from Israel (44.3%) and the US (31.4%). Median age at GOS entry was 40.4 years, 44.1% were male, and 13.3% had undergone a total splenectomy. Most patients had type 1 GD (91.5%) and were of Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity (55.8%). N370S/N370S was the most prevalent genotype, accounting for 44.2% of genotype‐confirmed individuals (n = 847); however, there was considerable variation between countries. A total of 887 (73.4%) patients had received ≥1 GD‐specific treatment at any time, most commonly imiglucerase (n = 587), velaglucerase alfa (n = 507), and alglucerase (n = 102). Hematological and visceral findings at the time of GOS entry were close to normal for most patients, probably a result of previous treatment; however, spleen volume of patients in Israel was almost double that of patients elsewhere (7.2 multiples of normal [MN] vs. 2.7, 2.9 and 4.9 MN in the US, UK and rest of world), which may be explained by a greater disease severity in this cohort. This analysis aimed to provide an overview of GOS and present baseline demographic and disease characteristics of participating patients to help improve the understanding of the natural history of GD and inform the overall management of patients with the disease. PMID:29090476

  6. [Hysterectomies at the Conakry university hospitals: social, demographic, and clinical characteristics, types, indications, surgical approaches, and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, I S; Sy, T; Diallo, B S; Diallo, Y; Mamy, M N; Diallo, M H; Bah, E M; Diallo, T S; Keita, N

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to calculate the frequency of hysterectomies at the Conakry university hospitals (Donka Hospital and Ignace Deen Hospital), describe the women's social, demographic, and clinical characteristics, and identify the key indications, the surgical techniques used, and the prognosis. This was a 2-year descriptive study, retrospective for the first year (May 2011-April 2012) and prospective for the second (May 2012-April 2013), of 333 consecutive hysterectomies performed in the obstetrics and gynecology departments of these two hospitals. Hysterectomy is one of the surgical procedures most commonly performed in these departments (following cesarean deliveries), with frequency of 4.4% interventions. The profile of the women undergoing this surgery was that of a woman aged younger than 49 years (61%), married (75.7%), multiparous (33%), of childbearing age (61%), and with no history of abdominal or pelvic surgery (79.6%). Nearly all hysterectomies were total (95%, compared with 5% subtotal; the approach was abdominal in 82.25% of procedures and vaginal in 17.75%. The most common indication for surgery was uterine fibroids (39.6%), followed by genital prolapse (22.2%), and obstetric emergencies (17.8%). The average duration of surgery was 96 minutes for abdominal and 55 minutes for vaginal hysterectomies. The principal intraoperative complication was hemorrhage (12.31%), and the main postoperative complication parietal suppuration (21.02%). The average length of hospital stay was 10.3 days for abdominal hysterectomies and 7.15 days for vaginal procedures. We recorded 14 deaths for a lethality rate of 4.2%; most of these deaths were associated with hemorrhagic shock during or after an obstetric hysterectomy (93%). Hysterectomy remains a common intervention in developing countries. Its indications are common during the pregnancy and postpartum period, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Improving obstetric coverage could reduce its

  7. What Do Deep Statistical Analysis on Gaming Motivation and Game Characteristics Clusters Reveal about Targeting Demographics when Designing Gamified Contents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comprehensive results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. We present the full results of the study in the form of inferential statistics and a review of our descriptive statistics previously reported in [46]. Separate one-way independent-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA's were used to analyze the data from several instruments to determine if there were statistically significant differences first by gender, then by age group, and then by degree. Moreover, a one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between the clusters in the 5 gaming clusters on the Game Characteristic Survey. Follow-up paired samples t-tests were used to see if there was a statistically significant difference between each of the 10 possible combinations of paired clusters. Our results support the hypotheses and outline the features that may need to be taken into account in support of tailoring gamified educational content targeting a certain demographic. Sections 1, 2, and 3 below from our pervious study [46] are included because this is the second part of the two-part study. [46] Tavakkoli, A., Loffredo, D., Ward, M., Sr. (2014. "Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education", Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, 12(4, 66-78.

  8. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumber, Samuel N; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M

    2016-11-18

    The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  9. [Association between vaginal secretion culture, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Márcio Tavares; Gonçalves, Ana Carolina; Alvim, Mariana Carolina Tocantins; Castellano Filho, Didier Silveira; Zimmermmann, Juliana Barroso; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the etiology and the epidemiological profile of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and predisposing factors. Vaginal secretions were streaked in Sabouraud agar and yeast samples were isolated and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Demographic and clinical data were obtained with a questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the χ² and Fischer tests were applied as needed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, with the level of significance set at 5%. Sixty-nine patients aged from 15 to 52 years were evaluated. They were predominantly white (79.7%), with higher education (58%), married (56.5%) and sexually active (97.1%). Among them, 34.8% were pregnant, 7.2% diabetic, 1.4% seropositive for AIDS, and 36.2% were using oral contraceptives. Recent antibiotic therapy was mentioned by 13% of the patients, and antifungal or anti-trichomonas therapy was mentioned by 5.8 and 1.4% of the patients, respectively. Corticosteroid use was reported by 2.9% and antineoplastic by 1.4%. Vaginal discharge and itching were the main complaints (97.1 and 73.9%), followed by burning (63.8%) and erythema (63.8%). When present, the vaginal flow was predominantly white (88.1%) or lumpy (86.6%). The diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 55 (79.7%) patients, with mixed infections in 4 patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans, followed by C. glabrata (one monoinfection and two mixed infections with C. albicans). C. lusitaniae and C. albicans were also identified in mixed infections (two patients). Despite the high culture positivity and clinical data characteristic of VVC, the symptoms were not pathognomonic. C. albicans is the most prevalent species, but other species are also involved in VVC etiology, such as the emergence of C. lusitaniae.

  10. Influences of demographic characteristics, attitudes, and preferences of consumers on table egg consumption in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M

    2011-05-01

    In addition to regular (white and brown) eggs, alternative types of table eggs (e.g., free-run, free-range, organic) are available in the Canadian market, and their market growth rate has been high during the last decade in British Columbia (BC). The objective of our research was to identify associations between consumers' attitudes, preferences, and demographic characteristics with their consumption of different types of table eggs. An online survey was conducted in June 2009 to gather information from adult BC residents. Sixty-eight percent of the 1,027 randomly selected subjects completed the survey. Our survey indicated that the consumption of cage-free specialty eggs (free-run, free-range, and organic) has strongly increased in BC to 32.9% free-range eggs, 11.93% organic eggs, and 7.6% free-run eggs in 2009 compared with a Print Measurement Bureau consumer survey that showed combined 8% consumption of cage-free specialty eggs in 2007. Results of our survey indicated that, compared with consumers of white regular eggs, consumers of free-range eggs came from smaller households and had a higher education level and income. These consumers indicated that factors of health, nutritional value, environmental issues, and animal welfare were important in egg type selection. Although most consumers rated the specialty eggs as having a higher nutritional value than white regular eggs, price became the most important deciding factor for those consumers who selected white regular eggs. Our findings indicate that increased consumption and increased differentiation exist in the table egg market and this in turn provides support for more research to increase the efficiency of cage-free egg production systems and for better consumer education.

  11. Clinical and demographic characteristics associated with the receipt of chemotherapy treatment among 7951 elderly metastatic colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Emily S; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Hanna, Nader; Seal, Brian S; Mullins, C Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Among older individuals diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer (mCC) there is limited evidence available that describes the characteristics associated with advancing to second- and subsequent lines of treatment with chemotherapy/biologics. Our objective was to describe the trends and lines of treatment received among elderly mCC patients. Elderly beneficiaries diagnosed with mCC from 2003 to 2007 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare dataset. Beneficiaries were followed up until death or censoring. Treatment lines were classified in combinations of chemotherapies and biologics. Modified Poisson regression was used to predict receipt of lines of treatment. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, gender, marital status, state buy-in during diagnosis year, SEER-registry site, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), poor performance indicators, surgery of primary site, and surgery of regional/distal sites. Among 7951 Medicare beneficiaries identified with mCC, 3266 initiated therapy. Of these, 1440 advanced to second-line treatment. Of these, 274 advanced to a subsequent-line treatment. Surgeries of the primary tumor site and of the regional/distal sites and marital status were the most significant variables associated with advancing through second- and subsequent-line treatments. Greater than 80 years of age, African American race, SEER-registry area, less than 6 months state buy-in assistance in mCC diagnosis year, and having poor performance indicators were inversely associated with receipt of second- or subsequent-line treatments. Among elderly individuals diagnosed with mCC, we identified demographic, clinical, and regional factors associated with receipt of second- and subsequent-line chemotherapy/biologics. Additional research is warranted to understand the role of physician versus patient preferences as well as geographic differences explaining why patients advance through lines of chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors

  12. Trends in energy intake from alcoholic beverages by socio-demographic characteristics among US adults, 1989–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lauren; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long term US trends in alcoholic beverage calorie intakes remain unexamined, particularly with respect to changes in population subgroup-specific patterns over time. Objective This study examines shifts in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in total and by beverage type, on any given day among US adults in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. Design This study was a repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants/setting Adults ≥19 years (N = 39,298); a subset of alcoholic beverage consumers (n = 7,081) were studied. Statistical analyses performed Survey weighted mean per capita per day intakes (among all participants, both consumers of alcoholic beverages and non-consumers) and contributions of beer, wine, and liquor/mixed drinks to total alcoholic beverage energy were determined. Multivariable regression models were used to examine trends in the proportion of alcoholic beverage consumers and the per consumer intakes (among consumers of alcoholic beverages only). Results Per capita intakes from alcoholic beverages increased from 49 kcal/cap/d in 1989–1991 to 109 kcal/cap/d in 2003–2006 (pbeverages on any given day increased significantly from 1989–1991 to 2009–2012 (p for overall increasing trend beverage calories increased between 1989–1991 and 1994–1996 (pbeverage intake for less educated consumers across time. Conclusions These results indicate there has been an increase in the proportion of US adults who drink on any given day, and an increase in calories consumed from alcoholic beverages when drinking occurs. PMID:27132721

  13. The changing demographics of total joint arthroplasty recipients in the United States and Ontario from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Croxford, Ruth; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Katz, Jeffrey N; Hawker, Gillian A

    2012-10-01

    The rates of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip and knee have increased in North America over the last decade. While initially designed for elderly patients (>70 years of age), several reports suggest that an increasing number of younger patients are undergoing joint replacements. This suggests that more people are meeting the indication for TJA earlier in their lives. Alternatively, it might indicate a broadening of the indications for TJA. We used the administrative databases available at the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) to determine the rates of TJA of the hip and knee in the United States, and Ontario, Canada, respectively. We determined the crude rates of THA and TKA in both areas for four calendar years (2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007). We also calculated the age- and sex-standardised rates of THA and TKA in both areas for each time period. We compared the age distribution of TJA recipients between the US and Ontario, and within each area over time. The crude and standardised rates of THA and TKA increased over time in both the US and Ontario. The crude rates of THA were higher in the US in 2001 and 2003, but were not significantly different from the rate in Ontario in 2005 and 2007. The crude rates of TKA were consistently higher in the US for all time periods. In addition, the US consistently had more THA and TKA recipients in 'younger' age categories (age). While the age- and sex-standardised rates of TKA were greater in the US in all time periods, the relative increase in rates from 2001 to 2007 was greater in Ontario (US - 59%, Ontario - 73%). For both the US and Ontario, there was a significant shift in the demographic of THA and TKA recipients to younger patients (p age groups in the general population, in both the US and Ontario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changing Demographics and Injury Profile of New Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries in the United States, 1972-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuying; He, Yin; DeVivo, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    To document trends in the demographic and injury profile of new spinal cord injury (SCI) over time. Cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal data by injury years (1972-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009, 2010-2014). Twenty-eight Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems centers throughout the United States. Persons with traumatic SCI (N=30,881) enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Database. Not applicable. Age, sex, race, education level, employment, marital status, etiology, and severity of injury. Age at injury has increased from 28.7 years in the 1970s to 42.2 years during 2010 to 2014. This aging phenomenon was noted for both sexes, all races, and all etiologies except acts of violence. The percentage of racial minorities expanded continuously over the last 5 decades. Virtually among all age groups, the average education levels and percentage of single/never married status have increased, which is similar to the trends noted in the general population. Although vehicular crashes continue to be the leading cause of SCI overall, the percentage has declined from 47.0% in the 1970s to 38.1% during 2010 to 2014. Injuries caused by falls have increased over time, particularly among those aged ≥46 years. Progressive increases in the percentages of high cervical and motor incomplete injuries were noted for various age, sex, race, and etiology groups. Study findings call for geriatrics expertise and intercultural competency of the clinical team in the acute and rehabilitation care for SCI. This study also highlights the need for a multidimensional risk assessment and multifactorial intervention, especially to reduce falls and SCI in older adults. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of patient demographics and comorbidities upon burns admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloake, T; Haigh, T; Cheshire, J; Walker, D

    2017-03-01

    In South Africa, burns are a major public health problem responsible for significant morbidity and long-term physical disability. This is, in part, due to a significant proportion of the urban population living in poorly constructed, combustible accommodation. The presence of co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and malignancy in patients with burns has been associated with a poorer outcome. The impact of other diseases such as HIV has yet to be defined. A retrospective data collection study analysed the 221 patients admitted to Tygerberg Hospital Burns Unit in 2011 and the first six months of 2013. Using hospital records, patient demographic data was collected alongside burn agent, ICU admission, complications, and patient outcome in terms of length of stay and mortality. The most common burn agent was hot liquid (45.7%). A significant proportion of patients were subject to intentional attacks (34.3%). Shack fires and flame accounted cumulatively for 85% of total inhalational burns, the highest rates of admission to ICU (85.5%), the highest rate of complications, as well as 92.3% of all total fatalities. HIV+ patients had a higher mortality (13.3% vs 5%, p=0.22) and a higher complication rate (46.7% vs 30%, p=0.21). There was no difference in length of stay between the HIV+ and HIV- cohort (12days vs. 15.5 days, p=0.916). Burns are a significant yet preventable cause of mortality and morbidity. The rising number of shack fires, responsible for extensive burns and resultant mortality is concerning and indicates urgent attention and action. HIV complicates the recovery from burn and is responsible for an increased rate of in hospital mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) for girls and older teens. In addition, higher odds of mealtime media use (P<0.05) were also seen among those whose parents had low education levels or were black or Asian; having parental rules about media use significantly reduced these odds. Frequent mealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (P<0.05) and scores indicating less importance placed on mealtimes (P<0.001). Furthermore, frequent mealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05). The ubiquitous use of mealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do sedentary behaviors mediate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and BMI in women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Abbott, Gavin; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Ball, Kylie

    2015-04-09

    Women living in deprived neighborhoods are a risk group for overweight and obesity, particularly during the childbearing years. Several socio-demographic characteristics may compound this risk, but little is known about why this might be the case. Sedentary behaviors are emerging as a socio-demographically patterned risk factor for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to assess socio-demographic differences in sedentary behaviors, and to examine whether these behaviors could explain the relation between socio-demographic variables and BMI (BMI) in this risk group. Women aged 18-46 years were recruited from 40 urban and 40 rural deprived neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. In total, 3879 women reported socio-demographic variables (age, educational level, employment status, marital status, number of children, residential location and country of birth), sedentary behaviors (television time, computer time, total screen time and total sedentary time), physical activity, and height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI. For each socio-demographic variable, four single mediation models were conducted using two-level mixed-models regression analyses. Mediating effects were examined using the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients procedure and the Sobel test. All socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with sedentary behaviors. Single mediation analyses revealed that television time (αβ = 0.017, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.030) and total screen time (αβ = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000, 0.012) mediated 14.1% and 4.9% of the relationship between educational level and BMI, respectively. Total screen time mediated 45.1% of the relationship between employment status and BMI (αβ = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.033, -0.006), and television time mediated 8.2% of the relationship between country of birth and BMI (αβ = -0.008, 95% CI = -0.016, -0.001). Sedentary behaviors differed depending on socio-demographic characteristics, and partly

  18. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  20. Characteristics of Transgender Women Living with HIV Receiving Medical Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Frazier, Emma L; Huang, Ping; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    Little has been reported from population-based surveys on the characteristics of transgender persons living with HIV. Using Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) data, we describe the characteristics of HIV-infected transgender women and examine their care and treatment needs. We used combined data from the 2009 to 2011 cycles of MMP, an HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of the characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, to compare demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, and met and unmet needs for supportive services of transgender women with those of non-transgender persons using Rao-Scott chi-square tests. An estimated 1.3% of HIV-infected persons receiving care in the United States self-identified as transgender women. Transgender women were socioeconomically more marginalized than non-transgender men and women. We found no differences between transgender women and non-transgender men and women in the percentages prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a significantly lower percentage of transgender women compared to non-transgender men had 100% ART dose adherence (78.4% vs. 87.4%) and durable viral suppression (50.8% vs. 61.4%). Higher percentages of transgender women needed supportive services. No differences were observed in receipt of most of supportive services, but transgender women had higher unmet needs than non-transgender men for basic services such as food and housing. We found little difference between transgender women and non-transgender persons in regards to receipt of care, treatment, and most of supportive services. However, the noted disparities in durable viral suppression and unmet needs for basic services should be explored further.

  1. Baseline demographic characteristics of subjects enrolled in international quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, Jorma

    2008-06-01

    In Phase II/III trials, administration of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and non-invasive cervical cancer in women aged 16-26 years who were naïve to these HPV types at enrollment. However, the makeup and extent of catch-up vaccination programs among young women is unclear, because a proportion of this population will likely already have been exposed to one or more vaccine-HPV-types. Herein we analyze baseline data from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program to investigate variables which may help shape catch-up vaccine implementation policies. Female adolescents and young adults aged 16-26 years were randomized into five clinical trials. Baseline data regarding demographics, sexual history, pregnancy history, and other characteristics were collected at enrollment. At the baseline gynecological examination during enrollment, specimens were obtained for Pap testing. Swabs of external genital, lateral vaginal, and cervical sites for HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were taken, and serum samples were obtained for HPV serology testing. Regional analyses of data were conducted. Overall, 72% of subjects enrolled worldwide were naïve by both serology and PCR to all four vaccine HPV types. Few subjects were seropositive and/or PCR positive for more than two vaccine-related HPV types. Of all subjects with HSIL at enrollment, 78% were positive to at least one vaccine-related HPV type at enrollment. Regional differences in HPV and STD prevalence were evident. Study limitations included under-representation of women with >/=4 sexual partners and possible underestimation of prior HPV exposure. Our findings demonstrate that sexually active 16-26 year-old women with America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific are generally naïve to most or all types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine

  2. The effect of association between inefficient arsenic methylation capacity and demographic characteristics on the risk of skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-01-15

    This study was conducted in rural Pakistan to assess the dose-response relationship between skin lesions and arsenic exposure and their variation by demographic characteristics. The study included 398 participants (66 participants with skin lesions and 332 without) residing in six previously unstudied villages exposed to ground water arsenic in the range of iAs), total arsenic (tAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were analysed to determine methylation capacity, methylation efficiency and the dose-response relationship with skin lesions. Study participants with skin lesions were found to be exposed to arsenic >10μgL -1 with a daily arsenic intake of 3.23±3.75mgday -1 from household ground water sources for an exposure duration of 10-20years. The participants with skin lesions compared to those without skin lesions showed higher levels of urinary iAs (133.40±242.48 vs. 44.24±86.48μgg -1 Cr), MMA (106.38±135.04 vs. 35.43±39.97μgg -1 Cr), MMA% (15.26±6.31 vs.12.11±4.68) and lower levels of DMA% (66.99±13.59 vs. 73.39±10.44) and secondary methylation index (SMI) (0.81±0.11 vs. 0.86±0.07). Study participants carrying a lower methylation capacity characterized by higher MMA% (OR 5.06, 95% CI: 2.09-12.27), lower DMA% (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-1.26), primary methylation index (PMI) (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.28-1.12) and SMI (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88) had a significantly higher risk of skin lesions compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for occupation categories. The findings confirmed that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was significantly associated with increased skin lesion risks and the effect might be modified by labour intensive occupations. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Demographic characteristics and visual status of patients undergoing cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurawa, Musbahu Sani; Abdu, Lawan

    2017-01-01

    Objective/Purpose: To describe the demographic and baseline ocular characteristics, prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction for age related cataract at the study hospital over a one year period. Materials/Patients: All consecutive patients aged 40 years and above identified with age related cataract in one or both eyes who voluntarily agree to participate were included. The study adhered to the tenets of the Helsinki declaration. Written informed consent was obtained from all eligible patients. All patients underwent basic eye examination by the ophthalmologist. Visual impairment was determined for each eye according to the standard WHO categorizations. Information obtained also included age, sex and history of previous cataract surgery. Data were recorded in manual tally sheets and on modified computer Cataract Surgery Record forms. Analyses were done using SPSS (version 16, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). The participation rate was 91.2%. There were 495 eyes of 487 consecutive patients. This include 212 males and 275 females (M:F, 1:1.3). The age range was 40 to 99 years with a mean age of 62.76 ± 10.49 years (61.35 ± 9.75 years in men and 63.85±10.9 years in females). Most of the patients (n = 451; 92.6%, 95% CI: 89.9-94.6%) were aged 50 years and above. Sixty patients (12.3%, 95% CI: 9.6-15.5%) had cataract in both eyes, 427 (87.7%, 95% CI: 84.5-90.3%) were in one eye. Among these, preoperatively 16 (3.3%, 95% CI: 2.0-5.3%) had aphakia, 21 (4.3%, 95% CI: 2.8-6.5%) had uniocular pseudophakia. About 63.2% (95% CI: 58.9-67.4%) of patients had normal vision in the better eye (presenting VA ≥6/18). Overall 9.5% (95% CI: 7.3-12.7%) were bilaterally blind. About 96.8% of eyes (95% CI: 94.5-98.0%) undergoing cataract surgery were blind (presenting VAConclusion: The study highlights preponderance of females and high incidence of blinding cataract. Education and early disease awareness may play an important

  4. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  5. Patterns of the Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Resource Utilization Among Maternal Decedents in Texas, 2001 - 2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary reporting of maternal mortality is focused on single, mutually exclusive causes of death among a minority of maternal decedents (pregnancy-related deaths), reflecting initial events leading to death. Although obstetric patients are susceptible to the lethal effects of downstream, more proximate contributors to death and to conditions not caused or precipitated by pregnancy, the burden of both categories and related patients' attributes is invisible to clinicians and healthcare policy makers with the current reporting system. Thus, the population-level demographics, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization associated with pregnancy-associated deaths in the United States have not been adequately characterized. We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to perform a population-based cohort study of the patterns of demographics, chronic comorbidity, occurrence of early maternal demise, potential contributors to maternal death, and resource utilization among maternal decedents in the state during 2001 - 2010. There were 557 maternal decedents during study period. Chronic comorbidity was reported in 45.2%. Most women (74.1%) were admitted to an ICU. Hemorrhage (27.8%), sepsis (23.5%), and cardiovascular conditions (22.6%) were the most commonly reported potential contributing conditions to maternal death, varying across categories of pregnancy-associated hospitalizations. More than one condition was reported in 39% of decedents. One in three women died during their first day of hospitalization, with no significant change over the past decade. The mean hospital length of stay was 7.9 days and total hospital charges were $250,000 or higher in 65 (11.7%) women. The findings of the high burden of chronic illness, patterns of occurrence of a broad array of potential contributing conditions to pregnancy-associated death, and the resource-intensive needs of a large contemporary population-based cohort of maternal decedents may better inform

  6. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Guest, Richard; Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications.

