WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit classification system

  1. Advances in metals classification under the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, James; Adams, William J; Rodriguez, Patricio; Brouwers, Tony; Waeterschoot, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    This article shows how regulatory obligations mandated for metal substances can be met with a laboratory-based transformation/dissolution (T/D) method for deriving relevant hazard classification outcomes, which can then be linked to attendant environmental protection management decisions. We report the results of a ring-test at 3 laboratories conducted to determine the interlaboratory precision of the United Nations T/D Protocol (T/DP) in generating data for classifying 4 metal-bearing substances for acute and chronic toxicity under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) criteria with respect to the aquatic environment. The test substances were Ni metal powder, cuprous oxide (Cu(2) O) powder, tricobalt tetroxide (Co(3) O(4) ) powder, and cuttings of a NILO K Ni-Co-Fe alloy. Following GHS Annex 10 guidelines, we tested 3 loadings (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) of each substance at pH 6 and 8 for 7 or 28 d to yield T/D data for acute and chronic classification, respectively. We compared the T/DP results (dissolved metal in aqueous media) against acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) for each substance to assess GHS classification outcomes. For dissolved metal ions, the respective acute and chronic ERVs established at the time of the T/D testing were: 29 and 8 µg/L for Cu; 185 and 1.5 µg/L for Co; and 13.3 and 1.0 mg/L for Fe. The acute ERVs for Ni were pH-dependent: 120 and 68 µg/L at pH 6 and 8, respectively, whereas the chronic ERV for Ni was 2.4 µg/L. The acute classification outcomes were consistent among 3 laboratories: cuprous oxide, Acute 1; Ni metal powder, Acute 3; Co(3) O(4) and the NILO K alloy, no classification. We obtained similar consistent results in chronic classifications: Cu(2) O, Ni metal powder, and Co(3) O(4) , Chronic 4; and the NILO K alloy, no classification. However, we observed equivocal results only in 2 of a possible 48 cases where the coefficient of variation of final T

  2. Digitally determining forest inventory units with an ecological classification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lina; WANG Qingli; Guofan Shao; DAI Limin; WANG Shunzhong; LI Xiufen; XU Dong

    2006-01-01

    Management-level forest resource data in China were obtained with a combination of two forest inventories. However, inconsistencies in the spatial attributes of forest data vary between the two inventory types and between two inventories of the same type. The inconsistencies make it inconvenient for long-term forest management planning with digital technologies. Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs) have been mapped in selected forestry regions in northeast China, where important forest industries are located. The boundaries of ELTs are determined by geomorphic conditions, which are quantified by Digital Elevation Models (DEM); ELTPs are classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers that are obtained with both remotely sensed and ground data. The ELTPs represent the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore they are reliable units for forest inventories and management. This paper introduces a case study for digitally determining forest inventory units in Benxi City, Liaoning Province, northeast China. The general objective of the study was to explain how a compatible forest inventory system should be designed and why the compatible forest inventory system was significant to digital forestry in China.

  3. Characterising physical habitats and fluvial hydromorphology: A new system for the survey and classification of river geomorphic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, Barbara; Rinaldi, Massimo; Bussettini, Martina; Comiti, Francesco; Gurnell, Angela M.; Mao, Luca; Nardi, Laura; Vezza, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphic units are the elementary spatial physical features of the river mosaic at the reach scale that are nested within the overall hydromorphological structure of a river and its catchment. Geomorphic units also constitute the template of physical habitats for the biota. The assessment of river hydromorphological conditions is required by the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD) for the classification and monitoring of water bodies and is useful for establishing links between their physical and biological conditions. The spatial scale of geomorphic units, incorporating their component elements and hydraulic patches, is the most appropriate to assess these links. Given the weakness of existing methods for the characterisation and assessment of geomorphic units and physical habitats (e.g., lack of a well-defined spatiotemporal framework, terminology issues, etc.), a new system for the survey and characterisation of river geomorphic units is needed that fits within a geomorphologically meaningful framework. This paper presents a system for the survey and classification of geomorphic units (GUS, geomorphic units survey and classification system) aimed at characterising physical habitats and stream morphology. The method is embedded into a multiscale, hierarchical framework for the analysis of river hydromorphological conditions. Three scales of geomorphic units are considered (i.e., macro-units, units, sub-units), organised within two spatial domains (i.e., bankfull channel and floodplain). Different levels of characterisation can be applied, depending on the aims of the survey: broad, basic, and detailed level. At each level, different, complementary information is collected. The method is applied by combining remote sensing analysis and field survey, according to the spatial scale and the level of description required. The method is applicable to most of fluvial conditions, and has been designed to be flexible and adaptable according to the

  4. The McKern Taxonomic System and Archaeological Culture Classification in the Midwestern United States: A History and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Swartz

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century three major archaeological culture unit classifications were formulated in the United States. The most curious one was the Midwestern Taxonomic System, a scheme that ignored time and space. Alton K. Fisher suggested to W. C. McKern in the late 1920's that the Linnean model of morphological classifi­cation, which was employed in biology at a time of pre-evolutionary thinking, might be adapted to archaeologi­cal culture classification (Fisher 1986. On the basis of this idea McKern conceived the Midwestern Taxonomic System and planned to present his concept in a paper at the Central Section of the American Anthropological Association at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in April, 1932. Illness prevented him from making the presentation. The first public statement was before a small group of archaeologists at the time of an archaeological symposium, Illinois Academy of Science, May 1932 (Griffin 1943:327. After input from various archaeologists a formal account was prepared as a manuscript entitled "Culture Type Classification for Midwestern North American Archaeology" at the Chicago Conference, December 10, 1932. Other participants at this conference were Samuel A. Barrett, Fay­ Cooper Cole, Thorne Deuel, Carl E. Guthe, A. R. Kelly (Cole and Deuel 1937a:34 and James B. Griffin (as a graduate student, personal communication, 1986. This classification method was more fully and formally presented three years later, in December 1935, at the original Indianapolis Archaeological Conference (Guthe 1937. A more detailed history of the origins of the McKern system is provided by Griffin (1943.

  5. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta d...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies.......What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  6. A Novel Classification of Concentration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Presents a classification scheme that organizes concentration units (such as molarity) into four logical classes. These classes clearly illustrate relationships and differences between the various units. The scheme is operationally simple to apply and removes the apparent arbitrariness of definitions as normally presented. (Author/JN)

  7. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  8. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  9. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  10. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  11. Classification of evapotranspiration units in major discharge areas of Death Valley regional

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The raster-based classification of evapotranspiration (ET) units is for nine major discharge areas in the Death Valley regional flow system. The ET units delineate...

  12. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    . Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  13. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...... one category lower. Pathologic correlation in six lesions revealed four malignant and two benign lesions. CONCLUSION: CEUS and MR both up- and downgraded renal cysts compared to CT, and until these non-radiation modalities have been refined and adjusted, CT should remain the gold standard...

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.

  15. The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type

  16. Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue segmentation, nuclear segmentation, and extraction of the microscopic immunohistochemical features for the nuclei, dilated blood vessels & collagen fibers. Also, Feedforward Backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks are used for the classification process. We report 100% classification accuracy in correctly identifying the different periodontal diseases observed in our 30 samples dataset.

  17. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F.C.; LaRoe, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    This classification, to be used in a new inventory of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, is intended to describe ecological taxa, arrange them in a system useful to resource managers, furnish units for mapping, and provide uniformity of concepts and terms. Wetlands are defined by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils), and frequency of flooding. Ecologically related areas of deep water, traditionally not considered wetlands, are included in the classification as deepwater habitats.Systems form the highest level of the classification hierarchy; five are defined-Marine, Estuarine, Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine. Marine and Estuarine Systems each have two Subsystems, Subtidal and Intertidal; the Riverine System has four Subsystems, Tidal, Lower Perennial, Upper Perennial, and Intermittent; the Lacustrine has two, Littoral and Limnetic; and the Palustrine has no Subsystems.Within the Subsystems, Classes are based on substrate material and flooding regime, or on vegetative life form. The same Classes may appear under one or more of the Systems or Subsystems. Six Classes are based on substrate and flooding regime: (1) Rock Bottom with a substrate of bedrock, boulders, or stones; (2) Unconsolidated Bottom with a substrate of cobbles, gravel, sand, mud, or organic material; (3) Rocky Shore with the same substrates as Rock Bottom; (4) Unconsolidated Shore with the same substrates as Unconsolidated Bottom; (5) Streambed with any of the substrates; and (6) Reef with a substrate composed of the living and dead remains of invertebrates (corals, mollusks, or worms). The bottom Classes, (1) and (2) above, are flooded all or most of the time and the shore Classes, (3) and (4), are exposed most of the time. The Class Streambed is restricted to channels of intermittent streams and tidal channels that are dewatered at low tide. The life form of the dominant vegetation defines the five Classes based on vegetative form: (1) Aquatic Bed, dominated by plants

  18. Multiple Fuzzy Classification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    Fuzzy classifiers are important tools in exploratory data analysis, which is a vital set of methods used in various engineering, scientific and business applications. Fuzzy classifiers use fuzzy rules and do not require assumptions common to statistical classification. Rough set theory is useful when data sets are incomplete. It defines a formal approximation of crisp sets by providing the lower and the upper approximation of the original set. Systems based on rough sets have natural ability to work on such data and incomplete vectors do not have to be preprocessed before classification. To achieve better performance than existing machine learning systems, fuzzy classifiers and rough sets can be combined in ensembles. Such ensembles consist of a finite set of learning models, usually weak learners. The present book discusses the three aforementioned fields – fuzzy systems, rough sets and ensemble techniques. As the trained ensemble should represent a single hypothesis, a lot of attention is placed o...

  19. Analysis and classification of the upper lip aesthetic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Peter; Harris, Ryan; Harris, Scott W

    2013-09-01

    Disharmonies of the upper lip aesthetic unit generally stem from tall ergotrids and/or thin lips. Comprehension and correction of such defects has been stifled by a lack of metrics and organized systems of diagnosis and treatment. The philtral-labial score was devised to better analyze the upper lip region. Measurements were made with Adobe Photoshop CS6, and computations were performed on a standard calculator. A retrospective medical records review identified 908 patients of the senior authors' (P.R. and S.W.H.) practices who underwent perioral rejuvenation between January 1, 2001, and July 31, 2012. Two hundred patients were randomly selected and assessed for disharmonies in three surveys that sequentially built on data points provided. When preoperative anteroposterior and lateral photographs, dental show measurements, and philtral-labial scores were available, diagnostic concordance between the authors approached 100 percent. Pattern analysis resulted in a classification system (labral classification system), designating patients as either type 0 (no defects), type 1 (thin upper lip), type 2 (long philtrum), or type 3 (both) defects. Characteristic dental show values, philtral-labial scores, and suggested treatments were paired with each type. The labral classification system and its associated analytical tools serve as useful references in consultation, simplify discussion of patients with upper lip defects, furnish a practical alternative to complex algorithms, enable documentation of changes, and facilitate analysis of large sample sizes. When implemented judiciously, the tools described in this article will help surgeons confidently address upper lip problems by streamlining accurate diagnosis and guiding proper treatment.

  20. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  1. Regional medical campuses: a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheifetz, Craig E; McOwen, Katherine S; Gagne, Pierre; Wong, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    There is burgeoning belief that regional medical campuses (RMCs) are a significant part of the narrative about medical education and the health care workforce in the United States and Canada. Although RMCs are not new, in the recent years of medical education enrollment expansion, they have seen their numbers increase. Class expansion explains the rapid growth of RMCs in the past 10 years, but it does not adequately describe their function. Often, RMCs have missions that differ from their main campus, especially in the areas of rural and community medicine. The absence of an easy-to-use classification system has led to a lack of current research about RMCs as evidenced by the small number of articles in the current literature. The authors describe the process of the Group on Regional Medical Campuses used to develop attributes of a campus separate from the main campus that constitute a "classification" of a campus as an RMC. The system is broken into four models-basic science, clinical, longitudinal, and combined-and is linked to Liaison Committee on Medical Education standards. It is applicable to all schools and can be applied by any medical school dean or medical education researcher. The classification system paves the way for stakeholders to agree on a denominator of RMCs and conduct future research about their impact on medical education.

  2. Classification of Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Sara; Fornara, Andrea; Ludwig, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study presents classification of different magnetic single- and multi-core particle systems using their measured dynamic magnetic properties together with their nanocrystal and particle sizes. The dynamic magnetic properties are measured with AC (dynamical) susceptometry and magnetorelaxomet...... the four year EU NMP FP7 project, NanoMag, which is focused on standardization of analysis methods for magnetic nanoparticles....... and the size parameters are determined from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using these methods, we also show that the nanocrystal size and particle morphology determines the dynamic magnetic properties for both single- and multi-core particles. The presented results are obtained from...

  3. Terrorism Event Classification Using Fuzzy Inference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Inyaem, Uraiwan; Meesad, Phayung; Tran, Dat

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has led to many problems in Thai societies, not only property damage but also civilian casualties. Predicting terrorism activities in advance can help prepare and manage risk from sabotage by these activities. This paper proposes a framework focusing on event classification in terrorism domain using fuzzy inference systems (FISs). Each FIS is a decision-making model combining fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. It is generated in five main parts: the input interface, the fuzzification interface, knowledge base unit, decision making unit and output defuzzification interface. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a FIS model adapted by combining the fuzzy logic and neural network. The ANFIS utilizes automatic identification of fuzzy logic rules and adjustment of membership function (MF). Moreover, neural network can directly learn from data set to construct fuzzy logic rules and MF implemented in various applications. FIS settings are evaluated based on two comparisons. The first evaluat...

  4. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  5. Teaching Basic Classification through an Elementary Science Unit on Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Five lesson plans are included in this unit designed to teach basic classification skills through the study of food. Each lesson plan contains an objective, list of materials needed, statement of the lesson problem, instructional strategies, learning outcomes, and evaluation method(s). Objectives of the lessons include: (1) grouping common animals…

  6. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  7. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  8. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used

  9. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188615326; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used f

  10. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  11. Complexity reduced coding of binary pattern units in image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmyshev, E. V.; Guillen-Bonilla, J. T.

    2011-06-01

    The ability to simulate and control complex physical situations in real time is an important element of many engineering and robotics applications, including pattern recognition and image classification. One of the ways to meet specific requirements of a process is a reduction of computational complexity of algorithms. In this work we propose a new coding of binary pattern units (BPU) that reduces the time and spatial complexity of algorithms of image classification significantly. We apply this coding to a particular but important case of the coordinated clusters representation (CCR) of images. This algorithm reduces the dimension of the CCR feature space and, as a consequence, the time and space complexity of the CCR based methods of image classification, exponentially. In addition, the new coding preserves all the fundamental properties of the CCR that are successfully used in the recognition, classification and segmentation of texture images. The same approach to the coding of BPUs can be used in the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method. In order to evaluate the reduction of time and space complexity, we did an experiment on multiclass classification of images using the "traditional" and the new coding of the CCR. This test showed very effective reduction of the computing time and required computer memory with the use of the new coding of BPUs of the CCR, retaining 100% or a little less efficiency of classification at the time.

  12. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The authors classification so petroleum systems is founded on a simple working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) charge factor, (2) migration drainage style, and (3) entrapment style. The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of diverse source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating regional charging capacity. The migration drainage style is determined from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Vertical-migration drainage, which occurs mainly through faults and fracture systems breaching a seal, is characteristic of petroleum systems contained within rift basins, deltaic sequences, salt-dome provinces, wrench basins, and fold-and-thrust belts. In contrast, lateral-migration drainage sequences, salt-dome provinces, wrench basins, and fold-and-thrust belts. In contrast, lateral-migration drainage is dominant wherever stratigraphically continuous seal-reservoir doublets extend over a very large area in tectonically stable province. The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence and effectiveness of seals, describes the degree of resistance working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help to significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in news ventures-type exploration.

  13. STUDY ON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CHINESE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1998-01-01

    An integrated coal classification system-technical/commercial and scientific/geneticclassification in China is discussed in this paper. This system shall enable producers, sellers andpurchasers to communicate unambiguously with regard to the quality of coal complying with therequirements of the respective application. The determination of perfect coal classification systemis an important measure for rational utilization of coal resources.

  14. Ontology-Based Classification System Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabusts Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse and develop an ontology-based classification system methodology that uses decision tree learning with statement propositionalized attributes. Classical decision tree learning algorithms, as well as decision tree learning with taxonomy and propositionalized attributes have been observed. Thus, domain ontology can be extracted from the data sets and can be used for data classification with the help of a decision tree. The use of ontology methods in decision tree-based classification systems has been researched. Using such methodologies, the classification accuracy in some cases can be improved.

  15. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendt, Peter; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular...

  16. Perception of nurses regarding risk classification in emergency care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Mottin Duro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess nurses’ perception regarding the risk classification in emergency care units. It is a descriptive study that used a qualitative approach and that was conducted with 55 nurses from emergency care units in the south of Brazil. Data were collected between July and October, 2011, through open questions, answered in writing. The data collected were submitted to the thematic analysis technique. Results indicate that the risk classification contributes to the organization of the service flow provided to patients, intervening in severe cases and preventing sequelae. Difficulties were described, such as: inadequate physical installations, overcrowding, disagreement in the definition of priorities among doctors and nurses and lack of articulation between the emergency care network and basic health care. It is highlighted the need to improve the physical structure, the quantity of human resources and the implementation of public policies to overcome these challenges.

  17. Gender Classification by Fuzzy Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Gender classification from face images has many applications and is thus an important research topic. This paper presents an approach to gender classification based on shape and texture information gathered to design a fuzzy decision making system. Beside face shape features, Zernik moments are applied as system inputs to improve the system output which is considered as the probability of being male face image. After parameters tuning of the proposed fuzzy decision making system, 85.05% class...

  18. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  19. Gender Classification by Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender classification from face images has many applications and is thus an important research topic. This paper presents an approach to gender classification based on shape and texture information gathered to design a fuzzy decision making system. Beside face shape features, Zernik moments are applied as system inputs to improve the system output which is considered as the probability of being male face image. After parameters tuning of the proposed fuzzy decision making system, 85.05% classification rate on the FERET face database (including 1199 individuals from different poses and facial expressions shows acceptable results compare to other methods.

  20. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought...... that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular systems which use the raw audio signal as input to estimate the corresponding genre. This is in contrast...... to systems which use e.g. a symbolic representation or textual information about the music. The approach to music genre classification systems has here been system-oriented. In other words, all the different aspects of the systems have been considered and it is emphasized that the systems should...

  1. Mapping a classification system to architectural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Rostrup, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent a new classification system, Cuneco Classification System, CCS, proves useful in the education of architects, and to what degree the aim of an architectural education, rather based on an arts and crafts approach than a polytechnic approach, benefits from...... the distinct terminology of the classification system. The method used to examine the relationship between education, practice and the CCS bifurcates in a quantitative and a qualitative exploration: Quantitative comparison of the curriculum with the students’ own descriptions of their studies through...

  2. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  3. Comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals versus industrial chemicals acute aquatic toxicity classification according to the United Nations classification system for chemicals. Assessment of the (Q)SAR predictability of pharmaceuticals acute aquatic toxicity and their predominant acute toxic mode-of-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    a comprehensive database based on OECD's standardized measured ecotoxicological data and to evaluate if there is generally cause of greater concern with regards to pharmaceutical aquatic toxicological profiles relative to industrial chemicals. Comparisons were based upon aquatic ecotoxicity classification under......Pharmaceuticals have been reported to be ubiquitously present in surface waters prompting concerns of effects of these bioactive substances. Meanwhile, there is a general scarcity of publicly available ecotoxicological data concerning pharmaceuticals. The aim of this paper was to compile...... the United Nations Global Harmonized System for classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS). Moreover, we statistically explored whether the predominant mode-of-action (MOA) for pharmaceuticals is narcosis. We found 275 pharmaceuticals with 569 acute aquatic effect data; 23 pharmaceuticals had chronic...

  4. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  5. Generating Interpretable Fuzzy Systems for Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Contreras-Montes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to generate interpretable fuzzy systems from training data to deal with classification problems. The antecedent partition uses triangular sets with 0.5 interpolations avoiding the presence of complex overlapping that happens in another method. Singleton consequents are generated form the projection of the modal values of each triangular membership function into the output space. Least square method is used to adjust the consequents. The proposed method gets a higher average classification accuracy rate than the existing methods with a reduced number of rules andparameters and without sacrificing the fuzzy system interpretability. The proposed approach is applied to two classical classification problems: Iris data and the Wisconsin Breast Cancer classification problem.

  6. Ontology-Based Classification System Development Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse and develop an ontology-based classification system methodology that uses decision tree learning with statement propositionalized attributes. Classical decision tree learning algorithms, as well as decision tree learning with taxonomy and propositionalized attributes have been observed. Thus, domain ontology can be extracted from the data sets and can be used for data classification with the help of a decision tree. The use of ontology methods in decision ...

  7. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  8. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  9. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and

  10. Classification of hydrostratigraphic units at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    A detailed synthesis of the hydrologic, geophysical and core data from wells penetrating the updip Mesozoic-Cenozoic Coastal Plain sequence at and near the Savannah River Site (SRS) was conducted to define and classify the hydrostratigraphic units. The purpose of the study was to give the SRS a single unified hydrostratigraphic classification that defines and addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the site. The characterization, areal distribution and classification of the aquifer and aquifer systems gives SRS the tools to evaluate ground water movement and contaminant transport in a comprehensive regional context. An alpha-numeric nomenclature has been temporarily adopted in this report for classifying the aquifers and aquifer systems at SRS. Formal geographic names for the aquifers and aquifer systems will be proposed in the near future but must be agreed upon and ratified by the South Carolina Hydrostratigraphic Subcommittee which was in part organized for the purpose. The classification utilizes a hierarchy of terms ranked at three levels: Aquifer Systems that transmit ground water regionally; Aquifer Units which are mappable units > 400 square miles in area; and Aquifer Zones that differentiate aquifers internally on the basis of locally significant characteristics.

  11. Image-based Vehicle Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jun Yee

    2012-01-01

    Electronic toll collection (ETC) system has been a common trend used for toll collection on toll road nowadays. The implementation of electronic toll collection allows vehicles to travel at low or full speed during the toll payment, which help to avoid the traffic delay at toll road. One of the major components of an electronic toll collection is the automatic vehicle detection and classification (AVDC) system which is important to classify the vehicle so that the toll is charged according to the vehicle classes. Vision-based vehicle classification system is one type of vehicle classification system which adopt camera as the input sensing device for the system. This type of system has advantage over the rest for it is cost efficient as low cost camera is used. The implementation of vision-based vehicle classification system requires lower initial investment cost and very suitable for the toll collection trend migration in Malaysia from single ETC system to full-scale multi-lane free flow (MLFF). This project ...

  12. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    to classify dynamic vehicle routing systems. Methods for evaluation of the performance of algorithms that solve on-line routing problems are discussed and we list some of the most important issues to include in the system objective. Finally, we provide a three-echelon classification of dynamic vehicle routing...

  13. Mapping a classification system to architectural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars; Rostrup, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    a questionnaire survey among 88 students in graduate school. Qualitative interviews with a handful of practicing architects, to be able to cross check the relevance of the education with the profession. The examination indicates the need of a new definition, in addition to the CCS’s scale, covering the earliest......This paper examines to what extent a new classification system, Cuneco Classification System, CCS, proves useful in the education of architects, and to what degree the aim of an architectural education, rather based on an arts and crafts approach than a polytechnic approach, benefits from...... the distinct terminology of the classification system. The method used to examine the relationship between education, practice and the CCS bifurcates in a quantitative and a qualitative exploration: Quantitative comparison of the curriculum with the students’ own descriptions of their studies through...