  7. Effects of lexical characteristics and demographic factors on mandarin chinese open-set word recognition in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihong; Liu, Sha; Wang, Suju; Liu, Chang; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Shujing; Yang, Yilin; Han, Demin; Zhang, Luo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the open-set word recognition performance of Mandarin Chinese-speaking children who had received a multichannel cochlear implant (CI) and examine the effects of lexical characteristics and demographic factors (i.e., age at implantation and duration of implant use) on Mandarin Chinese open-set word recognition in these children. Participants were 230 prelingually deafened children with CIs. Age at implantation ranged from 0.9 to 16.0 years, with a mean of 3.9 years. The Standard-Chinese version of the Monosyllabic Lexical Neighborhood test and the Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood test were used to evaluate the open-set word identification abilities of the children. A two-way analysis of variance was performed to delineate the lexical effects on the open-set word identification, with word difficulty and syllable length as the two main factors. The effects of age at implantation and duration of implant use on open-set, word-recognition performance were examined using correlational/regressional models. First, the average percent-correct scores for the disyllabic "easy" list, disyllabic "hard" list, monosyllabic "easy" list, and monosyllabic "hard" list were 65.0%, 51.3%, 58.9%, and 46.2%, respectively. For both the easy and hard lists, the percentage of words correctly identified was higher for disyllabic words than for monosyllabic words, Second, the CI group scored 26.3%, 31.3%, and 18.8 % points lower than their hearing-age-matched normal-hearing peers for 4, 5, and 6 years of hearing age, respectively. The corresponding gaps between the CI group and the chronological-age-matched normal-hearing group were 47.6, 49.6, and 42.4, respectively. The individual variations in performance were much greater in the CI group than in the normal-hearing group, Third, the children exhibited steady improvements in performance as the duration of implant use increased, especially 1 to 6 years postimplantation. Last, age at implantation had

  8. Demographics and sexual characteristics of sex-enhancing medication users: Study of a web-based cross-sectional sample of sexually active men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul-Fotouh Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Results: Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9% reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1% bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Conclusions: Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Keywords: Characteristics, Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, Sex-enhancing medication use

  9. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Engagement in Behavioral Health Treatment among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croen, Lisa A.; Shankute, Naomi; Davignon, Meghan; Massolo, Maria L.; Yoshida, Cathleen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation, continuation, and adherence to behavioral health treatment (BHT) among children with autism spectrum disorder. Among 293 insured children referred for applied behavior analysis (ABA) based BHT, 23% never initiated treatment. Among those initiating treatment, 31%…

  10. Socio-demographic and other patient characteristics associated with time between colonoscopy and surgery, and choice of treatment centre for colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsbury, David; Harris, Mark Fort; Pascoe, Shane; Olver, Ian; Barton, Michael; Spigelman, Allan; O'Connell, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate key patient clinical and demographic characteristics associated with time between colonoscopy and surgery, and choice of treatment centre for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This will add to the little published research examining the pathway following CRC diagnosis and prior to surgery. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of linked data. Setting A population-based sample of people diagnosed August 2004 to December 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. Participants ...

  11. Comparative study of an HIV risk scorecard and regression models to rank effects of demographic characteristics on risk of aquiring an HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbert Sibanda; Philip Pretorius

    2013-01-01

    This research paper covers the development of an HIV risk scorecard using SAS Enterprise MinerTM. The HIV risk scorecard was developed using the 2007 South African annual antenatal HIV and syphilis seroprevalence data. Limited comparisons are made with a more recent 2010 antenatal database. Antenatal data contains various demographic characteristics for each pregnant woman, such as pregnant woman’s age, male sexual partner’s age, population group, level of education, gravidity, parity, HIV an...

  12. Demographics and sexual characteristics of sex-enhancing medication users: Study of a web-based cross-sectional sample of sexually active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abul-Fotouh; Alshahrani, Saad; Morgan, Anthony; Gabr, Ahmed H; Abdel-Razik, Mohamed; Daoud, Abdallah

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM) use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9%) reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1%) bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population.

  13. The Role of Demographic Factors of International Students on Teaching Preferences: An Empirical Research from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research was conducted in a medium-sized private university located in the north-eastern region of the USA. The purpose of this paper was to understand whether demographic attributes (age, gender, country of origin and years of stay in the USA) of international students will predict any preferences for specific teaching…

  14. Characteristics of Adults Who Used Mindfulness Meditation: United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Natalia E; Moore, Charity G; Greco, Carol M

    2017-07-01

    To describe estimates of the number and characteristics of persons who had used mindfulness meditation in the U.S. Data from 108,131 adults from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were weighted to produce national estimates representative of the U.S. Persons who used mindfulness meditation were identified by their response to the question "During the past 12 months, did you use mindfulness meditation?" An estimated 2,029,720 adults had used mindfulness meditation. Compared with those who did not meditate, more meditators endorsed moderate exercise (79.6% vs. 54.8%; p meditators had low-back and neck pain and headache (36.7% vs. 28.9 [p = 0.0002]; 26.4% vs. 14.7% [pmeditators reported being nervous or feeling sad at least a little of the time (60.4% vs. 37.8% and 34% vs. 23.5%, respectively; pmeditation was used by an estimated 2,029,720 adults in the United States in 2012. More meditators than nonmeditators reported more pain and reported feeling nervous or sad and being stressed, suggesting a reason for using mindfulness meditation.

  15. Demographic Characteristics of Voluntary Donors Registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank of China: A Retrospective Study From 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y N; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, A P; Liang, Q F; Pan, Z Q

    2017-10-01

    Lack of willingness to pledge eyes among the general population is the main cause for the shortage of cornea tissue in China. A few studies have implied that general-population adults with specific demographics showed more willingness to donate their eyes. In this study, we analyzed the demographic characteristics of 918 voluntary donors registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank in the past 10 years for possible predictors that might help us to identify potential donors in Beijing and increase the donation rate. All copies of voluntary eye donation application forms filled by the registrants from 2007 to 2016 were collected. Basic demographics listed in the application form were extracted for analysis. Demographics were described as proportions and compared by means of a χ 2 test. Besides that, donor counts and proportions of combining 2 demographics from the 4 main demographics were described and compared. Voluntary donors greater than 50 years of age (n = 477, 53.0%) predominated the proportions. Regarding education level and occupation, donors with tertiary education (n = 484, 57.4%) were more numerous than donors with primary and secondary education (n = 355, 42.1%); office clerks, workers, and government officers were more willing to pledge eyes than were donors engaged in other occupations. In addition, donors of the Han race (n = 856, 94.9%) made up the majority and mainly were distributed in 5 central administrative districts of Beijing (n = 629, 77.5%). The present study suggests that older women (>50 years of age), living in a central district, with higher education level and engaged in white-collar work, were possible predictors for potential donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association Between Student Loan Debt on Graduation, Demographic Characteristics and Initial Choice of Practice Setting of Pharmacists

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    Akeem A. Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To examine trends in level of student loan indebtedness for groups of pharmacists that were first licensed between 1980 and 2006; (2 To examine if demographic variables are associated with level of student loan indebtedness; (3 To examine the association between student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Methods: Data for this study were collected from a national random sample of 3,000 pharmacists using a self administered survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine trends in level of indebtedness. The relationships between level of indebtedness, demographic variables and practice setting choice were examined using Chi-square statistics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Results: The proportion of licensed pharmacists reporting student loan debt after graduation, and the mean amount of debt incurred increased between 1980 and 2006. Non-white pharmacists incurred debt at a higher proportion compared to white, and they also incurred significantly higher levels of debt. A lower level of indebtedness was associated with choosing independent practice over chain practice. Conclusions: Student loan indebtedness has been increasing over time, especially for non-white pharmacy students. Future research should be done to examine other factors that might influence student debt load, work contributions and choice of practice settings. The affordability of pharmacy education for students of color and how salaries may or may not help off-set these costs also should be examined closely.   Type: Original Research

  17. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vainer Anna; Yaari Einat; Peled Ronit; Wilf-Miron Rachel; Porath Avi; Kokia Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan) providing healthcare services to 1.9 million memb...

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial consequences of sickle cell disease: the case of patients in a public hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzika, Vincent A; Glozah, Franklin N; Ayim-Aboagye, Desmond; Ahorlu, Collins S K

    2017-01-31

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is of major public health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Ghana. The objective of this study was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. A cross-sectional research design was used that involved the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life, coping mechanisms, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results showed that majority of the patients were single, female, less than 39 years old and had attained secondary school level of education or less. Also, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends and relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having faith in God was the most frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. It is recommended that a holistic intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: overall and across demographic groups living within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel J; Blais, Mark A; Gansler, David A; Sandberg, Elisabeth; Bistis, Kimberly; LoCicero, Alice

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to evaluate the scaling assumptions and component structure of and present normative data for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) using a sample of US adults (N = 503), both overall and across demographic subgroups and (b) to provide new data regarding the relationship between the two RSES subcomponents of self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), and other demographic and clinical variables. As hypothesized, all psychometric tests supported the underlying structure of the RSES. Overall RSES scores varied significantly across age, racial and ethnic, education, employment status, income, and marital status groups. Furthermore, differences between SC and SL were also found across groups differing in gender, age, employment status, and marital status groups. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, with an emphasis on clinical relevance.

  20. Quality of travel health advice in higher-education establishments in the United Kingdom and its relationship to the demographic background of the provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J F Hugh; Knill-Jones, Robin P

    2004-01-01

    The number of international trips undertaken by residents of the United Kingdom has risen dramatically over the past 50 years. Likewise, the numbers studying in higher education have also shown a huge increase. This study aimed to assess the appropriateness of advice given to traveling students by higher education-based health services and to relate this to the demography and experience of the professionals involved. A postal questionnaire describing three hypothetical groups of students traveling to different parts of the world was sent to 335 doctors and nurses. These clinicians belonged to the British Association of Health Services in Higher Education. They worked in 105 practices that serve higher-educational establishments in the United Kingdom. Main outcome measures included whether appropriate immunizations were advised and given correctly through the National Health Service (NHS) or privately, and whether appropriate advice was given regarding malaria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and miscellaneous risks. The sources of information used to advise travelers were also asked, and the effect of demographic characteristics of the respondents on the quality of advice was investigated. Two hundred fifteen (64%) questionnaires were returned. The mean score for whether the correct immunizations were advised was 77%, and for whether these were given correctly through the NHS or privately was 79.6%. For malaria, HIV, and miscellaneous risks, the scores were lower at 65%, 38%, and 32%, respectively. The score for correct immunizations was significantly affected by sex, with females respondents scoring higher (p = .036). Previous training in travel medicine improved scores for immunizations (p = .034) and for the correct choice being given through the NHS or privately (p = .006). Age, hours worked, role, and size of practice had no influence on scores. Charts in the general practice free newspapers were the most popular source of information. Practices serving

  1. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  2. Are species photosynthetic characteristics good predictors of seedling post-hurricane demographic patterns and species spatiotemporal distribution in a hurricane impacted wet montane forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Denneko; McLaren, Kurt

    2018-05-01

    In situ measurements of leaf level photosynthetic response to light were collected from seedlings of ten tree species from a tropical montane wet forest, the John Crow Mountains, Jamaica. A model-based recursive partitioning ('mob') algorithm was then used to identify species associations based on their fitted photosynthetic response curves. Leaf area dark respiration (RD) and light saturated maximum photosynthetic (Amax) rates were also used as 'mob' partitioning variables, to identify species associations based on seedling demographic patterns (from June 2007 to May 2010) following a hurricane (Aug. 2007) and the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of stems in 2006 and 2012. RD and Amax rates ranged from 1.14 to 2.02 μmol (CO2) m-2s-1 and 2.97-5.87 μmol (CO2) m-2s-1, respectively, placing the ten species in the range of intermediate shade tolerance. Several parsimonious species 'mob' groups were formed based on 1) interspecific differences among species response curves, 2) variations in post-hurricane seedling demographic trends and 3) RD rates and species spatiotemporal distribution patterns at aspects that are more or less exposed to hurricanes. The composition of parsimonious groupings based on photosynthetic curves was not concordant with the groups based on demographic trends but was partially concordant with the RD - species spatiotemporal distribution groups. Our results indicated that the influence of photosynthetic characteristics on demographic traits and species distributions was not straightforward. Rather, there was a complex pattern of interaction between ecophysiological and demographic traits, which determined species successional status, post-hurricane response and ultimately, species distribution at our study site.

  3. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle-Related Characteristics Associated with Self-Reported Any, Daily and Occasional Smoking during Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, R.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Heijmans, M.W.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who

  4. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S Lewis

    Full Text Available Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma, Bartonella spp. (Bartonella, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, and feline calicivirus (FCV in bobcat and puma populations across wildland-urban interface (WUI, low-density exurban development, and wildland habitat on the Western Slope (WS and Front Range (FR of Colorado during 2009-2011. Samples were collected from 37 bobcats and 29 pumas on the WS and FR. As predicted, age appeared to be positively related to the exposure to pathogens that are both environmentally transmitted (Toxoplasma and directly transmitted between animals (FIV. In addition, WS bobcats appeared more likely to be exposed to Toxoplasma with increasing intraspecific space-use overlap. However, counter to our predictions, exposure to directly-transmitted pathogens (FCV and FIV was more likely with decreasing space-use overlap (FCV: WS bobcats and potential intraspecific contacts (FIV: FR pumas. Environmental factors, including urbanization and landscape covariates, were generally unsupported in our models. This study is an approximation of how pathogens can be evaluated in relation to demographic, social, and environmental factors to understand pathogen exposure in wild animal populations.

  5. The impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Ramirez, Marizen; Beckman, Linda J; Danao, Leda L; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2011-08-01

    Studies on colorectal cancer screening among specific Asian American groups are limited despite the fact that Asians are comprised of culturally distinct subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cultural characteristics on colorectal cancer screening adherence among Filipinos in the United States. One hundred and seventeen Filipino men and women aged 50 years or older participated in the cross-section research design. Lifetime proportion of immigration, language preference and cultural beliefs of personal control regarding health outcomes measured cultural characteristics. Demographic and healthcare variables were also measured to describe the study sample. Participant recruitment employed culturally responsive sampling methods. There was no significant association between language preference and screening. Likewise, perceived personal internal control of health outcome was not related to screening. However, personal external control revealed a marginally significant association. The percent of lifetime residence in the United States was significantly greater among those who were adherent to screening than those who were not adherent. After adjusting for demographic and healthcare variables, the relationship between length of immigration and screening adherence was no longer significant. Finally, age and doctor's recommendation showed significant impact on colorectal cancer screening adherence. This pilot study adds to the knowledge regarding cultural factors associated with colorectal cancer screening behaviors among Filipino Americans. Future research is needed to confirm findings that will be useful in developing culturally appropriate strategies to increase screening adherence. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Discovering the impact of preceding units' characteristics on the wait time of cardiac surgery unit from statistic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Liu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prior research shows that clinical demand and supplier capacity significantly affect the throughput and the wait time within an isolated unit. However, it is doubtful whether characteristics (i.e., demand, capacity, throughput, and wait time of one unit would affect the wait time of subsequent units on the patient flow process. Focusing on cardiac care, this paper aims to examine the impact of characteristics of the catheterization unit (CU on the wait time of cardiac surgery unit (SU. METHODS: This study integrates published data from several sources on characteristics of the CU and SU units in 11 hospitals in Ontario, Canada between 2005 and 2008. It proposes a two-layer wait time model (with each layer representing one unit to examine the impact of CU's characteristics on the wait time of SU and test the hypotheses using the Partial Least Squares-based Structural Equation Modeling analysis tool. RESULTS: Results show that: (i wait time of CU has a direct positive impact on wait time of SU (β = 0.330, p < 0.01; (ii capacity of CU has a direct positive impact on demand of SU (β = 0.644, p < 0.01; (iii within each unit, there exist significant relationships among different characteristics (except for the effect of throughput on wait time in SU. CONCLUSION: Characteristics of CU have direct and indirect impacts on wait time of SU. Specifically, demand and wait time of preceding unit are good predictors for wait time of subsequent units. This suggests that considering such cross-unit effects is necessary when alleviating wait time in a health care system. Further, different patient risk profiles may affect wait time in different ways (e.g., positive or negative effects within SU. This implies that the wait time management should carefully consider the relationship between priority triage and risk stratification, especially for cardiac surgery.

  7. Food insecurity and budgeting among Liberians in the US: how are they related to socio-demographic and pre-resettlement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, D L; Haldeman, L A; Morrison, S D; Dharod, J M

    2015-04-01

    Objectives of this study: (1) Examine food insecurity (FI) prevalence and its relationship with sociodemographic and pre-resettlement characteristics; (2) Investigate differences in amount of money spent on food/month by food security status and socio-demographic characteristics. A pilot study with semi-structured in-home interviews was conducted with Liberian caregivers (n = 33). FI was indicated in 61% of households. FI was higher among women >40, had ≤ high school education and those making ≤$1,000/month. Women arriving in US >15 years of age were more likely to be food insecure. Participants spent an average $109/month on groceries/member. Food insecure women, and those without a car spent more money on food (P resettlement. Besides poor economic conditions, pre-resettlement characteristics were associated with food security status. These findings call for future research to understand how preresettlement conditions affect food choices, budgeting and thereby food security status.

  8. Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending South Texas schools: demographic, academic, and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon P; Weller, Nancy F; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sara R; Shipp, Eva M

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about academic performance, health, and social functioning of youth from migrant farmworker families. This study was designed to compare demographic, academic, health, and social data between migrant and nonmigrant youth residing in South Texas. Anonymous cross-sectional survey data were collected from 6954 middle and 3565 high school students. About 5% of South Texas middle and high school students reported belonging to a migrant family. Compared with nonmigrant students, migrant youth were more likely to miss and arrive late to school, sleep in class, and study fewer hours weekly. Migrant students reported fewer hours of nightly sleep, fewer hours spent with their friends, and more minor illnesses than nonmigrant youth. These results demonstrate the need for interventions specifically targeted to this vulnerable adolescent population.

  9. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle-Related Characteristics Associated with Self-Reported Any, Daily and Occasional Smoking during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Ruth; Manni?n, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W.; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K.; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The asso...

  10. Factors Associated with Short-Term Transitions of Nondaily Smokers: Socio-demographic Characteristics and Other Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652

  11. Association of demographic characteristics, symptomatology, retrospective and prospective memory, executive functioning and intelligence with social functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Shum, David; Chiu, Helen F K; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors and neurocognitive variables (i.e. prospective and retrospective memory, executive functioning, and intelligence) on social functioning in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The study sample comprised 110 Chinese schizophrenia patients. Their clinical condition and social functioning were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Functional Needs Assessment (FNA), respectively. Three prospective memory (PM) tasks (time-, event-, and activity-based), three tests of executive functioning (the Design Fluency Test [DFT], Tower of London [TOL], and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]), one test of intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices), and two retrospective memory (RM) tasks (the immediate and delayed recall conditions of the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales-Revised [WMS-R]) were administered to all patients. In correlation analyses higher education and better performance on the WCST (categories completed) and the Logical Memory subtests (delayed and immediate) of the WMS-R are significantly correlated with better social functioning, whereas a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) and more severe negative symptoms are associated with poorer social functioning. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that higher education and a lower WCST score (perseverative errors) independently contribute to better social functioning. Unexpectedly, most socio-demographic and clinical factors do not seem to have a significant impact on social functioning of Chinese schizophrenia patients living in a Chinese society. Negative symptoms and certain cognitive deficits were the main predictors of social functioning and they should be the main targets for antipsychotic treatment and psychosocial interventions to improve social adjustment in Chinese schizophrenia patients.

  12. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant and puerperal crack-cocaine using women: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LUCRÉCIA SCHERER ZAVASCHI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The literature provides several studies on the effects of cocaine when exposed to the fetus. However, the majority of these data comes from animal models. Objective The objective of this study is to present socio-demographic and clinical data in crack-cocaine using pregnant women and their babies, as compared to non-users. Methods Cross-sectional study, comprised by 56 dyads of crack-cocaine using mothers-babies and 89 control dyads. In addition to the socio-demographic data and the babies’ information, data collection was based on ABIPEMI for socioeconomic level, WAIS for IQ, MINI for psychopathology and ASSIST for drug use. Results Most crack users, in comparison to non-users, did not have a partner (10.52% vs 4.4%, P = 0.001 and presented lower IQ (78.15, +/-8.07 vs 84.27 +/- 9.87; P = 0.002. The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder and suicide risk in users was higher than in non-users (24.44% vs none, P < 0.001; 28.26% vs 10.46% P = 0.01. Most of the users did not participate in prenatal care (75%. The babies that the crack-cocaine using mothers gave birth to weighed significantly less than the controls (2.858 g vs 3.240 g, P = 0.002. Discussion Users had a higher degree of psychopathology and lower attendance in prenatal care. There was an overlap of adverse factors, both for exposed mothers and babies. The sum of these vulnerabilities could result in significant harm to the developing infant.

  13. Discovering the impact of preceding units' characteristics on the wait time of cardiac surgery unit from statistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiming; Tao, Li; Xiao, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Prior research shows that clinical demand and supplier capacity significantly affect the throughput and the wait time within an isolated unit. However, it is doubtful whether characteristics (i.e., demand, capacity, throughput, and wait time) of one unit would affect the wait time of subsequent units on the patient flow process. Focusing on cardiac care, this paper aims to examine the impact of characteristics of the catheterization unit (CU) on the wait time of cardiac surgery unit (SU). This study integrates published data from several sources on characteristics of the CU and SU units in 11 hospitals in Ontario, Canada between 2005 and 2008. It proposes a two-layer wait time model (with each layer representing one unit) to examine the impact of CU's characteristics on the wait time of SU and test the hypotheses using the Partial Least Squares-based Structural Equation Modeling analysis tool. Results show that: (i) wait time of CU has a direct positive impact on wait time of SU (β = 0.330, p relationships among different characteristics (except for the effect of throughput on wait time in SU). Characteristics of CU have direct and indirect impacts on wait time of SU. Specifically, demand and wait time of preceding unit are good predictors for wait time of subsequent units. This suggests that considering such cross-unit effects is necessary when alleviating wait time in a health care system. Further, different patient risk profiles may affect wait time in different ways (e.g., positive or negative effects) within SU. This implies that the wait time management should carefully consider the relationship between priority triage and risk stratification, especially for cardiac surgery.

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics of participation in the opportunistic German cervical cancer screening programme: results from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, David; Becker, Nikolaus; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nimptsch, Katharina; Linseisen, Jakob

    2009-04-01

    To analyse participation in the German cervical cancer screening programme by socio-demographic characteristics. In the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort study 13,612 women aged 35-65 years were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Follow-up questionnaires were used to analyse participation in cervical cancer screening. Subjects were categorised according to age (birth cohort), education, vocational training, employment status, marital status and household size. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and participation in cervical cancer screening were analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Females of the oldest and middle birth cohort were less likely to be screened compared to the youngest birth cohort. Less-educated women and those with a low-level secondary school degree had a decreased likelihood of undergoing screening in comparison to better educated women. Married women and women living in households with four or more persons were more likely to participate in the screening programme than single women or women living alone. Employment status did not modify participation in cervical cancer screening. Knowledge on the characteristics of women with a lower attendance to cervical cancer screening could be used to improve the effectiveness of the current (opportunistic) programme by dedicated health promotion programmes. However, an organized screening programme with written invitation of all eligible women would be the preferred option.

  15. Considering context in academic medicine: differences in demographic and professional characteristics and in research productivity and advancement metrics across seven clinical departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Erica T; Carapinha, René; Weber, Griffin M; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y

    2015-08-01

    To understand the disciplinary contexts in which faculty work, the authors examined demographics, professional characteristics, research productivity, and advancement across seven clinical departments at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and nationally. HMS analyses included faculty from seven clinical departments-anesthesiology, medicine, neurology, pediatrics, psychiatry, radiology, and surgery-in May 2011 (N = 7,304). National analyses included faculty at 141 U.S. medical schools in the same seven departments as of December 31, 2011 (N = 91,414). The authors used chi-square and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests to compare departmental characteristics. Heterogeneity in demographics, professional characteristics, and advancement across departments was observed in HMS and national data. At HMS, psychiatry had the highest percentage of underrepresented minority faculty at 6.6% (75/1,139). In anesthesiology, 24.2% (128/530) of faculty were Asian, whereas in psychiatry only 7.9% (90/1,139) were (P advancement across clinical departments at HMS and nationally. The context in which faculty work, of which department is a proxy, should be accounted for in research on faculty career outcomes and diversity inclusion in academic medicine.

  16. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Methods Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools’ doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8–10 years (N = 3922. Results A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. Conclusion The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  17. Effects of selected socio-demographic characteristics on nutrition knowledge and eating behavior of elementary students in two provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Zhang, Fan; Newman, Ian M; Shell, Duane F; Du, Weijing

    2017-07-14

    National and international child health surveys have indicated an increase in childhood obesity in China. The increase has been attributed to a rising standard of living, increasing availability of unhealthy foods, and a lack of knowledge about healthy diet. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected socio-demographic characteristics on the BMI, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior of elementary school children. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used. Information on demographics, nutrition knowledge, and eating behavior was gathered by means of questionnaires. The schools' doctors provided the height and weight data. The study was set in one economically advantaged and one economically disadvantaged province in China. The participants were Grade 3 students, ages 8-10 years (N = 3922). A cluster analysis identified four socio-demographic variables distinguished by parental education and family living arrangement. A one-way ANOVA compared differences among the clusters in BMI, child nutrition knowledge, and child eating behavior. Students in the cluster with lowest parent education level had the lowest nutrition knowledge scores and eating behavior scores. There was no significant benefit from college education versus high school education of parents in the other three clusters. BMI was not affected by parent education level. The nutrition status of elementary school age children will benefit most by increasing the general level of education for those adults who are presently least educated.

  18. Learner Autonomy and Selected Demographic Characteristics as They Relate to Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew Foen; Confessore, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia currently has about three million senior citizens. United Nations statistics show that Malaysia is likely to reach "aging nation" status by the year 2035. It is important to address the issues that may have impact on the needs and concerns of this growing population. This study examined the relationships of life satisfaction,…

  19. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2017-01-01

    In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself. We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence) and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene). During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7) and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data). Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0). Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7) were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2) probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9) had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3) were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes. Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  20. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alisic

    Full Text Available In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself.We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene. During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7 and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data. Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0. Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7 were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2 probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9 had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3 were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes.Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  1. Demographic And Histopathological Characteristics Of Colorectal Polyps: A Descriptive Study Based On Samples Obtained From Symptomatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekodhima Genta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal polyps (CP are common among individuals older than 50 years. Some polyp types can precede colorectal cancer (CRC. This study aimed at describing histopathological characteristics of colorectal polyps in relation to age and gender among symptomatic patients referred for a colonoscopy examination during 2011-2014 in Tirana, Albania.

  2. Demographic, clinical and antibody characteristics of patients with digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: data from the DUO Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denton, Christopher P.; Krieg, Thomas; Guillevin, Loic; Schwierin, Barbara; Rosenberg, Daniel; Silkey, Mariabeth; Zultak, Maurice; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Stetter, M.; Lackner, K.; Tomi, N.; Hafner, F.; Brodmann, M.; Kuen-Spiegel, M.; Kolle, H.; Raffier, B.; Hamberger, N.; Metz, S.; Siebel, C.; Trummer, M.; Thonhofer, R.; Illmer, X.; Trautinger, F.; Schmidt, P.; Rintelen, B.; Sautner, J.; Willfort-Ehringer, A.; Margeta, C.; Monshi, B.; Pirkhammer, D.; Richter, L.; Holzer, G.; Minmair, G.; Broll, H.; Takacs, M.; Hirschl, M.; Mesaric, P.; Feldmann, R.; Semmelweis, K.; Hundstorfer, M.; Reinhart, V.; Maurer, B.; Verner, D.; Distler, O.; Schmidt-Bosshard, R.; Bohmova, J.; Prochazkova, L.; Nemec, P.; Fojtik, Z.; Soukup, T.; Smrzova, A.; Suchy, D.; Zemanova, I.; Becvar, R.; Gawlik, A.; Koch, M.; Rauen, T.; Voss, B.; Kurthen, R.; Unholzer, A.; Starz, H.; Welzel, J.; Plaumann, K.; Merk, B.; Bloching, H. H.; Moosig, F.; Frey, P.; Kahl, S.; Schleenbecker, H.; Storck-Mueller, K.; Schwarting, A.; Hazenbiller, A.; Nichelmann, V.; Flaig, W.; Rumbaur, C.; Boesenberg, I.; Schmeiser, T.; Marx, J.; Mayer, L.; Stein, T.; Ochs, W.; Rasche, C.; Worm, M.; Riemekasten, G.; Deuschle, K.; Becker, M.; Kleiner, H. J.; Schulze, K.; Tiggers, C.; Peters, J.; Kirschke, J.; Schaefer, C.; Monshausen, M.; Mengden, T.; Sadeghlar, F.; Seidel, M.; Hillebrecht, C.; Andresen, J.; Reemtsen, R.; Stoeckl, F.; Sperling, S.; Podda, M.; Wagner, N.; Guenzel, J.; Wuerzburg, I.; Luethke, K.; Enderlein, M.; Kayser, M.; Gerber, A.; Haust, M.; Hoff, N. P.; Mota, R.; Akanay-Diesel, S.; Jahnke, K.; Mettler, S.; Toeller, S.; Zwenger, S.; Klein, E.; Hahn, K.; Beyer, C.; Distler, J.; Katzemich, A.; Erfurt-berge, C.; Sticherling, M.; Schuch, F.; Rapp, P.; Mitchell, A.; Freundlieb, C.; Rushentsova, U.; Himsel, A.; Henkemeier, U.; Eilbacher, P.; Ullrich-Guenther, C.; Neul, S.; Oelsner, M.; Hermanns, G.; Fiene, M.; Gause, A.; Mensing, C.; Klings, D.; Mensing, H.; Messall, J.; Zuper, R.; May, D.; Bruckner, L.; Sheikh, N.; Aries, P.; Kirchberg, S.; Funkert, A.; Blank, N.; Lupaschko, S.; Schwuerzer-Voit, M.; Meier, L.; Herr, U.; Meier, U.; Neek, G.; Wernitzsch, H.; Pfoehler, C.; Assmann, G.; Vosswinkel, J.; Krog, B.; Wollersdorfer, E.; Oltmann-Schroeder, J.; Zeuner, R.; Uhlig, S.; Barth, S.; Huegel, R.; Glaeser, R.; Rabe, B.; Schuster, J.; Scholz, J.; Kremer, K.; Robakidze-Torbahn, M.; Moinzadeh, P.; Mittag, M.; Dohse, A.; Muhlack, A.; Schultz, L.; Schult, S.; Frambach, Y.; Kettenbach, A.; Fell, I.; Schweda, K.; Steinbrink, K.; Podobinska, M.; Harmuth, W.; Nielen, C.; Kaczmarczyk, A.; Kellner, C.; von Oelhafen, J.; von Bildering, P. B.; Kunze, S.; Niedermeier, A.; Messer, G.; Sardy, M.; Bekou, V.; Belloni, B.; Huettig, B.; Ziai, M.; Hein, R.; Hallecker, A.; Gaubitz, M.; Hallermann, C.; Schmidt, K.; Herrgott, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Eiden, E.; Guertler, I.; Gernot Scheibl, E.; Brand, H.; Kaeding, U.; Weiss, E.; Reischel, N.; Kern, S.; Baumann, C.; Hellmich, B.; Loeffler, C.; Pflugfelder, J.; Karaenke, P.; Ruchenburg, J.; Blume, J.; Zabel, M.; Deppermann, N.; Chromik, S.; Metzler, C.; Krupp, E.; Rumpel, H.; Krause Rostock, J.-O.; Kneitz, C.; Federow, I.; Schneider, K.; Semmler, M.; Hapke, S.; Barnd, A.; Linke, M.; Kampe-Juzak, E.; Knoebel, K.; Niefanger, K.; Wilhelm, H. U.; Lauterwein, B.; Fierlbeck, G.; Schanz, S.; Pfeiffer, C.; Hassel, R.; Wahn, H.; Schildt, K.; von Elling, A.; Boro, D.; Ebel, J.; Ahmadi, K.; Moritz, D.; Dietl, S.; Dyballa, J.; Alsheimer, B.; Schuetz, N.; Schuart, T.; Mueglich, C.; Tony, H. P.; Marina, P.; Deininger, F.; Hartmann, F.; Olsen, A. B.; Sondergaard, K. H.; Naderi, Y.; Iversen, L. V.; Karlsmark, T.; Knudsen, J. B.; Gil, J. G.; Lopez, J. C. F.; Tasende, J. A. P.; Gonzales, M. F.; Sandoval, A. A.; del Carmen Torres Martin, M.; Corteguera, M.; Barca, B. A.; Montes, I. C.; de la Torre, R. G.; Victoria Egurbide, M.; Pros, A.; Munoz, J.; Simeon, C. P.; Espinosa, G.; Espinposa, G.; Rodriguez, M. A. P.; Castellvi, I.; Mascaro, J. M.; Bellido, D.; Manzanedo, V. S.; Huertas, M. P.; Sanchez, M. D. M.; Trenado, M. S. S.; Garcia, P. V.; Gines Martinez, F.; Angeles Aquirre, M.; del Rio, A. H.; Vazquez, J. L. G.; Coleman, J. V.; Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez, P. S.; Aizpuru, E. M. F.; Mateo, F. J. N.; Callejas, J. L.; Ortego, N.; Santo, M. P.; Rubio, M.; Martin, I.; Cruz, A.; Crespo, M.; Ramos, P. C.; Fernandez, A. S.-A.; Filloy, J. A. M.; Rodriguez, T. R. V.; Marhuenda, A. R.; Blanco, J. J. R.; Hernan, M. G. B.; Mendoza, A. Z.; de la Puente, C.; Rabaneda, E. V.; de Vicuna, R. G.; del Mar Ripoll Macias, M.; del la Pena Lefebvre, P. G.; de Ramon, E.; Camps, M. T.; Fernandez, C.; Miguelez, R.; Uson, J.; Delgado, E. G.; Villaverde, V.; Maceiras, F.; Cruz, J.; Mosquera, J. A.; Mera, A.; Pampin, E. P.; Blanco, J. S.; Maneiro, J. R.; Diaz, J. J.; Losada, L.; Caamano, M.; Fernandez, S.; Insua, S. A.; Laurin, C. U.; Sanchez, J.; Fernandez, N. C.; Becerra, N. D.; Garcia, A.; Nicolas, G. M.; del Carmen Ortega de la O, M.; Rueda, A.; Calvo, J.; Roman Ivorra, J.; Sancho Alegre, J. J.; Barbado, J.; Montes, J.; Saez, L.; Kaarto, A.; Makinen, H.; Madaule, S.; Dadban, A.; Lok, C.; Ferrandiz, D.; Moiton, M. P.; Magy-Bertrand, N.; Taieb, A.; Droitcourt, C.; Belin, E.; Balquiere, S.; Prey, S.; Boulon, C.; Constans, J.; Richez, C.; Sassolas, B.; Misery, L.; Greco, M.; collet, E.; Berthier, S.; Leguy-Seguin, V.; Imbert, B.; Carpentier, P.; Blaise, S.; Maillard, H.; Beneton, N.; Launay, D.; Hachulla, E.; Woijtasik, G.; Charlanne, H.; Lambert, M.; Jourdain, N.; Hatron, P. Y.; Morell, S.; Spars, A.; Couraud, A.; Doeffel-hantz, V.; Fauchais, A. L.; Vidal, E.; Goudran, G.; Bezanahary, H.; Boussely, N.; Manea, P.; Dumonteil, S.; Loustaud-ratti, V.; Hot, A.; Coppere, B.; Desmurs-Clavel, H.; Ninet, J.; Girard-Madoux, M. H.; Granel, B.; Keynote, A.; Khau van Kien, A.; Rullier, P.; Le Quellec, A.; Riviere, S.; Bessis, D.; Cohen, J. D.; Farcas, C.; Granel-brocard, F.; Agard, C.; Durant, C.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Queyrel, V.; Berezne, A.; Guillevin, L.; Mouthon, L.; Frances, C.; Toledano, C.; Cabane, J.; Tiev, K.; Farge, D.; Keshtmand, H.; Lazareth, I.; Priollet, P.; Michon-Pasturel, U.; Wipff, J.; Assous, N.; Cartry, O.; Kostrzwewa, E.; Doutre, M. S.; Blum, L.; Reguiai, Z.; Letremy, A.; Perlat, A.; Cazalets-lacoste, C.; Decaux, O.; Jego, P.; Duval-modeste, A. B.; Deboves, O.; Sordet, C.; Chatelus, E.; Chiffot, H.; Sibillia, J.; Couret, B.; Moulis, G.; Sailler, L.; Adoue, D.; Gaches, F.; Diot, E.; Skowron, F.; Zenone, T.; Quemeneur, T.; Kyndt, X.; Wahl, D.; Zuily, S.; Moline, T.; Bravetti, V.; Galanopoulos, N.; Vasilopoulos, D.; Vlachoyannopoulos, P.; Kritikos, I.; Tsifetaki, N.; Koutroumbas, A.; Garyfallos, A.; Athanassiou, P.; Aslanidis, S.; Kamali, S.; Dimitroulas, T.; Galanopoulo, V.; Elezoglou, A.; Grier, A.; Murray, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Lapadula, G.; Serafino, L.; Terlizzi, N.; Bellissimo, S.; Stisi, S.; Malavolta, N.; Airo, P.; Vacca, A.; Battaglia, E.; Foti, R.; Mazzuca, S.; Bortoluzzi, A.; Trotta, F.; Galluccio, F.; Marucci, A.; Cantatore, F.; Bucci, R.; Puppo, F.; de Angeli, R.; Grassi, W.; Cipriani, P.; Mazzone, A.; Faggioli, P.; Severino, A.; Scorza, R.; Belloli, L.; Ughi, N.; Antivalle, M.; del Papa, N.; Maglione, W.; Zeni, S.; Ferri, C.; Colaci, M.; Varcasia, G.; Cuomo, G.; Cozzi, F.; Triolo, G.; Gatti, S.; Montecucco, C. M.; Doveri, M.; Nigro, A.; Olivieri, I.; Bajoochi, G.; Rosato, E.; Salsano, F.; Faustini, F.; Ferraccioli, G.; Colonna, L.; Pallotta, S.; Riccieri, V.; Mussi, A.; Bellisai, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Fusaro, E.; Saracco, M.; Pellerito, R.; Masolini, P.; de Vita, S.; Lombardi, S.; Lunardi, C.; Moolenburgh, J. D.; Heurkens, A. H. M.; Voskuyl, A.; Hak, A. E.; Stroes, E. S. K.; Remans, J.; Gerdes, V.; van Woerkom, J. M.; de Long, A. J. L.; Kaasjager, H. A. H.; Visser, H.; Janssen, M.; van Guldener, C.; van Neer, F.; Vos, P.; Peters, A. J.; Hulsmans, H.; Ronday, K.; Goekoop, R.; Ewals, J.; Valentijn, R.; de Bois, M.; Westedt, M. L.; Siewertsz van Reesema, D.; Knifjj-Dutmer, E.; Stolk, J. N.; Willems, H.; Kuiper-geertsma, D. G.; Baudaoin, P.; Fretter, P.; Westra, R.; Sonnaville, P. B. J.; Smit, A.; Bootsma, H.; Brouwer, L.; Bijl, M.; Molders, N.; Lebrun, C.; van der Veen, M. J.; Noordzij, M.; Houben, H.; Landewe, R. M. B.; Vercoutere, W.; Jahangier de Veen, Z. N.; Zijlstra, T. R.; Ubels, F.; Bruyn, G.; Jansen, P.; Schuerwegh, A.; Huizinga, T. W. J.; Paassen, P.; Hurkens, T.; Geurts, M.; van den Hoogen, F.; Vonk, M.; Jacobs, P. J. C.; Groenendael, J. H. L. M.; Seys, P.; van Zeben, D.; van Paassen, H.; Groenendael, J.; Han, K. H.; Wlarvens, M.; van Hagen, M.; van Daele, P.; Dolhain, R.; Gerards, A. H.; van der Lubbe, P.; Kanter, M. D. E.; Muller, W. H.; Ton, E.; van Krugten, M.; van Gameren, I.; Lanting, P.; den Hengst, C.; Gjessdal, C. G.; Hjertaker, S. L.; Madland, T. M.; Bendvold, A.; Bitter, H.; Hoffmann-Vold, A. M.; Midtvedt, O.; Bakland, G.; Aslkaksen, H. K.; Seip, M.; Kalstad, S.; Koldingsnes, W.; Grandauent, B.; Nordvag, B. Y.; Stran, E. K.; Skomsvoll, J.; Andersen, M.; Thomsen, R. S.; Pedersen, T.; Bakkeheim, V.; Cordeiro, A.; Alves, J.; Oliveira, S.; Coelho, P.; Resende, C.; Ponte, C.; Almeida, I.; Silva, I.; Santos, C.; Camara, I.; Costa, J.; Hellstrom, H.; Mohammad, A.; Lind, I.; Lind, K.; Bracin, T.; Liljequist, E.; Vingren, T.; Ostenson, A.; Hermansson, E.; Thorsson, C.; Soderlin, M.; Nordin, A.; Waldheim, E.; Vengemyr, K.; Albertsson, K.; Karlsson, M. L.; Rydvald, Y.; Rizk, M.; Dolnicar, A. S.; Lukac, J.; James, J.; McHugh, N.; Cole, S.; Brown, S.; Hamilton, A.; Faizal, A.; Hall, F.; Murphy, K.; Skingle, S.; Harris, H.; Madhok, F.; Hampson, R.; Baguley, E.; Ogunbambi G, O.; Lamb, J.; Anderson, M.; Moots, R.; White-Alao, B.; Morrison, C.; Dobson, J.; Gordon, P.; Salerno, R.; Denton, C.; Parker, L.; Ochiel, R.; Vincent, R.; Zimba, S.; Ngcozana, T.; Xu, Y.; D'Cruz, D.; Choong, L. M.; Herrick, A.; Wragg, E.; Manning, J.; Moore, T.; Kelsey, C.; Chakravarty, K.; Skyes, H.; Athiveer, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Ulcers Outcome (DUO) Registry was designed to describe the clinical and antibody characteristics, disease course and outcomes of patients with digital ulcers associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The DUO Registry is a European, prospective, multicentre, observational, registry of SSc