  14. Myelodysplastic syndrome: classification and prognostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Invernizzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are acquired clonal disorders of hematopoiesis, that are characterized most frequently by normocellular or hypercellular bone marrow specimens, and maturation that is morphologically and functionally dysplastic. MDS constitute a complex hematological problem: differences in disease presentation, progression and outcome have made it necessary to use classification systems to improve diagnosis, prognostication and treatment selection. On the basis of new scientific and clinical information, classification and prognostic systems have recently been updated and minimal diagnostic criteria forMDS have been proposed by expert panels. In addition, in the last few years our ability to define the prognosis of the individual patient with MDS has improved. In this paper World Health Organization (WHO classification refinements and recent prognostic scoring systems for the definition of individual risk are highlighted and current criteria are discussed. The recommendations should facilitate diagnostic and prognostic evaluations in MDS and selection of patients for new effective targeted therapies.

  15. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.

    1991-03-01

    The authors genetic classification of petroleum basins is founded on a working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) the charge factor (supercharged, normally charged, or undercharged), (2) the migration drainage style (vertically drained or laterally drained), and (3) the entrapment style (high impedance or low impedance). The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of different source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating a basin's regional charging capacity. On a global scale, a general correlation exists between the magnitude of SPI and basinwide petroleum reserves. The dominant migration drainage style can be predicted from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Recognition of the dominant migration style helps to predict the location of zones of petroleum occurrence in relation to the 'hydrocarbon kitchens.' The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence of seals, describes the degree of resistance (i.e. impedance) working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in new ventures-type exploration.

  16. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  17. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.513 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology. CMS... LTC-DRG classification system provides a LTC-DRG, and an appropriate weighting factor, for those...

  18. Testing the hydrological landscape unit classification system and other terrain analysis measures for predicting low-flow nitrate and chloride in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Cara J; McDonnell, Jeffrey J; Bolte, John

    2008-11-01

    Elevated nitrate concentrations in streamwater are a major environmental management problem. While land use exerts a large control on stream nitrate, hydrology often plays an equally important role. To date, predictions of low-flow nitrate in ungauged watersheds have been poor because of the difficulty in describing the uniqueness of watershed hydrology over large areas. Clearly, hydrologic response varies depending on the states and stocks of water, flow pathways, and residence times. How to capture the dominant hydrological controls that combine with land use to define streamwater nitrate concentration is a major research challenge. This paper tests the new Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLRs) watershed classification scheme of Wolock and others (Environmental Management 34:S71-S88, 2004) to address the question: Can HLRs be used as a way to predict low-flow nitrate? We also test a number of other indexes including inverse-distance weighting of land use and the well-known topographic index (TI) to address the question: How do other terrain and land use measures compare to HLR in terms of their ability to predict low-flow nitrate concentration? We test this for 76 watersheds in western Oregon using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program and Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program data. We found that HLRs did not significantly improve nitrate predictions beyond the standard TI and land-use metrics. Using TI and inverse-distance weighting did not improve nitrate predictions; the best models were the percentage land use-elevation models. We did, however, see an improvement of chloride predictions using HLRs, TI, and inverse-distance weighting; adding HLRs and TI significantly improved model predictions and the best models used inverse-distance weighting and elevation. One interesting result of this study is elevation consistently predicted nitrate better than TI or the hydrologic classification

  19. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  20. Classification System for Mortgage Arrear Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhe; Wiering, Marco; Petkov, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Due to the economic recession in the recent years, more and more mortgage customers default on the payments. This brings tremendous losses to banks and forces their arrear management departments to develop more efficient processes. In this paper, we propose a classification system to predict the out

  1. THE AVATARS OF HOTELS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria NICA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the needs and expectations of the clients evolved, stimulating the development of the hotel supply, the need for regulation of the activity domain became imperative, by adopting measures for protecting the rights and interests of final consumers or clients. To this end, the classification systems of accommodation structures are conceived and implemented, either compulsory or volunteer, officially statuated at national or regional level, consensually adopted at the level of hotel owners’ organizations or proposed by other entities, consecrated by unofficial recognition from the public. The realized research is an exploratory one, based on the collection of secondary sources.In Romania, from 1991, seven different sets of norms for star classification systems were adopted. Other example is Spain, where each of the 17 governments of the autonomous communities is entitled to adopt its own regulation. Confronted with the heterogeneity of classification systems in Europe, which affects consumers’ rights and interests for information, HOTREC, which is the confederation of hotel owners’ organizations in the European hospitality industry adopted, in 2009, a series of 21 principles regarding the establishment or revision of the national and regional hotel classification systems. In December 2009, in Prague, under the HOTREC patronage, organizations from seven countries (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Sweden, and the Netherlands have announced the founding of the Hotelstars Union – a common system of hotel classification, which is already applied. It is expected that the number of the Hotelstars Union will increase. Nevertheless, there are voices against this attempt. What is the way Romania should choose?

  2. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  3. Classification of ERP System Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sodomka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today the ERP business information systems are an essential tool for organization management, regardless of size and field of activity. Their successful implementation and use is conditioned predominantly by IS/ICT knowledge and managerial skills required for directing their life cycle correctly. Defining and correct setting of the service level is a key requirement and skill, usually provided by a service provider based on an implementation and service contract, or an advisory organization, in particular when presale services concerning analyses and tender documentation processing are provided. The following paper discusses the characteristics of the individual service types and the particulars of their practical use. Moreover, it presents the selected significant results of the long-term research performed by the authors in the Center for inVestigations into Information Systems.

  4. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPτS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  5. Classification framework for partially observed dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira

    2017-04-01

    We present a general framework for classifying partially observed dynamical systems based on the idea of learning in the model space. In contrast to the existing approaches using point estimates of model parameters to represent individual data items, we employ posterior distributions over model parameters, thus taking into account in a principled manner the uncertainty due to both the generative (observational and/or dynamic noise) and observation (sampling in time) processes. We evaluate the framework on two test beds: a biological pathway model and a stochastic double-well system. Crucially, we show that the classification performance is not impaired when the model structure used for inferring posterior distributions is much more simple than the observation-generating model structure, provided the reduced-complexity inferential model structure captures the essential characteristics needed for the given classification task.

  6. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.710 Bin classification for filtered systems. (a) Following... systems must determine their initial bin classification from the following table and using the... systems must report their initial bin classification under paragraph (c) of this section to the State...

  7. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, pfunctional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, pfunctional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  8. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey industry... 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes used in Federal Wage System (FWS)...

  9. BIOPHARMACEUTICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM AND BIOWAVER: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranik Prashant K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS has been developed to provide a scientific approach for classifying drug compounds based on solubility as related to dose and intestinal permeability in combination with the dissolution properties of the oral immediate release dosage form. BCS is to provide a regulatory tool for replacing certain bioequivalence (BE studies by accurate in vitro dissolution tests. This review gives three dimensionless numbers which are used in BCS are absorption number, dissolution number, dose number.Biowaver is an important tool for formulation development. Bioavailability (BA and BE play a central role in pharmaceutical product development, and BE studies are presently being conducted for New Drug Applications (NDAs of new compounds, in supplementary NDAs for new medical indications and product line extensions, in Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs of generic products, and in applications for scale-up and post-approval changes. The principles of the BCS classification system can be applied to NDA and ANDA approvals as well as to scale-up and post approval changes in drug manufacturing. BCS classification can therefore save pharmaceutical companies a significant amount in development time and reduce costs. The aim of the present review is to present the status of BCS and discuss its future application in pharmaceutical product development.

  10. Search techniques in intelligent classification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    A unified methodology for categorizing various complex objects is presented in this book. Through probability theory, novel asymptotically minimax criteria suitable for practical applications in imaging and data analysis are examined including the special cases such as the Jensen-Shannon divergence and the probabilistic neural network. An optimal approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm, which allows faster classification of databases is featured. Rough set theory, sequential analysis and granular computing are used to improve performance of the hierarchical classifiers. Practical examples in face identification (including deep neural networks), isolated commands recognition in voice control system and classification of visemes captured by the Kinect depth camera are included. This approach creates fast and accurate search procedures by using exact probability densities of applied dissimilarity measures. This book can be used as a guide for independent study and as supplementary material for a technicall...

  11. 78 FR 18252 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System Wage Surveys AGENCY: U. S. Office of Personnel... is issuing a proposed rule that would update the 2007 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes used in Federal Wage System (FWS)...

  12. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  13. Classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, M; Magder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics, in preparation for revising the ACR classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus, reviewed the current classification criteria. These critical reviews, discussed at the Lund, Sweden, meeting in 2003, will be useful to the clinician and to the researcher. This paper reviews and critiques previous classification attempts.

  14. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  15. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  16. Public Document Room file classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This listing contains detailed descriptions of the file classification system for documents available from the Public Document Room (PDR) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a public service branch of the agency, the PDR maintains facilities for receiving, processing, storing, and retrieving documents which NRC generates or receives in performing its regulatory function. Unlike a library, the PDR does not maintain collections of formally published materials, such as books, monographs, serials, periodicals, or general indexes. The documents on file at the PDR can be reports, written records of meetings (transcripts), existing or proposed regulations, the text of licenses or their amendments, and correspondence.

  17. Fuzzy Rule Base System for Software Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Shaout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the central role that software development plays in the delivery and application of informationtechnology, managers have been focusing on process improvement in the software development area. Thisimprovement has increased the demand for software measures, or metrics to manage the process. Thismetrics provide a quantitative basis for the development and validation of models during the softwaredevelopment process. In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system will be developed to classify java applicationsusing object oriented metrics. The system will contain the following features:Automated method to extract the OO metrics from the source code,Default/base set of rules that can be easily configured via XML file so companies, developers, teamleaders,etc, can modify the set of rules according to their needs,Implementation of a framework so new metrics, fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules can be added or removeddepending on the needs of the end user,General classification of the software application and fine-grained classification of the java classesbased on OO metrics, andTwo interfaces are provided for the system: GUI and command.

  18. "Chromosome": a knowledge-based system for the chromosome classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, G; Bernadet, M

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome, a knowledge-based analysis system has been designed for the classification of human chromosomes. Its aim is to perform an optimal classification by driving a tool box containing the procedures of image processing, pattern recognition and classification. This paper presents the general architecture of Chromosome, based on a multiagent system generator. The image processing tool box is described from the met aphasic enhancement to the fine classification. Emphasis is then put on the knowledge base intended for the chromosome recognition. The global classification process is also presented, showing how Chromosome proceeds to classify a given chromosome. Finally, we discuss further extensions of the system for the karyotype building.

  19. Applications of CRACK in the Classification of Integrable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Work on different classification problems is described as: the classification of integrable vector evolution equations, NLS systems with two vector unknowns, systems with one scalar and one vector unknown, classification of integrable Hamiltonians and non-local 2+1 dimensional equations. All these problems lead to large bi-linear algebraic systems to be solved. In an extended appendix an overview of the computer algebra package is given that was used to solve these systems.

  20. Classification system for oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani Bhagvan More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a potentially malignant disorder (PMD and crippling condition of oral mucosa. It is a chronic insidious scarring disease of oral cavity, pharynx and upper digestive tract, characterized by progressive inability to open the mouth due to loss of elasticity and development of vertical fibrous bands in labial and buccal tissues. OSMF is a debilitating but preventable oral disease. It predominantly affects people of Southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent, where chewing of arecanut and its commercial preparation is high. Presence of fibrous bands is the main characteristic feature of OSMF. The present literature review provides the compilation of various classification system based on clinical and/or histopathological features of OSMF from several databases. The advantages and drawbacks of these classifications supersede each other, leading to perplexity. An attempt is made to provide and update the knowledge about this potentially malignant disorder to health care providers in order to help in early detection and treatment, thus reducing the mortality of oral cancer.

  1. Classification of anthropogenic soils by new diagnostic criteria involved in the Slovak Soil Classification System (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocká, Jaroslava; Balkovič, Juraj; Bedrna, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic soils can be found mostly in SUITMA areas. The issue of adequate and correct description and classification of these soils occurs very often and can result in inconsistent even in contradictory opinions. In the new version of the anthropogenic soil classification system in Slovakia some new diagnostics criteria were involved and applied for better understanding the inherent nature of these soils. The group of the former anthropogenic soils was divided following scheme of soil reference groups in the WRB 2014 (Anthrozem and Technozem). According to the new version of the Slovak anthropogenic soils classification (2014) there have been distinguished 2 groups of anthropogenic soils: 1) cultivated soils group including 2 soil types (in Slovak terminology): Kultizem and Hortizem and 2) technogenic soils group having 2 soil types: Antrozem and Technozem. Cultivated soil group represents soils developing or forming "in-situ" with diagnostic horizons characterized by human deeply influenced cultivated processes. Technogenic soil group are soils developing like "ex-situ" soils. The key features recognizing technogenic soil group are human-transported and altered material (HTAM = ex-situ aspect), and artefacts content. Diagnostic horizons (top and subsoil) were described as various material affected by physical-mechanical excavation, transportation and spread, mixing, and containing artefacts (the new diagnostic feature). Kultizems are differentiated by cultivated horizon(s) and Technozems by anthropogenic horizon(s). Cultivated horizons are mostly well-known described horizon in many scientific references. Anthropogenic horizons for Technozem are developed from the human-induced transported and altered material which origin is from the other ecological locality that adjacent area. Materials (or substrates) can consist of various material (natural, technogenic or their mixing) with thickness ≥ 60 cm. Artefacts are the second diagnostic feature which presence

  2. Evaluation of the subaxial injury classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : Retrospective clinical study of patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST at a tertiary medical center. Purpose : Evaluate the validity of the Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC system in surgical versus non-surgical decision making for SCST. Inclusion criteria : Age >12 years, presence of SCST with complete clinical and radiological (CT and MRI data. Exclusion criteria : Patients with incomplete radiographic or clinical data, pathological fractures, isolated upper cervical trauma (occiput to C2, isolated transverse process or spinous process fractures, chronic or age indeterminate fractures, isolate MRI findings, and severe systemic trauma with death prior to either surgical or non-surgical treatment. Results : Fourteen patients were treated non-surgically (C, whereas 24 were treated surgically (S. In the C group, the SLIC score ranged from 0 to 5 points (standard deviation [SD] = 1.20 points; mean 1.07; median 1. Just 1 patient had an SLIC score greater than 2 (7.1% of the patients. In the S group, the SLIC score ranged from 1 to 10 points (standard deviation [SD] = 2.03 points; mean 5.6; median 6. Just 2 patients had an SLIC score smaller than 4 (both with 1 point each, 8.3% of the total group. All the other 22 (accounting for 91.6% patients had an SLIC of 4 or more points. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the SLIC classification looks to be a promising system to aid spinal surgeons in the decision-making process of subaxial cervical trauma, but a large prospective cohort study is required.

  3. Classification system of foramen magnum meningiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Michaël; George, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) are challenging tumors. We report a classification system based on our experience of 107 tumors. Materials and Methods: The three main algorithm criteria included the compartment of development of the tumor, its dural insertion, and its relation to the vertebral artery. Results: The compartment of development was most of the time intradural (101/107, 94.4%) and less frequently extradural (3/107, 2.8%) or both intra-extradural. (3/107, 2.8%). When developed inside the intradural compartment, FMMs were subdivided into posterior (6/104, 5.8%), lateral (57/104, 54.8%), and anterior (41/104, 39.4%), if their insertion was respectively posterior to the dentate ligament, anterior to the dentate ligament without or with extension over the midline. Anterior and lateral intradural lesions grew below (77/98, 78.6%), above (16/98, 16.3%), or on both sides (5/98, 5.1%) of the VA. Only three cases of extraduralFMMs (3/107, 2.8%) were resected by an antero-lateral approach while all the other ones (104/107, 97.2%) were removed successfully by a postero-lateral approach. Lower cranial nerves were displaced superiorly in FMM growing below the VA but their position cannot be anticipated in other situations. Conclusions: This classification system helps for defining the best surgical approach but also for anticipating the position of the lower cranial nerves and therefore for reducing the surgical morbidity. PMID:20890409

  4. Marginalization and Exclusion: Unraveling Systemic Bias in Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the knowledge organization landscape in which Hope Olson’s numerous contri- butions to the field are situated. The paper first explores some of the foundational conceptual notions within knowledge organization that today are well-accepted. The paper then reviews Hope Olson...... in large library classification has unraveled the systemic bias found in all classifications. The paper calls for stronger engagement between scholarship and practice to ad- dress marginalization and exclusion in further work on classification systems....

  5. Using hydrogeomorphic criteria to classify wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine - approach, classification system, and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland classification system was designed for Mt. Desert Island, Maine, to help categorize the large number of wetlands (over 1,200 mapped units) as an aid to understanding their hydrologic functions. The classification system, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, uses a modified hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach, and assigns categories based on position in the landscape, soils and surficial geologic setting, and source of water. A dichotomous key was developed to determine a preliminary HGM classification of wetlands on the island. This key is designed for use with USGS topographic maps and 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) coverages as an aid to the classification, but may also be used with field data. Hydrologic data collected from a wetland monitoring study were used to determine whether the preliminary classification of individual wetlands using the HGM approach yielded classes that were consistent with actual hydroperiod data. Preliminary HGM classifications of the 20 wetlands in the monitoring study were consistent with the field hydroperiod data. The modified HGM classification approach appears robust, although the method apparently works somewhat better with undisturbed wetlands than with disturbed wetlands. This wetland classification system could be applied to other hydrogeologically similar areas of northern New England.

  6. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Jan R. [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Mirollo, Renato [Department of Mathematics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  7. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Jan R; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-01

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For [Formula: see text] oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  8. Classification and Denomination of Flow Units for Clastic Reservoirs of Continental Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xue-jun; TANG Yue-gang; HAO Jian-ming; ZHANG Kai; ZHENG Jia-peng

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of other researchers' achievements and the authors' understanding of flow units, a proposal on classification and denomination of flow units for clastic reservoirs of continental deposit is put forward according to the practical need of oilfield development and relevant theories. The specific implications of development and geology are given to each type of flow units, which has provided a scientific basis for oil development.

  9. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  10. United Kingdom: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Richardson, Erica; Findley, Lisa; Longley, Marcus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Steel, David

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but all have maintained national health services which provide universal access to a comprehensive package of services that are mostly free at the point of use. These health services are predominantly financed from general taxation and 83.5% of total health expenditure in the United Kingdom came from public sources in 2013. Life expectancy has increased steadily across the United Kingdom, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement, and the gap between the most deprived and the most privileged continues to widen, rather than close. The United Kingdom faces challenges going forward, including how to cope with the needs of an ageing population, how to manage populations with poor health behaviours and associated chronic conditions, how to meet patient expectations of access to the latest available medicines and technologies, and how to adapt a system that has limited resources to expand its workforce and infrastructural capacity so it can rise to these challenges.

  11. Relationships among NANDA-I diagnoses, nursing outcomes classification, and nursing interventions classification by nursing students for patients in medical-surgical units in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify NANDA-I, Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC; NNN) linkages used by Korean nursing students during their clinical practice in medical-surgical units. A comparative descriptive research design was used to measure the effects of nursing interventions from 153 nursing students in South Korea. Nursing students selected NNN using a Web-based nursing process documentation system. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Eighty-two NANDA-I diagnoses, 116 NOC outcomes, and 163 NIC interventions were identified. Statistically significant differences in patients' preintervention and postintervention outcome scores were observed. By determining patient outcomes linked to interventions and how the degree of outcomes change after interventions, the effectiveness of the interventions can be evaluated. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  12. A novel classification system for aging theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Siqueira Trindade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial, maladaptive (neutral, assisted death (detrimental and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental. We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  13. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing.

  14. The development of a classification system for inland aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... a prescribed national Water Resource Classification System. (DWAF, 2007a). In the ..... The more recently developed techniques for the assessment of the ...... decision support system for managing wetlands. WRC Report No.

  15. Examining Literary Warrant in Ancient Chinese Book Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of literary warrant—a key principle in modern classification theory—in traditional Chinese bibliographic classifications for the purpose of improving the understanding of classification theory in the Chinese tradition. The concept of literary warrant is first briefly discussed. Next, the author analyzes a number of selected book classification systems from premodern China to determine whether literary warrant is a factor in their design and how it is applied. This paper concludes with a summary of the findings. [Article content in Chinese

  16. Development of an Interest-Oriented Occupational Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Robert C.; Padgett, Adaline

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes research to develop a comprehensive and coordinated occupational testing and classification system. An extension of this research led to identification of measurable interest factors which are incorporated in a trait-oriented occupational classification structure contained in USES Guide for Occupational Exploration, a supplement to the…

  17. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensibl

  18. Towards a Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Classification Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsley, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…

  19. A clinical classification system for rheumatoid forefoot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, P.F.; Keijsers, N.L.; Limbeek, J. van; Anderson, P.G.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bosch, P.V.; Malefijt, M.C.; Louwerens, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the present study a classification system for the rheumatoid forefoot is reported with its intra- and interobserver reliability and clinical relevance. The classification is based on the sequence of anatomical changes resulting from the loss of integrity of the MTP joints,

  20. A consumer-oriented classification system for home meal replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Beumer, R.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new definition and classification system for home meal replacements (HMR), based on convenience attributes as viewed by consumers. An overview of other food classifications, focusing on methodological aspects, is also presented. The classifying criteria chosen (shelf-life and

  1. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  2. Validation of potential classification criteria for systemic sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, S.R.; Fransen, J.; Khanna, D.; Baron, M.; Hoogen, F. van den; Medsger TA, J.r.; Peschken, C.A.; Carreira, P.E.; Riemekasten, G.; Tyndall, A.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Pope, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) are being updated jointly by the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism. Potential items for classification were reduced to 23 using Delphi and nominal group techniques. We evaluated the fac

  3. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  4. The theory and practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification system

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, M P

    2013-01-01

    The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec

  5. EAI-oriented information classification code system in manufacturing enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbiao WANG; Hu DENG; Jianjun JIANG; Binghong YANG; Bailing WANG

    2008-01-01

    Although the traditional information classifi-cation coding system in manufacturing enterprises (MEs) emphasizes the construction of code standards, it lacks the management of the code creation, code data transmission and so on. According to the demands of enterprise application integration (EAI) in manufacturing enter-prises, an enterprise application integration oriented information classification code system (EAIO-ICCS) is proposed. EAIO-ICCS expands the connotation of the information classification code system and assures the identity of the codes in manufacturing enterprises with unified management of codes at the view of its lifecycle.

  6. The Work Unit Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    detl- il 𔃻’ 1hiLS. dIxam.rnt. no.y be- used in conjuctien with tlie video, or !sep1aTate’ly. 114. SUBJECT TERMS 1%. NUMLItH Of 01 AuLAS 12, yi N~I) I T...6145, (202) 274-6817, (AV) 284-6817. 1I 10. WINS AND INPUT WRAP-UP The Army Material Command has implemented its own PC-based work unit input system...extrusion and composite materials . An example of a contract search would be: Find all work units that relate to contract F33615-84-K-2458. An example

  7. Classification systems and selection systems: the risks of radical innovation and category spanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the relations between classification and competition, using the theoretical framework of selection system theory. In a particular competitive arena more than one classification system can be in use. The proportion of classification systems in use by consumers that are also in use

  8. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  9. Rapid Occupant Classification System Based Rough Sets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the intelligent airbag system, the correct classification of occupant type is the precondition and plays an important role in controlling the airbag release time and inflation strength during emergent accidents. In the paper, the novel rapid occupant classification system is proposed in which tens of pressure sensors are needed to real-time collect pressure distribution data and then the rough sets theory is combined to extract classification knowledge from data features. Furthermore, Experiments have been done to verify its efficiency and effectiviness.