  3. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  4. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainer Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC and colorectal cancer (CC screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab, immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI. Results Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p Conclusion Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.

  5. DIFFERENCES OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTITUDES OF EMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS BY THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BENLİ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reckless consumption of nature to respond to any need has led to the disruption of natural balance and nearly extinction of environmental resources. Environmental problems created by the damage to the structure of nature not only affect the ecological system, but also pose an immense challenge for human health. Hence, the consumers who have become aware that resources and living spaces to maintain their living conditions have been increasingly declining are inclined to adopt a more sensitive attitude in consumption process. Businesses have also turned to green advertising for the promotion of their products and services to strengthen their presence and elude competition with other businesses under these circumstances. This study aims to identify the factors that affect the consumer attitudes of the employed individuals on green advertisements for the businesses, and examine their differences according to demographic features. The reason for the selection of employed individuals is assumption that they will be effective of consumers having purchasing income especially in qualified green product purchasing decisions. The questionnaire form designed for this purpose was conducted on 400 individuals selected through convenience sampling method among people living in central district of Kastamonu. It was found that the factors affecting these employed individuals attitudes towards green product advertisements significantly differ according to gender, marital status, age, education and occupation

  6. Urbanization Induces Nonstationarity in Extreme Rainfall Characteristics over Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Paimazumder, D.; Mohanty, M. P.; Ghosh, S.; Karmakar, S.

    2017-12-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which in turn may affect the policy and decision-making. Also, it may no longer be reasonable to model rainfall extremes as a stationary process, yet nearly all-existing infrastructure design, water resource planning methods assume that historical extreme rainfall events will remain unchanged in the future. Therefore, a comprehensive multivariate nonstationary frequency analysis has been conducted for the CONUS to identify the precipitation characteristics (intensity, duration and depth) responsible for significant nonstationarity. We use 0.250 resolution of precipitation data for a period of 1948-2006, in a Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) framework. A cluster of 74 GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationarity in different combinations of distribution parameters through different regression techniques, and the best-fit model is further applied for bivariate analysis. Next, four demographic variables i.e. population density, housing unit, low income population and population below poverty line, have been utilized to identify the urbanizing regions through developing urbanization index. Furthermore to strengthen the analysis, Land cover map for 1992, 2001 and 2006 have been utilized to identify the location with the high change in impervious surface. The results show significant differences in the 50- and 100-year intensity, volume and duration estimated under the both stationary and nonstationary condition in urbanizing regions. Further results exhibit that rainfall duration has been decreased while, rainfall volume has been increased under nonstationary condition, which indicates increasing flood potential of

  7. Capability Deprivation and Income Poverty in the United States, 1994 and 2004: Measurement Outcomes and Demographic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Udaya R.

    2009-01-01

    Shifting focus from income to capability signifies an important milestone toward accurately measuring poverty and deprivation. This paper operationalizes capability deprivation in the United States and compares measurement outcomes among various capability approaches and between capability and income spaces. Of the three capability approaches…

  8. A tale of two epidemics: gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors among HIV positive individuals in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; González, Andrea; Volkow, Patricia

    2015-12-16

    To date, the HIV epidemic in Mexico has been concentrated mainly among men who have sex with men, butheterosexual transmission, particularly to women, is increasingly important. This study examine gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of HIV positive individuals in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,490 clinic patients (male:female ratio 8:1) with HIV inMexico City in 2010. We examined socio-demographic characteristics, risk behavior, and history of HIV infection.From multivariate non-linear probability (probit) models we calculated predicted probabilities by sex of several outcomes: marginalization, demographic and sexual risk behaviors. Significant differences were found between men and women. Multivariate models suggest that women had lower schooling levels; were less likely to have been employed in the past month and earn more than the minimal wage; more likely to have children, to have been sexually abused, to never have used condoms and to report having been infected by a stable partner. Additionally, women were less likely to report having a partner with a history of migration to the USA and to have engaged in transactional sex. Significant differences exist between men and women with HIV in Mexico City in terms of their socioeconomicand behavioral profiles, which translate into differences in terms of exposure to HIV infection. Women face social and economic vulnerability while men tend to have riskier sexual behavior. Gender issues must be approached in prevention and treatment efforts, using diverse methods to target those most vulnerable and at risk.

  9. Perceived risks in online hotel services acquisition: Determinant factors of reduction strategies and their relation with consumer´s demographical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gomes de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to identify which factors determine the adoption of strategies to reduce perceived risk in the purchase of hotel services online, checking whether there is any relation between those relievers and demographical characteristics. A factor analysis was conducted after application of a structured questionnaire with consumers who have a habit of traveling and booking hotels through the internet. The results showed that the factors that characterize the strategies used by consumers as a means of reducing risk in the virtual environment are: users and partners own experience, regulation guarantees and certainty and higher price. That is, it can be considered that these factors are relevant and tend to be used by consumers as a way to reduce risks when purchasing a hotel service online. On the other hand, it was found that demographic characteristics show no relationship with consumers´ perception of risk. With these results, the question that remains is whether the companies in this field of activity develop actions aligned with these factors in order to enable consumers to reduce their risk perceptions while buying these services on websites.

  10. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (Purban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; PMexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients.

  11. Clinical characteristics of cystic fibrosis patients prior to lung transplantation: An international comparison between Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Bradley S; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza; Elbert, Alexander; Faro, Albert; Goss, Christopher H; Stephenson, Anne L

    2018-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from Canada have better-reported post-lung transplant survival compared to patients from the United States. We hypothesized the clinical characteristics of CF patients prior to lung transplant differ between the two countries. Population-based cohort study utilizing combined Canadian CF Registry and US CF Foundation Patient Registry data from 1986 to 2013. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed prior to lung transplant. Between 1986 and 2013, 607 (10.2%) CF patients underwent lung transplantation in Canada and 3428 (7.5%) in the United States. A lower proportion of recipients had growth of B. cepacia complex prior to transplant in the United States compared to Canada (0.8% vs 4.3%). Lung function was similar between recipients from the two countries. The proportion of patients classified as underweight was significantly higher in the United States compared to Canada (39.8% vs 28.0%; SD 26.1) despite higher rates of feeding tube use (42.5% vs 28.6%; SD 29.0). CF lung transplant recipients from the United States have similar lung function, lower rates of B. cepacia complex, and worse nutritional parameters prior to transplant compared to counterparts in Canada. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of these differences on post-transplant survival. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study: comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics in 100 random community cases of fibromyalgia versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K P; Speechley, M; Harth, M; Ostbye, T

    1999-07-01

    To identify demographic and clinical features that distinguish fibromyalgia (FM) from other chronic widespread pain. We identified 100 confirmed FM cases, 76 widespread pain controls, and 135 general controls in a random community survey of 3395 noninstitutionalized adults living in London, Ontario. FM cases were distinguished from pain controls using the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for FM. The mean age of FM cases was 47.8 years (range 19 to 86), the same as for pain controls; 86% of FM cases were female versus 67.1% of pain controls (p < 0.01). FM cases were less educated than general controls (p = 0.03). Male and female FM cases were similar, except females were older and reported more major symptoms (both p = 0.02). FM cases reported more severe pain and fatigue, more symptoms, more major symptoms, and worse overall health than pain controls or general controls. The most commonly reported major symptoms among FM cases were musculoskeletal pain (77.3%), fatigue (77.3%), severe fatigue lasting 24 h after minimal activity (77.0%), nonrestorative sleep (65.7%), and insomnia (56.0%). Subjects with 11-14 tender points were more similar to those with 15-18 tender points than to those with 7-10 points in 11 of 14 clinical variables. On multivariate analysis, 4 symptoms distinguished FM cases from pain controls: pain severity (p = 0.004), severe fatigue lasting 24 h after minimal activity (p = 0.006), weakness (p = 0.008), and self-reported swelling of neck glands (p = 0.01). In the general population, adults who meet the ACR definition of FM appear to have distinct features compared to those with chronic widespread pain who do not meet criteria.

  13. Clinical, demographic characteristics and results of the long term follow-up in adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Lebid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to analyze clinical and demographic indicators in adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD to provide strategy of cardiac care for these patients, to assess risk of cardiological and cardiac surgery interventions in patients with congenital heart malformations. Materials and methods. 2569 consecutive patients, aged 16–88 years, mean age 24.14 ± 0.20 years, were selected in electronic database from April 01, 2011 to December 31, 2015. The majority (92.57 % of the included patients (n = 2378 were younger than 40 years. Results. Among all CHD patients, a significant majority had septal defects (39 % and left heart lesions (24 %, followed by congenital lesions of thoracic arteries and veins (16 % and right heart lesions (10 %. The annual number of the examined patients with CHD progressively increased (from 210 in 2011 to 656 in 2015. The number of patients aged 18 years or older mostly increased. The number of patients older than 40 years increased from nine patients in 2011 to 75 adults in 2015. Patients after cardiac surgery and percutaneous transcatheter interventions dominated (n=1553, 60.45 %, compared to the patients without any interventions for CHD (n = 1016, 39.55 %. Only one intervention for CHD was performed in the majority of these patients (n = 1255, 80.81 %, 12.94 % needed two interventions, 3.99 % – three, 2.26 % – three or more interventions. Conclusions. Among patients with congenital heart disease, patients younger than 40 years old were prevalent (92.57 %, with no significant gender differences. Septal defects (ASD, VSD, left heart lesions (congenital aortic valve stenosis and insufficiency, congenital lesions of thoracic arteries and veins (patent ductus arteriosus and aorta coarctation were registered most often in adolescents and adults.

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics, types and Slit Skin Smear (SSS) of the leprosy patients: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, U K; Mohammad, Q D; Uddin, M J; Chowdhury, R N; Bhattacharjee, M; Mondol, G; Roy, N

    2014-07-01

    This study was aimed to identify the socio-demographic profile, to know the types and to find out the Slit Skin Smear (SSS) result associated with leprosy. It was a descriptive type of cross sectional study. Total 62 patients having clinical features of leprosy, attending in Department of Neurology of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) and Mymensingh Tuberculosis and Leprosy Hospital, Mymensingh from January 2010 to December 2011 were included. Patients underwent a detailed clinical evaluation followed by laboratory investigations. Out of 62 cases, the results showed that the mean age of leprosy patients were 37.8±14.6 years with the age range 12-80 years and the peak incidence was between 20-40 years. The frequency of male and female was 70.9% and 29.1% respectively with M: F of 2.4:1. From rural area 74.2% leprosy patients and 25.8% patients were from urban area and mainly day-labours (25.8%) and housewife (24.2%) by occupation. Married was 87.1% of patients and 12.9% were unmarried. Twenty one percent (21%) leprosy patients were found contact with leprosy. It was observed in this study that, 35.5% patients were PB (Pauci Bacillary) group and 64.5% of the patients were in MB (Multi Bacillary) group. Lepromatous Leprosy (LL) patients were (17.7%) and Borderline Lepromatous (BL) patients were (11.3%). Patients with Tuberculoid Type (TT) were (3.2%) and patients with Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) were (61.3%). The result of Slit skin smear (SSS) examination was negative in 59.7% patients and positive in 40.3%.

  15. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  16. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003. Population Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    The population in the United States is becoming more educated, but significant differences in educational attainment remain with regard to age, sex, race, and origin. Nevertheless, the educational attainment of young adults (25 to 29 years), which provides a glimpse of our country's future, indicates dramatic improvement by groups who have…

  17. An assessment of treatment guidelines, clinical practices, demographics, and progression of disease among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan, the United States, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Koji; Tsuda, Kikumi; Takahashi, Fumihiro; Hirai, Manabu; Palumbo, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing clinical research focus on neuroprotective agents in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it is unclear how generalisable clinical study trial results are between different countries and regions. To assess similarities and differences in clinical practice and treatment guidelines for ALS, and also to compare the demographics and rate of progression of disease in patients with ALS enrolled in clinical trials in Japan, the US, and Europe. We performed a review of clinical studies published since 2000 to compare the demographics and characteristics of patients with ALS. Progression of ALS disease was assessed in patients receiving placebo. The changes per month in ALSFRS-R score were calculated and compared between the studies. Overall, diagnostic criteria, recognition of ALS symptoms, comorbidities, use of riluzole, and nutritional, and respiratory support were similar. Regarding demographics and characteristics, there were no clear differences in the incidence of sporadic ALS (range 91-98%), bulbar onset (range 11-41%), and median time from onset to diagnosis (range 9-14 months) among the populations despite the difference in race between regions. However, use of tracheostomy-based invasive respiratory support was higher in Japan (29-38%) than in the US (4%) and Europe (1-31%). Rate of progression of disease was similar between the US and Europe study populations (range -0.89 to -1.60 points/month), and the Japanese study populations (range -1.03 to -1.21 points/month). There is evidence to support the generalisability of data from the Japanese ALS trial experience to the US and Europe populations in early to mid-stage of ALS.

  18. Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors (SUPERB: study design, methods, and demographic characteristics of cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to toxic chemicals in the home is a growing concern. This report presents an overview of the recruitment, methods for data collection, instruments used to collect data, and participant demographics for a study examining behaviors that influence exposure to environmental toxins in the home environment, also known as SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors. Methods The methods involved three different platforms: telephone interviews, internet-based surveys, and home-based monitoring. The purposes of SUPERB were: first, to compare data collection platforms with regard to feasibility, acceptability and reliability; and second, to provide longitudinal population-based data characterizing seasonal and long-term changes in exposure-related behaviors including food consumption, temporal-spatial activity, and household product use. Results Two cohorts of households were enrolled: families (one parent and one child from northern California and older individuals (age 55+ from central California. Parents (n = 499 in Northern California families were on average 36 years of age, 47.1% were Latino or nonwhite, and 10.2% took the survey in Spanish. Most of the children enrolled (n = 566 were under 6 years (82.7%. The older adults enrolled (n = 156 were, on average, 66 years of age and 23.7% were Latino or nonwhite, but only 2.6% completed the survey in Spanish. Conclusions We found that oversampling was successful in improving recruitment of under-represented subgroups, such as those with low education, thereby increasing diversity of our study sample. Protocols that minimize participant time, e.g., use of bar scanners and scales rather than questionnaires regarding use of household products, and the implementation of these protocols by staff who built relationships of trust, resulted in high retention over a longitudinal data collection scheme. A relatively small fraction of those who volunteer for

  19. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. Christian, E-mail: csmith@aemrc.arizona.edu; Shanks, Candace, E-mail: Candace.Shanks@osumc.edu; Guy, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Guy@osumc.edu; Yang, Xiangyu, E-mail: Xiangyu.Yang@osumc.edu; Dowell, Joshua D., E-mail: Joshua.Dowell@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates.

  20. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S. Christian; Shanks, Candace; Guy, Gregory; Yang, Xiangyu; Dowell, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates

  1. Problematic Gaming Behavior Among Finnish Junior High School Students: Relation to Socio-Demographics and Gaming Behavior Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Myllymäki, Laura; Miettunen, Jouko; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-09-14

    Multiplatform digital media use and gaming have been increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographics and digital gaming behavior characteristics (i.e., gaming time, medium, and genres) with problematic gaming behavior in adolescents. A convenience sample of Finnish junior high school students (n = 560; mean age 14 years, ranging from 12 to 16 years) participated in the cross-sectional survey, of which, 83% (n = 465) reported having played digital games regularly. Sociodemographic data, different forms of digital media use, gaming behavior characteristics and problematic gaming behavior was assessed. Study participants spent on average one hour per day playing digital games; casual games (23.9%), shooting games (19.8%), and sport games (12.9%), were the most popular games among participants. By using regression analysis, a blended family structure and gaming time related positively to problematic gaming behavior. Preferences for game genres such as solo, Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing and strategy-management games were also positively associated with problematic use of digital games. These findings provide knowledge that can be utilized in the prevention of the possible negative consequences of digital gaming.

  2. Dependence of the paired motor unit analysis on motor unit discharge characteristics in the human tibialis anterior muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S.