  10. A simplified classification system for partially edentulous spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Aruna J, Bhandari Akshay J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no single universally employed classification system that will specify the exact edentulous situation. Several classification systems exist to group the situation and avoid confusion. Classifications based on edentulous areas, finished restored prostheses, type of direct retainers or fulcrum lines are there. Some are based depending on the placement of the implants. Widely accepted Kennedy Applegate classification does not give any idea about length, span or number of teeth missing. Rule 6 governing the application of Kennedy method states that additional edentulous areas are referred as modification number 1,2 etc. Rule 7 states that extent of the modification is not considered; only the number of edentulous areas is considered. Hence there is a need to modify the Kennedy –Applegate System. Aims: This new classification system is an attempt to modify Kennedy –Applegate System so as to give the exact idea about missing teeth, space, span, side and areas of partially edentulous arches. Methods and Material: This system will provide the information regarding Maxillary or Mandibular partially edentulous arches, Left or Right side, length of the edentulous space, number of teeth missing and whether there will be tooth borne or tooth – tissue borne prosthesis. Conclusions: This classification is easy for application, communication and will also help to design the removable cast partial denture in a better logical and systematic way. Also, this system will give the idea of the edentulous status and the number of missing teeth in fixed, hybrid or implant prosthesis.

  11. A critical analysis of international standards for construction classification - results from the development of a new Swedish construction classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A new Swedish construction classification system, CoClass, is now under development. CoClass has presented two alternative classifications for review, both based on the standard for construction classification ISO 12006-2:2015. One alternative also applies the IEC CD 81346-series for reference designations which includes classification tables for systems and components with function as the basis for subdivision of classes. A critical analysis shows that the 81346 series subdivision by functio...

  12. Unit Performance Assessment System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Overview of the enhanced UPAS ...... . 57 xiv UNIT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Introduccion The networking of combat vehicle simulators...converting SIMNET terrain data from the UNIX format to a DOS format as part of their work on the development of Intelligent Semi-Automated Forces. The...and Social Sciences. (AD A226 956). LB&M Associates (1992). Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program for Simulation Networkinc Training

  13. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  14. A new classification system for dental treatment under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Zavala-Alonso, Veronica; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Friedman, Clive

    2006-01-01

    The provision of comprehensive care for patients with special needs using dental general anesthesia (DGA) has changed over time, and now includes more complex procedures and the participation of many services. As a result, it is necessary to integrate, organize and describe all of the procedures that are carried out in different DGA settings. The aim of this study was to propose a systematic classification for dental treatment procedures be delivered under DGA, and to compare this classification system with an existing system. This new classification system has three distinct components: type, frequency and length of time needed to complete dental procedures for both primary and permanent teeth. A wide range of oral surgery procedures and endodontic treatment was also included. A retrospective cohort study utilizing 84 subjects was used to develop and compare the two classification systems. When comparing the different categories of procedures by both classifications, there were significant statistical differences between them (p dental or medical specialties. The classification system in this study includes detailed information regarding the procedures involved in the DGA. This helps to provide a clear understanding and specific information that enables the comparison of clinical experiences across populations where a DGA has been used for patients with special needs.

  15. Classification problems in object-based representation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Amedeo

    1999-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture.; Classification is a process that consists in two dual operations: generating a set of classes and then classifying given objects into the created classes. The class generation may be understood as a learning process and object classification as a problem-solving process. The goal of this position paper is to introduce and to make precise the notion of a classification problem in object-based representation systems, e.g. a query against a class hierar...

  16. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  17. The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC): A Classification System Gets an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Alissa; Cosca, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Making sense of occupational data isn't always easy. But the task is less daunting when the data are well organized. For Federal occupational statistics, the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system establishes that organization. And a recent revision to the SOC means that the data will be current, in addition to being well organized. The…

  18. Review of classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were devised in 1982. In 1997, the immunologic disorder criterion was revised by a committee (without validation). All 11 criteria in the American College of Rheumatology criteria set have limitations. One of the most important laboratory tests, hypocomplementemia, was excluded entirely. Other classification criteria, emphasizing weighting or recursive partitioning, exist, but they are more cumbersome. Revised criteria are needed, not just for systemic lupus erythematosus, but also for chronic cutaneous lupus.

  19. A Finer Classification of the Unit Sum Number of the Ring of Integers of Quadratic Fields and Complex Cubic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahid Ashrafi

    2009-06-01

    The unit sum number, $u(R)$, of a ring is the least such that every element is the sum of units; if there is no such then $u(R)$ is or ∞ depending on whether the units generate additively or not. Here we introduce a finer classification for the unit sum number of a ring and in this new classification we completely determine the unit sum number of the ring of integers of a quadratic field. Further we obtain some results on cubic complex fields which one can decide whether the unit sum number is or ∞. Then we present some examples showing that all possibilities can occur.

  20. Revised Soil Classification System for Coarse-Fine Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Junghee

    2017-04-17

    Soil classification systems worldwide capture great physical insight and enable geotechnical engineers to anticipate the properties and behavior of soils by grouping them into similar response categories based on their index properties. Yet gravimetric analysis and data trends summarized from published papers reveal critical limitations in soil group boundaries adopted in current systems. In particular, current classification systems fail to capture the dominant role of fines on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils. A revised soil classification system (RSCS) for coarse-fine mixtures is proposed herein. Definitions of classification boundaries use low and high void ratios that gravel, sand, and fines may attain. This research adopts emax and emin for gravels and sands, and three distinctive void ratio values for fines: soft eF|10  kPa and stiff eF|1  MPa for mechanical response (at effective stress 10 kPa and 1 MPa, respectively), and viscous λ⋅eF|LL for fluid flow control, where λ=2log(LL−25) and eF|LL is the void ratio at the liquid limit. For classification purposes, these void ratios can be estimated from index properties such as particle shape, the coefficient of uniformity, and the liquid limit. Analytically computed and data-adjusted boundaries are soil-specific, in contrast with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Threshold fractions for mechanical control and for flow control are quite distinct in the proposed system. Therefore, the RSCS uses a two-name nomenclature whereby the first letters identify the component(s) that controls mechanical properties, followed by a letter (shown in parenthesis) that identifies the component that controls fluid flow. Sample charts in this paper and a Microsoft Excel facilitate the implementation of this revised classification system.

  1. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  2. Fuzzy Aspect Based Opinion Classification System for Mining Tourist Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzaal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large amount of opinions available on the websites, tourists are often overwhelmed with information and find it extremely difficult to use the available information to make a decision about the tourist places to visit. A number of opinion mining methods have been proposed in the past to identify and classify an opinion into positive or negative. Recently, aspect based opinion mining has been introduced which targets the various aspects present in the opinion text. A number of existing aspect based opinion classification methods are available in the literature but very limited research work has targeted the automatic aspect identification and extraction of implicit, infrequent, and coreferential aspects. Aspect based classification suffers from the presence of irrelevant sentences in a typical user review. Such sentences make the data noisy and degrade the classification accuracy of the machine learning algorithms. This paper presents a fuzzy aspect based opinion classification system which efficiently extracts aspects from user opinions and perform near to accurate classification. We conducted experiments on real world datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed system. Experimental results prove that the proposed system not only is effective in aspect extraction but also improves the classification accuracy.

  3. A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matuska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.

  4. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  5. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  6. Platelet-rich plasma: the PAW classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Russell, Ryan P; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been the subject of hundreds of publications in recent years. Reports of its effects in tissue, both positive and negative, have generated great interest in the orthopaedic community. Protocols for PRP preparation vary widely between authors and are often not well documented in the literature, making results difficult to compare or replicate. A classification system is needed to more accurately compare protocols and results and effectively group studies together for meta-analysis. Although some classification systems have been proposed, no single system takes into account the multitude of variables that determine the efficacy of PRP. In this article we propose a simple method for organizing and comparing results in the literature. The PAW classification system is based on 3 components: (1) the absolute number of Platelets, (2) the manner in which platelet Activation occurs, and (3) the presence or absence of White cells. By analyzing these 3 variables, we are able to accurately compare publications.

  7. Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various conferences and journals have published articles related to Video Surveillance Systems, indicating researchers’ attention. The goal of this review is to examine the latest works were published in journals, propose a new classification framework of video surveillance systems and investigate each aspect of this classification framework. This paper provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review of video surveillance systems from 2010-2011, extracted from six online digital libraries using article’s title and keyword. The proposed classification framework is expanded on the basis of architecture of video surveillance systems, which is composed of six layers: Concept and Foundation Layer, Network Infrastructure Layer, Processing Layer, Communication Layer, Application Layer, and User Interaction Layer. This review shows, although many publication and research focus on real-time aspect of the challenge, only few researches have investigated the deployment of extracted and retrieved information for forensic video surveillance.

  8. Optimizing Mining Association Rules for Artificial Immune System based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMEER DIXIT

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of a biological immune system is to protect the body from foreign molecules known as antigens. It has great pattern recognition capability that may be used to distinguish between foreigncells entering the body (non-self or antigen and the body cells (self. Immune systems have many characteristics such as uniqueness, autonomous, recognition of foreigners, distributed detection, and noise tolerance . Inspired by biological immune systems, Artificial Immune Systems have emerged during the last decade. They are incited by many researchers to design and build immune-based models for a variety of application domains. Artificial immune systems can be defined as a computational paradigm that is inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms. Association rule mining is one of the most important and well researched techniques of data mining. The goal of association rules is to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in thetransaction databases or other data repositories. Association rules are widely used in various areas such as inventory control, telecommunication networks, intelligent decision making, market analysis and risk management etc. Apriori is the most widely used algorithm for mining the association rules. Other popular association rule mining algorithms are frequent pattern (FP growth, Eclat, dynamic itemset counting (DIC etc. Associative classification uses association rule mining in the rule discovery process to predict the class labels of the data. This technique has shown great promise over many other classification techniques. Associative classification also integrates the process of rule discovery and classification to build the classifier for the purpose of prediction. The main problem with the associative classification approach is the discovery of highquality association rules in a very large space of

  9. What's behind the Biological Classification System in Use Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Whether students should memorize classification schemes (taxonomies) is a column in itself, but the author can address the role that this system plays in the study of biology. To that end, it will help to address how the system developed over time. And toward "that" end, you will do a simple activity to start. (Contains 3 figures.)

  10. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  11. Intelligent Decision Support System for Bank Loans Risk Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保安; 马云飞; 俞莲

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Decision Support System (IISS) for Bank Loans Risk Classification (BLRC), based on the way of integration Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Expert System (ES), is proposed. According to the feature of BLRC, the key financial and non-financial factors are analyzed. Meanwhile, ES and Model Base (MB) which contain ANN are designed . The general framework,interaction and integration of the system are given. In addition, how the system realizes BLRC is elucidated in detail.

  12. The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) version 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Katherine; Orchard, John

    2007-05-01

    Injury classification systems are generally used in sports medicine (1) to accurately classify diagnoses for summary studies, permitting easy grouping into parent categories for tabulation and (2) to create a database from which cases can be extracted for research on specific injuries. Clarity is most important for the first purpose, whereas diagnostic detail is particularly important for the second. An ideal classification system is versatile and appropriate for all sports and all data collection scenarios. The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) was developed in 1992 primarily for the first purpose, a specific study examining the incidence of injury at the elite level of football in Australia. As usage of the OSICS expanded into different sports, limitations were noted and therefore many revisions have been made. A recent study found the OSICS-8, whilst superior to the International Classification of Diseases Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) in both speed of use and 3-coder agreement, still achieved a lower level of agreement than expected. The study also revealed weaknesses in the OSICS-8 that needed to be addressed. A recent major revision resulted in the development of the new 4-character OSICS-10. This revision attempts to improve interuser agreement, partly by including more diagnoses encountered in a sports medicine setting. The OSICS-10 should provide far greater depth in classifications for the benefit of those looking to maintain diagnostic information. It is also structured to easily collapse down into parent classifications for those wanting to preserve basic information only. For those researchers wanting information collected under broader injury headings, particularly those not using fully computerized systems, the simplicity of the OSICS-8 system may still suffice.

  13. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  14. Fusion within a classification system family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Mark E.; Schubert Kabban, Christine M.

    2017-05-01

    A detection system outputs two distinct labels, thus, there are two errors it can make. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) function quantifies both of these errors as parameters vary within the system. Combining two detection systems typically yields better performance when a combining rule is chosen appropriately. When detection systems are combined the assumption of independence is usually made in order to simplify the math- ematics, so that we need only combine the individual ROC curve from each system into one ROC curve. This paper investigates label fusion of two detection systems drawn from a single Detection System Family (DSF). Given that one knows the ROC function for the DSF, we seek a formula with the resultant ROC function of the fused detection systems as a function (specifically, a transformation) of the ROC function. In this paper, we derive this transformation for the disjunction and conjunction label rules. Examples are given that demonstrates this transformation. Furthermore, another transformation is given to account for the dependencies between the two systems within the family. Examples will be given that demonstrates these ideas and the corresponding transformation acting on the ROC curve.

  15. Three-dimensional Extension of the Unit-Feature Spatial Classification Method for Cloud Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We describe how the Unit-Feature Spatial Classification Method(UFSCM) can be used operationally to classify cloud types in satellite imagery efficiently and conveniently.By using a combination of Interactive Data Language(IDL) and Visual C++(VC) code in combination to extend the technique in three dimensions(3-D),this paper provides an efficient method to implement interactive computer visualization of the 3-D discrimination matrix modification,so as to deal with the bi-spectral limitations of traditional two dimensional(2-D) UFSCM.The case study of cloud-type classification based on FY-2C satellite data (0600 UTC 18 and 0000 UTC 10 September 2007) is conducted by comparison with ground station data, and indicates that 3-D UFSCM makes more use of the pattern recognition information in multi-spectral imagery,resulting in more reasonable results and an improvement over the 2-D method.

  16. Three-dimensional Extension of the Unit-Feature Spatial Classification Method for Cloud Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengwei; YU Fan; WANG Chenxi; YANG Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    We describe how the Unit-Feature Spatial Classification Method (UFSCM) can be used operationally to classify cloud types in satellite imagery efficiently and conveniently. By using a combination of Interactive Data Language (IDL) and Visual C++ (VC) code in combination to extend the technique in three dimensions (3-D), this paper provides an efficient method to implement interactive computer visualization of the 3-D discrimination matrix modification, so as to deal with the bi-spectral limitations of traditional two dimensional (2-D) UFSCM. The case study of cloud-type classification based on FY-2C satellite data (0600 UTC 18 and 0000 UTC 10 September 2007) is conducted by comparison with ground station data,and indicates that 3-D UFSCM makes more use of the pattern recognition information in multi-spectral imagery, resulting in more reasonable results and an improvement over the 2-D method.

  17. Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification

    CERN Document Server

    Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

  18. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Makarova, Kira; H. Haft, Daniel; Barrangou, Rodolphe; J. J. Brouns, Stan; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; J. M. Mojica, Francisco; I. Wolf, Yuri; Yakunin, Alexander F.; van der Oost, John; V. Koonin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR–Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR–Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR–Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a `polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR–cas loci. PMID:21552286

  19. RIFLE classification in geriatric patients with acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Ji; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young

    2016-06-01

    The RIFLE classification is widely used to assess the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI), but its application to geriatric AKI patients complicated by medical problems has not been reported. We investigated 256 geriatric patients (≥65 years old; mean age, 74.4 ± 6.3 years) who developed AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE classification. Etiologic, clinical, and prognostic variables were analyzed. They were categorized into RIFLE-R (n = 53), RIFLE-I (n = 102), and RIFLE-F (n = 101) groups. The overall in-hospital mortality was 39.8 %. There were no significant differences in RIFLE category between survivors and non-survivors. Survivors had significantly less needs for a ventilator and vasopressor, and lower number of failing organs. Survivors had higher systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels. We performed a logistic regression analysis to identify the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. In a univariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, RIFLE classification, number of failing organs, need for a ventilator and vasopressor, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and serum albumin levels were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, in a multivariate analysis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, number of failing organs, and serum albumin levels were independent risk factors, with no significant difference for in-hospital mortality with the RIFLE classification. The RIFLE classification might not be associated with mortality in geriatric AKI patients in the ICU. In geriatric patients with AKI, various factors besides severity of AKI should be considered to predict mortality.

  20. Quality assurance: The 10-Group Classification System (Robson classification), induction of labor, and cesarean delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Quality assurance in labor and delivery is needed. The method must be simple and consistent, and be of universal value. It needs to be clinically relevant, robust, and prospective, and must incorporate epidemiological variables. The 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) is a simple method providing a common starting point for further detailed analysis within which all perinatal events and outcomes can be measured and compared. The system is demonstrated in the present paper using data for 2013 from the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Interpretation of the classification can be easily taught. The standard table can provide much insight into the philosophy of care in the population of women studied and also provide information on data quality. With standardization of audit of events and outcomes, any differences in either sizes of groups, events or outcomes can be explained only by poor data collection, significant epidemiological variables, or differences in practice. In April 2015, WHO proposed that the TGCS (also known as the Robson classification) is used as a global standard for assessing, monitoring, and comparing cesarean delivery rates within and between healthcare facilities.

  1. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  2. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  3. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... Despite their dominance, ... existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict eating quality ... On the one hand, grading refers to the ... On the other hand, carcass classification refers to the sorting of ..... output variables, which are then evaluated for their relationship to meat quality ...

  4. Classification system for conventional crown and fixed partial denture failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manappallil, John Joy

    2008-04-01

    The dental literature is replete with reports on the many aspects of failure encountered with traditional fixed prosthodontic treatment, including longitudinal survival studies of crowns and fixed partial dentures and reasons for failures. However, criteria for grading or classifying the type and severity of these failures are inadequate. A classification system for conventional fixed prosthodontic failures based on severity is presented.

  5. The Spinal Cord Injury-Interventions Classification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langeveld, A.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Spinal Cord Injury-Interventions Classification System: development and evaluation of a documentation tool to record therapy to improve mobility and self-care in people with spinal cord injury. Background: Many rehabilitation researchers have emphasized the need to examine the actual cont

  6. Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform the group classification of the generalized Lane-Emden system xu′′+nu′+xHv=0,  xv′′+nv′+xgu=0, which occurs in many applications of physical phenomena such as pattern formation, population evolution, and chemical reactions. We obtain four cases depending on the values of n.

  7. The Spinal Cord Injury-Interventions Classification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langeveld, A.H.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304811416

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Spinal Cord Injury-Interventions Classification System: development and evaluation of a documentation tool to record therapy to improve mobility and self-care in people with spinal cord injury. Background: Many rehabilitation researchers have emphasized the need to examine the actual

  8. Standard practice for classification of computed radiology systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the evaluation and classification of a computed radiography (CR) system, a particular phosphor imaging plate (IP), system scanner and software, in combination with specified metal screens for industrial radiography. It is intended to ensure that the evaluation of image quality, as far as this is influenced by the scanner/IP system, meets the needs of users. 1.2 The practice defines system tests to be used to classify the systems of different suppliers and make them comparable for users. 1.3 The CR system performance is described by signal and noise parameters. For film systems, the signal is represented by gradient and the noise by granularity. The signal-to-noise ratio is normalized by the basic spatial resolution of the system and is part of classification. The normalization is given by the scanning aperture of 100 µm diameter for the micro-photometer, which is defined in Test Method E1815 for film system classification. This practice describes how the parameters shall be meas...

  9. BIOPHARMACEUTICS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM: A STRATEGIC TOOL FOR CLASSIFYING DRUG SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohilla Seema

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS is a scientific approach for classifying drug substances based on their dose/solubility ratio and intestinal permeability. The BCS has been developed to allow prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products from measurements of permeability and solubility. Moreover, the drugs can be categorized into four classes of BCS on the basis of permeability and solubility namely; high permeability high solubility, high permeability low solubility, low permeability high solubility and low permeability low solubility. The present review summarizes the principles, objectives, benefits, classification and applications of BCS.

  10. Video Analytics Algorithm for Automatic Vehicle Classification (Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArtaIftikhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Automated Vehicle detection and classification is an important component of intelligent transport system. Due to significant importance in various fields such as traffic accidents avoidance, toll collection, congestion avoidance, terrorist activities monitoring, security and surveillance systems, intelligent transport system has become important field of study. Various technologies have been used for detecting and classifying vehicles automatically. Automated vehicle detection is broadly divided into two types- Hardware based and software based detection. Various algorithms have been implemented to classify different vehicles from videos. In this paper an efficient and economical solution for automatic vehicle detection and classification is proposed. The proposed system first isolates the object through background subtraction followed by vehicle detection using ontology. Vehicle detection is based on low level features such as shape, size, and spatial location. Finally system classifies vehicles into one of the known classes of vehicle based on size.

  11. Intrusion Detection System with Hierarchical Different Parallel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Safaiezadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays, lives integrated to networks and internet. The needed information is transmitted through networks. So, someone may attempt to abuse the information and attack and make changes by weakness of networks. Intrusion Detection System is a system capable to detect some attacks. The system detects attacks through classifier construction and considering IP in network. The recent researches showed that a fundamental classification cannot be effective lonely and due to its errors, but mixing some classifications provide better efficiency. So, the current study attempt to design three classes of support vector machine, the neural network of multilayer perceptron and parallel fuzzy system in which there are trained dataset and capability to detect two classes. Finally, decisions made by an intermediate network due to type of attack. In the present research, suggested system tested through dataset of KDD99 and results indicated appropriate efficiency 99.71% in average.

  12. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  13. Application of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in a cardiovascular critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, B T

    1997-01-01

    The nursing profession is moving toward developing a standardized language. Benefits of such a language are outlined. Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (Iowa Intervention Project, 1992), a standardized language for nursing interventions, has been recently developed by the Iowa Intervention Project. This article describes how NIC was incorporated into a nursing care plan in a tertiary acute care facility. Teaching strategies, which include aspects of adult learning theory and motivational theory, are discussed. Utilization of creativity and variability in the planning and implementation of a unit based inservice program were the most beneficial strategies used.

  14. Computer-aided pattern classification system for dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qaisar; Celebi, M Emre; Fondón, Irene

    2012-08-01

    Computer-aided pattern classification of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions is one of the most important tasks for clinical diagnosis. To differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, the extraction of color, architectural order, symmetry of pattern and homogeneity (CASH) is a challenging task. In this article, a novel pattern classification system (PCS) based on the clinical CASH rule is presented to classify among six classes of patterns. The PCS system consists of the following five steps: transformation to the CIE L*a*b* color space, pre-processing to enhance the tumor region and removal of hairs, tumor-area segmentation, color and texture feature extraction, and finally, classification based on a multiclass support vector machine. The PCS system is tested on a total of 180 dermoscopic images. To test the performance of the PCS diagnostic classifier, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) is utilized. The proposed classifier achieved a sensitivity of 91.64%, specificity of 94.14%, and AUC of 0.948. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pattern classifier is highly accurate and classify between benign and malignant lesions into some extend. The PCS method is fully automatic and can accurately detect different patterns from dermoscopy images using color and texture properties. Additional pattern features can be included to investigate the impact of pattern classification based on the CASH rule. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Outpatient costing and classification: are we any closer toa national standard for ambulatory classification systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, M I; Murray, J M; Michael, R; Piper, K

    1998-10-19

    The Outpatient Costing and Classification Study was commissioned by the Department of Health and Family Services to evaluate the suitability of the Developmental Ambulatory Classification System (DACS). Data on the full range of ambulatory services (outpatient clinics, emergency departments and allied health services) were collected prospectively from a stratified sample of 28 public hospitals. Patient encounters captured in the study represent 1% of the total ambulatory encounters in Australia in one year. Costing per encounter included time spent with the patient, cost of procedures, indirect costs (salaries and consumables), overhead costs and diagnostic costs. The most significant variable explaining cost variation was hospital type, followed by outpatient clinic type. Visit type and presence or absence of a procedure--major splits for the proposed DACS--did not produce splits that were consistent across all hospital strata. The study found that DACS is not an appropriate classification for hospital ambulatory services. A clinic-based structure for outpatients and allied health departments is recommended for classifying and funding ambulatory services in Australia.

  16. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  17. Multi-robot system learning based on evolutionary classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel machine learning method for agents of a multi-robot system. The learning process is based on knowledge discovery through continual analysis of robot sensory information. We demonstrate that classification trees and evolutionary forests may be a basis for creation of autonomous robots capable both of learning and knowledge exchange with other agents in multi-robot system. The results of experimental studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Classification and Quality Standards of Heart Failure Units: Scientific Consensus of the Spanish Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Lambert Rodríguez, José Luis; Bover Freire, Ramón; Comín Colet, Josep; Crespo Leiro, María G; González Vílchez, Francisco; Manito Lorite, Nicolás; Segovia Cubero, Javier; Ruiz Mateas, Francisco; Elola Somoza, Francisco Javier; Íñiguez Romo, Andrés

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of heart failure remains high and represents the highest disease burden in Spain. Heart failure units have been developed to systematize the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up of heart failure patients, provide a structure to coordinate the actions of various entities and personnel involved in patient care, and improve prognosis and quality of life. There is ample evidence on the benefits of heart failure units or programs, which have become widespread in Spain. One of the challenges to the analysis of heart failure units is standardization of their classification, by determining which "programs" can be identified as heart failure "units" and by characterizing their complexity level. The aim of this article was to present the standards developed by the Spanish Society of Cardiology to classify and establish the requirements for heart failure units within the SEC-Excellence project. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR THE MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF UNMANNED AVIATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  In view of the basic contemporary classification criteria attempted the classification of unmanned aircraft systems have been attempted  on the basis of available scientific and technical potential, of their applications features,  and prospects for development of information and the aircraft manufacturing technologies. Based on the global trends analysis of unmanned aircraft systems development in determining the prospects for development of unmanned aircraft systems as a class has been discussed the need to use a single general classification system features that reflects the level of functional independence of the aircraft belonging to the UAS and takes into account not only the level of technical excellence, but also the level of development information and logistics systems. The formation principles of unmanned aircraft systems and complexes have been considered due to the UAC development problems, including the issues of the complex architectonics, its full composition, unmanned aircraft controlling methods, and the procedures for the unmanned aviation complex use as a whole taking into account the peculiarities the different UAVs categories application.

  20. Costing nursing care: using the clinical care classification system to value nursing intervention in an acute-care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jacqueline; Saba, Virginia

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine an established methodology for coding nursing interventions and action types using the Clinical Care Classification System with a reliable formula (relative value units) to cost nursing services. Using a flat per-diem rate to cost nursing care greatly understates the actual costs and fails to address the high levels of variability within and across units. We observed nurses performing commonly executed nursing interventions and recorded these into an electronic database with corresponding Clinical Care Classification System codes. The duration of these observations was used to calculate intervention costs using relative value unit calculation formulas. The costs of the five most commonly executed interventions were nursing care coordination/manage-refer ($2.43), nursing status report/assess-monitor ($4.22), medication treatment/perform-direct ($6.33), physical examination/assess-monitor ($3.20), and universal precautions/perform-direct ($1.96). Future studies across a variety of nursing specialties and units are needed to validate the relative value unit for Clinical Care Classification System action types developed for use with the Clinical Care Classification System nursing interventions as a method to cost nursing care.

  1. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  2. [Construction of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of multicomponent of traditional Chinese medicine and drawing lessons from the concepts, methods and techniques of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) in chemical field, this study comes up with the science framework of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). Using the different comparison method of multicomponent level and the CMMBCS method of overall traditional Chinese medicine, the study constructs the method process while setting forth academic thoughts and analyzing theory. The basic role of this system is clear to reveal the interaction and the related absorption mechanism of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine. It also provides new ideas and methods for improving the quality of Chinese materia medica and the development of new drug research.

  3. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  4. Preparing for the Use of Classification in Online Cataloging Systems and in Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; Markey, Karen

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of library classification and automation (1940-84), including use of Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification in online cataloging systems. Highlights include classification number access in existing online catalogs, functions of classification records, specifications for authority file records, and the nature of…

  5. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  6. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  7. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C.; Girard, N.; Lefebvre, H.

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2012-01-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements, and incorporate new kno...

  9. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  10. Global topological classification of Lotka-Volterra quadratic differential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Schlomiuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lotka-Volterra planar quadratic differential systems have numerous applications but the global study of this class proved to be a challenge difficult to handle. Indeed, the four attempts to classify them (Reyn (1987, W"orz-Buserkros (1993, Georgescu (2007 and Cao and Jiang (2008 produced results which are not in agreement. The lack of adequate global classification tools for the large number of phase portraits encountered, explains this situation. All Lotka-Volterra systems possess invariant straight lines, each with its own multiplicity. In this article we use as a global classification tool for Lotka-Volterra systems the concept of configuration of invariant lines (including the line at infinity. The class splits according to the types of configurations in smaller subclasses which makes it easier to have a good control over the phase portraits in each subclass. At the same time the classification becomes more transparent and easier to grasp. We obtain a total of 112 topologically distinct phase portraits: 60 of them with exactly three invariant lines, all simple; 27 portraits with invariant lines with total multiplicity at least four; 5 with the line at infinity filled up with singularities; 20 phase portraits of degenerate systems. We also make a thorough analysis of the results in the paper of Cao and Jiang [13]. In contrast to the results on the classification in [13], done in terms of inequalities on the coefficients of normal forms, we construct invariant criteria for distinguishing these portraits in the whole parameter space $mathbb{R}^{12}$ of coefficients.

  11. Creating electronic screens in a hospital information system using nursing classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Maria Beckers Marques de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health records aim at providing greater readability and safety in documenting nursing actions. Using the nursing classifications of an information system organizes, standardizes and retrieves the data considered essential to plan individualized care and the results evaluation from the interventions. The objective was to describe the development of the Nursing Care Systematization stages using Nursing Classifications in a Hospital Information System. Cross-mapping was performed of the care plan content and the printed version, at a Semi-Intensive Care Unit. Excel spreadsheets were included according to the systematization stage and electronic screens permitted to record the nurses’ clinical evaluation. The electronic documentation permitted faster data input and retrieval, in addition to stimulating diagnosis accuracy and evaluating the interventions by means of result indicators. Descriptors: Nursing Diagnosis; Nursing Process; Nursing Care; Nursing Informatics.

  12. THE BIOPHARMACEUTICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BCS: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhwaar Vikaas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS was introduced By Amidon et al., (1995 as a method for classifying drug substances based on their dose/solubility ratio and intestinal permeability. It allows predicting the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products. The drug can be categorized into four classes of BCS, namely, High solubility high permeability, low solubility high permeability, High solubility low permeability and low solubility low permeability. An objective of BCS approach is to determine the equilibrium solubility of drug substances under physiological environment. The BCS helps in mathematically analyzing the kinetics and dynamics of drug in gastrointestinal tract (GIT for New Drug Applications (NDA and Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA filings and biowaivers. This step reduces time in the new drug development process. Further it helps to decide when the dissolution rate is likely to be the rate determining step. It also helps in the prediction of potential of inactive ingredients in the dosage form to alter the dissolution / absorption of the drug. The present review, apart from giving a brief overview of BCS classification system, highlights these and some of the more recent applications of BCS classification system.

  13. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  14. A preliminary test of an ecological classification system for the Oconee National Forest using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Richard D. Rightmyer; Erika M. Mavity; Samuel G. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    An ecological classification system (ECS) has been developed for use in evaluating management, conservation and restoration options for forest and wildlife resources on the Oconee National Forest. Our study was the initial evaluation of the ECS to determine if the units at each level differed in potential productivity. We used loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  15. On the Origins of the Quinarian System of Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    William Sharp Macleay developed the quinarian system of classification in his Horæ Entomologicæ, published in two parts in 1819 and 1821. For two decades, the quinarian system was widely discussed in Britain and influenced such naturalists as Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Thomas Huxley. This paper offers the first detailed account of Macleay's development of the quinarian system. Macleay developed his system under the shaping influence of two pressures: (1) the insistence by followers of Linnaeus on developing artificial systems at the expense of the natural system and (2) the apparent tension between the continuity of organic nature and the failure of linear classification schemes (which continuity seemed to require). Against what he perceived as dogmatic indolence on the part of the Linnaeans, Macleay developed a philosophy of science in which hypotheses that exceeded the available evidence should be proposed and subjected to severe tests. He also developed a novel comparative anatomical methodology, the method of variation, to aid in his search for the natural system. Using this method, he developed an intricate system that showed how organic nature could be continuous without being linear. A failure to appreciate these facets of Macleay's thought has led to several misunderstandings of him and his work, most notably that he was an idealist. These misunderstandings are here rebutted.

  16. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  17. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NSPS classification system. 9901.231 Section 9901.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Classification Transitional Provisions § 9901.231 Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system. (a)...

  18. 42 CFR 412.10 - Changes in the DRG classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes in the DRG classification system. 412.10... § 412.10 Changes in the DRG classification system. (a) General rule. CMS issues changes in the DRG classification system in a Federal Register notice at least annually. Except as specified in paragraphs (c)...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF... MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification Transitional Provisions § 9701.231 Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system. (a)...

  20. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  1. Development of a classification system for cup anemometers - CLASSCUP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2003-01-01

    Errors associated with the measurements of the wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show a significant and not acceptable difference. TheEuropean CLASSCUP research project posed the object......Errors associated with the measurements of the wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show a significant and not acceptable difference. TheEuropean CLASSCUP research project posed...... the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to determine the requirements for an optimum design of a cup anemometer, and to develop a classification system forquantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. The present report describes this proposed...... classification system. A classification method for cup anemometers has been developed, which proposes general external operational ranges to be used. Anormal category range connected to ideal sites of the IEC power performance standard was made, and another extended category range for complex terrain...

  2. Improved Classification Methods for Brain Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI aims at providing a new communication way without brain’s normal output through nerve and muscle. The electroencephalography (EEG has been widely used for BCI system because it is a non-invasive approach. For the EEG signals of left and right hand motor imagery, the event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization(ERS are used as classification features in this paper. The raw data are transformed by nonlinear methods and classified by Fisher classifier. Compared with the linear methods, the classification accuracy can get an obvious increase to 86.25%. Two different nonlinear transform were arised and one of them is under the consideration of the relativity of two channels of EEG signals. With these nonlinear transform, the performance are also stable with the balance of two misclassifications.

  3. Assessment and risk classification protocol for patients in emergency units1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Michele de Freitas Neves; Oliveira, Gabriela Novelli; Pergola-Marconato, Aline Maino; Marconato, Rafael Silva; Bargas, Eliete Boaventura; Araujo, Izilda Esmenia Muglia

    2014-01-01

    Objective to develop, validate the contents and verify the reliability of a risk classification protocol for an Emergency Unit. Method the content validation was developed in a University Hospital in a country town located in the state of Sao Paulo and was carried out in two stages: the first with the individual assessment of specialists and the second with the meeting between the researchers and the specialists. The use of the protocol followed a specific guide. Concerning reliability, the concordance or equivalent method among observers was used. Results the protocol developed showed to have content validity and, after the suggested changes were made, there were excellent results concerning reliability. Conclusion the assistance flow chart was shown to be easy to use, and facilitate the search for the complaint in each assistance priority. PMID:26107828

  4. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. International validation study. Objective. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system. Summar

  5. Neighborhood Hypergraph Based Classification Algorithm for Incomplete Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification in incomplete information system is a hot issue in intelligent information processing. Hypergraph is a new intelligent method for machine learning. However, it is hard to process the incomplete information system by the traditional hypergraph, which is due to two reasons: (1 the hyperedges are generated randomly in traditional hypergraph model; (2 the existing methods are unsuitable to deal with incomplete information system, for the sake of missing values in incomplete information system. In this paper, we propose a novel classification algorithm for incomplete information system based on hypergraph model and rough set theory. Firstly, we initialize the hypergraph. Second, we classify the training set by neighborhood hypergraph. Third, under the guidance of rough set, we replace the poor hyperedges. After that, we can obtain a good classifier. The proposed approach is tested on 15 data sets from UCI machine learning repository. Furthermore, it is compared with some existing methods, such as C4.5, SVM, NavieBayes, and KNN. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance via Precision, Recall, AUC, and F-measure.

  6. AMD-stability and the classification of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, J.; Petit, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    We present here in full detail the evolution of the angular momentum deficit (AMD) during collisions as it was described in Laskar (2000, Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, 3240). Since then, the AMD has been revealed to be a key parameter for the understanding of the outcome of planetary formation models. We define here the AMD-stability criterion that can be easily verified on a newly discovered planetary system. We show how AMD-stability can be used to establish a classification of the multiplanet systems in order to exhibit the planetary systems that are long-term stable because they are AMD-stable, and those that are AMD-unstable which then require some additional dynamical studies to conclude on their stability. The AMD-stability classification is applied to the 131 multiplanet systems from The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia database for which the orbital elements are sufficiently well known. The AMD-stability coefficients of selected planetary systems are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A72

  7. Units of measure in clinical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadow, G; McDonald, C J; Suico, J G; Föhring, U; Tolxdorff, T

    1999-01-01

    The authors surveyed existing standard codes for units of measures, such as ISO 2955, ANSI X3.50, and Health Level 7's ISO+. Because these standards specify only the character representation of units, the authors developed a semantic model for units based on dimensional analysis. Through this model, conversion between units and calculations with dimensioned quantities become as simple as calculating with numbers. All atomic symbols for prefixes and units are defined in one small table. Huge permutated conversion tables are not required. This method is also simple enough to be widely implementable in today's information systems. To promote the application of the method the authors provide an open-source implementation of this method in JAVA. All existing code standards for units, however, are incomplete for practical use and require substantial changes to correct their many ambiguities. The authors therefore developed a code for units that is much more complete and free from ambiguities.

  8. 40-Hz ASSR fusion classification system for observing sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwaja, Gulzar A; Haghighi, Sahar Javaher; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a fusion-based neural network (NN) classification algorithm for 40-Hz auditory steady state response (ASSR) ensemble averaged signals which were recorded from eight human subjects for observing sleep patterns (wakefulness W0 and deep sleep N3 or slow wave sleep SWS). In SWS, sensitivity to pain is the lowest relative to other sleep stages and arousal needs stronger stimuli. 40-Hz ASSR signals were extracted by averaging over 900 sweeps on a 30-s window. Signals generated during N3 deep sleep state show similarities to those produced when general anesthesia is given to patients during clinical surgery. Our experimental results show that the automatic classification system used identifies sleep states with an accuracy rate of 100% when the training and test signals come from the same subjects while its accuracy is reduced to 97.6%, on average, when signals are used from different training and test subjects. Our results may lead to future classification of consciousness and wakefulness of patients with 40-Hz ASSR for observing the depth and effects of general anesthesia (DGA).

  9. Analytical models and system topologies for remote multispectral data acquisition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Burcher, E. E.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1978-01-01

    Simple analytical models are presented of the radiometric and statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification. Also presented are basic system topologies which combine remote sensing with data classification. These models and topologies offer a preliminary but systematic step towards the use of computer simulations to analyze remote multispectral data acquisition and classification systems.

  10. Reporting ureteroscopy complications using the modified clavien classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalil Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Perioperative complications are one of the surrogate indicators of surgical outcomes. However, reporting these complications need a precise grading system. Our aim is to report and grade the complications of semirigid ureteroscopy in ureteral stone management according to the modified Clavien classification system. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted From January 2012 to June 2013. All patients with ureteral stones who were indicated for semirigid URS were evaluated. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The data recorded including patient demographics, clinical indication, stone size and location, operative time and complications were classified according to the modified Clavien classification system. The patients were followed for 8 weeks postoperatively. Results: 148 patients included, Stone distribution was: 89 (60.1% lower ureteral, 26 (17.6% mid ureteral, and 33 (22.3% upper ureteral. the mean stone size was 8.6 mm. Urgent URS done in 23% of patient. The overall stone free rate was 88.5%, the individual stone free rate for the upper, middle and lower ureter were 87.9%, 84.6%, and 89.9%, respectively. The mean operative time was 31.9 min (20-50 min.. Complications occurred in 26.35% of patients. Grade I complications occurred in 32 patients (26.1%, grade II in 9 (6.1%, grade IIIa in 7 (4.7%, grade IIIb in 8 (5.4%, grade IVa in two patient (1.35%, and grade IVb in one patient (0.7%. No grade V complication was encountered. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy becomes the vanguard interventional therapy for ureteral stones with well-established efficacy and safety. It is of paramount importance to adopt a precise structured classification system for reporting surgical complications, that should be flexible and comprehensive in order to accommodate the various and rapidly expanding surgical fields.

  11. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  12. The vacuum impedance and unit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kitano, M

    2006-01-01

    In electromagnetism, the vacuum impedance $Z_0$ is a universal constant, which is as important as the velocity of light $c$ in vacuum. Unfortunately, however, its significance does not seem to be appreciated so well and sometimes the presence itself is ignored. It is partly because in the Gaussian system of units, which has widely been used for long time, $Z_0$ is a dimensionless constant and of unit magnitude. In this paper, we clarify that $Z_0$ is a fundamental parameter in electromagnetism and plays major roles in the following scenes: reorganizing the structure of the electromagnetic formula in reference to the relativity; renormalizing the quantities toward natural unit systems starting from the SI unit system; and defining the magnitudes of electromagnetic units.

  13. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  14. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the 'missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  15. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  16. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Lloyd B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cartelli, Laura [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  17. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  18. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  19. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  20. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  1. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  2. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. An updated histological classification system for multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Ludwin, Samuel; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack; Brück, Wolfgang; Lassmann, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and heterogeneous, most likely autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of histological classification systems for CNS lesions have been used by different groups in recent years, no uniform classification exists. In this paper, we propose a simple and unifying classification of MS lesions incorporating many elements of earlier histological systems that aims to provide guidelines for neuropathologists and researchers studying MS lesions to allow for better comparison of different studies performed with MS tissue, and to aid in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Based on the presence/absence and distribution of macrophages/microglia (inflammatory activity) and the presence/absence of ongoing demyelination (demyelinating activity), we suggest differentiating between active, mixed active/inactive, and inactive lesions with or without ongoing demyelination. Active lesions are characterized by macrophages/microglia throughout the lesion area, whereas mixed active/inactive lesions have a hypocellular lesion center with macrophages/microglia limited to the lesion border. Inactive lesions are almost completely lacking macrophages/microglia. Active and mixed active/inactive lesions can be further subdivided into lesions with ongoing myelin destruction (demyelinating lesions) and lesions in which the destruction of myelin has ceased, but macrophages are still present (post-demyelinating lesions). This distinction is based on the presence or absence of myelin degradation products within the cytoplasm of macrophages/microglia. For this classification of MS lesions, identification of myelin with histological stains [such as luxol fast blue-PAS] or by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against myelin basic-protein (MBP) or proteolipid-protein (PLP), as well as, detection of macrophages/microglia by, e.g., anti-CD68 is sufficient. Active and demyelinating lesions may be further

  4. Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Gordon, Caroline; Merrill, Joan T.; Fortin, Paul R.; Bruce, Ian N.; Isenberg, David; Wallace, Daniel J.; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Clarke, Ann; Aranow, Cynthia; Manzi, Susan; Urowitz, Murray; Gladman, Dafna; Kalunian, Kenneth; Costner, Melissa; Werth, Victoria P.; Zoma, Asad; Bernatsky, Sasha; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Buyon, Jill P.; Maddison, Peter; Dooley, Mary Anne; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ginzler, Ellen; Stoll, Thomas; Peschken, Christine; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Callen, Jeffrey P.; Lim, S. Sam; Fessler, Barri J.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Rahman, Anisur; Steinsson, Kristjan; Franks, Andrew G.; Sigler, Lisa; Hameed, Suhail; Fang, Hong; Pham, Ngoc; Brey, Robin; Weisman, Michael H.; McGwin, Gerald; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology. Methods The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls. Results Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001). Conclusions The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification. PMID:22553077

  5. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications.

  6. ATTACHMENTS IN PROSTHODONTICS: DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuthija Khanam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Attachments are mechanical devices for the fixation and stabilisation of a dental prosthesis and include frictional, internal, intracoronal, extracoronal, key-key way, parallel, precision and slotted types. (Boucher 1976. Attachments are used as alternative to clasps in removable partial denture therapy for both aesthetic and functional purpose. Their application is not only limited to removable partial dentures, but has a broader usage in fixed bridges, overdentures, implant supported dentures as well. Hundreds of attachments are available commercially and significant differences exist between them. In this article, different systems of classification of attachments have been reviewed. They are categorised as precision and semi-precision depending on the method of manufacture, intracoronal and extra coronal depending on their location relative to the abutment tooth, rigid and resilient determined by the amount of movement allowed between the component parts, also as stud and bar attachments depending on the design. A classification system to more accurately evaluate differences among resilient attachments has also been described here.

  7. Understanding Acupuncture Based on ZHENG Classification from System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an efficient therapy method originated in ancient China, the study of which based on ZHENG classification is a systematic research on understanding its complexity. The system perspective is contributed to understand the essence of phenomena, and, as the coming of the system biology era, broader technology platforms such as omics technologies were established for the objective study of traditional chinese medicine (TCM. Omics technologies could dynamically determine molecular components of various levels, which could achieve a systematic understanding of acupuncture by finding out the relationships of various response parts. After reviewing the literature of acupuncture studied by omics approaches, the following points were found. Firstly, with the help of omics approaches, acupuncture was found to be able to treat diseases by regulating the neuroendocrine immune (NEI network and the change of which could reflect the global effect of acupuncture. Secondly, the global effect of acupuncture could reflect ZHENG information at certain structure and function levels, which might reveal the mechanism of Meridian and Acupoint Specificity. Furthermore, based on comprehensive ZHENG classification, omics researches could help us understand the action characteristics of acupoints and the molecular mechanisms of their synergistic effect.

  8. Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Debra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

  9. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF MAMMOGRAPHIC MASSES USING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Divyadarshini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided detection (CAD intends to provide assistance to the mammography detection, reducing breast cancer misdiagnosis, thus allowing better diagnosis and more efficient treatments. In this work the task of automatically classifying the mass tissue into Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS shape categories: round, oval, lobular, irregular and also as benign or malignant is investigated. Geometrical shape and margin features based on maximum and minimum radius of mass are used in this work to classify the masses. These geometric features are found to be good in discriminating regular shapes from irregular shapes. For the purpose of classification, the masses are segmented from the mammogram using gray level thresholding. Finally, the classification is performed using fuzzy inference system. The fuzzy rules are used to construct the generalized fuzzy membership function for classifying the shape and severity of masses. The images were collected from Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS Database and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM. The experiments were implemented in MATLAB.

  11. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action codi

  12. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action codi

  13. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action

  14. Operating Rule Classification System of Water Supply Reservoir Based on Learning Classifier System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-feng; WANG Xiao-lin; YIN Zheng-jie; LI Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    An operating rule classification system based on lesrning classifier system (LCS), which learns through credit assignment (bucket brigade algorithm, BBA) and rule discovery (genetic algorithm, GA), is established to extract water-supply reservoir operating rules. The proposed system acquires an online identification rate of 95% for training samples and an offline rate of 85% for testing samples in a case study. The performances of the rule classification system are discussed from the rationality of the obtained rules, the impact of training samples on rule extraction, and a comparison between the rule classification system and the artificial neural network (ANN). The results indicate that the LCS is feasible and effective for the system to obtain the reservoir supply operating rules.