    2011-01-01

    The paired motor unit analysis provides in vivo estimates of the magnitude of persistent inward currents (PIC) in human motoneurons by quantifying changes in the firing rate (ΔF) of an earlier recruited (reference) motor unit at the time of recruitment and derecruitment of a later recruited (test) motor unit. This study assessed the variability of ΔF estimates, and quantified the dependence of ΔF on the discharge characteristics of the motor units selected for analysis. ΔF was calculated for 158 pairs of motor units recorded from nine healthy individuals during repeated submaximal contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle. The mean (SD) ΔF was 3.7 (2.5) pps (range −4.2 to 8.9 pps). The median absolute difference in ΔF for the same motor unit pair across trials was 1.8 pps, and the minimal detectable change in ΔF required to exceed measurement error was 4.8 pps. ΔF was positively related to the amount of discharge rate modulation in the reference motor unit (r2=0.335; Precruitment of the reference and test motor units (r2=0.229, Pmotor unit activity (r2=0.110, Precruitment threshold of the test motor unit (r2=0.237, Pmotor unit analysis. PMID:21459110

  3. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  4. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: demographic, physical, dietary, and biochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, A.; Harris, B.R.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.; Johnson, K.G.; Kato, H.; Syme, S.L.; Rhoads, G.G.; Gay, M.L.; Nichaman, M.Z.; Hamilton, H.B.; Tillotson, J.

    1973-01-01

    These summary descriptive data of ethnically similar cohorts of indigenous and migrant Japanese males have shown similarities or slight differences in characteristics wholly or largely genetically determined, such as blood groups, stature, and skeletal size. Differences have been noted in characteristics largely environmental or behavioral, such as diet and cigarette smoking habit, as well as in characteristics determined by a varying mixture of genetic and environmental influences, such as weight, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and serum lipid and uric acid levels. Detailed analyses of the distributions of laboratory variables, of dietary data obtained by different methods, and of correlations among laboratory, dietary, physical, and demographic variables are currently in progress. Also part of the study plan are determinations of disease prevalence from evaluation of examination, laboratory, and electrocardiographic findings, of disease incidence from repeat examinations and from surveillance of hospital records, and of cause-specific mortality from hospital records, and from death certificates. In addition, at Hiroshima and Honolulu a uniform autopsy protocol is in use. All of these disease findings will be correlated with characteristics determined by questionnaire, interview, examination, and laboratory analyses in order to determine the relations between the measured variables and the occurrence of CHD and stroke. (U.S.)

  5. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N¼457. Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chisquare analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth, including the feasibility of using

  6. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of mobile phone ownership and usage among youth living in the slums of Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-08-01

    The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14-24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for data collection and interventions with this

  7. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  8. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.

  9. Sense of coherence and socio-demographic characteristics predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms and recovery in the aftermath of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Zysberg, Leehu; Hantman, Shira; Enosh, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence (SOC) as a mediator between demographic attributes of individuals (gender, age, economic situation, and exposure to traumatic events during the war) and two war outcomes (postwar stress symptoms and perceived posttraumatic recovery). The participants were 870 adults (ages ranged between 20 and 85), who were affected by the Second Lebanon War and were evacuated from their home town. They were administered the research questionnaire approximately one year after this war. Path analysis indicated the following: gender, age, economic situation, and exposure were significantly associated with level of symptoms as well as perceived recovery. However, three of these connections (age, economic, and exposure) were partially mediated by SOC which was linked with lower levels of stress symptoms and higher levels of perceived posttraumatic recovery. Unlike our hypothesis, exposure by age interaction was not significantly associated with SOC and the two war outcomes. Results supported the hypotheses that SOC mediates between demographic characteristics and negative (symptoms) as well as positive (perceived recovery) war outcomes.

  10. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  11. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents Referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Psychiatric Assessment

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    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse has been a continuous, hidden health and social problem in all over the world. Identifying risk factors are crucial to implement protective services. In Turkey, data of the legal cases are still lacking. This study aims to assess the sociodemographic and psychiatric features of the sexually abused children who have been referred for forensic evaluation together with their identity issues. Materials and Methods: The forensic files of the sexually abused cases (tı 11: 9 boys, 32 girls who had been referred to the child psychiatry outpatient clinic were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses in the files were based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children- Turkish Version. Data on age, gender, socioeconomic status and diagnoses of the victims and characteristics of the abusers were gathered and analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Mean age of the victims was 11.54±3.31 years. Socioeconomic levels of their families were mostly lower class with rate of 51.2%. All perpetrators were male with a mean age of 23 years (min 14; max 67. When the consanguinity of the abusers and victims were taken into consideration, it was found that they were intrafamilial (fathers and brothers rate:12.2%, close relatives (19.5%, distant relatives (22.0%, other familiar (such as neighbours, friends: 14.6% and unfamiliar (24.4% people for the victims. 19.5% of the victims had mental retardation. The most common diagnoses of the victims were posttraumatic stress disorder (46.3%, other anxiety disorders (17.1%, and major depression (24.4%. Conclusion: Identified risk factors for sexual abuse, determined as the result of this study, are being a female child, late childhood period, mental retardation, and low economic status. The abusers were males who were familiar to the child victims. Preventive measures should be implemented for the entire population, particularly involving the high- risk groups

  12. System-Wide and Group-Specific Health Service Improvements: Cross-Sectional Survey of Outpatient Improvement Preferences and Associations with Demographic Characteristics

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    Elizabeth A. Fradgley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient patient-centred quality improvement requires an understanding of the system-wide areas of dissatisfaction along with evidence to identify the programs which can be strategically targeted according to specific patient characteristics and preferences. This cross-sectional study reports the proportion of chronic disease outpatients selecting 23 patient-centred improvement initiatives. Using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regressions, this multi-site study also identifies initiatives differentially selected by outpatients according to clinical and demographic characteristics. A total of 475 outpatients participated (49% response. Commonly selected initiatives included: reducing wait-times (22.3%; convenient appointment scheduling (16.0%; and receiving up-to-date treatment information (16.0%. Within univariate tests, preferences for information and service accessibility initiatives were not significantly associated with specific subgroups. However, seven initiatives were preferred according to age, gender, diagnosis status, and chronic disease type within multivariate models. For example, neurology outpatients were more likely to select assistance to manage psychological symptoms when compared to oncology outpatients (OR: 2.89. Study findings suggest that system-wide programs to enhance information provision are strategic approaches to improve experiences across patient characteristics. Furthermore, a few initiatives can be targeted to specific groups and emphasized the importance of detailed scoping analyses and tailored implementation plans when designing patient-centred quality improvement programs.

  13. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  14. Clinical and Demographical Characteristics of Patients with Medication Overuse Headache in Argentina and Chile: Analysis of the Latin American Section of COMOESTAS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Beatriz; Goicochea, Maria Teresa; Valenzuela, Raul; Fadic, Ricardo; Jensen, Rigmor; Tassorelli, Cristina; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Data on the characteristics of Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) in Latin American (LA) are scarce. Here we report the demographic and clinical features of the MOH patients from Argentina and Chile enrolled in the multinational COMOESTAS project in the period 2008-2010. The LA population was formed by 240 MOH subjects, 110 from Chile and 130 from Argentina, consecutively attending the local headache centres. In each centre, specifically trained neurologist interviewed and confirmed the diagnosis according to the ICHD-II criteria. A detailed history was collected on an electronic patient record form. The mean patient age was 38.6 years, with a female/male ratio of 8:2. The mean time since onset of the primary headache was 21 years, whereas duration of MOH was 3.9 years. The primary headache was migraine without aura in 77.5 % and migraine with aura in 18.8 %. Forty two % of the patients self-reported emotional stress associated with the chronification of headache; 43.8 % reported insomnia. The most overused medications were acute drug combinations containing ergotamine (70 %), NSAIDs (33.8 %) and triptans (5.4 %). Though little described, MOH is present also in LA, where it affects mostly women, in the most active decades of life. Some differences emerge as regards the demographic and clinical characteristics of MOH in this population as compared to Europe or Northern America. What seems more worrying about MOH in Argentina and Chile is that most patients overuse ergotamine, a drug that may cause serious adverse events when used chronically. These findings once more underscore the importance of properly diagnose and treat MOH.

  15. Characteristics of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.: Geographic Diversity in Socio-Demographics and HIV Transmission Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Brady, Kathleen; Kuo, Irene; Opoku, Jenevieve; Flynn, Colin; Patrick, Rudy; Park, Ju Nyeong; Adams, Joella; Carroll, Makeda; Simmons, Ron; Smith, Carlton R; Davis, Wendy W

    2017-07-01

    Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC are geographically proximate cities with high HIV prevalence, including among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Using data collected among BMSM in CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, we compared socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and service utilization to explore similarities and differences that could inform local and regional HIV intervention approaches. BMSM were recruited through venue time location sampling, June-December, 2011. Participants completed identical socio-behavioral surveys and voluntary HIV testing. Analyses were conducted among the full sample and those aged 18-24. Participants included 159 (DC), 364 (Baltimore), and 331 (Philadelphia) eligible BMSM. HIV prevalence was 23.1% (DC), 48.0% (Baltimore), 14.6% (Philadelphia) with 30.6%, 69.0%, 33.3% unrecognized HIV infection, respectively. Among BMSM 18-24, HIV prevalence was 11.1% (DC), 38.9% (Baltimore), 9.6% (Philadelphia) with unrecognized HIV infection 0.0%, 73.8%, 60.0% respectively. Compared with the other 2 cities, Baltimore participants were less likely to identify as gay/homosexual; more likely to report unemployment, incarceration, homelessness, sex exchange; and least likely to use the internet for partners. DC participants were more likely to have a college degree and employment. Philadelphia participants were more likely to report gay/homosexual identity, receptive condomless anal sex, having only main partners, and bars/clubs as partner meeting places. Sexually transmitted disease testing was universally low. Analyses showed especially high HIV prevalence among BMSM in Baltimore including among young BMSM. Socio-demographic characteristics and HIV infection correlates differed across cities but unrecognized HIV infection and unknown partner status were universally high.

  16. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Understanding Water Storage Practices of Urban Residents of an Endemic Dengue Area in Colombia: Perceptions, Rationale and Socio-Demographic Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana García-Betancourt

    Full Text Available The main preventive measure against dengue virus transmission is often based on actions to control Ae. Aegypti reproduction by targeting water containers of clean and stagnant water. Household water storage has received special attention in prevention strategies but the evidence about the rationale of this human practice is limited. The objective was to identify and describe water storage practices among residents of an urban area in Colombia (Girardot and its association with reported perceptions, rationales and socio-demographic characteristics with a mixed methods approach.Knowledge, attitudes and practices and entomological surveys from 1,721 households and 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted among residents of Girardot and technicians of the local vector borne disease program. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify associations between a water storage practice and socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, attitudes and practices about dengue and immature forms of the vector, which were then triangulated with qualitative information.Water storage is a cultural practice in Girardot. There are two main reasons for storage: The scarcity concern based on a long history of shortages of water in the region and the perception of high prices in water rates, contrary to what was reported by the local water company. The practice of water storage was associated with being a housewife (Inverse OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 -4.3. The use of stored water depends on the type of container used, while water stored in alberca (Intra household cement basins is mainly used for domestic cleaning chores, water in plastic containers is used for cooking.It is essential to understand social practices that can increase or reduce the number of breeding sites of Ae. Aegypti. Identification of individuals who store water and the rationale of such storage allow a better understanding of the social dynamics that lead to water accumulation.

  18. Personal characteristics of a law enforcement unit of special purpose

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    Vasilenko T.G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of the personal characteristics of law enforcement officers due to a significant number of crimes of an aggressive nature, committed by employees of internal Affairs bodies, and the need to develop preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to study peculiarities of the manifestation of progressive and inhibiting aggression personality factors in the structure of law enforcement officers, whose activities directly associated with aggression in the performance of official duties. The study involved 149 employees of special forces of law enforcement are male aged 18 to 35 years. Used a wide battery of psychodiagnostic methods aimed at a comprehensive study of the individual respondents. the data Obtained were analyzed using the method of correlation pleiades. According to the results, was discovered a unique picture of the relationship among personality structures and interaction progressive and deterrent aggression factors with the prevalence of progressive on inhibitory factors in the studied structure.

  19. Demographics, Resource Utilization, and Outcomes of Elderly Patients With Chronic Liver Disease Receiving Hospice Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Natsu; Golabi, Pegah; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Mishra, Alita; Venkatesan, Chapy; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-11-01

    Hospice offers non-curative symptomatic management to improve patients' quality of life, satisfaction, and resource utilization. Hospice enrollment among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is not well studied. The aim of tis tudy is to examine the characteristics of Medicare enrollees with CLD, who were discharged to hospice. Medicare patients discharged to hospice between 2010 and 2014 were identified in Medicare Inpatient and Hospice Files. CLDs and other co-morbidities were identified by International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision codes. Generalized linear model was used to estimate regression coefficients with P-values. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 2,179 CLD patients and 34,986 controls without CLD met the inclusion criteria. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were the most frequent cause of CLD. CLD patients were younger (70 vs. 83 years), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 39.3%), had longer hospital stay (length of stay, LOS) (19.4 vs. 13.0 days), higher annual charges ($175,000 vs. $109,000), higher 30-day re-hospitalization rates (51.6 vs. 34.2%), and shorter hospice LOS (13.7 vs. 17.7 days) than controls (all PCLD have longer and costly hospitalizations before hospice enrollment as compared with patients without CLD. It was highly likely that these patients were enrolled relatively late, which could potentially lead to less benefit from hospice.

  20. Characteristics of the Nursing Practice Environment Associated With Lower Unit-Level RN Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Park, Shin Hye; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine characteristics of the nursing practice environment associated with lower RN turnover. Identifying characteristics of the practice environment that contribute to lower RN turnover is important for meeting the national quality strategy priority of reducing healthcare costs. Data from 1002 adult care units in 162 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators participating hospitals were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index was used to measure practice environment characteristics. RN turnover was measured at the unit level. Nursing units with higher overall ratings of the nursing practice environment had lower rates of RN turnover. Units with higher RN perceived staffing and resource adequacy experienced significantly lower RN turnover. Unit managers and hospital administrators should consider RN perception of staffing and resource adequacy and the overall practice environment when developing targeted strategies for decreasing RN turnover.

  1. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quant...

  3. Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Conversion Disorder Admitted to a Single Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit, A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Ashlee; Collins, Andrew; Michels, Michelle; Pruitt, David

    2018-03-14

    Conversion disorder (CD) can lead to impaired functioning. Few studies present demographic and outcome data for pediatric patients. Many have had success with rehabilitation; however, further details are not known. To identify characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to a pediatric inpatient rehabilitation program with CD symptoms. Retrospective study. Inpatient rehabilitation unit within a large children's hospital. All patients with diagnosis of CD or functional gait disorder (FGD) during designated time period. Data were obtained from chart review and United Data Systems for Medical Rehabilitation. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze data. A P value of conversion disorder symptoms in the 12 months following discharge, and school reentry characteristics. 30 admissions were identified that met criteria. Before diagnosis, duration of symptoms was 58 ± 145 days, physician visits averaged 1.9 ± 2.1, hospital admissions to the same hospital averaged 0.7 ± 0.9, and absence from school was 6 ± 12 weeks. Overall, 83% exhibited mixed symptoms. Length of inpatient rehabilitation stay was 8.4 ± 4.2 days with WeeFIM score change of 30 ± 11.9 (P conversion disorder and leads to sustained functional improvement and return to school after discharge. ?? Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicide Fads: Frequency and Characteristics of Hydrogen Sulfide Suicides in the United States

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    Reedy, Sarah Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the frequency of hydrogen sulfide (H2S suicides and describe the characteristics of victims in the United States (U.S. since the technique became common in Japan in 2007.Methods: To ascertain the frequency of intentional H2S related deaths in the U.S. prior to the start of the Japanese trend in 2007, we searched the multiple-cause-of-death data from the National Vital Statistics System. To collect as much information about the victims as possible, we sent an email to the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME listserv asking for their cooperation in identifying cases of H2S suicide. To identify cases that were not voluntarily reported by medical examiners but were reported by the media, we conducted Google searches using the search terms: “hydrogen sulfide suicide,” “H2S suicide,” “detergent suicide,” “chemical suicide,” and “suicide fad.” We obtained all available autopsy reports and abstracted information, including the site of the incident, the presence of a note warning others about the toxic gas and the demographic characteristics of the victims. We contacted medical examiners who potentially had custody of the cases that were identified through media reports and requested autopsies of these victims. When unable to obtain the autopsies, we gathered information from the media reports.Results: Forty-five deaths from H2S exposure occurred in the U.S. from 1999 to 2007, all unintentional. Responses from the NAME listserv yielded autopsy reports for 11 victims, and Google searches revealed an additional 19 H2S suicides in the U.S. since 2008. Overall (n=30, two cases were identified during 2008, 10 in 2009, and 18 in 2010. The majority of victims were white males, less than 30-years-old, left a warning note, and were found in cars. There were five reports of injuries to first responders, but no secondary fatalities.Conclusion: H2S suicides are increasing in the U.S., and their incidence is

  5. National Characteristics of Emergency Medical Services Responses for Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hieu V; Herrera, Lauren Nicholas; Moore, Justin Xavier; Donnelly, John; Jacobson, Karen E; Carlson, Jestin N; Mann, N Clay; Wang, Henry E

    2018-01-01

    Older adults, those aged 65 and older, frequently require emergency care. However, only limited national data describe the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care provided to older adults. We sought to determine the characteristics of EMS care provided to older adults in the United States. We used data from the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS), encompassing EMS response data from 46 States and territories. We excluded EMS responses for children older adults as age ≥65 years. We compared patient demographics (age, sex, race, primary payer), response characteristics (dispatch time, location type, time intervals), and clinical course (clinical impression, injury, procedures, medications) between older and younger adult EMS emergency 9-1-1 responses. During the study period there were 20,212,245 EMS emergency responses. Among the 16,116,219 adult EMS responses, there were 6,569,064 (40.76%) older and 9,547,155 (59.24%) younger adults. Older EMS patients were more likely to be white and the EMS incident to be located in healthcare facilities (clinic, hospital, nursing home). Compared with younger patients, older EMS patients were more likely to present with syncope (5.68% vs. 3.40%; OR 1.71; CI: 1.71-1.72), cardiac arrest/rhythm disturbance (3.27% vs. 1.69%; OR 1.97; CI: 1.96-1.98), stroke (2.18% vs. 0.74%; OR 2.99; CI: 2.96-3.02) and shock (0.77% vs. 0.38%; OR 2.02; CI: 2.00-2.04). Common EMS interventions performed on older persons included intravenous access (32.02%), 12-lead ECG (14.37%), CPR (0.87%), and intubation (2.00%). The most common EMS drugs administered to older persons included epinephrine, atropine, furosemide, amiodarone, and albuterol or ipratropium. One of every three U.S. EMS emergency responses involves older adults. EMS personnel must be prepared to care for the older patient.

  6. Dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years and their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake patterns of children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study have been described at 12, 24 and 48 months of age, but there is no information about dietary patterns of these children at 6 years. Then, we aimed to identify and describe dietary intake patterns of children aged 6 years as well as to assess their association with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, early feeding practices and BMI z-score at 6 years. Methods We used principal components analysis to identify dietary intake patterns of 3,427 children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. We used multiple linear regression models to evaluate whether socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic position, mother’s age at birth, and child’s sex and skin colour, early feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, and BMI z-score at 6 years were associated with dietary intake patterns. Results We identified seven dietary components of children’s dietary intake patterns, namely: fruits and vegetables, snacks and treats, coffee and bread, milk, cheese and processed meats, rice and beans and carbohydrates. Dietary patterns were socially patterned, since six dietary components were associated with socioeconomic position. Moreover, high intake of snacks and treats and less fruits and vegetables were associated with children born to teenage mothers, with those exclusively breastfed for less than one month, and with those who started on complementary feeding before 4 months. Finally, overweight and obese children at 6 years presented lower intake of four out of seven dietary components, but we need to be cautious in interpretation due to limitations on food consumption reporting and due to possible reverse causality. Conclusion Dietary intake patterns in children are strongly influenced by socioeconomic characteristics. Other factors such as younger maternal

  7. Predicting the educational performance of Isfahan University students of medical sciences based on their behaviour profile, mental health and demographic characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouei, Rahele; Fooladvand, Maryam; Janghorban, Shahla; Khorvash, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The issue of students' academic failure is one of the most important educational, economic, and social issues. Cognizance of the factors related to academic downfall is so efficient in its prevention and control and leads to protecting governmental assets and labor force. In order to achieve this goal, this study intends to determine the predictive factors of the students' academic performance in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in terms of their personality profile, mental health, and their demographic characteristics. This study was a descriptive-correlation study on 771 students who entered Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between 2005 and 2007. The information was gathered through using the students' educational and clinical files (for measuring personality characteristics and mental health) and SAMA Software (To get the mean scores). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory short form and General Health Questionnaire were used for collecting clinical data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 (stepwise regression coefficient, variance analysis, Student's t-test, and Spearman correlation coefficient). The results showed that the aforementioned students obtained a normal average for their personality profile and mental health indicators. Of all the reviewed variables, education, age, gender, depression, and hypochondria were the predictive factors of the students' educational performance. It could be concluded that some of the personality features, mental health indicators, and personality profile play such a significant role in the students' educational life that the disorder in any of them affects the students' educational performance and academic failure.