  15. Inter-rater reliability of the EPUAP pressure ulcer classification system using photographs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defloor, T.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many classification systems for grading pressure ulcers are discussed in the literature. Correct identification and classification of a pressure ulcer is important for accurate reporting of the magnitude of the problem, and for timely prevention. The reliability of pressure ulcer classif

  16. Toward a classification of semidegenerate 3D superintegrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Superintegrable systems of 2nd order in 3 dimensions with exactly 3-parameter potentials are intriguing objects. Next to the nondegenerate 4-parameter potential systems they admit the maximum number of symmetry operators, but their symmetry algebras do not close under commutation and not enough is known about their structure to give a complete classification. Some examples are known for which the 3-parameter system can be extended to a 4th order superintegrable system with a 4-parameter potential and 6 linearly independent symmetry generators. In this paper we use Bôcher contractions of the conformal Lie algebra so≤ft(5,{C}\\right) to itself to generate a large family of 3-parameter systems with 4th order extensions, on a variety of manifolds, all from Bôcher contractions of a single ‘generic’ system on the 3-sphere. We give a contraction scheme relating these systems. The results have myriad applications for finding explicit solutions for both quantum and classical systems.

  17. Patterns of grease burn injury: development of a classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Gibran, Nicole S; Emerson, Dominic; Sullivan, Stephen R; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M

    2005-09-01

    Grease burns occur commonly in the home during food preparation. It has been our observation that grease burns follow a particular pattern of injury. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience in the management of these burns to develop a classification scheme. We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our burn center with grease burns. Subjects were identified through our database and their charts were reviewed with particular attention to burn distribution, TBSA and need for grafting. We excluded workplace burns and children under the age of six. A total of 249 patients who fit the above criteria were admitted with grease burns to our burn center from 1993 to 2003. The sequence of events leading to burn and its distribution followed a consistent pattern. The majority of patients (86%) had an isolated upper extremity burn or upper extremity burn in combination with a face, trunk or lower extremity burn. Forty percent of patients required at least one excision and grafting procedure. Grease burns associated with cooking at home follow predictable patterns of injury. Based on these patterns we proposed a classification system for domestic grease burns.

  18. Multiple classifier system for remote sensing image classification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  19. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird, hyperspectral image (OMISII and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+.Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  20. Development Of An Econometric Model Case Study: Romanian Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to illustrate an econometric model used to predict the lean meat content in pig carcasses, based on the muscle thickness and back fat thickness measured by the means of an optical probe (OptiGrade PRO.The analysis goes through all steps involved in the development of the model: statement of theory, specification of the mathematical model, sampling and collection of data, estimation of the parameters of the chosen econometric model, tests of the hypothesis derived from the model and prediction equations. The data have been in a controlled experiment conducted by the Romanian Carcass Classification Commission in 2007. The purpose of the experiment was to develop the prediction formulae to be used in the implementation of SEUROP classification system, imposed by European Union legislation. The research methodology used by the author in this study consisted in reviewing the existing literature and normative acts, analyzing the primary data provided by and organization conducting the experiment and interviewing the representatives of the working team that participated in the trial.

  1. Aneurysms of the superficial venous system: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Bush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Superficial venous aneurysms are rarely described and they may remain indolent or become the source for pulmonary emboli. A system of classification and treatment protocol according to size and location is proposed. Three hundred thirty patients were evaluated for symptomatic venous disease (C2-C6 over a 2-year period. A proposed designation for venous aneurysm is described. Patients fulfilling this criterion are described in reference to site of involvement, histologic findings, and method of treatment. Five percent of patients met the criteria for venous aneurysm. Nine aneurysms of the greater saphenous vein were identified. Three aneurysms were proximal to the subterminal valve and the rest were distal. Six aneurysms of the anterior accessory greater saphenous vein (AAGSV were identified. Three aneurysms of the AAGSV spontaneously thrombosed. Two patients presented with aneurysms of the small saphenous vein. Histology revealed thickened intima, smooth muscle and adventitia. Aneurysm designation relates to diameter of normal and contiguous vein. All superficial venous aneurysms in close proximity to the junction of the femoral or popliteal vein should be ligated. Classification of venous aneurysms should include the AAGSV, which may present with spontaneous thrombosis.

  2. Reliable and reproducible classification system for scoliotic radiograph using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K; Karunakar, A K

    2014-11-01

    Scoliosis classification is useful for guiding the treatment and testing the clinical outcome. State-of-the-art classification procedures are inherently unreliable and non-reproducible due to technical and human judgmental error. In the current diagnostic system each examiner will have diagrammatic summary of classification procedure, number of scoliosis curves, apex level, etc. It is very difficult to define the required anatomical parameters in the noisy radiographs. The classification system demands automatic image understanding system. The proposed automated classification procedures extracts the anatomical features using image processing and applies classification procedures based on computer assisted algorithms. The reliability and reproducibility of the proposed computerized image understanding system are compared with manual and computer assisted system using Kappa values.

  3. A new methodology for constructing a publication-level classification system of science

    CERN Document Server

    Waltman, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    Classifying journals or publications into research areas is an essential element of many bibliometric analyses. Classification usually takes place at the level of journals, where the Web of Science subject categories are the most popular classification system. However, journal-level classification systems have two important limitations: They offer only a limited amount of detail, and they have difficulties with multidisciplinary journals. To avoid these limitations, we introduce a new methodology for constructing classification systems at the level of individual publications. In the proposed methodology, publications are clustered into research areas based on citation relations. The methodology is able to deal with very large numbers of publications. We present an application in which a classification system is produced that includes almost ten million publications. Based on an extensive analysis of this classification system, we discuss the strengths and the limitations of the proposed methodology. Important...

  4. Volunteer-Based System for classification of traffic in computer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs and obta......To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected from client machines. This paper presents design of the system, implementation, initial runs...

  5. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  6. Classification systems in nursing : Formalizing nursing knowledge and implications for nursing information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, WTF; Epping, PJMM; Abraham, IL

    1996-01-01

    The development of nursing information systems (NIS) is often hampered by the fact that nursing lacks a unified nursing terminology and classification system. Currently there exist various initiatives in this area. We address the question as to how current initiatives in the development of nursing t

  7. Classification systems in nursing : Formalizing nursing knowledge and implications for nursing information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, WTF; Epping, PJMM; Abraham, IL

    1996-01-01

    The development of nursing information systems (NIS) is often hampered by the fact that nursing lacks a unified nursing terminology and classification system. Currently there exist various initiatives in this area. We address the question as to how current initiatives in the development of nursing t

  8. Classification systems in nursing : Formalizing nursing knowledge and implications for nursing information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, WTF; Epping, PJMM; Abraham, IL

    The development of nursing information systems (NIS) is often hampered by the fact that nursing lacks a unified nursing terminology and classification system. Currently there exist various initiatives in this area. We address the question as to how current initiatives in the development of nursing

  9. Risk classification and uncertainty propagation for virtual water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jacob M. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: jato@jhu.edu; Brumbelow, Kelly [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Guikema, Seth D. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    While the secrecy of real water distribution system data is crucial, it poses difficulty for research as results cannot be publicized. This data includes topological layouts of pipe networks, pump operation schedules, and water demands. Therefore, a library of virtual water distribution systems can be an important research tool for comparative development of analytical methods. A virtual city, 'Micropolis', has been developed, including a comprehensive water distribution system, as a first entry into such a library. This virtual city of 5000 residents is fully described in both geographic information systems (GIS) and EPANet hydraulic model frameworks. A risk classification scheme and Monte Carlo analysis are employed for an attempted water supply contamination attack. Model inputs to be considered include uncertainties in: daily water demand, seasonal demand, initial storage tank levels, the time of day a contamination event is initiated, duration of contamination event, and contaminant quantity. Findings show that reasonable uncertainties in model inputs produce high variability in exposure levels. It is also shown that exposure level distributions experience noticeable sensitivities to population clusters within the contaminant spread area. High uncertainties in exposure patterns lead to greater resources needed for more effective mitigation strategies.

  10. The Self-Directed Violence Classification System and the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment: A Crosswalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Bridget B.; Clemans, Tracy A.; Silverman, Morton M.; Brenner, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a standardized nomenclature for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with the Veterans Integrated Service Network 19 Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, to create the Self-Directed Violence Classification System (SDVCS). SDVCS has been adopted by the…

  11. A Bayesian Based Search and Classification System for Product Information of Agricultural Logistics Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications; International audience; In order to meet the needs of users who search agricultural products logistics information technology, this paper introduces a search and classification system of agricultural products logistics information technology search and classification. Firstly, the dictionary of field concept word was built based on analyzing the characteristics of agricultural products logistics in...

  12. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) The contracting officer shall determine...

  13. Neural network diagnostic system for dengue patients risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Tarig; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2012-04-01

    With the dramatic increase of the worldwide threat of dengue disease, it has been very crucial to correctly diagnose the dengue patients in order to decrease the disease severity. However, it has been a great challenge for the physicians to identify the level of risk in dengue patients due to overlapping of the medical classification criteria. Therefore, this study aims to construct a noninvasive diagnostic system to assist the physicians for classifying the risk in dengue patients. Systematic producers have been followed to develop the system. Firstly, the assessment of the significant predictors associated with the level of risk in dengue patients was carried out utilizing the statistical analyses technique. Secondly, Multilayer perceptron neural network models trained via Levenberg-Marquardt and Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithms was employed for constructing the diagnostic system. Finally, precise tuning for the models' parameters was conducted in order to achieve the optimal performance. As a result, 9 noninvasive predictors were found to be significantly associated with the level of risk in dengue patients. By employing those predictors, 75% prediction accuracy has been achieved for classifying the risk in dengue patients using Scaled Conjugate Gradient algorithm while 70.7% prediction accuracy were achieved by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

  14. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  15. A hitchhiker's guide to myeloid cell subsets: practical implementation of a novel mononuclear phagocyte classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGuilliams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines.

  16. Unit 127 - Spatial Decision Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    064, CC in GIScience; Malczewski, Jacek; Keller, C Peter

    2000-01-01

    This unit focuses on the concept of Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS). It covers the major characteristics of spatial decision problems; the decision-making process; a definition of SDSS; principles of SDSS; the dialog, data, model (DDM) paradigm; and technologies for developing SDSS.

  17. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessela Krasteva

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB and ventricular (VB beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and classification tree (CT, all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features, Fuzzy (72 features, LDA (142 coefficients, CT (221 decision nodes with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%, LDA (99.6%, Cluster (99.5%, Fuzzy (99.4%; sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies: CT (96.7%, Fuzzy (94.4%, LDA (94.2%, Cluster (92.4%; positive predictivity: CT (99.2%, Cluster (93.6%, LDA (93.0%, Fuzzy (92.4%. CT has superior accuracy by 0.3-6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable 'if-then' rules.

  18. An overview of some historical knowledge organisation systems and classifications with a special emphasy on monastery libraries’ classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Svoljšak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of some most prominent historical turning – points in the field of knowledge organization an2d western European sistematization of science, based on Greek and christian philosophy. Some examples of earlier attempts to unify the systems of knowledge organization and science systematization are presented. Some specific systems of the most prominent European christian religious orders’ library contents arrangement and classification are described in this context.

  19. Classification of toddler nutritional status using fuzzy inference system (FIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.

  20. Intelligent monitoring system for intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

    2012-08-01

    We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms.

  1. Evaluation of the seventh edition of the tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for colon cancer in two nationwide registries of the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Hase, K; Kotake, K; Ueno, H; Shinto, E; Mochizuki, H; Yamamoto, J; Sugihara, K

    2012-09-01

    The new TNM classification is currently being implemented. We evaluated the TNM-7 staging system based on the two nationwide colon cancer registries in the United States and Japan to clarify whether this system better stratifies patients' prognoses than the TNM-6 did and to determine whether stratification can be effectively simplified. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based data from 1988 to 2001 for 50139 colon cancer patients and the multi-institutional registry data from the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum from 1984 to 1994 for 10754 patients were analysed. We devised a modified version of the TNM-7 staging system to allow simpler classification of the TN categories and compared the TNM-6, TNM-7, modified TNM-7, and the Dukes staging system based on survival curves and objective statistical tests such as likelihood ratio χ(2) tests, Akaike's information criterion, and Harrell's c-index. The TNM-7 was superior to the TNM-6 in all objective statistical tests in the United States (c-index; 0.700 vs 0.696, PTNM-7 is much simpler, but it nevertheless showed similar values to those of the original TNM-7 (c-index; the United States 0.702, Japan 0.733).   The new TNM-7 is complicated but better at stratifying patients than the TNM-6 in the United States and Japan, and could be effectively simplified. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... modifications of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) into its table of small business size... RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim...

  3. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  4. 42 CFR 419.31 - Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights. (a) APC... the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (3) The payment rate determined for an APC group...

  5. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  6. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...... the earlier ISTAP study and further validates the classification system. The Danish translation of the classification system is vital to the promotion of skin tears in both research and the clinical settings in Denmark....

  7. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Comparison of wheat classification accuracy using different classifiers of the image-100 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Chen, S. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Classification results using single-cell and multi-cell signature acquisition options, a point-by-point Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, and K-means clustering of the Image-100 system are presented. Conclusions reached are that: a better indication of correct classification can be provided by using a test area which contains various cover types of the study area; classification accuracy should be evaluated considering both the percentages of correct classification and error of commission; supervised classification approaches are better than K-means clustering; Gaussian distribution maximum likelihood classifier is better than Single-cell and Multi-cell Signature Acquisition Options of the Image-100 system; and in order to obtain a high classification accuracy in a large and heterogeneous crop area, using Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, homogeneous spectral subclasses of the study crop should be created to derive training statistics.

  9. A new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Lee, Yunhwan; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Jee H; Choi, Seong Hye; Back, Joung Hwan; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Geon Ha; Shin, Ji Soo; Kim, Chi Hun; Cho, Hanna; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Jong-Min; Hong, Chang Hyung; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kim, Seong Yoon; Park, Kee Hyung; Han, Seol-Heui; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    The Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) group developed a new classification system for ischemia using a combination of deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the CREDOS ischemia classification system. A total of 352 patients with cognitive impairments were included. Their WMH scores were rated using the CREDOS WMH visual rating scale. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to the CREDOS ischemia classification system. The volume of WMH was also automatically measured. The number of lacunes and microbleeds (MBs) were counted. The CREDOS ischemia classification system was revised with factor analysis using vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) markers (WMH volume, lacunes, and MBs). External validation was performed in another group of patients with cognitive impairment using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The CREDOS WMH visual rating scale showed excellent correlation with the automatically measured volume of WMH. The factor analysis showed that the severe group was expanded to D3P1 and D3P2 in the revised CREDOS ischemia classification system. In the validation group, the presence of vascular risk factors and the severity of CVD markers could be distinguished according to the revised CREDOS ischemia classification. We validated a newly developed classification system for ischemia. This simple visual classification system was capable of providing information on vascular risk factors and CVD markers by simply rating WMH on magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  11. Intelligence system based classification approach for medical disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Abdu Masanawa; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease as well as survivability after undergone certain surgery has been a challenging problem for medical researchers. The decision about presence or absence of diseases depends on the physician's intuition, experience and skill for comparing current indicators with previous one than on knowledge rich data hidden in a database. This measure is a very crucial and challenging task. The goal is to predict patient condition by using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) pre-processed by grid partitioning. To achieve an accurate diagnosis at this complex stage of symptom analysis, the physician may need efficient diagnosis system. A framework describes methodology for designing and evaluation of classification performances of two discrete ANFIS systems of hybrid learning algorithms least square estimates with Modified Levenberg-Marquardt and Gradient descent algorithms that can be used by physicians to accelerate diagnosis process. The proposed method's performance was evaluated based on training and test datasets with mammographic mass and Haberman's survival Datasets obtained from benchmarked datasets of University of California at Irvine's (UCI) machine learning repository. The robustness of the performance measuring total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity is examined. In comparison, the proposed method achieves superior performance when compared to conventional ANFIS based gradient descent algorithm and some related existing methods. The software used for the implementation is MATLAB R2014a (version 8.3) and executed in PC Intel Pentium IV E7400 processor with 2.80 GHz speed and 2.0 GB of RAM.

  12. Caco-2 cells, biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biowaiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Libuse; Stĕtinová, Vĕra; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Almost all orally administered drugs are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa. The Caco-2 monolayers are used as an in vitro model to predict drug absorption in humans and to explore mechanism of drug absorption. The Caco-2 cells are derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma and spontaneously differentiate to form confluent monolayer of polarized cells structurally and functionally resembling the small intestinal epithelium. For studying drug permeability, Caco-2 cells are seeded onto the Transwell inserts with semipermeable membrane and grown to late confluence (21 days). After determination of cell viability, the integrity of monolayer is checked by phenol red permeability and by 14C-mannitol permeability. The transport from apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) is studied by adding the diluted drug on the apical or basolateral side and withdrawing the samples from the opposite compartment, respectively, for HPLC analysis or liquid scintillation spectrometry. Ca2+ -free transport medium is used to determine paracellular component of the drug transport. On the basis of permeability and solubility, drugs can be categorized into four classes of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). For certain drugs, the BCS-based biowaiver approach can be used which enables to reduce in vivo bioequivalence studies.

  13. In vitro -in vivo correlation and biopharmaceutical classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution has been extensively used as a quality control tool for solid oral dosage forms. In several cases, however, it is not known whether one can predict the in vivo performance of these products from in vitro dissolution data. In an effort to minimize unnecessary human testing, investigations of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC between in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability are increasingly becoming an integral part of extended release drug product development. Development, rapidity in drug development can be achieved by researchers on finding a mathematical link between bioavailability and dissolution testing, which leads to the concept of IVIVC. IVIVC is a mathematical model that can be used to estimate in vivo behavior from its in vitro performance. Among all the five levels of correlation, Level A correlation is widely accepted by the regulatory agencies. Biopharmaceutical classification system explains the suitability of IVIVC. Dissolution method design plays a pivotal role in the estimation of correlations. Applications of IVIVC ranges from drug and product development, their scale up and postapproval changes. Hence, IVIVC should be considered as an important tool in drug development.

  14. Correspondence between zooplankton assemblages and the Estuary Environment Classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity.

  15. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lucas S.; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B.; Heddle, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details. PMID:23508239

  16. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  17. Biopharmaceutics classification system: importance and inclusion in biowaiver guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Barbosa Arrunátegui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological therapy is essential in many diseases treatment and it is important that the medicine policy is intended to offering safe and effective treatment with affordable price to the population. One way to achieve this is through biowaiver, defined as the replacement of in vivo bioequivalence studies by in vitro studies. For biowaiver of new immediate release solid oral dosage forms, data such as intestinal permeability and solubility of the drug are required, as well as the product dissolution. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS is a scientific scheme that divides drugs according to their solubility and permeability and has been used by various guides as a criterion for biowaiver. This paper evaluates biowaiver application, addressing the general concepts and parameters used by BCS, making a historical account of its use, the requirements pertaining to the current legislation, the benefits and risks associated with this decision. The results revealed that the use of BCS as a biowaiver criterion greatly expands the therapeutics options, contributing to greater therapy access of the general population with drug efficacy and safety guaranteed associated to low cost.

  18. Development of the Construction Classification System in Japan (JCCS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuo Terai

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate results of the development of a national standardized clas-sification system called JCCS to ensure harmonized use of various kinds of information to be processed through the whole life cycle of construction projects in a nation-wide Japanese CALS/EC scheme. JCCS is planned to be a Japanese IFD and developped on the technical basis of ISO 12006-2 and 12006-3. Japan has currently no such an IFD-like library of terminologies which is to be an essential tool for the multiple and harmonized information processing, so that JCCS should be a key technology for the successful CALS/EC.First, the development concepts and related technologies are described. Second, evaluation of the current situation of information process in the construction industry is clarified, and followed by the requirements of the development of JCCS. In the main part, the current version of JCCS is outlined, major contents of which are the basic architecture of JCCS, JCCS schema, JCCS basic tables and the usage of JCCS in practice.Finally, future develoment in plan is briefly explained.

  19. Analysis on Design of Kohonen-network System Based on Classification of Complex Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The key methods of detection and classification of the electroencephalogram(EEG) used in recent years are introduced . Taking EEG for example, the design plan of Kohonen neural network system based on detection and classification of complex signals is proposed, and both the network design and signal processing are analyzed, including pre-processing of signals, extraction of signal features, classification of signal and network topology, etc.

  20. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  1. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Wellisch, M.; Wilke, T.; Skiadas, I.; Ree, van R.; Jong, de E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels

  2. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherubini, F.; Jungmeier, G.; Wellisch, M.; Wilke, T.; Skiadas, I.; Ree, van R.; Jong, de E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a biorefinery classification approach developed within International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 42. Since production of transportation biofuels is seen as the driving force for future biorefinery developments, a selection of the most interesting transportation biofuels

  3. Clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbe, S M

    1987-03-01

    The clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification scheme is limited by the complexity of the mechanisms of arrhythmia formation in man, which offer multiple potential sites for intervention. The properties of antiarrhythmic drugs may be considerably altered in abnormal myocardium. Despite these limitations, however, the classification provides a valuable conceptual framework for the understanding of the clinical electrophysiological properties of antiarrhythmic drugs and for their use.

  4. The postoperative COFAS end-stage ankle arthritis classification system: interobserver and intraobserver reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Fabian G; Di Silvestro, Matthew; Penner, Murray J; Wing, Kevin J; Glazebrook, Mark A; Daniels, Timothy R; Lau, Johnny T C; Younger, Alastair S E

    2012-02-01

    End-stage ankle arthritis is operatively treated with numerous designs of total ankle replacement and different techniques for ankle fusion. For superior comparison of these procedures, outcome research requires a classification system to stratify patients appropriately. A postoperative 4-type classification system was designed by 6 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Four surgeons reviewed blinded patient profiles and radiographs on 2 occasions to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification. Excellent interobserver reliability (κ = .89) and intraobserver reproducibility (κ = .87) were demonstrated for the postoperative classification system. In conclusion, the postoperative Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) end-stage ankle arthritis classification system appears to be a valid tool to evaluate the outcome of patients operated for end-stage ankle arthritis.

  5. An indigenous soil classification system for Bellona Island - a raised atoll in the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2010-01-01

    on the island. The Bellonese soil classification system is mainly based on the physical properties of the humus-containing top layer. Subsoil layers are only used for classification if they are very close to the surface and may be mixed with the topsoil. Results show a general agreement among farmers, who......One of the challenges of evaluating existing traditional farming systems is to combine local knowledge and modern scientific methods and terminology. This requires an evaluation of indigenous soil classification in modern terms. This paper focuses on an indigenous soil classification system...... developed by local farmers on the island of Bellona, Solomon Islands. The definitions of the different soil types are described and the principles of the classification system and the applicability of ethnopedology in soil surveys are discussed. Based on interviews with about 20 per cent of the farmers...

  6. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing. PMID:21243054

  7. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Dae-Jong; Yu, Myeong-Hyun; Park, Yuon-Shin; Noh, Hye-Ran; Kim, Hae-Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides....

  8. Topological, smooth and holomorphic classifications of nonautonomous linear differential systems and projective matrix Riccati equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbuzov, V N

    2011-01-01

    The questions of global topological, smooth and holomorphic classifications of the differential systems, defined by covering foliations, are considered. The received results are applied to nonautonomous linear differential systems and projective matrix Riccati equations.

  9. Understanding the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research: A case study using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    In the era of evidenced based healthcare, nursing is required to demonstrate that care provided by nurses is associated with optimal patient outcomes, and a high degree of quality and safety. The use of standardized nursing terminologies and classification systems are a way that nursing documentation can be leveraged to generate evidence related to nursing practice. Several widely-reported nursing specific terminologies and classifications systems currently exist including the Clinical Care Classification System, International Classification for Nursing Practice(®), Nursing Intervention Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, Omaha System, Perioperative Nursing Data Set and NANDA International. However, the influence of these systems on demonstrating the value of nursing and the professions' impact on quality, safety and patient outcomes in published research is relatively unknown. This paper seeks to understand the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research, using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) as a case study. A systematic review of international published empirical studies on, or using, the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) were completed using Medline and the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Since 2006, 38 studies have been published on the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®). The main objectives of the published studies have been to validate the appropriateness of the classification system for particular care areas or populations, further develop the classification system, or utilize it to support the generation of new nursing knowledge. To date, most studies have focused on the classification system itself, and a lesser number of studies have used the system to generate information about the outcomes of nursing practice. Based on the published literature that features the International Classification for Nursing

  10. A new multi criteria classification approach in a multi agent system applied to SEEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinié, A; Ndiaye, M; Montois, J J; Jacquelet, Y

    2007-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of the organization of the SEEG signals during epileptic seizures with multi-agent system approach. This approach is based on cooperative mechanisms of auto-organization at the micro level and of emergence of a global function at the macro level. In order to evaluate this approach we propose a distributed collaborative approach for the classification of the interesting signals. This new multi-criteria classification method is able to provide a relevant brain area structures organisation and to bring out epileptogenic networks elements. The method is compared to another classification approach a fuzzy classification and gives better results when applied to SEEG signals.