  8. The relationship between the socio-demographic characteristics of employees and their organizational identification and their perceived attractiveness of corporate culture

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    Nesmeianova R.K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparing the interrelationships between the individual characteristics of employees (gender, age, education, position and seniority in the organization with the types of organizational identification that they form, the level of need for it, and the degree of attractiveness of the corporate culture. The study involved 252 respondents (185 women, 67 men, all — representatives of commercial organizations. Data collection was carried out in one stage, a questionnaire was proposed, which included three methods. The resulting material was mathematically processed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Data are received that managers are less likely than performers to experience negative, ambiguous or neutral feelings towards their organization. The older the employees, the higher the level of their identification with it. The most senior employees are identified most with their company, as well as employees who have a long working record. Thus, a correlation was revealed between the socio-demographic characteristics of employees and the organizational variables under study.

  9. Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Abdullah; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Al-Rabiah, Fahad A; Al-Hajjar, Sami; Al-Barrak, Ali; Flemban, Hesham; Al-Nassir, Wafa N; Balkhy, Hanan H; Al-Hakeem, Rafat F; Makhdoom, Hatem Q; Zumla, Alimuddin I; Memish, Ziad A

    2013-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new human disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV). Clinical data on MERS-CoV infections are scarce. We report epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of 47 cases of MERS-CoV infections, identify knowledge gaps, and define research priorities. We abstracted and analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from confirmed cases of sporadic, household, community, and health-care-associated MERS-CoV infections reported from Saudi Arabia between Sept 1, 2012, and June 15, 2013. Cases were confirmed as having MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR. 47 individuals (46 adults, one child) with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV disease were identified; 36 (77%) were male (male:female ratio 3·3:1). 28 patients died, a 60% case-fatality rate. The case-fatality rate rose with increasing age. Only two of the 47 cases were previously healthy; most patients (45 [96%]) had underlying comorbid medical disorders, including diabetes (32 [68%]), hypertension (16 [34%]), chronic cardiac disease (13 [28%]), and chronic renal disease (23 [49%]). Common symptoms at presentation were fever (46 [98%]), fever with chills or rigors (41 [87%]), cough (39 [83%]), shortness of breath (34 [72%]), and myalgia (15 [32%]). Gastrointestinal symptoms were also frequent, including diarrhoea (12 [26%]), vomiting (ten [21%]), and abdominal pain (eight [17%]). All patients had abnormal findings on chest radiography, ranging from subtle to extensive unilateral and bilateral abnormalities. Laboratory analyses showed raised concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (23 [49%]) and aspartate aminotransferase (seven [15%]) and thrombocytopenia (17 [36%]) and lymphopenia (16 [34%]). Disease caused by MERS-CoV presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations and is associated with substantial mortality in admitted patients who have medical comorbidities. Major gaps in our knowledge of the epidemiology, community prevalence

  10. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

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    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of ante-partum fetal death in a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, A K; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-demographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital from June 2009 to July 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal socio-demographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire which was pre-tested before executing in this study. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below secondary school certificate (SSC) level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multi-gravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of ante-partum deaths.

  12. Some demographic characteristics of Hiroshima City, 1958, related to exposure to the Atomic Bomb (Based on the 1958 Interim Urban Population Survey of Hiroshima Prefecture). Preliminary report

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    Ishikuni, Naoji; Kato, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Y Scott

    1960-08-17

    Based upon the data obtained by the Interim Urban Population Survey conducted on October 1, 1958, in the cities of Hiroshima Prefecture, a comparison has been made between the demographic characteristics of the Hiroshima City atomic bomb survivors and those of the nonexposed. Analysis of the data revealed: (1) the estimated number of persons exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb and still residing in Hiroshima City on October 1, 1958 was 92,180; (2) the annual mean rates of in-migration and out-migration of the exposed population during the eight year period from 1950 to 1958 were both approximately 2%, while those for the nonexposed were 8% and 4% respectively; (3) the rate of unmarried exposed females tended to be higher than the rate of unmarried women not exposed, while no difference was noted for single males by exposure status; (4) proportionately greater numbers of exposed persons were engaged in primary and secondary industries (agriculture and manufacturing), while a proportionately greater number of nonexposed were engaged in tertiary industry (commerce, government service, and service work); (5) of those in the labor force the ratio of unemployed in the exposed population seemed slightly higher, but due to the small number surveyed, statistical confirmation was not possible. Of those not in the labor force, no difference was noted according to exposure status; (6) in the sickness prevalence rate no difference could be observed between the exposed and nonexposed.

  13. Demographic details, clinical features, and nutritional characteristics of young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus - A South Indian tertiary center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Mini; Shyamasunder, Asha H; Gupta, Riddhi D; Anand, Vijayalakshmi; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) accounts for 5-10% of all diagnosed diabetes and the highest incidence is found in India. The main objectives were to study the demographic, clinical, and nutritional characteristics of young adults with T1DM and its effect glycosylated hemoglobin levels. This cross-sectional study was conducted among young adults with T1DM (18-45 years of age) in a tertiary hospital in South India. Data were obtained from updated medical records. The dietary data were assessed from food diaries and 24 h recall method. Anthropometry was determined. The analysis revealed that socio-economic variables did not affect the glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin value was 8.81 ± 2.38%. Nearly, half the patients were malnourished. The overall dietary intake was inadequate. The multivariate regression model, adjusted for confounding factors such as gender, age, and body mass index, revealed that only duration of diabetes and protein intake were significant predictors of glycosylated hemoglobin status ( P diabetes management. However, there is an urgent need to educate our patients on nutrition therapy. T1DM patients need specialized advice to ensure appropriately balanced nutrition that has a significant impact on their long-term glycemic control.

  14. Demographic characteristics and prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-positive patients seen in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choon, S E; Mathew, M; Othman, B S

    2000-06-01

    The demographic characteristics, risk behaviourand prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were determined in 132 HIV-infected individuals seen in a Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru. Sixty-one (46.2%) were Malays, 37.9% Chinese, 10.6% Indians and 5.3% were of other ethnic groups. The male to female ratio was 4.5:1. Most of the patients (82.5%) were between 20 to 40 years-old. Seventy (53.0%) were single, 34.1% were married and 7.5% were divorcees. The majority of them (97.7%) were heterosexual. Fifty seven (53.3%) of our male patients patronised commercial workers. Eighty-one (61.8%) were not intravenous drug users (IVDU). Of the 50 IVDUs, 24 had multiple sexual exposures. Fifty-three (48.2%) of the 109 patients screened for STDs had one or more other STDs. Thirty-four patients (31.9%) reported one STD in the past and 3.6% reported two STDs in the past. Fifty-six patients (42.4%) had developed AIDS. Thirteen had passed away. The main mode of transmission of HIV infection in this population is through heterosexual intercourse and the prevalence of STDs is high. These findings indicate a need to advocate responsible sexual behaviour and to detect as well as treat STDs early to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

  15. Immunocompromised Travelers: Demographic Characteristics, Travel Destinations, and Pretravel Health Care from the U.S. Global TravEpiNet Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S; Rosen, Jessica; Han, Pauline V; Hynes, Noreen A; Hagmann, Stefan H; Rao, Sowmya R; Jentes, Emily S; Ryan, Edward T; LaRocque, Regina C

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of immunocompromised individuals are pursuing international travel, and a better understanding of their international travel patterns and pretravel health care is needed. We evaluated the clinical features, itineraries, and pretravel health care of 486 immunocompromised international travelers seen at Global TravEpiNet sites from January 2009 to June 2012. We used bivariate analyses and logistic regressions using random intercept models to compare demographic and travel characteristics, vaccines administered, and medications prescribed for immunocompromised travelers versus 30,702 immunocompetent travelers. Immunocompromised travelers pursued itineraries that were largely similar to those of immunocompetent travelers, with nearly one-third of such travelers visiting countries with low human development indices. Biological agents, including tumor necrosis factor blockers, were commonly used immunosuppressive medications among immunocompromised travelers. A strong collaboration between travel-medicine specialists, primary care doctors, and specialist physicians is needed to prepare immunocompromised people for international travel. Incorporating routine questioning and planning regarding travel into the primary care visits of immunocompromised people may be useful. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. The association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and sunburn among U.S. adults — National Health Interview Survey, 2010⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P.; Hartman, Anne M.; Perna, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and sunburn among U.S. adults. Method We used 2010 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 24,970) to conduct multivariable logistic regressions examining associations with having 1 or more sunburns in the past year and having 4 or more sunburns in the past year. Results Overall, 37.1% of adults experienced sunburn in the past year. The adjusted prevalence of sunburn was particularly common among adults aged 18–29 years (52.0%), those who repeatedly burn or freckle after 2 weeks in the sun (45.9%), whites (44.3%), indoor tanners (44.1%), those with a family history of melanoma (43.9%), and those who are US-born (39.5%). Physical activity, alcohol consumption, and overweight/obesity were positively associated with sunburn (all P sunburn (P = 0.35). Among those who were sunburned in the past year, 12.1% experienced 4 or more sunburns. Conclusion Sunburn is common, particularly among younger adults, those with a more sun-sensitive skin type, whites, those with a family history of melanoma, the highly physically active, and indoor tanners. Efforts are needed to facilitate sun-safety during outdoor recreation, improve the consistency of sun protection practices, and prevent sunburn, particularly among these subgroups. PMID:24589442

  17. Methodology of an International Study of People with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited through Web 2.0 Platforms: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Disease Characteristics

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    Emily J. Hadgkiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite evidence of the potential importance of the role of health and lifestyle behaviours in multiple sclerosis (MS outcomes, there has not been a significant focus on this area of research. Aim. We aimed to recruit an international sample of people with MS at baseline and over a five-year timeframe, examine their health and lifestyle behaviours, and determine the relationship of these behaviours to self-reported disability, disease activity, and quality of life. Methods. People with MS were recruited through web 2.0 platforms including interactive websites, social media, blogs, and forums and completed a comprehensive, multifaceted online questionnaire incorporating validated and researcher-derived tools. Results. 2519 participants met inclusion criteria for this study. This paper describes the study methodology in detail and provides an overview of baseline participant demographics, clinical characteristics, summary outcome variables, and health and lifestyle behaviours. The sample described is unique due to the nature of recruitment through online media and due to the engagement of the group, which appears to be well informed and proactive in lifestyle modification. Conclusion. This sample provides a sound platform to undertake novel exploratory analyses of the association between a variety of lifestyle factors and MS outcomes.

  18. Adjuvant radiation therapy in uterine carcinosarcoma: A population-based analysis of patient demographic and clinical characteristics, patterns of care and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzerova, Julia; Sison, Cristina P; Gupta, Divya; Holcomb, Kevin; Caputo, Thomas A; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-05-01

    To examine clinical and demographic characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS), to assess access to treatment and survival patterns. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was queried for patients diagnosed in 1999-2010 and treated with surgery with or without adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions, and Cox proportional hazards regression - to analyze the effect of covariates on survival. 2342 patients were eligible. African Americans presented with more advanced AJCC stages than other races (35.4% vs. 29.1%; pAfrican Americans vs. others, and women diagnosed in 1999-2004 vs. in 2005-2010, received aRT at a similar rate: 36.5% vs. 39.9% (p=NS), and 39.5% vs. 38.9% (p=NS), respectively. There was a trend towards higher aRT utilization among patients younger than 65 vs. older (41.4% vs. 37.5%; paRT group: 42 vs. 22 (paRT group. African Americans were more likely to present with later stage disease and die of UCS than non-African Americans. Age and stage, but not race, influenced receipt of aRT. Patients treated more recently survived longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socio-demographic characteristics and challenges experienced by disabled patients living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowookere, S A; Adewole, I F

    2012-09-01

    HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and few studies had looked at physically and mentally challenged people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in this environment. This study aimed to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and challenges faced by these patients attending University College Hospital, Ibadan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was done. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was administered to consecutive disabled PLHIV over a period of six months. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A total of ninety-nine patients were seen during the study period. The mean age of these patients was 39.9 +/- 9.4 years (range 23-60 years). There were 30 (30.3%) males and 69 (69.7%) females. Twenty-four percent had no formal education while 12% had tertiary education. All respondents had suffered stigmatization/discrimination while most were poor. Eighty-seven percent had AIDS at presentation. Musculoskeletal impairments (46.5%), hearing loss (16.2%) and visual impairment (31.3%) were the commonest disability. Over twenty-three percent had prior history of road traffic accident as the cause of disability. Physically and mentally challenged people living with HIV/AIDS are poor and highly stigmatized. They require special assistance to cope and need economic empowerment to reduce their poverty level.

  20. The Prevalence and Types of Child Abuse among Teachers and its Relationship with their Demographic Characteristics and General Health in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.

  1. The forest and the trees: Industrialization, demographic change, and the ongoing gender revolution in Sweden and the United States, 1870-2010

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    Maria Stanfors

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The separate spheres, in which men dominate the public sphere of politics, arts, media, and wage work and women dominate the private sphere of unpaid production and caring, is a powerful configuration in much social theory (including Parsons, Becker, and Goode, which posited that with industrialization, family structures and activities would converge towards the nuclear family with strict gender roles. Objective: This paper examines the major trends unraveling the gender division of family support and care that reached its peak in the mid-20th century, often called the 'worker-carer' or the 'separate spheres' model, by comparing the experiences of Sweden and the United States. Methods: We use data that includes time series of macro-level demographic and economic indicators, together with cross-sectional data from censuses and time use surveys. Results: The unraveling of the separate spheres began with the increase in the labor force participation of married women and continues with the increase in men's involvement with their homes and children, but its foundations were laid in the 19th century, with industrialization. We show that despite short-term stalls, slowdowns, and even reverses, as well as huge differences in policy contexts, the overall picture of increasing gender sharing in family support and care is strongly taking shape in both countries. Contribution: By doing a comparative, in-depth analysis, it becomes clear that the extreme role specialization within the couple that divided caring from 'work,' though theoretically important, applied only for a limited period in Northern Europe and the United States, however important it might be in other regions.

  2. Recruitment and derecruitment characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesunathadas, Mark; Marmon, Adam R; Gibb, James M; Enoka, Roger M

    2010-06-01

    The significant decline in motor neuron number after approximately 60 yr of age is accompanied by a remodeling of the neuromuscular system so that average motor unit force increases and the ability of old adults to produce an intended force declines. One possible explanation for the loss of movement precision is that the remodeling increases the difference in recruitment forces between successively recruited motor units in old adults and this augments force variability at motor unit recruitment. The purpose of the study was to compare the forces and discharge characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults at motor unit recruitment and derecruitment. The difference in recruitment force between pairs of motor units did not differ between young (n=54) and old adults (n=56; P=0.702). However, old adults had a greater proportion of contractions in which motor units discharged action potentials transiently before discharging continuously during the ramp increase in force (young: 0.32; old: 0.41; P=0.045). Force variability at motor unit recruitment was greater for old adults compared with young adults (Por=0.729). These results suggest that the difference in force between the recruitment of successive motor units does not differ between age groups, but that motor unit recruitment may be more transient and could contribute to the greater variability in force observed in old adults during graded ramp contractions.

  3. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Adult Epileptic Patients Applying to the Neurology Clinic of Erciyes University and the Relation of These Phenomena to Depression

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    Vesile Şenol

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The epidemiological characteristics of epilepsy vary from society to society. Epilepsy, whose prevalence is between 0.5-1.0%, is usually seen in early and late ages, at the both of ends of life, and more often in males, and in people who have low income and education. Besides ıts neuropsychologic effects, epilepsy is a disease which has psychological, socilogical aspects such as social isolation, low self-esteem and depression. Depression is seen more often in people with epilepsy than people who don’t have this disease. The percentage of depression for the whole life-time for people with epilepsy is 10-30%. Age at onset of epilepsy, seizure type, frequency, time and the type of treatment (mono-poly therapy affect the incidence and degree of depression. OBJECTIVES: To define the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy cases, to determine the percentage of depressive disorders in epilepsy cases, to probe the characteristics of epileptic seizure and its relation to depression. METHODS: The study was conducted through a face-to-face survey of 102 adult epileptic patients who applied to the Erciyes University Epilepsy Outpatient Clinic between October 2004 and 2005. In order to gather the data, which was prepared by the researcher “A survey form for the epileptic individuals” and “The Turkish Version of Beck Depression Inventory”, whose accuracy and validity was checked by Hisli, was used. RESULTS: The average age for the cases is 34.3±12.6, the average age at seizure onset is 21.4±14.6 and in 66% of them the seizure started when they were under 25. Majority of the cases were male and lower than the minimum wage. Among the patients, 45.6% had generalized (tonic-clonic seizures, and 36% had been ≥1/month seizures and 32% seizure-free during the previous year. CONCLUSION: The average of depressive disorder was 29.4%. 15.7% of the cases were with major depression. Age at onset epilepsy, seizure type and

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahoada-East local government area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

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    Azuonwu Obi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan, Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Subjects included 152 consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25΁7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%. HIV infection was higher among females (10.9% compared to males (10.1% and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1% (P= 0.08. HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74% compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  5. The Study of Personality Traits and Demographic Characteristics of Prisoners with Psychopathic Personality Disorder in Comparison with Ordinary Prisoners in Sample of Tehran Prisoners, Tehran, Iran.

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    D Ghaderi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Most conducted research about psychopathy has been done among Western countries' prisoners and it has remained unclear whether these findings are applicable in other contexts. The aim of this is to survey personality traits and demographic characteristics of prisoners with psychopathic personality disorder in comparison with ordinary prisoners in sample of Tehran prisoners.

     

    Methods: This study was done based on descriptive method. 202 prisoners were selected among Ray City prisoners in Tehran and the applied method was sample available. All prisoners completed Hare (PCL-SV psychopathic personality disorder checklist and five personality traits Questionnaire, McCare and Costa (Neo-FFI. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Regression, and T student for independent groups.

     

    Results: The prevalence of psychopathy disorder among prisoners of this group was reported 10.89. Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation test, regression analysis and T student independent groups, represent a significant positive relationship between Psychopaty and extraversion (p=1% and a significant negative relationship between openness and Psychopaty (p=5%, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p=1%, respectively. No relationship was found between psychopathy, and neurosis. Furthermore, results indicated that, in comparison with non-psychopathic prisoners, psychopathic prisoners were more neurosis and extraversion, however, they showed low level of openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

     

    Conclusion: According to the findings, psychopathic disorder and five personality traits are related. Therefore, futher studies in the field of examined variables can provide more information.

  6. Demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of patients with medullary thyroid cancer in the past 16 years in Castilla-La Mancha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhibi, Lynda; Marco, Amparo; Pinés, Pedro J; Padillo, José C; Gómez, Inés; Valero, Miguel A; Alramadán, Mubarak; Herranz, Sandra; Aguirre, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare tumor that is more aggressive and has a worse prognosis than differentiated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to report the demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of patients seen in the health care system of the community of Castilla-La Mancha over a 16-year period. Data were collected through a review of patients' medical records. The medical records of 58 patients (mean age at diagnosis, 51 years; range, 6-82 years; 63.8% women) were reviewed. Prevalence rate was 2.84 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, with a high variability between areas (range, 0-5.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). Familial cases accounted for 34.5% of all medullary thyroid cancers, and the most common mutation was C634Y. The condition was most commonly diagnosed following palpation of a cervical lump (70.6%). At diagnosis, 56 of 58 patients underwent ultrasound and 8 of 58 patients were tested for serum calcitonin. Tumor multicentricity was reported in 59 and 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A and 2B, respectively, and in no sporadic cases. Fifty-two percent of patients had an advanced stage (iii or iv) at diagnosis. Median follow-up was 36 months (interquartile range, 14-210); 11 patients were lost to follow-up. In Castilla-La Mancha, medullary thyroid cancer is diagnosed by cervical ultrasound, rather than calcitonin assay. There is a high prevalence of both familial and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer, and a significant variability in the type of proto-oncogen rearranged during transfection mutation as compared to the rest of the Spanish population. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States

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    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  8. Trends and characteristics of home births in the United States by race and ethnicity, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Menacker, Fay

    2011-03-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home in the United States increased by 5 percent in 2005 and that increase was sustained in 2006. The purpose of the study was to analyze trends and characteristics in home births in United States by race and ethnicity from 1990 to 2006. U.S. birth certificate data on home births were analyzed and compared with hospital births for a variety of demographic and medical characteristics. From 1990 to 2006, both the number and percentage of home births increased for non-Hispanic white women, but declined for all other race and ethnic groups. In 2006, non-Hispanic white women were three to four times more likely to have a home birth than women of other race and ethnic groups. Home births were more likely than hospital births to occur to older, married women with singleton pregnancies and several previous children. For non-Hispanic white women, fewer home births than hospital births were born preterm, whereas for other race and ethnic groups a higher percentage of home births than hospital births were born preterm. For non-Hispanic white women, two-thirds of home births were delivered by midwives. In contrast, for other race and ethnic groups, most home births were delivered by either physicians or "other" attendants, suggesting that a higher proportion of these births may be unplanned home births because of emergency situations. Differences in the risk profile of home births by race and ethnicity are consistent with previous research, suggesting that, compared with non-Hispanic white women, a larger proportion of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic home births represent unplanned, emergency situations. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Campos, Oswaldo; Cruz-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Aquino, Roque Juan Carrasco; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Machuca, Martha Alicia Velázquez; Meléndez, Luis Arturo Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units' delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  10. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  11. Sabotaging the benefits of our own human capital: Work unit characteristics and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Jiang, Kaifeng; Lepak, David P

    2016-02-01

    The strategic human capital literature indicates the importance of human capital to work unit performance. However, we argue that human capital only aids performance when it is translated into actions beneficial to the unit. We examine a set of common human capital leveraging characteristics (including the use of extended shifts, night shifts, shift flexibility, norms for work as a priority over sleep, and norms for constant connectivity) as factors that enhance the effect of human capital on human capital utilization. We also draw from the 2-process model of sleep regulation to examine how these characteristics undermine employee sleep, and thus weaken the link between human capital and work unit performance efficiency. Overall, we propose that human capital leveraging strategies initially enhance the effect of human capital on work unit performance, but over time weaken the effect of human capital on work unit performance efficiency. Thus, strategies intended to enhance the beneficial effect of human capital on work unit performance can end up doing the opposite. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Characteristics of neonatal units that care for very preterm infants in Europe: results from the MOSAIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Reempts, Patrick; Gortner, Ludwig; Milligan, David

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare guidelines for level III units in 10 European regions and analyze the characteristics of neonatal units that care for very preterm infants. METHODS: The MOSAIC (Models of Organising Access to Intensive Care for Very Preterm Births) project combined a prospective...... cohort study on all births between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in 10 European regions and a survey of neonatal unit characteristics. Units that admitted > or = 5 infants at

  13. Historical Delineation of Landscape Units Using Physical Geographic Characteristics and Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Campos Oswaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape units are conceived as a part of the territory that share similar physical and geographic characteristics. Their delineation can contribute to identify the physical and social dynamics that emerge in the spatial environment and to propose strategies of planning and management of the territory. The main objective was to make a historical delineation of landscape units in the Duero river basin that demonstrate the dynamics of changes in the territory, the description of the actors involved, and the affectations in the natural and social environment. We analyzed the vegetation change and urban growth from 1983 to 2014, incorporating climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables. A Principal Component Analysis was performed with the information and results were used in Maximum Likelihood procedure to define different clusters based on environmental characteristics. We defined five categories from the Landsat images. Results showed landscape units with homogeneous environmental characteristics and some differences in the units’ delineation were mainly influenced by political and socioeconomic factors. Temporally there was an increased tendency of landscape units, three in 1983, nine in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2011, and eight in 2014. This increase resulted from territory fragmentation because of berries and avocado cultivars expansion over wooded area.

  14. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Sales Maurício

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64 and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62 to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62 and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54, however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable.

  15. Demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker females attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Japan: a nationwide case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Hideko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs reported in STI surveillance increased rapidly for women in Japan during the 1990s, the sexual behavior of women potentially at risk of STI infection remains unknown. Methods In order to determine the demographic and behavioral characteristics of non-sex worker (SW females attending STI clinics, female attendees (n = 145, excluding SW, from nine clinics across Japan and female controls from the general population (n = 956, both aged 18-50 years, were compared using two data sets of nationwide sexual behavior surveys conducted in 1999. Results Although the occupation-type and education level were unrelated to STI clinic attendance in multivariate analysis, non-SW females attending STI clinics were younger (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99, and more likely to be unmarried (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.77 than the controls from the general population. In the previous year, STI clinic attendees were more likely to have had multiple partnerships (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.42, 6.71 and unprotected vaginal sex with regular partners (AOR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.64, and tended to have had their first sexual intercourse at a younger age (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.89, 3.54 and more unprotected vaginal and/or oral sex with casual partners (AOR = 2.08, 95%CI: 0.75, 5.71. Identical sexual behavior patterns were observed between the female attendees with a current diagnosis of STI (n = 72 and those before diagnosis (n = 73 and between those with a past history of STI (n = 66 and those without (n = 79. Conclusion These results indicate that not only multiple partnerships or unprotected sex with casual partners, but also unprotected vaginal sex within a regular partnership is prevalent among non-SW female STI clinic attendees. The identical sexual behavior patterns observed between female attendees with a current STI diagnosis and those without, and between those attendees

  16. A comparison of smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian smokers in the United Kingdom and Malay smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noorzurani; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that smoking behaviour differs by ethnicity. This study aims to compare smoking behaviour characteristics between Caucasian and Malay smokers. A cross sectional survey, involving 175 smokers attending smoking cessation clinics at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom and University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between May 2005 and February 2007. Data on demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence and smoking behaviour were collected. All participants were males, mean age 30.7 ± 10.3 years. Caucasians initiated smoking significantly earlier (mean age 14.8 ± 2.8 years) (p = 0.001) and smoked regularly significantly earlier (mean age 17.3 ± 3.5) (p = 0.003) than Malays (mean starting age 16.9 ± 4.4 years and mean age regular use 19.5 ± 4.5 years), respectively. Caucasians smoked less for social integration than Malays (p = 0.03) but smoked more for regulation of negative affect than Malays (p = 0.008) and smoked more for hedonism than Malays (p < 0.001). Malays smoke as a means of socially integrating. This has important public health implications. Social reasons and the social environment play a role in smoking uptake, smoking maintenance and smoking cessation and this should be borne in mind for strategies planning to promote smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of Emergency Department Visits by Older Versus Younger Homeless Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits of older versus younger homeless adults. Methods. We analyzed 2005–2009 data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative survey of visits to hospitals and EDs, and used sampling weights, strata, and clustering variables to obtain nationally representative estimates. Results. The ED visits of homeless adults aged 50 years and older accounted for 36% of annual visits by homeless patients. Although demographic characteristics of ED visits were similar in older and younger homeless adults, clinical and health services characteristics differed. Older homeless adults had fewer discharge diagnoses related to psychiatric conditions (10% vs 20%; P = .002) and drug abuse (7% vs 15%; P = .003) but more diagnoses related to alcohol abuse (31% vs 23%; P = .03) and were more likely to arrive by ambulance (48% vs 36%; P = .02) and to be admitted to the hospital (20% vs 11%; P = .003). Conclusions. Older homeless adults’ patterns of ED care differ from those of younger homeless adults. Health care systems need to account for these differences to meet the needs of the aging homeless population. PMID:23597348

  18. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    ageing were singled out the most as significant for examining in the immediate future. The inclusion of Stanovništvo on the Science Citation Information Journal List and expanding the circle of authors were the basic recommendations of the respondents regarding better quality of the journal. All interviewed experts mentioned various kinds of knowledge and characteristics necessary for demographers to posses in order to be successful. Contrary to the homogeneous opinion that a demographer should be a superior-researcher, a wide range of responses were given to the question regarding selecting the best indicator for determining the successfulness of researchers in the study of population. As many as eight out of ten interviewed experts believe population ageing is the greatest population challenge which Serbia is facing. However, a low level of consensus appeared among the demographers as regards the range of the political response. Namely, five experts declared they were pessimists in view of the possibilities for mitigating the challenge they singled out. On the contrary, five interviewed experts expressed optimism, as they believe in the economic development of Serbia, the possibilities of institutional adjustments to demographic changes, and/or in man and his rationality. Conclusion: Demographers in Serbia highly appreciate the discipline they belong to. At the same time they are strict critics and have high expectations in all matters dealing with demography. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006: Istraživanje demografskih fenomena u funkciji javnih politika u Srbiji

  19. Informing Leadership Models: Nursing and Organizational Characteristics of Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Freestanding Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Cheryl A; DeGrazia, Michele; Connor, Jean Anne; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kuzdeba, Hillary Bishop; Hickey, Patricia A

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) located in freestanding children's hospitals may exhibit significant variation in nursing and organizational characteristics, which can serve as opportunities for collaboration to understand optimal staffing models and linkages to patient outcomes. Adopting methods used by Hickey et al in pediatric cardiovascular critical care, the purpose of this study was to provide a foundational description of the nursing and organizational characteristics for NICUs located in freestanding children's hospitals in the United States. Clinical nurse leaders in NICUs located in freestanding children's hospitals were invited to participate in an electronic cross-sectional survey. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize nursing and organizational characteristics. The response rate was 30% (13/43), with 69.2% of NICUs classified as level III/IV and 30.8% classified as level II/III. Licensed bed capacity varied significantly (range, 24-167), as did the proportion of full-time equivalent nurses (range, 71.78-252.3). Approximately three-quarters of staff nurses held baccalaureate degrees or higher. A quarter of nurses had 16 or more years (26.3%) of experience, and 36.9% of nurses had 11 or more years of nursing experience. Nearly one-third (29.2%) had 5 or less years of total nursing experience. Few nurses (10.6%) held neonatal specialty certification. All units had nurse educators, national and unit-based quality metrics, and procedural checklists. This study identified (1) variation in staffing models signaling an opportunity for collaboration, (2) the need to establish ongoing processes for sites to participate in future collaborative efforts, and (3) survey modifications necessary to ensure a more comprehensive understanding of nursing and organizational characteristics in freestanding children's hospital NICUs.

  20. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  1. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  2. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies.Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species).This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  3. The prevalence, diagnostic significance and demographic characteristics of Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ihara, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    The diagnostic significance of first-rank symptoms (FRSs) remains uncertain. Ethnic differences in FRSs may account for high rates of schizophrenia in minority groups. This study aims to examine the prevalence of FRSs in an epidemiological sample of first-episode psychoses stratified by relevant demographic variables. SAMPLING AND METHOD: We identified everyone aged 16-64 presenting with their first psychosis over 2 years in 3 UK centres.

  4. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenstr?m, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50–100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on A...

  5. Experimental study on airflow fluctuation characteristic of an underfloor air supply terminal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Yanfang [Design Institute of Guangzhou Metro Corporation, Guangzhou 510010 (China)

    2010-11-15

    In order to investigate dynamic characteristic of underfloor air supply terminal unit, an IFV900A hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the corresponding velocity field. Turbulence intensity and power spectrum density exponent of air velocity signal were analyzed. The result showed that the outlet velocity distribution of underfloor air supply terminal unit was uniform. With increment of height, the velocity distribution trends to be uniform. Two velocity attenuation regions appear during airflow development. Turbulence intensity changes obviously with height. It is lower than that of mechanical wind. Turbulence intensity goes up with the increment of jetting distance. Power spectrum density exponent trends to the value of natural wind with increase of jetting distance and decrease of wind velocity. The exponent value approaches to the value of typical natural wind for the air velocity is 0.5 m/s under high supply air rate. With airflow diffusion, the fluctuation characteristic of airflow varies obviously with the jetting direction. The fluctuation characteristic of airflow changes to that of natural wind with the increase of height which can improve comfort of indoor environment. (author)

  6. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel N; Renne, Elisha P; Basu, Niladri

    2015-10-12

    This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) community in Ghana's Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114) were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS) on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators) are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems) and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care), whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider) show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  7. Understanding the Social Context of the ASGM Sector in Ghana: A Qualitative Description of the Demographic, Health, and Nutritional Characteristics of a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Long

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive paper describes factors related to demographics and health in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM community in Ghana’s Upper East Region. Participants (n = 114 were surveyed in 2010 and 2011, adapting questions from the established national Demographic Health Survey (DHS on factors such as population characteristics, infrastructure, amenities, education, employment, maternal and child health, and diet. In the study community, some indicators of household wealth (e.g., radios, mobile phones, refrigerators are more common than elsewhere in Ghana, yet basic infrastructure (e.g., cement flooring, sanitation systems and access to safe water supplies are lacking. Risk factors for poor respiratory health, such as cooking with biomass fuel smoke and smoking tobacco, are common. Certain metrics of maternal and child health are comparable to other areas of Ghana (e.g., frequency of antenatal care, whereas others (e.g., antenatal care from a skilled provider show deficiencies. Residents surveyed do not appear to lack key micronutrients, but report lower fruit and vegetable consumption than other rural areas. The results enable a better understanding of community demographics, health, and nutrition, and underscore the need for better demographic and health surveillance and data collection across ASGM communities to inform effective policies and programs for improving miner and community health.

  8. Discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units at recruitment when older adults sustained an isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michael A; Holmes, Matthew R; Enoka, Roger M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the discharge characteristics of motor units recruited during an isometric contraction that was sustained with the elbow flexor muscles by older adults at target forces that were less than the recruitment threshold force of each isolated motor unit. The discharge times of 27 single motor units were recorded from the biceps brachii in 11 old adults (78.8 ± 5.9 yr). The target force was set at either a relatively small (6.6 ± 3.7% maximum) or large (11.4 ± 4.5% maximum) difference below the recruitment threshold force and the contraction was sustained until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for about 60 s. The time to recruitment was longer for the large target-force difference (P = 0.001). At recruitment, the motor units discharged repetitively for both target-force differences, which contrasts with data from young adults when motor units discharged intermittently at recruitment for the large difference between recruitment threshold force and target force. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the first five interspike intervals (ISIs) increased from the small (18.7 ± 7.9) to large difference (35.0 ± 10.2%, P = 0.008) for the young adults, but did not differ for the two target force differences for the old adults (26.3 ± 14.7 to 24.0 ± 13.1%, P = 0.610). When analyzed across the discharge duration, the average CV for the ISI decreased similarly for the two target-force differences (P = 0.618) in old adults. These findings contrast with those of young adults and indicate that the integration of synaptic input during sustained contractions differs between young and old adults.

  9. Investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the hydro unit A in HPP Vrutok (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushtikj, Vangel; Iliev, Atanas; Weber, H.; Prillwitz, F.; Kukoski, Ivan; Bekiri, Ejup

    2001-01-01

    Following up-to date technology for research, measurement, inspection and testing of the dynamical performances of the Electric Power System, the expert's teams from Faculty of Electrical Engineering - Skopje, University of Rostock and local experts from HPP's Vrutok, performed sets of experiments for identification of the dynamical, characteristics of the Unit A in HPP's Vrutok. Such experiments and examination are inevitable task for determining the possibilities of the units to operate in a new environment of deregulate market of electric energy, especially to operate on it's own network and to supply isolated consumers. In this paper, the method, the procedure, as well as, part of the obtained practical results are presented and discussed. (Original)

  10. Computer Drawing Method for Operating Characteristic Curve of PV Power Plant Array Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianbin

    2018-02-01

    According to the engineering design of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power stations and the research and development of many simulation and analysis systems, it is necessary to draw a good computer graphics of the operating characteristic curves of photovoltaic array elements and to propose a good segmentation non-linear interpolation algorithm. In the calculation method, Component performance parameters as the main design basis, the computer can get 5 PV module performances. At the same time, combined with the PV array series and parallel connection, the computer drawing of the performance curve of the PV array unit can be realized. At the same time, the specific data onto the module of PV development software can be calculated, and the good operation of PV array unit can be improved on practical application.

  11. Synchronization of motor unit firings: an epiphenomenon of firing rate characteristics not common inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Joshua C; De Luca, Carlo J

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous motor unit firing instances have been attributed to anatomical inputs shared by motoneurons. Yet, there is a lack of empirical evidence confirming the notion that common inputs elicit synchronization under voluntary conditions. We tested this notion by measuring synchronization between motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) as their firing rates progressed within a contraction from a relatively low force level to a higher one. On average, the degree of synchronization decreased as the force increased. The common input notion provides no empirically supported explanation for the observed synchronization behavior. Therefore, we investigated a more probable explanation for synchronization. Our data set of 17,546 paired MUAPTs revealed that the degree of synchronization varies as a function of two characteristics of the motor unit firing rate: the similarity and the slope as a function of force. Both are measures of the excitation of the motoneurons. As the force generated by the muscle increases, the firing rate slope decreases, and the synchronization correspondingly decreases. Different muscles have motor units with different firing rate characteristics and display different amounts of synchronization. Although this association is not proof of causality, it consistently explains our observations and strongly suggests further investigation. So viewed, synchronization is likely an epiphenomenon, subject to countless unknown neural interactions. As such, synchronous firing instances may not be the product of a specific design and may not serve a specific physiological purpose. Our explanation for synchronization has the advantage of being supported by empirical evidence, whereas the common input does not. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Characteristics of patients hospitalized at an intensive care unit due to drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Antunes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the clinical and demographic profile of patients hospitalized due to drug intoxication at an intensive care unit (ICU of a teaching hospital between 2004 and 2010. Methodology. In this descriptive study, information was collected from the hospitalized patients, as informed by a Toxicology Care Center (CAT in Paraná (Brazil. The clinical files were checked and information was collected about age, gender, toxic agents and intoxication circumstances, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. Results. Sixty-two patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 58 years and 77% male. Alcohol was the substance related to most hospitalizations (77%, followed by psychoactive drugs (14% and marihuana and crack (5% each. The main comorbidities were bronchopneumonia due to aspiration (37%, alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (24% and traumatic brain injury (19%. The most frequent intoxication circumstances were chronic abuse (79%, attemptive suicide (19% and acute abuse (4.9%. Thirty-nine percent of the patients died during hospitalization. Conclusion. The results show a concerning reality, as most of the patients are men of economically active age, who were intoxicated by a legal substance like alcohol, with a relevant number of deaths. Nurses need to pay particular attention to this health problem, in the context of which they play a fundamental role as educators with a view to the encouragement of healthy lifestyles.

  13. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  14. Frequency, Etiology and Several Sociodemographic Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Children Treated in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Bejiqi, Ramush

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work has been to present the frequency, etiology and several other socio-demographic characteristics of acute poisoning in children. The treated patients and methods of work: The treated patients were children of all age groups hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina during year 2009. The study was done retrospectively. The diagnosis was done on the basis of heteroanamnesis and in several cases on the basis of the anamnesis data of a child, routine laboratory tests and toxicologic analysis. Results: 66 (9.4%) poisoned children were treated in the Intensive Care Unit. The biggest number of patients, 37 (56.06%) of them, were male, and out of that number 36 (54.55%) cases were coming from rural areas. The biggest number of them 49 (74.98%) were over 2-6 years old. The poisoning was mostly caused through the digestive tract (ingestion), it happened with 55 cases (83.33%), 56 cases (84,80%) suffered from severe poisoning, whereas 59 cases (89,50%) suffered from accidental poisoning. Regarding the type of the substances that caused poisoning, the most frequent were drugs in 34 (51.50%) cases and pesticides in 20 (30.30%) cases. Among drugs, the most dominant were those belonging to a group of benzodiazepines (10 cases) and metoclopramide (4 cases). Among pesticides the most dominant one that caused poisoning was malation (5 cases), then paration and cipermetrina appeared in 3 cases each. The biggest number of cases, 64 (96.96%) of them, were treated, whereas 2 cases (3.40%) passed away. Conclusion: The practice proved that that our people are not well informed about the poisoning in general, therefore it is necessary that they be educated by the use of all media, written and electronic, as well as other methods of medical education. PMID:23678312

  15. The Frequency, Characteristics, and Outcomes Among Cancer Patients With Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Ransing, Viraj; Yennu, Sriram; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Diane; Reddy, Akhila; Delgado-Guay, Marvin; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric condition seen in patients with severe illness, such as advanced cancer. Few published studies are available of the frequency, course, and outcomes of standardized management of delirium in advanced cancer patients admitted to acute palliative care unit (APCU). In this study, we examined the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of delirium in patients with advanced cancer admitted to an APCU. Medical records of 609 consecutive patients admitted to the APCU from January 2011 through December 2011 were reviewed. Data on patients' demographics; Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) score; palliative care specialist (PCS) diagnosis of delirium; delirium etiology, subtype, and reversibility; late development of delirium; and discharge outcome were collected. Delirium was diagnosed with MDAS score ≥7 and by a PCS using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, Text Revision criteria. All patients admitted to the APCU received standardized assessments and management of delirium per best practice guidelines in delirium management. Of 556 patients in the APCU, 323 (58%) had a diagnosis of delirium. Of these, 229 (71%) had a delirium diagnosis on admission and 94 (29%) developed delirium after admission to the APCU. Delirium reversed in 85 of 323 episodes (26%). Half of patients with delirium (n = 162) died. Patients with the diagnosis of delirium had a lower median overall survival than those without delirium. Patients who developed delirium after admission to the APCU had poorer survival (p ≤ .0001) and a lower rate of delirium reversal (p = .03) compared with those admitted with delirium. More than half of the patients admitted to the APCU had delirium. Reversibility occurred in almost one-third of cases. Diagnosis of delirium was associated with poorer survival. ©AlphaMed Press.