  11. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. Method:

  12. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K.; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. Method:

  13. Improvements to the current classification of salary expenses in the accounting system of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fylypenko Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the existing classification of salary expenses in Ukraine. The analysis of the classifications of such costs in management and accounting is carried out. The article suggests approaches for improvement in the cost-accounting system for the respective enterprise features, which greatly facilitates the management of salary expenses and allows the search of reserves to reduce them.

  14. Initial steps towards an evidence-based classification system for golfers with a physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Inge K; Hettinga, Florentina J; Altmann, Viola; Eisma, Wim; Arendzen, Hans; Bennett, Tony; van der Woude, Lucas H; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present narrative review aims to make a first step towards an evidence-based classification system in handigolf following the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). It intends to create a conceptual framework of classification for handigolf and an agenda for future research. METHOD:

  15. Inter-rater reliability of the EPUAP pressure ulcer classification system using photographs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defloor, T.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many classification systems for grading pressure ulcers are discussed in the literature. Correct identification and classification of a pressure ulcer is important for accurate reporting of the magnitude of the problem, and for timely prevention. The reliability of pressure ulcer

  16. 15 CFR 921.3 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine typologies. (a) National Estuarine Research Reserves are... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Estuarine Research Reserve System biogeographic classification scheme and estuarine typologies. 921.3 Section 921.3 Commerce...

  17. United Kingdom (Wales): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Marcus; Riley, Neil; Davies, Paul; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Wales is situated to the west of England, with a population of approximately 3 million (5% of the total for the United Kingdom), and a land mass of just over 20 000 km2. For several decades, Wales had a health system largely administered through the United Kingdom Governments Welsh Office, but responsibility for most aspects of health policy was devolved to Wales in a process beginning in 1999. Since then, differences between the policy approach and framework in England and Wales have widened. The internal market introduced in the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) has been abandoned in Wales, and seven local health boards (LHBs; supported by three specialist NHS trusts) now plan and provide all health services for their resident populations. Wales currently has more than 120 hospitals as part of an overall estate valued at 2.3 billion pounds. Total spending on health services increased in the first decade of the 21st century, but Wales now faces a period of financial retrenchment greater than in other parts of the United Kingdom as a result of the Welsh Governments decision not to afford the same degree of protection to health spending as that granted elsewhere. The health system in Wales continues to face some structural weaknesses that have proved resistant to reform for some time. However, there has been substantial improvement in service quality and outcomes since the end of the 1990s, in large part facilitated by substantial real growth in health spending. Life expectancy has continued to increase, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement.

  18. Computational unit for non-contact photonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Alexander V.; Skrylev, Pavel A.

    2005-06-01

    Requirements to the unified computational unit for non-contact photonic system have been formulated. Estimation of central processing unit performance and required memory size are calculated. Specialized microcontroller optimal to use as central processing unit has been selected. Memory chip types are determinated for system. The computational unit consists of central processing unit based on selected microcontroller, NVRAM memory, receiving circuit, SDRAM memory, control and power circuits. It functions, as performing unit that calculates required parameters ofrail track.

  19. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  20. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  1. The evolution of classification systems: Ontogeny of the UDC

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, Almila Akdag; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Smiraglia, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    To classify is to put things in meaningful groups, but the criteria for doing so can be problematic. Study of evolution of classification includes ontogenetic analysis of change in classification over time. We present an empirical analysis of the UDC over the entire period of its development. We demonstrate stability in main classes, with major change driven by 20th century scientific developments. But we also demonstrate a vast increase in the complexity of auxiliaries. This study illustrates an alternative to Tennis' "scheme-versioning" method.

  2. How Bibliographic Classification Mirrors Society - the Case of the Swedish SAB-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Hansson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on a study of the Swedish Classification system, the SAB-system and its ability to reveal certain social and ideological structures in Swedish society in the beginning of the 20th century. Methodology is based on critical hermeneutics and ideological analysis. Results show that the classification system shows significant correspondences between the structure of its disciplinary hierarchies and ideals in the surrounding society.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  4. The periodontal disease classification system of the American Academy of Periodontology--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, C B; Putnins, E E

    2000-12-01

    Until recently, the accepted standard for the classification of periodontal diseases was the one agreed upon at the 1989 World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. This classification system, however, had its weaknesses. In particular, some criteria for diagnosis were unclear, disease categories overlapped, and patients did not always fit into any one category. Also, too much emphasis was placed on the age of disease onset and rate of progression, which are often difficult to determine. Finally, no classification for diseases limited to the gingiva existed. In 1999, an International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions was organized by the American Academy of Periodontology to address these concerns and to revise the classification system. The workshop proceedings have been published in the Annals of Periodontology. The major changes to the 1989 proceedings and the rationale for these changes are summarized here. In addition, the potential impact of these changes is discussed.

  5. 關於圖書分類法的修訂 Concerning the Revision of Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-chin Chen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 無For reviewing a classification scheme, we usually look in much detail at its traditional features such as detailed schedules, hospital notation, a supportive index and its adaptability. Yet another desirable feature, a good and financially secure revision programme, is a key point to the success of classification scheme. The author traces the history of revision processes of three successful classification systems (Dewey Decimal Classification, Library of Congress Classification and Universal Decimal Classification , and attempt to recommend the better revision mechanism for Lai's New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries ( 中國 圖書分類法in Taiwan

  6. Classification Systems, their Digitization and Consequences for Data-Driven Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Galliers, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    of such information systems. Based on a multi-site field study, we suggest that representational quality is achieved through four types of negotiations that human actors engage in when confronted with the materiality of a new IS. These negotiations are associated with three broad practices (instantiation, re......Classification systems are foundational in many standardized software tools. This digitization of classification systems gives them a new ‘materiality’ that, jointly with the social practices of information producers/consumers, has significant consequences on the representational quality......-narration and meta-narration), and three different information production/consumption situations. We contribute to the relational theorization of representational quality and extend classification systems research by drawing explicit attention to the importance of ‘materialization’ of classification systems...

  7. Classification Systems, their Digitization and Consequences for Data-Driven Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Galliers, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Classification systems are foundational in many standardized software tools. This digitization of classification systems gives them a new ‘materiality’ that, jointly with the social practices of information producers/consumers, has significant consequences on the representational quality...... of such information systems. Based on a multi-site field study, we suggest that representational quality is achieved through four types of negotiations that human actors engage in when confronted with the materiality of a new IS. These negotiations are associated with three broad practices (instantiation, re......-narration and meta-narration), and three different information production/consumption situations. We contribute to the relational theorization of representational quality and extend classification systems research by drawing explicit attention to the importance of ‘materialization’ of classification systems...

  8. DCT domain feature extraction scheme based on motor unit action potential of EMG signal for neuromuscular disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulah, Abul Barkat Mollah Sayeed Ud; Fattah, Shaikh Anowarul; Zhu, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, M Omair

    2014-01-01

    A feature extraction scheme based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) of electromyography (EMG) signals is proposed for the classification of normal event and a neuromuscular disease, namely the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Instead of employing DCT directly on EMG data, it is employed on the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) extracted from the EMG signal via a template matching-based decomposition technique. Unlike conventional MUAP-based methods, only one MUAP with maximum dynamic range is selected for DCT-based feature extraction. Magnitude and frequency values of a few high-energy DCT coefficients corresponding to the selected MUAP are used as the desired feature which not only reduces computational burden, but also offers better feature quality with high within-class compactness and between-class separation. For the purpose of classification, the K-nearest neighbourhood classifier is employed. Extensive analysis is performed on clinical EMG database and it is found that the proposed method provides a very satisfactory performance in terms of specificity, sensitivity and overall classification accuracy.

  9. Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…

  10. Application of Interactive Classification System in University Study Course Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Ilze; Rudzajs, Peteris; Kalibatiene, Diana; Vasilecas, Olegas; Rencis, Edgars

    2015-01-01

    The growing amount of information in the world has increased the need for computerized classification of different objects. This situation is present in higher education as well where the possibility of effortless detection of similarity between different study courses would give the opportunity to organize student exchange programmes effectively…

  11. Toward a common classification approach for biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Jungmeier, Gerfried; Wellisch, Maria

    2009-01-01

    until 2020 is based on their characteristics to be mixed with gasoline, diesel and natural gas, reflecting the main advantage of using the already-existing infrastructure for easier market introduction. This classification approach relies on four main features: (1) platforms; (2) products; (3) feedstock...

  12. Target Classification for the Installation Security Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION No. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Target Classification for the...INSECTS MEASURED != .,EE FLIGHT (ref 10) L-band radarInsect target cross section (dBsm) Wingless Hawkmoth -60 Honeybee -63 Dragonfly -67 Since no studies

  13. Meta-language for land use classification systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides an overview of a meta-language for land use classification. It also explains why land use can’t always be determined from imagery, and why land use is not the same as land cover, zoning or planning - though...

  14. Near Earth Asteroids: A Classification System According to Their Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Stinco, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new way to classify Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) according to their shapes is proposed. This classification is based on the asteroid roundness and sphericity in the same way that it is used in geological sciences to describe clasts in mechanical sedimentary rocks.

  15. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Overview on classification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Baldovino, Simone; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Sanna, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Clinical manifestations can involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and they must be differentiated from infections, metabolic complications, and drug-induced toxicity. Recognition and treatment of CNS involvement continues to represent a major diagnostic challenge. In this Review, we sought to summarise the current insights on the various aspects of neuropsychiatric SLE with special emphasis on the terminology and classification criteria needed to correctly attribute the particular event to SLE.

  16. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  17. Overview of Four Functional Classification Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paulson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS, the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS, and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS. These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another.

  18. Electromagnetic driving units for complex microrobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Frank; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Berg, Udo; Degen, Reinhard; Schmitz, Felix

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic actuators play an important role in macroscopic robotic systems. In combination with motion transformers, like reducing gear units, angular gears or spindle-screw drives, electromagnetic motors in large product lines ensure the rotational or linear motion of robot driving units and grippers while electromagnets drive valves or part conveyors. In this paper micro actuators and miniaturized motion transformers are introduced which allow a similar development in microrobotics. An electromagnetic motor and a planetary gear box, both with a diameter of 1.9 mm, are already commercially available from the cooperation partner of IMM, the company Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH in Schonaich, Germany. In addition, a motor with a diameter of 2.4 mm is in development. The motors successfully drive an angular gear and a belt drive. A linear stage with a motion range of 7 mm and an overall size as small as 5 X 3.5 X 24 mm3 has been realized involving the motor, a stationary spur gear with zero backlash and a spindle-screw drive. By the use of these commercially available elements complex microrobots can be built up cost-efficiently and rapidly. Furthermore, a batch process has been developed to produce the coils of micro actuator arrays using lithographic techniques with SU-8 resin. In applying these components, the modular construction of complex microrobotic systems becomes feasible.

  19. Classification of distal radius physeal fractures not included in the salter-harris system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used classification for pediatric physeal fractures has been proposed by Salter and Harris. Among the most suitable classification schemes are those proposed by Ogden and Peterson who added several new types of injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the value of both schemes to classify all different types of physeal injuries of the distal radius that are not included in the Salter-Harris system and to test a new nomenclature to classify and guide treatment for the whole spectrum of these injuries. A total of 292 children who were admitted for a physeal fracture of the distal radius that could not be classified according to the Salter-Harris system were identified from the hospital database. All radiographs were carefully examined and classified according to the existing classifications of Ogden and Peterson and a modified classification scheme. The results of the treatment were also evaluated. Ninety-six physeal injuries could not be classified using the classification schemes of Ogden and Peterson. All injuries could be classified in five types using the new, modified nomenclature. Growth abnormalities of the distal radius were evaluated after an average follow-up time of 11 years. Growth arrest due to a physeal bar was detected only in one patient. The proposed modified scheme is practical, incorporates all previous classification systems, allows classification of all physeal injuries of the distal radius that are not included in the Salter-Harris system and may assist comparison of treatment outcomes.

  20. A novel thyroid cancer nodal map classification system to facilitate nodal localization and surgical management: The A to D map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Marybeth; Kyriazidis, Natalia; Kamani, Dipti; Juliano, Amy F; Kelly, Hillary R; Curtin, Hugh D; Barber, Samuel R; Randolph, Gregory W

    2016-11-30

    To evaluate the effectiveness, reproducibility, and usability of our proposed nodal nomenclature and classification system employed for several years in our high-volume thyroid cancer unit, for the adequate localization and mapping of lymph nodes in thyroid cancer patients with extensive nodal disease. Retrospective review. Thirty-three thyroid cancer patients with extensive nodal disease treated from January 2004 to May 2013 were included in our study. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography scans of these patients were reanalyzed by blinded radiologists to investigate the feasibility for the assignment of abnormal lymph nodes to compartments defined in our proposed nodal classification system and to identify areas of difficulty in the assignment. Analysis of nodal localization revealed a discrepancy in compartment agreement between the two radiologists in the assignment of abnormal nodes in nine patients (9/33, 27%). In six patients (6/33, 18%), discrepancy existed in labeling paratracheal and pretracheal nodes. In three patients (3/33, 9%), disagreement arose in the classification of retrocarotid nodes into lateral versus central compartment. A further refinement of the definition of key borderline regions of the pretracheal versus paratracheal and retrocarotid regions of our classification improved the agreement and demonstrated a complete concordance (100%) amongst the reviewing radiologists. The proposed nodal classification system, derived specifically for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, with readily identifiable anatomic boundaries on imaging and at surgery, facilitates communication among multidisciplinary physicians and aids in creating a uniform and reproducible radiographic nodal map to guide surgical therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  2. Methodological levels of abductive logic and its application in analyzing knowledge classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2015-05-01

    Originality/Value: Introduces methodological levels of abductive logic and provides LIS professionals with a new and alternative way for analyzing knowledge classification systems as interpretative and semantic social constructions.

  3. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg;

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific...

  4. Semiautomatic news analysis, indexing, and classification system based on topic preselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjalic, Alan; Lagendijk, Reginald L.; Biemond, Jan

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of an efficient semiautomatic system for analysis, classification and indexing of TV news program material, and show the feasibility of its practical realization. The only input into the system, other than the news program itself, are the spoken words, serving as keys for topic prespecification. The chosen topics express user's current professional or private interests and are used for filtering the news material correspondingly. After the basic analysis steps on a news program stream, including the processes of shot change detection and key frame extraction, the system automatically represents the news program as a series of longer higher-level segments. Each of them contains one or more video shots and belongs to one of the coarse categories, such as anchorperson (news reader) shots, news shot series, the starting and ending program sequence. The segmentation procedure is performed on the video component of the news program stream and the results are used to define the corresponding segments in the news audio stream. In the next step, the system uses the prespecified audio keys to index the segments and group them into reports, being the actual retrieval units. This step is performed on the segmented news audio stream by applying the wordspotting procedure to each segment. As a result, all the reports on prespecified topics are easily reachable for efficient retrieval.

  5. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, Helga; Dierssen, Klaus; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Raus, Thomas; Carni, Andraz; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, Wolfgang; Dengler, J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Vegetation classification consistent with the Braun-Blanquet approach is
    widely used in Europe for applied vegetation science, conservation planning
    and landmanagement. During the long history of syntaxonomy,many concepts
    and names of vegetation units have been proposed, but there

  6. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, Helga; Dierssen, Klaus; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Raus, Thomas; Carni, Andraz; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, Wolfgang; Dengler, J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Vegetation classification consistent with the Braun-Blanquet approach is
    widely used in Europe for applied vegetation science, conservation planning
    and landmanagement. During the long history of syntaxonomy,many concepts
    and names of vegetation units have been proposed, but there

  7. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg;

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific......, classification and diagnostic criteria. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to identify deficiencies and provide contemporary points to consider for the development of future definitions and criteria in systemic vasculitis....

  8. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela - a model for knowledge dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C.; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims ...

  9. IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION AND OBJECT CLASSIFICATION IN CT IMAGING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 蒋大真; 等

    1995-01-01

    By obtaining a feasible filter function,reconstructed images can be got with linear interpolation and filtered backoprojection techniques.Considering the gray and spatial correlation neighbour informations of each pixel,a new supervised classification method is put forward for the reconstructed images,and an experiment with noise image is done,the result shows that the method is feasible and accurate compared with ideal phantoms.

  10. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  11. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, M.L.; Angst, F.; Staal, J.B.; Brioschi, R.; Lehmann, S.; Aeschlimann, A.; Bie, R.A. de

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoske

  12. The molecular genetics and morphometry-based Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia classification system predicts disease progression in Endometrial hyperplasia more accurately than the 1994 World Health Organization classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baak, JP; Mutter, GL; Robboy, S; van Diest, PJ; Uyterlinde, AM; Orbo, A; Palazzo, J; Fiane, B; Lovslett, K; Burger, C; Voorhorst, F; Verheijen, RH

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of disease progression prediction of the molecular genetics and morphometry-based Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN) and World Health Organization 1994 (WHO94) classification systems in patients with endometrial hyperplasia

  13. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe.

  14. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    national soil classification was presented by Marcelo Camargo (Embrapa Soils) and Jacob Bennema (FAO adviser). When Soil Taxonomy was first published in 1975, a field workshop was held in Brazil, and the system was not accepted by the country scientists; one main reason was the usage of climate as a main attribute for suborders. In 1978, the first national soil field correlation meeting was held with the goal of developing the national system, giving origin to the Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS). In 1980, a working group was created by Embrapa Soils and other institutes resulting in four approximations of the system. In 1999, the first edition of the SiBCS was released, followed by a second edition in 2006 and the third in 2013. The SiBCS is a hierarchic system, based on morphogenetic soil attributes, with six categorical levels: order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. It has 13 soil orders, and it is structured as a key down to subgroup level. Many soil attributes are based on concepts adopted by the Soil Taxonomy (United States) and by the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB - FAO). The development of the SiBCS is supervised by a national executive committee, and information is available at http://www.cnps.embrapa.br/sibcs (in Portuguese).

  15. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  16. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  17. MRI classification system (MRICS) for children with cerebral palsy: development, reliability, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelmann, Kate; Horber, Veronka; De La Cruz, Javier; Horridge, Karen; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; Hollody, Katalin; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2017-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a classification system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of children with cerebral palsy (CP) that can be used in CP registers. The classification system was based on pathogenic patterns occurring in different periods of brain development. The MRI classification system (MRICS) consists of five main groups: maldevelopments, predominant white matter injury, predominant grey matter injury, miscellaneous, and normal findings. A detailed manual for the descriptions of these patterns was developed, including test cases (www.scpenetwork.eu/en/my-scpe/rtm/neuroimaging/cp-neuroimaging/). A literature review was performed and MRICS was compared with other classification systems. An exercise was carried out to check applicability and interrater reliability. Professionals working with children with CP or in CP registers were invited to participate in the exercise and chose to classify either 18 MRIs or MRI reports of children with CP. Classification systems in the literature were compatible with MRICS and harmonization possible. Interrater reliability was found to be good overall (k=0.69; 0.54-0.82) among the 41 participants and very good (k=0.81; 0.74-0.92) using the classification based on imaging reports. Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) proposes the MRICS as a reliable tool. Together with its manual it is simple to apply for CP registers. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  18. A new classification code is available in the Danish health-care classification system for patients with symptoms related to chemicals and scents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Vesterhauge, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    From July 2012, a classification code for multiple chemical sensitivity has been available in the Danish healthcare classification system. The overall purpose is to register hospital contacts in Denmark. The diagnostic code is labelled "Symptoms related to chemicals and scents", DR688A1, and clas......, and classified as a subcategory to "Medically unexplained symptoms", DR688A, which is a specialization of the ICD-10 code "R68.8 Other specified general symptoms and signs". The classification was decided with reference to the present lack of scientific understanding.......From July 2012, a classification code for multiple chemical sensitivity has been available in the Danish healthcare classification system. The overall purpose is to register hospital contacts in Denmark. The diagnostic code is labelled "Symptoms related to chemicals and scents", DR688A1...

  19. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  20. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  1. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  2. Epidemiology of Congenital Upper Limb Anomalies in a Midwest United States Population: An Assessment Using the OMT Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Charles A.; Wall, Lindley B.; Bohn, Deborah C.; Moen, Patrick; Van Heest, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relative presentation frequency of children with upper limb congenital anomalies at 3 Midwestern referral centers using the Oberg, Manske, and Tonkin (OMT) classification and to assess the utility of this new classification system. Methods 641 individuals with 653 congenital upper extremity anomalies were identified at 3 hospitals in 2 large metropolitan areas during a 1-year interval. Patients were identified prospectively and the specific upper extremity anomaly and any associated syndromes were confirmed using medical records and radiographs. We applied the OMT classification that categorizes anomalies using a dysmorphology outline as malformations, dysplasias, deformations, and syndromes, and assessed its utility and ease of use. Results There were 480 extremities (74%) with a limb malformation including 184 involving the entire limb. Arthrogryposis was the most common of these (53 extremities). Anomalies affecting only the hand plate accounted for 62% (296) of the malformations. Of these, radial polydactyly (15%) was the most common specific anomaly, followed by symbrachydactyly (13%) and cleft hand (11%). Dysplasias were noted in 86 extremities; 55 of these were multiple hereditary exostoses. There were 87 extremities with deformations and 58 of these were trigger digits. A total of 98 children had a syndrome or association. Constriction ring sequence was most common. The OMT was straightforward to use and most anomalies could be easily assigned. There were a few conditions, such as Madelung deformity and symbrachydactyly, that would benefit from clarification on how to best classify them. Conclusions Malformations were the most common congenital anomalies in the 653 upper extremities evaluated over a 1-year period at 3 institutions. We were able to classify all individuals using the OMT classification system. PMID:25534840

  3. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  4. A radiographic classification system in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis applied to the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Sanitetsforening Rheumatism Hospital (Norway); Paus, A.C. [Dept. of Surgery, Oslo Sanitetsforening Rheumatism Hospital (Norway); Laires, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Oslo Sanitetsforening Rheumatism Hospital (Norway)

    1994-02-01

    A new radiographic grading system for evaluation of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) for the knee is presented. The classification is based on known arthritic criteria in childhood. Joints with erosion are given a higher score than growth disturbances alone. Signs of osteoarthrosis including joint space narrowing were excluded from the classification. The femorotibial and patello-femoral joints are assessed together. Verbal definitions are used for the classification, but, regarding the erosions, standard reference films are used. The intra- and inter-observer variations of the method were low. (P < 0.01) (orig.)