  16. Characteristics of Low-Priced Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite impressive recent cost reductions, there is wide dispersion in the prices of installed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. We identify the most important factors that make a system likely to be low priced (LP). Our sample consists of detailed characteristics for 42,611 small-scale (< 15 kW) PV systems installed in 15 U.S. states during 2013. Using four definitions of LP systems, we compare LP and non-LP systems and find statistically significant differences in nearly all factors explored, including competition, installer scale, markets, demographics, ownership, policy, and system components. Logit and probit model results robustly indicate that LP systems are associated with markets with few active installers; experienced installers; customer ownership; large systems; retrofits; and thin-film, low-efficiency, and Chinese modules. We also find significant differences across states, with LP systems much more likely to occur in some than in others. Our focus on the left tail of the price distribution provides implications for policy that are distinct from recent studies of mean prices. While those studies find that PV subsidies increase mean prices, we find that subsidies also generate LP systems. PV subsidies appear to simultaneously shift and broaden the price distribution. Much of this broadening occurs in a particular location, northern California, which is worthy of further investigation with new data.

  17. Shifting characteristics of ecstasy users ages 12-34 in the United States, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Mauro, Pia M; Han, Benjamin H; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-12-01

    Ecstasy/MDMA has been one of the most prevalent party drugs for decades, and powder ecstasy recently increased in popularity. We examined trends in use to determine who to best target for prevention and harm reduction. Secondary analysis of the 2007-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample, was conducted. Linear trends in past-year ecstasy use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among ecstasy users were examined among participants ages 12-34 (N=332,560). Past-year prevalence of ecstasy use was stable across years at 2% (P=0.693). Over time, the proportion of ecstasy users with a college degree increased from 11.5% in 2007/08 to 24.5% in 2013/14 (Pusers who were age 12-17 decreased, as did proportions of users who are non-Hispanic black, and reported income users (Psusers and ease of obtaining LSD increased (Psusers is growing-particularly use of otherwise rare substances such as tryptamines. Results inform prevention and harm reduction strategies in this increasingly shifting group of ecstasy users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Itano, Joanne; Inouye, Jillian; Kim, Susie; Kuniviktikul, Wipada; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Pongthavornkamol, Kanuangnit; Gasemgitvattana, Saipin; Ito, Misae

    2004-08-01

    In an attempt to cross-culturally compare factors that may contribute to the nursing shortage within countries that have produced a limited number of research findings on role stress in nurses, this research examined work stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses from Japan, South Korea, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii). Subjects (n = 1554 hospital-based nurses) were administered four self-report questionnaires: Demographic Questionnaire, "Nursing Stress Scale", "Ways of Coping Questionnaire" and "SF-36 Health Survey". Findings suggested that nurses indicated similar workplace stressors, ways of coping, and levels of physical and mental health. While subjects, across countries, demonstrated a variety of predictors of physical and mental health, several predictors were found to be the same. Cross-culturally the role of nurses may vary; however, certain factors are predictive of the status of hospital nurses' physical health and mental health. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Women who finished a violent relationship: personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics [Mujeres que finalizaron una relación maltratante: características de personalidad, psicopatológicas y sociodemográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marcela Preciado-Gavidia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics of women that concluded a violent partner relationship (n=54, comparing them with women that continued with this type of relationship (n=41. The participants are between 18-60 years (M=37.4. The applied instruments were a socio-demographic survey, the Big Five Questionnaire of Personality (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni & Perugini, 1995, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Sheehan & Lecrubier, 2000. The participants that finished the abusive relationship presented bigger punctuations in the dimensions of Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness, a lower number of children, bigger help-seeking in government institutions after the violence episodes, and a lower prevalence of mayor depressive episode, dysthymia, low suicidal risk, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety.

  20. Food insecurity and socio-demographic characteristics in two UK ethnic groups: an analysis of women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Small, Neil; Doherty, Bob; Pickett, Kate E

    2018-03-01

    The use of foodbanks has risen sharply in the UK; however, the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is undeveloped. This study contributes to the field by analysing socio-demographic risk factors for food insecurity in a female, ethnically diverse population. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort were matched with data on food insecurity from the nested BiB1000 study (N = 1280). Logistic regression was used to model food insecurity in relation to ethnicity and socio-demographic factors. Food insecurity, reported by 13.98% of the sample, was more likely among White British than Pakistani women (crude Odds Ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% CI: 1.37; 2.74, adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.57; 3.59). In fully adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with a range of socio-economic measures, particularly the receipt of mean-tested benefits (adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.41; 3.15) and perception of financial insecurity (adjusted OR 8.91, 95% CI: 4.14; 19.16 for finding it difficult/very difficult compared to living comfortably). The finding that food insecurity prevalence may be higher than previously thought and that food insecurity is highly associated with socio-economic status, notably benefit receipt, is a cause for concern necessitating an urgent policy response.

  1. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outten, H Robert; Lee, Timothy; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Schmitt, Michael T; Vala, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the "majority" group), or fake projections for 2060-that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline). In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear) toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  2. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Robert Outten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979, we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the “majority” group, or fake projections for 2060—that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline. In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  3. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and resource implications of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in intensive care units in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients in Ireland with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, and to provide a dynamic assessment of the burden of such cases on Irish intensive care units.

  4. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States. The estimates are daily averages for the...

  5. Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-10-22

    Patient safety culture (PSC) has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers (n =12,076). Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type. A total of 9,124 respondents (75.6%) completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents (72.0%) were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units (n =184) and low-PSC units (n =256). Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of 'Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit' was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units (OR =9.7), and 'Long-term care ward' (OR =0.2), 'Rehabilitation unit' (OR =0.2) and 'Administration unit' (OR =0.3) were significantly less likely to be categorised as high

  6. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  7. Cervical Coupling Motion Characteristics in Healthy People Using a Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objectives were to show the feasibility of a wireless microelectromechanical system inertial measurement unit (MEMS-IMU to assess the time-domain characteristics of cervical motion that are clinically useful to evaluate cervical spine movement. Methods. Cervical spine movements were measured in 18 subjects with wireless IMUs. All rotation data are presented in the Euler angle system. Amount of coupling motions was evaluated by calculating the average angle ratio and the maximum angle ratio of the coupling motion to the primary motion. Reliability is presented with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. Results. Entire time-domain characteristics of cervical motion were measured with developed MEMS-IMU system. Cervical range of motion (CROM and coupling motion range were measured with high ICCs. The acquired data and calculated parameters had similar tendency with the previous studies. Conclusions. We evaluated cervical motion with economic system using a wireless IMU of high reliability. We could directly measure the three-dimensional cervical motion in degrees in realtime. The characteristics measured by this system may provide a diagnostic basis for structural or functional dysfunction of cervical spine. This system is also useful to demonstrate the effectiveness of any intervention such as conventional medical treatment, and Korean medical treatment, exercise therapy.

  8. Thermal recovery characteristics of Kori-unit 1 linde 80 weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. H.; Hong, J. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kim, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    The recovery activation energy, the order of reaction and the characteristic recovery rate constant were determined by isochronal (573K -823K) and isothermal (723K - 775K) annealing experiments on specimens made from a broken half of a Kori-Unit 1 surveillance weld specimen (fluence: 1.21 x 10 23 n/m 2 , E (1MeV, Cu: 0.29 wt%) to investigate the recovery characteristics of a high copper weld of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Vickers microhardness tests were conducted to trace the recovery behavior after heat treatments. The results were analyzed in terms of recovery stages, behavior of responsible defects and recovery kinetics. It was shown that recovery occurred through two annealing stages (stage I: 673K - 753K, stage II: 753K - 823K) with recovery activation energies of 2.68 eV and 2.83 eV for stage I and II, respectively. The isothermal hardness recovery at 723 K and 775 K coincided with the ratio of the characteristic rate constant for each recovery stage. The order of reaction was 2 for both recovery stages. The recovery activation energies of present specimens are approximately equal to that of copper diffusion in α-iron in the presence of vacancies, suggesting that recovery may occur through the diffusion of copper atoms. The present results strongly support the copper precipitate coarsening model. (author)

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the association with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity in urban population of Iranian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilaki, K; Heidari, B; Firouzjahi, A; Bagherzadeh, M; Hajian-Tilaki, A; Halalkhor, S

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the main concern of health problem in transition population. The objective was to determine the prevalence of MetS and its association with socio-demographic and physical activity in Iranian adults. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1000 representative samples aged 20-70 years was conducted in urban area in northern Iran. The socio-demographic data were collected by interview and the physical activity was assessed by standard International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Weight, height, waist circumference and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level were measured using enzymatic method. The ATP III criteria were used for diagnosis of MetS. The prevalence rate of MetS was 42.3% (36.5% men and 47.1% women, p=0.001). The higher education at university level was appeared inversely associated with MetS (age adjusted OR=0.34, p=0.001) compared with illiterate. The prevalence rates of MetS were 49.0%, 42.5% and 22.6% in low, moderate and vigorous physical activity level respectively (p=0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with MetS compared with low level (adjusted OR=0.46, p=0.001). These results highlight an immediate action of preventive measures programs for modification of cardio metabolic risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic and demographic impacts of passenger rail systems : the impact of intercity passenger rails on population and employment change in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research examines the impact of intercity passenger rails on change in population and employment at the county level in the continental United States from 2000 to 2010. This research adopts an integrated spatial regression approach that incorpor...

  11. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  12. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender dedicated inpatient psychiatric unit in rural New England: a descriptive analysis in demographics, service utilisation and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Glover, Eileen

    2016-12-01

    To develop an understanding of lesbian-, gay-, bisexual-, transgender-specific mental health and substance abuse needs in rural populations and to improve data about sexual orientation and gender identity. Existing literature on mental health needs for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations has continued to reveal higher levels of need. Research has also demonstrated that few mental health providers have expertise or comfort in treating lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender clients. Descriptive correlational study. A sample (n = 456) of patient records admitted to a rural lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender inpatient psychiatric clinic over 12 months were examined using descriptive statistics. Patient zip code information was used to determine the levels of rurality. Chi-square analysis was used to determine relationships between sexual orientation, rural/urban distinctions and concomitant drug use. Unexpectedly, those who identified as heterosexual were significantly more likely to concomitantly abuse alcohol and heroin than those who identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. Patients residing in small or isolated rural areas were more likely to abuse alcohol or synthetics than those residing in urban or micropolitan areas. Results of this study concerning substance abuse among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals are not reflective of prior studies. LGBT patients did not demonstrate a higher proportion of substance abuse compared with those identifying as heterosexual. Increased substance abuse among those from rural isolated areas does support prior studies. The context of gathering demographic information on sexual orientation was thought by staff to increase the number of those identifying as heterosexual. Context in which sensitive questions are asked may affect the accuracy of demographic data. Lack of information regarding patients' sexual orientation or gender identity may impact perceived need for

  14. Population Profile of the United States: 1976. Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, Series P-20, No. 307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This booklet summarizes population characteristics of the United States for 1976. A preliminary section of highlights reviews trends in five areas: population growth, social characteristics, population distribution, employment and income, and ethnic groups. The birth rate has declined, and the rate of childlessness has risen. This probably is due…

  15. Sickness presence in the Swedish Police in 2007 and in 2010: Associations with demographic factors, job characteristics, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Kecklund, Göran; Thörn, Licia; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Westerlund, Hugo; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2016-06-23

    Sickness presence (SP) is a complex phenomenon that has been shown to predict sickness absence, poor work performance, and suboptimal self-rated health. However, more research is needed to increase the understanding of how SP relates to occupational factors, demographic variables, and self-rated health. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of SP among the Police employees in Sweden in 2007 and in 2010; (2) the association between demographics, seniority, occupational group (police officer vs civil servant), and self-reported health on the one hand and SP on the other hand for both years separately. Survey data from Swedish Police employees from 2007 (n = 17,512) and 2010 (n = 18,415) were analyzed using logistic regression to assess odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of SP was stable between the years, but the proportion who stated that they had not been ill at all decreased from 2007 to 2010 (28.0% vs. 23.6%), while the proportion stating always having stayed at home when ill did not differ; 45.0% in 2007 to 45.8% in 2010. The ORs of SP were higher among those with suboptimal self-rated health compared to those with optimal self-rated health (4.38 (95% CI 4.02- 4.78) and 4.31 (3.96- 4.70) in 2007 and 2010, respectively) and among police officers compared with civilians (1.26 (1.17-1.36) and 1.19 (1.10-1.28)), whereas no clear patterns were found for age, gender, and seniority. The prevalences of SP were about the same in 2007 and 2010 and were slightly lower compared to in previous studies. The strong association between SP and suboptimal self-rated health suggests that high levels of SP may be an early marker of future illness and sickness absence. In future studies of SP it is important to account for having been ill, that is, at risk of SP.

  16. Characteristics of Mexican women admitted to emergency care units: alcohol consumption and related problems

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    Romero Martha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article describes the demographic characteristics and psychological differences in a sample of female heavy and non-heavy drinkers who attended three emergency services of the Mexican city of Pachuca, Hidalgo. Material and Methods. A sample of patients seen at emergency services (ES patients over the age of 18 was selected using ES admission forms. Twenty-five-minute, face-to-face interviews were conducted by a group of trained interviewers. Patients answered various questionnaires and scales to measure alcohol consumption and to provide information on variables that have proved to be related to female drinking. Results. Thirty-six women (5.2% out of 717 of the total number of women were found to be heavy drinkers according to the TWEAK scale. This group of women had 2.3 times the risk of becoming depressed, 2.87 times the risk of taking other drugs, 1.95 times the likelihood of having been sexually abused and 1.57 times the risk of displaying suicidal ideation. Conclusions. Data from this small analysis confirm international findings that problem drinking among females throughout the life cycle is linked to depression. As regards the screening instruments employed, it is necessary to conduct more in-depth research to enrich their contents and increase their reliability and validity when used among female populations. In this study, the TWEAK proved to be extremely useful for studies in emergency services. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  17. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

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    Bhattacharya S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs. The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic partnership between clinical microbiologists and intensive care specialists, which is essential for this model of patient care have been emphasized. The article includes discussions on a variety of common clinical-microbiological problems faced in the ICUs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, blood stream infections, skin and soft tissue infection, UTI, infection control, besides antibiotic management.

  18. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs in the United States: Union Influence and District Characteristics

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    Guodong Liang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the United States. Using the 2007–08 SASS data set, it found an inverse relationship between union influence and districts’ incentive pay offerings. Large and ethnically diverse districts in urban areas that did not meet the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress as defined under the No Child Left Behind Act are more likely to offer a larger number of economic incentives. Although rural districts are likely to reward teachers in hard-to-staff schools, they are not more likely to reward teachers who are certified by the National Board or who teach in the subject areas of shortage, nor are they more likely to offer multiple financial incentives.

  19. Characteristics of a dedicated linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery-radiotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Downes, M. Beverly; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.; Werner-Wasik, M.; Andrews, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) system on a dedicated Varian Clinac-600SR linear accelerator with Brown-Roberts-Wells and Gill-Thomas-Cosman relocatable frames along with the Radionics (RSA) planning system is evaluated. The Clinac-600SR has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Clinac-600C. The primary collimator is a fixed cone projecting to a 10-cm diameter at isocenter. The secondary collimator is a heavily shielded cylindrical collimator attached to the face plate of the primary collimator. The tertiary collimation consists of the actual treatment cones. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be <0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of ≤ 1.0 mm. The radiation leakage under the cones was < 1% measured at a depth of 5 cm in a phantom. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within ±0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The dosimetric data such as tissue maximum ratio, off-axis ratio, and cone factor were taken using film, diamond detector, and ion chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  20. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  1. Association between demographic and radiographic characteristics of the schneiderian membrane and periapical and periodontal diseases using cone-beam computed tomography scanning: A retrospective study

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    Azin Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to assess the pathological and spatial associations between periapical and periodontal diseases of the maxillary first molars and thickening of maxillary sinus mucosa with cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. A total of 132 CBCT images of subjects 20‒60 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. The patients' sex and age and demographic and pathologic findings of the maxillary sinus in the first molar area were recorded, graded and analyzed. Results. Approximately 59% of patients were male and 41% were female, with no significant difference in the thickness of schneiderian membrane between males and females. Based on the periapical index scoring, the highest frequency was detected in group 1. Based on the results of ANOVA, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of endodontic‒periodontal lesions and an increase in schneiderian membrane thickness. There were significant relationships between periapical and periodontal infections (P<0.001 and schneiderian membrane thickness. Furthermore, a significant relationship was detected between the thickness of the schneiderian membrane and the distance between the sinus floor and the root apices (P=0.38. Conclusion. A retrospective inspection of CBCT imaging revealed that periapical lesions and periodontal infections in the posterior area of the maxilla were associated with thickening of the schneiderian membrane. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the location of maxillary posterior teeth, i.e. the thickness of bone from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor, and schneiderian membrane thickness.

  2. Association between demographic and radiographic characteristics of the schneiderian membrane and periapical and periodontal diseases using cone-beam computed tomography scanning: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramdel, Azin; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Sadighi, Alireza; Faramarzi, Masoumeh; Babaloo, Amir Reza; Sadighi Shamami, Mehrnoosh; Mousavi, Amin; Ebrahim Adhami, Zia

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study was undertaken to assess the pathological and spatial associations between periapical and periodontal diseases of the maxillary first molars and thickening of maxillary sinus mucosa with cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. A total of 132 CBCT images of subjects 20‒60 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. The patients' sex and age and demographic and pathologic findings of the maxillary sinus in the first molar area were recorded, graded and analyzed. Results. Approximately 59% of patients were male and 41% were female, with no significant difference in the thickness of schneiderian membrane between males and females. Based on the periapical index scoring, the highest frequency was detected in group 1. Based on the results of ANOVA, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of endodontic‒periodontal lesions and an increase in schneiderian membrane thickness. There were significant relationships between periapical and periodontal infections (Pperiodontal infections in the posterior area of the maxilla were associated with thickening of the schneiderian membrane. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the location of maxillary posterior teeth, i.e. the thickness of bone from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor, and schneiderian membrane thickness.

  3. Analysis of the individual factors affecting mobile phone use while driving in France: socio-demographic characteristics, car and phone use in professional and private contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusque, Corinne; Alauzet, Aline

    2008-01-01

    In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving practices and mobile phone use in everyday life and their mobile phone use while driving. Logistics regressions have been conducted to highlight the explanatory factors of phoning while driving. Strong differences between males and females have been shown. For the male population, age is the main explanatory factor of phoning while driving, followed by phone use for work-related reasons and extensive mobile phone use in everyday life. For females, high mileage and intensive use of mobile phone are the only two explanatory factors. We defined the intensive phone use at the wheel group as drivers who receive or send at least five or more calls per day while driving. There is no socio-demographic variable related to this practice. Car and phone uses in everyday life are the only explanatory factors for this intensive mobile use of the phone at the wheel.

  4. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

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    Erfan Ayubi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  5. The association of Socio-demographics characteristics and social support from family and community with depression: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Dinesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims & objectives: Protective effect of social support networks on depressive symptoms has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and social support from family and community using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional population-based study of 10,348 people participating in the NHANES 2005-2006. Participants were interviewed on their level of social support and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression and analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of demographic variables and social support with depression. Results: Bing married and having a high education level is inversely related to depressive symptoms. Also social supports from family had protective effect on depression symptoms and impacts of each family member were different. It also became clear that family support in associated with social support had a protective effect on the emergence of depressive symptoms. In this effect, the interaction between spouse and professional support on depressive symptoms were more prominent. In addition to, interaction between children’s emotional support and religious practices was important. Conclusion: The result of this study adherent with the protective theory of social support on depression.

  6. Discretionary food and beverage consumption and its association with demographic characteristics, weight status, and fruit and vegetable intakes in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Wong, Weng Kei; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Rangan, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes. 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Australian adults (n 7873) aged 19 years or above. Mean discretionary food and beverage consumption was 631 g (28 % by weight from foods; 72 % from beverages), providing 2721 kJ of energy intake (72 % from foods; 28 % from beverages). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption was higher in younger age groups (Pbeverage consumption (β=6·6, Pfood consumption (β=0·5, P=0·01). Total discretionary food/beverage consumption as well as discretionary foods alone and discretionary beverages alone were associated with BMI in Australian adults. In addition, high intakes were associated with younger age, lower socio-economic status, and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables.

  7. Characteristics of HIV-Positive Transgender Men Receiving Medical Care: United States, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Ansley; Beer,