  5. Inter- and intrareader variability in the interpretation of two radiographic classification systems for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S.; Castro, Claudio C. de; Sernik, Renato A.; Vitule, Luis F.; Arantes, Paula R.; Lucato, Leandro; Germano, Marco A.N.; Cerri, Giovanni G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Heart Institute (InCor) and Radiology Institute (InRad), Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kiss, Maria Helena B. [Division of Rheumatology, Children' s Institute, Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, Carlos H.M. [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia MG, Uberlandia (Brazil); Zerbini, Cristiano A.F. [Division of Rheumatology, Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the inter- and intrareader variability for interpretation of a modified Larsen's radiographic classification system for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) focused on osteochondral lesions and a conventional Larsen's classification system, compared to a reference MR scoring system of corresponding images. Seventy-five radiographs of 60 children with JRA, performed within a short interval of time from the MR examinations, were independently evaluated by three experienced radiologists, three diagnostic imaging residents and three rheumatologists, in two separate sessions, according to the two different classification methods, blinded to the corresponding MR images. The inter- and intrareader concordance rates between the two radiographic classification systems and the MR-related radiographs were respectively poor and poor/moderate. The interobserver range of weighted kappa values for the conventional and the modified Larsen's system respectively was 0.25-0.37 vs 0.19-0.39 for radiologists, 0.25-0.37 vs 0.18-0.30 for residents and 0.19-0.51 vs 0.17-0.29 for rheumatologists. The intrareader rate ranged from 0.17-0.55 for radiologists, 0.2-0.56 for residents, and 0.14-0.59 for rheumatologists. Although the proposal of a new radiographic classification system for JRA focused on osteochondral abnormalities sounds promising, the low inter- and intrareader concordance rates with an MR-related radiographic system makes the clinical applicability of such a radiographic system less suitable. (orig.)

  6. Optical Image Classification Using Optical/digital Hybrid Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang

    1990-01-01

    Offering parallel and real-time operations, optical image classification is becoming a general technique in the solution of real-life image classification problems. This thesis investigates several algorithms for optical realization. Compared to other statistical pattern recognition algorithms, the Kittler-Young transform can provide more discriminative feature spaces for image classification. We shall apply the Kittler-Young transform to image classification and implement it on optical systems. A feature selection criterion is designed for the application of the Kittler -Young transform to image classification. The realizations of the Kittler-Young transform on both a joint transform correlator and a matrix multiplier are successively conducted. Experiments of applying this technique to two-category and three-category problems are demonstrated. To combine the advantages of the statistical pattern recognition algorithms and the neural network models, processes using the two methods are studied. The Karhunen-Loeve Hopfield model is developed for image classification. This model has significant improvement in the system capacity and the capability of using image structures for more discriminative classification processes. As another such hybrid process, we propose the feature extraction perceptron. The application of feature extraction techniques to the perceptron shortens its learning time. An improved activation function of neurons (dynamic activation function), its design and updating rule for fast learning process and high space-bandwidth product image classification are also proposed. We have shortened by two-thirds the learning time on the feature extraction perceptron as compared with the original perceptron. By using this architecture, we have shown that the classification performs better than both the Kittler-Young transform and the original perceptron.

  7. Note on the natural system of units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Luis J Boya; Cristian Rivera; E C G Sudarshan

    2009-12-01

    We propose to substitute Newton’s constant N for another constant 2, as if the gravitational force would fall off with the 1/ law, instead of the 1/2; so we describe a system of natural units with 2 , and ħ. We adjust the value of 2 so that the fundamental length = Pl is still the Planck’s length and so N = × 2. We argue for this system as (1) it would express longitude, time and mass without square roots; (2) 2 is in principle disentangled from gravitation, as in (2 + 1) dimensions there is no field outside the sources. So 2 would be truly universal; (3) modern physics is not necessarily tied up to (3 + 1)-dim. scenarios and (4) extended objects with = 2 (membranes) play an important role both in M-theory and in F-theory, which distinguishes three (2, 1) dimensions. As an alternative we consider also the clash between gravitation and quantum theory ; the suggestion is that non-commutative geometry [, ] = 2 would cure some infinities and improve black hole evaporation. Then the new length shall determine, among other things, the gravitational constant N.

  8. Human-interpretable feature pattern classification system using learning classifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Toktam; Kukenys, Ignas; Browne, Will N; Zhang, Mengjie

    2014-01-01

    Image pattern classification is a challenging task due to the large search space of pixel data. Supervised and subsymbolic approaches have proven accurate in learning a problem's classes. However, in the complex image recognition domain, there is a need for investigation of learning techniques that allow humans to interpret the learned rules in order to gain an insight about the problem. Learning classifier systems (LCSs) are a machine learning technique that have been minimally explored for image classification. This work has developed the feature pattern classification system (FPCS) framework by adopting Haar-like features from the image recognition domain for feature extraction. The FPCS integrates Haar-like features with XCS, which is an accuracy-based LCS. A major contribution of this work is that the developed framework is capable of producing human-interpretable rules. The FPCS system achieved 91 [Formula: see text] 1% accuracy on the unseen test set of the MNIST dataset. In addition, the FPCS is capable of autonomously adjusting the rotation angle in unaligned images. This rotation adjustment raised the accuracy of FPCS to 95%. Although the performance is competitive with equivalent approaches, this was not as accurate as subsymbolic approaches on this dataset. However, the benefit of the interpretability of rules produced by FPCS enabled us to identify the distribution of the learned angles-a normal distribution around [Formula: see text]-which would have been very difficult in subsymbolic approaches. The analyzable nature of FPCS is anticipated to be beneficial in domains such as speed sign recognition, where underlying reasoning and confidence of recognition needs to be human interpretable.

  9. [Classification and staging systems for hilar cholangio-carcinoma (Klatskin tumors): clinical application and practical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovici, V; Grecu, F; Seripcariu, V; Dragomir, Cr

    2011-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinomas or Klatskin tumors have been classified in 1975 by French surgeons Henri Bismuth and Marvin B. Corlette and this remains largely used in clinical practice. The authors present the TNM classification and the changes introduced by the sixth and seventh edition of Union for International Cancer Control regarding the tumors of the proximal bile duct and describe Blumgart classification for tumors of this site. The usefulness of these systems is assessed considering the last six years experience of the service.

  10. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carla eMoleiro; Nuno ePinto

    2015-01-01

    WOS:000363413700001 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and t...

  11. Analysis on Systematic Water Scarcity Based on Establishment of Water Scarcity Classification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    It would be very helpful for making countermeasures against complex water scarcity by analysis on systematic water scarcity.Based on the previous researches on water scarcity classification,a classification system of water scarcity was established according to contributing factors,which comprises three water scarcity categories caused by anthropic factors,natural factors and mixed factors respectively.Accordingly,the concept of systematic water scarcity was proposed,which can be defined as one type of water...

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified.

  13. Classification System for Desertification and Its Quantitative Assessment Methodology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junhou; Zhang Zhiqiang; Jia Baoquan; Meng Fanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the desertification definition of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and features of desertification in China, three-level hierarchical classification system for desertification and quantitative assessment methodology of desertification degree were developed and used to evaluate desertification danger degree across the country. The system is composed of three components: type of desertification, type of land utilization and degree of desertification. The type of desertification monitored in China was divided into 4 major categories, 15 sub-categories and 52 types. Vegetation coverage, soil characteristics, and topography are considered as three major indicators for quantitative assessment of desertified land. A simple, yet practically sound mathematical assessment model was built using these indicators. Furthurmore, a regional land desertification warning model was also constructed on the basis of the ratios of non-desertified land area to desertified land area in different degrees. The warning result of wind-erosion desertification at county scale for 12 provinces in northern China was also calculated by this model.

  14. Future of the TNM classification and staging system in head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takes, R.P.; Rinaldo, A.; Silver, C.E.; Piccirillo, J.F.; Haigentz Jr, M.; Suarez, C.; Poorten, V.L. van der; Hermans, R.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Devaney, K.O.; Ferlito, A.

    2010-01-01

    Staging systems for cancer, including the most universally used TNM classification system, have been based almost exclusively on anatomic information. However, the question arises whether staging systems should be based on this information alone. Other parameters have been identified that should be

  15. Terminology and classification aspects of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Semkina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the relevance of Betesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. This article summarizes recent data on the main differences and advantages of new classification system. Application of the Betesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology leads to the increased sensitivity and specificity of FNA.

  16. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  17. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  18. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  19. RIFLE classification and mortality in obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute kidney injury: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ebtesam M; Behery, Manal M El; Sayed, Gamal Abbas El; Abdulatif, Howaida K

    2014-10-01

    This study is to assess the correlation of risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE) classification with hospital mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) obstetric patients and to evaluate the relation of acute kidney injury (AKI) to other risk factors. The 4 stages of RIFLE (nonacute renal failure, risk, injury, and failure) were scored from 0 to 3 points, respectively. The prognostic performance of the RIFLE score was compared to the general ICU models. AKI occurred in 30 (5.88%) of patients admitted to ICU. The main causes of AKI were hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet syndrome 13 (43%), pregnancy-related hypertension 9 (30%), puerperal sepsis 3 (10%), abruption placentae 2 (6.6%), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy 2 (6.6%), and anesthetic complications 1 (3.3%). According to the RIFLE criteria, patients were classified into Risk (3.3%), Injury (16.6%), Failure (33.3%), and Loss (46.6%). Maternal mortality from total ICU admission occurred in 51 (10%) cases, of these 16 (31.3%) cases were due to AKI. Independent risk factors associated with mortality were hyperbilirubinemia, low levels of HCO3, and RIFLE. Receiver-operator characteristic curves for ICU patients according to RIFLE score showed area under the curve = 0.824. The RIFLE classification system could predict the risk of mortality from AKI in obstetric ICU patients and mortality was positively associated with high RIFLE classes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Phenological Classification of the United States: A Geographic Framework for Extending Multi-Sensor Time-Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J. D. van Leeuwen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a new geographic framework, phenological classification, for the conterminous United States based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series data and a digital elevation model. The resulting pheno-class map is comprised of 40 pheno-classes, each having unique phenological and topographic characteristics. Cross-comparison of the pheno-classes with the 2001 National Land Cover Database indicates that the new map contains additional phenological and climate information. The pheno-class framework may be a suitable basis for the development of an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-MODIS NDVI translation algorithm and for various biogeographic studies.

  1. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  2. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-10-17

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards.

  3. Comparing the Utility of the 2000 and 2005 Carnegie Classification Systems in Research on Students' College Experiences and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander C.; Pike, Gary R.; Kuh, George D.; Chen, Pu-Shih Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the explanatory power of the 2000 edition of Carnegie Classification, the 2005 revision of the classification, and selected variables underlying Carnegie's expanded 2005 classification system using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement's spring 2004 administration. Results indicate that the 2000 and 2005…

  4. The Normalization of Citation Counts Based on Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Barth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available If we want to assess whether the paper in question has had a particularly high or low citation impact compared to other papers, the standard practice in bibliometrics is to normalize citations in respect of the subject category and publication year. A number of proposals for an improved procedure in the normalization of citation impact have been put forward in recent years. Against the background of these proposals, this study describes an ideal solution for the normalization of citation impact: in a first step, the reference set for the publication in question is collated by means of a classification scheme, where every publication is associated with a single principal research field or subfield entry (e.g., via Chemical Abstracts sections and a publication year. In a second step, percentiles of citation counts are calculated for this set and used to assign the normalized citation impact score to the publications (and also to the publication in question.

  5. The normalization of citation counts based on classification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Barth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    If we want to assess whether the paper in question has had a particularly high or low citation impact compared to other papers, the standard practice in bibliometrics is to normalize citations in respect of the subject category and publication year. A number of proposals for an improved procedure in the normalization of citation impact have been put forward in recent years. Against the background of these proposals this study describes an ideal solution for the normalization of citation impact: in a first step, the reference set for the publication in question is collated by means of a classification scheme, where every publication is associated with a single principal research field or subfield entry (e. g. via Chemical Abstracts sections) and a publication year. In a second step, percentiles of citation counts are calculated for this set and used to assign the normalized citation impact score to the publications (and also to the publication in question).

  6. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  7. Young Planetary Nebulae: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and a New Morphological Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae, most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of planetary nebulae (PNs). Unlike previous classification studies, we have focussed primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many...

  8. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  9. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  10. Classification of Aeronautics System Health and Safety Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most complex aerospace systems have many text reports on safety, maintenance, and associated issues. The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) spans several...

  11. Clinical Application of Six Current Classification Systems for Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries after Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Arikan, Akif Enes; Uludag, Sezgin Server; Olgun, Deniz Cebi; Kilic, Fahrettin; Kapan, Metin

    2015-05-01

    Due to being a severe complication, iatrogenic bile duct injury is still a challenging issue for surgeons in gallbladder surgery. However, a commonly accepted classification describing the type of injury has not been available yet. This study aims to evaluate ability of six current classification systems to discriminate bile duct injury patterns. Twelve patients, who were referred to our clinic because of iatrogenic bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed retrospectively. We described type of injury for each patient according to current six different classifications. 9 patients underwent definitive biliary reconstruction. Bismuth, Strasberg-Bismuth, Stewart-Way and Neuhaus classifications do not consider vascular involvement, Siewert system does, but only for the tangential lesions without structural loss of duct and lesion with a structural defect of hepatic or common bile duct. Siewert, Neuhaus and Stewart-Way systems do not discriminate between lesions at or above bifurcation of the hepatic duct. The Hannover classification may resolve the missing aspects of other systems by describing additional vascular involvement and location of the lesion at or above bifurcation.

  12. Non-invasive papillary urothelial neoplasms: the 2004 WHO/ISUP classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Miller, Jeremy S; Fajardo, Daniel A; Lee, Thomas K; Netto, George J; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2010-01-01

    The classification and grading of papillary urothelial neoplasms has been a long-standing subject of controversy. Previously, numerous diverse grading schemes for bladder tumor, including the 1973 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, existed whereby one of the major limitations was poor inter-observer reproducibility among pathologists. The WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus classification system of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder was developed in 1998 and was revised most recently in 2003 (published in 2004). Importantly, the current classification system provides detailed histological criteria for papillary urothelial lesions and allows for designation of a lesion (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential) with a negligible risk of progression. Thus, the latest system is designed to be a universally acceptable one for bladder tumors that not only could be effectively used by pathologists, urologists, and oncologists, but also stratifies the tumors into prognostically significant categories. This article outlines the 2004 WHO/ISUP classification system regarding the specific histological criteria for non-invasive papillary urothelial neoplasms and the clinical significance of each category.

  13. Local classification of stable geometric solutions of systems of quasilinear first-order PDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Bing(李兵); LI; Yangcheng(李养成)

    2002-01-01

    Systems of quasilinear first order PDE are studied in the framework of contact manifold. All of the local stable geometric solutions of such systems are classified by using versal deformation and the classification of stable map germs of type ∑1 in singularity theory.

  14. Dengue disease severity in Indonesian children: An evaluation of the World Health Organization classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. Setiati (Tatty); A.T.A. Mairuhu; P. Koraka (Penelope); M. Supriatna (Mohamad); M.R. Mac Gillavry (Melvin); D.P.M. Brandjes (Dees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.W.M. van der Meer (Jos); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); A. Soemantri (Augustinus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dengue disease severity is usually classified using criteria set up by the World Health Organization (WHO). We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the WHO classification system and modifications to this system, and evaluated their potential practical usefulness. Method

  15. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  16. Methodology for the construction of a disease nomenclature and classification system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Ohashi, Y; Sato, H; Kaihara, S

    1995-12-01

    The nature and problems of the linguistic representation of clinical data are discussed, using the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure. Based on the conclusions, a methodology for the construction of a disease nomenclature and a classification system, suitable for use in clinical information systems, is developed using set theory.

  17. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  18. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  19. Characteristics of a global classification system for perinatal deaths : a Delphi consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszek, Aleena M.; Reinebrant, Hanna E.; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Allanson, Emma; Coory, Michael; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Froen, J. Frederik; Gardosi, Jason; Gordijn, Sanne; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; McClure, Elizabeth; Pattinson, Robert; Silver, Robert M.; Smith, Gordon; Teoh, Zheyi; Tuncalp, Ozge; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the global burden of perinatal deaths, there is currently no single, globally-acceptable classification system for perinatal deaths. Instead, multiple, disparate systems are in use world-wide. This inconsistency hinders accurate estimates of causes of death and impedes effective

  20. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neur

  1. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  2. Unit Replacement System Analysis I (URSA I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    action creates a void in CONUS of one unit. A new unit is formed in CONUS to fill this void . The forming of a new unit is 3-5 -,.. - ..-- o. . CAA-SR-82...compares the observed average regimental strengths with the respective authorizations. Note the E-1 to E-4 and E-5 overfill and the E-6 to E-8 underfill ...When the data is adjusted to compensate for grade substitution flexibility (see Figure 6-26), the E-6 to E-8 underfill is corrected, but the

  3. Viewpoint: use of King's conceptual system, nursing informatics, and nursing classification systems for global communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Mary B; King, Imogene M

    2007-01-01

    To propose a common nursing language for communication among members of the nursing community worldwide. The Taxonomy of Nursing Practice, nursing informatics literature, King's Theory of Goal Attainment applied to the nursing process. Several milestones in nursing in the 20th century indicated the need for a universal language for nursing. The nursing process provides a method for synthesis of nursing data, information, and knowledge and is congruent with Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment. The authors advocate for a common nursing language (nursing classification and terminology systems) that would unify nurses worldwide. Supported by nursing theory and technology, global communication would be enhanced for nurses and the interdisciplinary teams of which they are a part. Use of Imogene King's Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment and the nursing specialty of Nursing Informatics are examples of nursing theory and technology to frame global communication.

  4. Recognizing systemic sclerosis: comparative analysis of various sets of classification criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska-Próchnicka, Katarzyna; Walczyk, Marcela; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a complex disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis. Although most patients present with some degree of skin sclerosis, which is a distinguishing hallmark, the clinical presentation vary greatly complicating the diagnosis. In this regard, new classification criteria were jointly published in 2013 by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). A recent major development in the classification criteria is improved sensitivity, particularly for detecting early disease. The new criteria allow more cases to be classified as having systemic sclerosis (SSc), which leads to earlier treatment. Moreover it is clinically beneficial in preventing the disease progression with its irreversible fibrosis and organ damage. The aim of this review is to give insight into new classification criteria and current trends in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis.

  5. Improved Management of Part Safety Classification System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Park, Youn Won; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Hyo Chan [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As, in recent years, many quality assurance (QA) related incidents, such as falsely-certified parts and forged documentation, etc., were reported in association with the supply of structures, systems, components and parts to nuclear power plants, a need for a better management of safety classification system was addressed so that it would be based more on the level of parts . Presently, the Korean nuclear power plants do not develop and apply relevant procedures for safety classifications, but rather the safety classes of parts are determined solely based on the experience of equipment designers. So proposed in this paper is a better management plan for safety equipment classification system with an aim to strengthen the quality management for parts. The plan was developed through the analysis of newly introduced technical criteria to be applied to parts of nuclear power plant.

  6. Structure and contents of layered classification system of digital geomorphology for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Weiming; ZHOU Chenghu; LI Bingyuan; SHEN Yuancun; ZHANG Baiping

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the structure and contents of a standardized layered classification system of digital geomorphology for China.This digital classification method combines landforms characteristics of morphology with genesis.A total of 15 categories of exogenic and endogenic forces are divided into two broad categories:morpho-genetic and morpho-structural landforms.Polygon patches are used to manage the morpho-genetic types,and solitary points,lines and polygons are used to manage the morpho-structural types.The classification method of digital morpho-genetic types can be divided into seven layers,i.e.basic morphology and altitude,genesis,sub-genesis,morphology,micro-morphology,slope and aspect,material and lithology.The method proposes combinations of matrix forms based on layered indicators.The attributes of every landform types are obtained from all or some of the seven layers.For the 15 forces categories,some classification indicators and calculation methods are presented for the basic morphology,the morphologic and sub-morphologic landforms of the morpho-genetic types.The solitary polygon,linear and point types of morpho-structural landforms are presented respectively.The layered classification method can meet the demands of scale-span geomorphologic mapping for the national primary scales from 1:500,000 to 1:1,000,000.The layers serve as classification indicators,and therefore can be added and reduced according to mapping demands,providing flexible expandability.

  7. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors.

  8. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  9. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  10. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  11. Open Fractures of the Hand: Review of Pathogenesis and Introduction of a New Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Open fractures of the hand are a common and varied group of injuries. Although at increased risk for infection, open fractures of the hand are more resistant to infection than other open fractures. Numerous unique factors in the hand may play a role in the altered risk of postinjury infection. Current systems for the classification of open fractures fail to address the unique qualities of the hand. This article proposes a novel classification system for open fractures of the hand, taking into account the factors unique to the hand that affect its risk for developing infection after an open fracture.

  12. The metre-kilogram-second system of electrical units

    CERN Document Server

    Sas, R K

    1947-01-01

    Introduction ; electrostatic units, electromagnetic units, and practical units ; magnetic intensity and flux density ; rationalization ; tribulations of the student ; metres and kilograms in general and in mechanics ; pulse and aperture ; magnetostatics ; steady currents ; electrostatics ; resistance ; electromagnetic induction ; determination of Eo. capacity formulae ; field ; electrons and moving charges ; quantum theory ; memory assisted by the M.K.S. system ; short account of M.K.S. units ; list of formulae

  13. Documentation of pharmaceutical care: development of an intervention oriented classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Karen A; Bruch, Sophia; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L

    2017-04-01

    Background A standardised classification system of pharmaceutical interventions (PI) is in use in several Swiss hospitals, whereas none exists for community pharmacies to date. To promote information exchange between both settings, a compatible structure of the classification system is needed. Objective To develop an intervention oriented classification system for community pharmacies named PharmDISC based on the hospital system; to test it on interrater reliability, appropriateness, interpretability, and face and content validity; to assess pharmacists' opinions. Setting Seventy-seven Swiss community pharmacies. Method Based on previous studies, a modified classification system was developed. Fifth-year pharmacy students (n = 77) received a two-hour training and classified three model PIs with which Fleiss-Kappa coefficients K were calculated to determine interrater reliability. In the community pharmacies, each student consecutively collected ten prescriptions that required a PI. A focus group interview was conducted with pharmacists (n = 9). The anonymised transcript was analysed using thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Number of classified PIs, interrater reliability, pharmacists' opinion/suggestions. Results The classification system includes 5 categories and 52 subcategories. Most of the 725 PIs (94.6%) were completely classified. The PharmDISC system reached an overall substantial user agreement (K = 0.61). Despite some points for optimisation, the pharmacists were satisfied with the PharmDISC system. They recognised the importance of PI documentation and believed that this may allow traceability, facilitate communication within the team and other healthcare professionals, and increase quality of care. Conclusion The PharmDISC system was valid and reached substantial interrater reliability. Refinement based on the pharmacists' suggestions resulted in a final version to be tested in an observational study with community pharmacists.

  14. Why Build Dewey Numbers? The Remediation of the Dewey Decimal Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Brattli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Correct Dewey classification is demanding and time consuming. Many of the challenges with the Dewey system are related to locating and interpreting notes (i.e. classification guidelines, and number building. Today’s Dewey structure is a result of more than 100 years of optimizing a comprehensive classification system to the printed book medium. In order to limit the system into a “manageable” size, facets and facet-like subjects are represented only once and instead referred to from relevant classes for number building. A similar technique is used to reduce the number of notes. With the remediation of Dewey from printed to computer media, space is not limited and there is no need to compress the classification system. Number building can be eliminated, and all relevant notes attached to each class. Despite the fact that the system now has been available in electronic form for almost 20 years, it is still largely a copy of the printed version. This article first investigates how the Dewey system may be presented for users without number building, in order to make it more immediate and user-friendly. We first analyze the Dewey structure, and then look at different representations of the structure suited for computer media. Finally, some ideas for a new presentation without number building are proposed.

  15. 美国 E 转诊模式对我国分级诊疗体系建设的启示%Enlightenment of the new model of electronic referral in the United States for diagnosis and classification system construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂成; 周典; 杨善发; 徐红兵; 汪卓赟

    2014-01-01

    Electronic referral model,an important part of telemedicine,is a medical service system innovation based on telemedicine,which has gradually became a accepted model by the public.This paper first describes the rise of the U.S.electronic referral model and its characteristics,then summarizes the present situation and progress of informatization of diagnosis and classification in China,and finally discusses the path of sustainable operation of implementing electronic referral model in China by SWOT analysis.%E 转诊模式是基于远程医疗的医疗服务模式创新,它是远程医疗的重要组成部分,并已成为一项逐渐被大众接受的新型医疗服务模式。首先介绍美国 E 转诊模式的兴起及其特点,其次概述我国分级诊疗信息化的现状与进展,最后通过 SWOT 分析探讨我国实施 E 转诊模式可持续运行的路径。

  16. An Improved Brain Tumour Classification System using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, DAS; Madheswaran, M

    2015-06-09

    An improved brain tumour classification system using wavelet transform and neural network is developed and presented in this paper. The anisotropic diffusion filter is used for image denoising and the performance of oriented rician noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (ORNRAD) filter is validated. The segmentation of the denoised image is carried out by Fuzzy C-means clustering. The features are extracted using Symlet and Coiflet Wavelet transform and Levenberg Marquardt algorithm based neural network is used to classify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. This MRI classification technique is tested and analysed with the existing methodologies and its performance is found to be satisfactory with a classification accuracy of 93.02%. The developed system can assist the physicians for classifying the MRI images for better decision-making.

  17. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  18. Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis: An ACR-EULAR Collaborative Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Frank; Khanna, Dinesh; Fransen, Jaap; Johnson, Sindhu R.; Baron, Murray; Tyndall, Alan; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Naden, Raymond; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Carreira, Patricia; Gabrielli, Armando; Distler, Oliver; van Laar, Jacob M; Valentini, Gabriele; Denton, Christopher P; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Inanc, Murat; Allanore, Yannick; Walker, Ulrich A; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Vonk, Madelon; Czirjak, Laszlo; Herrick, Ariane; Sierakowski, Stanislav; Veale, Douglas; Chung, Lorinda; Clements, Phillip; Fessler, Barry J; Furst, Dan; Guiducci, Serena; Hsu, Vivian; Mayes, Maureen; Medsger, Thomas A; Merkel, Peter; Silver, Richard; Steen, Virginia; Varga, John; Collier, David; Csuka, Mary Ell; Jimenez, Sergio; Kahaleh, Bashar; Seibold, James R; Simms, Robert; Pope, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background The 1980 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) lack sensitivity in early SSc and limited cutaneous SSc. A joint ACR-EULAR committee was established to develop new classification criteria for SSc. Methods Using consensus methods, 23 candidate items were arranged in a multi-criteria additive point system with a threshold to classify cases as SSc. The classification system was reduced by clustering items, and simplifying weights. The system was tested by: a) determining specificity and sensitivity in SSc cases and controls with scleroderma-like disorders; b) validating against the combined view of a group of experts on a set of cases with or without SSc. Results Skin thickening of the fingers extending proximal to the MCPs is sufficient to be classified as SSc, if that is not present, seven additive items apply with varying weights for each: skin thickening of the fingers, finger tip lesions, telangiectasia, abnormal nailfold capillaries, interstitial lung disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension, Raynaud's phenomenon, and SSc-related autoantibodies. Sensitivity and specificity in the validation sample were 0.91 and 0.92 for the new classification criteria and 0.75 and 0.72 for the 1980 ARA classification criteria. All selected cases were classified in accordance with consensus-based expert opinion. All cases classified as SSc by the 1980 ARA criteria were classified with the new criteria, and several additional cases were now considered to be SSc. Conclusion The ACR-EULAR classification criteria for SSc performed better than the 1980 ARA Criteria for SSc and should allow for more patients to be classified correctly as SSc. PMID:24122180

  19. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of

  20. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of

  1. Campus Information Systems for Students: Classification in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarsi, Josep; Bernardo, Merce; Coenders, Germa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: First, this article seeks to establish a conceptual model for campus information systems for students, in order to make their comparison possible for strategic management purposes. Second, it seeks to test this conceptual model in a fieldwork on Spanish higher education institutions, in order to relate information systems characteristics…

  2. Arrhythmia Classification Based on Multi-Domain Feature Extraction for an ECG Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of arrhythmias is particularly important in the diagnosis of heart diseases. This study presents an electrocardiogram (ECG recognition system based on multi-domain feature extraction to classify ECG beats. An improved wavelet threshold method for ECG signal pre-processing is applied to remove noise interference. A novel multi-domain feature extraction method is proposed; this method employs kernel-independent component analysis in nonlinear feature extraction and uses discrete wavelet transform to extract frequency domain features. The proposed system utilises a support vector machine classifier optimized with a genetic algorithm to recognize different types of heartbeats. An ECG acquisition experimental platform, in which ECG beats are collected as ECG data for classification, is constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in ECG beat classification. The presented system, when applied to the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, achieves a high classification accuracy of 98.8%. Experimental results based on the ECG acquisition experimental platform show that the system obtains a satisfactory classification accuracy of 97.3% and is able to classify ECG beats efficiently for the automatic identification of cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. COMBINED SYSTEMS OF ENERGY GENERATION – A CHARACTERISATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gilewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents issues concerning technical solutions of combined systems of energy generation which can be used primarily in low-level power plants, installed in various types of public utility sites. A detailed description is given of selected ways of powering combined energy generation systems, presenting conceptual outlines of their operation and information on their advantages, disadvantages and applications. The following systems are introduced: gas-steam, back-pressure steam turbine, extraction-condensing steam turbine, gas turbine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine, fuel cells and internal combustion piston engine. Moreover, the study addresses economic aspects of energy generation in combined systems, discussing different methodologies of cost calculation, including the one used by the European Union. The article also gives a detailed review of piston engine combined-system aggregates available in the Polish market. Type series of associated systems designed for low-power appliances are shown, produced by Polish and foreign companies such as Viessmann, Centrum Elektroniki Stosowanej CES, H. Cegielski – Poznań, KWE Technika Energetyczna, TEDOM Poland or the EPS System.

  4. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  5. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  6. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-01-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  7. Introduction to Flexible Manufacturing Systems: their applications, classification, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, G.P.

    1983-09-20

    A Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is an automatic manufacturing system consisting of several types of automated fabrication equipment and a common material handling system, supervised by a common computer and designed to randomly manufacture or assemble products belonging to a common part family. The FMSs are essentially limited in their applications to discrete mechanical type hardware, such as the fabrication of metal parts, the assembly of components, or the manufacture and inspection of hard goods. The FMS grouping can be classified in various ways into modules, cells or work cells, and more complex systems. Two kinds of opportunities are discussed: the opportunity to design and acquire an FMS so it gives the maximum benefits to the user, and the opportunities for the FMS builders to take advantage of a growing market. (LEW)

  8. Orchard Sports Injury Classification System 10.1 Plus: An End-User Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossway, Ashley K; Games, Kenneth E; Eberman, Lindsey E; Fleming, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the level of ease of use and effectiveness of the Orchard Sport Injury Classification System (OSICS) 10.1 Plus for recording injuries and interventions. Three hundred and forty-two (males=148, females=192, no response=2; age=30.9±9.5y; experience=9.1±10.5y) athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States completed the survey. Participants were primarily employed in the secondary school (n=135) or collegiate setting (n=171). Participants entered system includes the OSICS 10.1 to catalog injuries and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to document interventions. Participants completed an 18-item end-user evaluation to assess the ease of use and effectiveness of the OSICS 10.1 Plus (5-point Likert scale). Participants indicated that the OSICS 10.1 Plus is overall easy to use (4.1±0.7pts), easy to enter an injury (4.1±0.8pts), and easy to enter the associated interventions (3.9±0.8pts). Respondents were neutral about whether the OSICS 10.1 Plus matched their current injury (3.5±1.0pts) or intervention (3.5±0.9pts) records. A majority of participants indicated that they could find the injury (281/342, 82.2%) and interventions (225/342, 65.8%) of interest. A majority of respondents (205/342, 60.0%) indicated they would consider using OSICS 10.1 Plus for injury surveillance in clinical practice. The OSICS 10.1 Plus could serve as an effective and useful mechanism for injury surveillance with minor modifications; however, we, as professionals in sports healthcare, need to improve regular medical documentation first so that we are better able to conduct injury surveillance among our patients.

  9. The superior analyses of igneous rocks from Roth's Tabellen, 1869 to 1884, arranged according to the quantitative system of classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, H.S.

    1904-01-01

    In Professional Paper No. 14 there were collected the chemical analyses of igneous rocks published from 1884 to 1900, inclusive, arranged according to the quantitative system of classification recently proposed by Cross, Iddings, Pirsson, and Washington. In order to supplement this work it has appeared advisable to select the more reliable and complete of the earlier analyses collected by Justus Roth and arrange them also in the same manner for publication. Petrographers would thus have available for use according to the new system almost the entire body of chemical work of real value on igneous rocks, the exceptions being a few analyses published prior to 1900 which may have been overlooked by both Roth and myself. The two collections would form a foundation as broad as possible for future research and discussion. I must express my sense of obligation to the United States Geological Survey for publishing the present collection of analyses, and my thanks to my colleagues in the new system of classification for their friendly advice and assistance. 

  10. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pan; Hope, A.D.; Javed, M. [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  11. New functional units for coke machine automatic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenov, G.I.; Bannikov, L.S.; Vakarenko, I.M.; Grishin, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A new device used in the control systems of coking plants is discussed. The system is capable of operating in fully automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. Examples of the usage of the unit include the stopping of coke machines within limits of +/- 200 mm. It is concluded that the use of the units reduce manufacture, adjustment, and service costs.

  12. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  13. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  14. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  15. Developing and Validating the Communication Function Classification System for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Paneth, Nigel; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kent, Raymond D.; Lillie, Janet; Eulenberg, John B.; Chester, Ken, Jr.; Johnson, Brenda; Michalsen, Lauren; Evatt, Morgan; Taylor, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP.…

  16. The Groningen Laryngomalacia Classification System-Based on Systematic Review and Dynamic Airway Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Martijn; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Halmos, Gyorgy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of dyspnea and stridor in newborn infants. Laryngomalacia is a dynamic change of the upper airway based on abnormally pliable supraglottic structures, which causes upper airway obstruction. In the past, different classification systems have been int

  17. Teaching Sexual History-Taking Skills Using the Sexual Events Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Donald C.; Petri, Justin Daniel; Chapman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review the literature about educational programs for teaching sexual history-taking skills and describe novel techniques for teaching these skills. Methods: Psychiatric residents enrolled in a brief sexual history-taking course that included instruction on the Sexual Events Classification System, feedback on residents'…

  18. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  19. The surgical algorithm for the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Cumhur Oner, F.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Kandziora, Frank; Koerner, John D.; Kurd, Mark F.; Reinhold, Max; Schnake, Klaus J.; Chapman, Jens; Aarabi, Bizhan; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of the current study is to establish a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system. Methods: A survey was sent to AOSpine members from the six AO regions of the world, and surgeons were asked if a patient should undergo an initial tr

  20. Duel frequency echo data acquisition system for sea-floor classification

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Chakraborty, B.

    An echo data acquisition system is designed to digitize echo signal from a single beam shipboard echo-sounder for use in sea-floor classification studies using a 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) card with a maximum sampling frequency of 1 MHz. Both 33...

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  2. Climate classification for the simulation of thermally activated building systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Benjamin; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2013-01-01

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) provide high temperature cooling and low temperature heating which has a better efficiency compared to traditional heating and cooling solutions. Additionally the moderate required temperature levels for heating and cooling create the opportunity to use...... entirely. The proposed climate classification should fill this gap by providing the missing data in a simple manner....

  3. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  4. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  5. FMCW radar system for detection and classification of small vessels in high sea state conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasselin, J.-P.; Mazuel, S.; Itcia, E.; Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.

    2012-01-01

    The ROCKWELL COLLINS France radar department is currently developing a FMCW radar system for the detection and the classification of small maritime targets in the frame of the SISMARIS, SARGOS & I2C projects. Several test campaigns have been conducted since 2009 to develop a sensor as well as an

  6. Fire potential rating for wildland fuelbeds using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Sandberg; Cynthia L. Riccardi; Mark D. Schaff

    2007-01-01

    The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) is a systematic catalog of inherent physical properties of wildland fuelbeds that allows land managers, policymakers, and scientists to build and calculate fuel characteristics with complete or incomplete information. The FCCS is equipped with a set of equations to calculate the potential of any real-world or...

  7. A classification system for plasmids from Enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiati...

  8. Development and Validation of the Preschool Temperament Classification System for Use with Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munis, Pelin; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Henderson, Heather A.; George, J'Lene

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the development and validation of a new measure of temperament, the Preschool Temperament Classification System (PTCS). The PTCS was developed as a typological measure that identifies children's temperament styles as undercontrolled, resilient, or overcontrolled. The PTCS is a time efficient…

  9. Classification Model with High Deviation for Intrusion Detection on System Call Traces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new classification model for host intrusion detection based on the unidentified short sequences and RIPPER algorithm is proposed. The concepts of different short sequences on the system call traces are strictly defined on the basis of in-depth analysis of completeness and correctness of pattern databases. Labels of short sequences are predicted by learned RIPPER rule set and the nature of the unidentified short sequences is confirmed by statistical method. Experiment results indicate that the classification model increases clearly the deviation between the attack and the normal traces and improves detection capability against known and unknown attacks.

  10. THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL HARMONISATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian SOCOLIUC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of international accounting bodies is represented by worldwide accounting harmonisation. However, this process faces difficulties which arise from matters specific to each country, either from the complicated nature of international financial reporting standards, from interpretation, from language and terminology problems or from the different nature of the principles, procedures, methods and accounting practices nationwide. The degree of awareness of the differences and similarities between national accounting systems serves as a basis for the international accounting classifications, this classification being needed to better understand the difficulties faced by accounting experts related to the harmonisation process.

  11. An intelligent object recognizer and classification system for astronomical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Andrew P.; Mcgraw, John T.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of an image-processing system based on AI concepts, which allows input images produced by the CCT/Transit Instrument to be compared with a standard-object hierarchylike network of prototypes presented within the computer as 'frames'. Each frame contains information concerning either a standard object or the links among such objects. This method, by comparison to conventional, statistically-based pattern recognition systems, classifies data as an astronomer would and thereby lends credibility to its conclusions; it also furnishes a natural avenue for the machine's serendipitous discovery of new classes of objects.

  12. Impact of classification of hilar cholangiocarcinomas (Klatskin tumors) on the incidence of intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Tania M; McGlynn, Katherine A; Hsing, Ann W; O'Brien, Thomas R; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2006-06-21

    Cholangiocarcinomas are topographically categorized as intrahepatic or extrahepatic by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Although hilar cholangiocarcinomas (Klatskin tumors) are extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, the second edition of the ICD-O (ICD-O-2) assigned them a histology code 8162/3, Klatskin, which was cross-referenced to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Recent studies in the United States that included this code (8162/3, Klatskin) with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma reported an increasing incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and a decreasing incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. To investigate the impact of this misclassification on site-specific cholangiocarcinoma incidence rates, we calculated annual percent changes (APCs) with data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program using a Poisson regression model that was age-adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. population. All statistical tests were two-sided. During 1992-2000, when SEER used ICD-O-2, 1710 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 1371 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 269 hilar cholangiocarcinomas identified by code 8162/3, Klatskin were diagnosed. Ninety-one percent (246 of 269) of the hilar cholangiocarcinomas were incorrectly coded as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, resulting in an overestimation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma incidence by 13% and underestimation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas incidence by 15%. However, even after the exclusion of tumors that were coded to the histology code 8162/3, Klatskin, age-adjusted annual intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma incidence increased during this period (APC = 4%, 95% confidence interval = 2% to 6%, P<.001).

  13. Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Chinese wines can be classification or graded by the micrographs. Micrographs of Chinese wines show floccules, stick and granule of variant shape and size. Different wines have variant microstructure and micrographs, we study the classification of Chinese wines based on the micrographs. Shape and structure of wines' particles in microstructure is the most important feature for recognition and classification of wines. So we introduce a feature extraction method which can describe the structure and region shape of micrograph efficiently. First, the micrographs are enhanced using total variation denoising, and segmented using a modified Otsu's method based on the Rayleigh Distribution. Then features are extracted using proposed method in the paper based on area, perimeter and traditional shape feature. Eight kinds total 26 features are selected. Finally, Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features and BP neural network have been presented. We compare the recognition results for different choices of features (traditional shape features or proposed features). The experimental results show that the better classification rate have been achieved using the combinational features proposed in this paper.

  14. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations: radiological correlation between Rockwood classification system and injury patterns in human cadaver species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Rösler, Klaus; Rotter, Robert; Gradl, Georg; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The classification system of Rockwood and Young is a commonly used classification for acromioclavicular joint separations subdividing types I-VI. This classification hypothesizes specific lesions to anatomical structures (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, capsule, attached muscles) leading to the injury. In recent literature, our understanding for anatomical correlates leading to the radiological-based Rockwood classification is questioned. The goal of this experimental-based investigation was to approve the correlation between the anatomical injury pattern and the Rockwood classification. In four human cadavers (seven shoulders), the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were transected stepwise. Radiological correlates were recorded (Zanca view) with 15-kg longitudinal tension applied at the wrist. The resulting acromio- and coracoclavicular distances were measured. Radiographs after acromioclavicular ligament transection showed joint space enlargement (8.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, p acromioclavicular joint space width increased to 16.7 ± 2.7 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mm, p acromioclavicular joint lesions higher than Rockwood type I and II. The clinical consequence for reconstruction of low-grade injuries might be a solely surgical approach for the acromioclavicular ligaments or conservative treatment. High-grade injuries were always based on additional structural damage to the coracoclavicular ligaments. Rockwood type V lesions occurred while muscle attachments were intact.

  15. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. Eleventh Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Bradley, Valerie J.; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Gomez, Sharon C.; Lachapelle, Yves; Luckasson, Ruth; Reeve, Alya; Shogren, Karrie A.; Snell, Martha E.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.; Thompson, James R.; Verdugo-Alonso, Miguel A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Yeager, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This Manual contains the most current and authoritative information and knowledge on intellectual disability, including best practice guidelines on diagnosing and classifying intellectual disability and developing a system of supports for people living with an intellectual disability. Written by a committee of 18 experts, "Intellectual…

  16. A classification framework for clinical information system implementation in hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, A.; Batenburg, R.; Wetering, R. van de

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, many information system (IS) implementations took place in the healthcare organisations. Mainstream reasons for this evolvement are the increase of quality and safety of care, and reducing costs. As in many other sectors IS implementations in healthcare are complex, and confronte

  17. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database.

  18. Should the South African red meat classification system be revised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soji, Zimkhitha

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... it is still unclear whether consumers buy meat according to the ... basis for meat traders to describe carcasses in simple terms for pricing and purchasing (South African Meat .... The methods in which the product is processed at abattoirs and .... system, and so its intention is not to supply labelling information.

  19. Genetic Programming Based Ensemble System for Microarray Data Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more machine learning techniques have been applied to microarray data analysis. The aim of this study is to propose a genetic programming (GP based new ensemble system (named GPES, which can be used to effectively classify different types of cancers. Decision trees are deployed as base classifiers in this ensemble framework with three operators: Min, Max, and Average. Each individual of the GP is an ensemble system, and they become more and more accurate in the evolutionary process. The feature selection technique and balanced subsampling technique are applied to increase the diversity in each ensemble system. The final ensemble committee is selected by a forward search algorithm, which is shown to be capable of fitting data automatically. The performance of GPES is evaluated using five binary class and six multiclass microarray datasets, and results show that the algorithm can achieve better results in most cases compared with some other ensemble systems. By using elaborate base classifiers or applying other sampling techniques, the performance of GPES may be further improved.

  20. Detection and Classification of Marine mammals using an LFAS system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Beerend, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    World wide a concern is emerging about the influence of man-made sound in the sea on marine life, and particularly about high power active sonars systems. Most concern lies with marine mammals, which fully depend on sound in their natural behaviour (foraging, navigation and communication). One of th

  1. Course and Research Analysis Using a Coded Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochstet, Gwenn S.

    1997-01-01

    A system of course analysis was developed and used to code and compare faculty research, courses, and library materials in the Mathematics, Physics, and Statistics departments of the University of South Carolina. The purpose is to provide a guide in determining how well the library's collection supports the academic needs of these departments. (10…

  2. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Wolf, Y.I.; Alkhnbashi, O.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, Van Der John

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phyloge

  3. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  4. A CAD System for the Acquisition and Classification of Breast TMA in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; González-López, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of death in women over 40. Therefore, prompt diagnostic and treatment is essential. In this work a TMA Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system has been implemented to provide support to pathologists in their daily work. For that purpose, the tool covers each and every process from the TMA core image acquisition to their individual classification. The first process includes: tissue core location, segmentation and rigid registration of digital microscopic images acquired at different magnifications (5x, 10x, 20x, 20x and 40x) from different devices. The classification process allows performing the core classification selecting different types of color models, texture descriptors and classifiers. Finally, the cores are classified into three categories: malignant, doubtful and benign.

  5. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  6. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  7. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review

  8. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  9. Diagnosis and classification of central nervous system vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Ali, Rula A; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system vasculitis is one of the foremost diagnostic challenges in rheumatology. It results in inflammation and destruction of the vasculature within the CNS. When vasculitis is confined to brain, meninges or spinal cord, it is referred to as primary angiitis of the CNS. Secondary CNS vasculitis occurs in the setting of a systemic vasculitis, auto-inflammatory or infectious disease. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of CNS vasculitis is essential to prevent irreversible brain damage, and to secure precise treatment decisions. Progressive debilitating and unexplained neurological deficits, associated with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid is the typical picture of the disease. Biopsy of the brain remains the gold standard diagnostic test. The differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis is highly diverse with a broad array of mimics at the clinical, radiographic and angiographic levels.

  10. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...... ratings reflected the average competence of recommenders across all subject areas. We have now developed a new version of the WRS, which evaluates the expertise of recommenders within different subject areas. In order to do this, we need to identify a way to classify the subject area of all the articles...

  11. Application of Artificial Immune System Approach in MRI Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia-Hao Chang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous scholars have submitted the theory and research of artificial immune systems (AISs in recent years. Although AIS has been used in various fields, applying the AIS to medical images is very rare. The purpose of this study is using the clonal selection algorithm (CSA of artificial immune systems for classifying the brain MRI, and displaying a single organism image which can finally offer faster organism reference information to a doctor; hence reducing the time to ascertain large number of images, so that the doctor can diagnose the nidus more efficiently and accurately. In order to verify the feasibility and efficiency of this method, we adopt statistical theory for manifold assessment and compare with the perceptron network of double layers, FCM method. The result proves that the method of this study is both feasible and useful.

  12. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  13. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... ratings reflected the average competence of recommenders across all subject areas. We have now developed a new version of the WRS, which evaluates the expertise of recommenders within different subject areas. In order to do this, we need to identify a way to classify the subject area of all the articles......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...

  14. Hybrid Multiagent System for Automatic Object Learning Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana; de La Prieta, Fernando; López, Vivian F.

    The rapid evolution within the context of e-learning is closely linked to international efforts on the standardization of learning object metadata, which provides learners in a web-based educational system with ubiquitous access to multiple distributed repositories. This article presents a hybrid agent-based architecture that enables the recovery of learning objects tagged in Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and provides individualized help with selecting learning materials to make the most suitable choice among many alternatives.

  15. Orchid Classification Disease Identification And Healthiness Prediction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. V Sanjaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Floriculture has become one of Sri Lankas major foreign exchange ventures and it has grown substantially during the last few years. Currently we can find three major types of growers in floriculture. They are Large Commercial Ventures Middle Level growers and Village Level growers. Both Middle Level and Village level growers usually go for low cost cultivation with minimum advanced techniques sticking to conventional methods. Orchid cultivation is more pleasurable and profitable than any other floriculture ventures. As the orchid cultivation is so pleasurable we can introduce another group of growers who cultivate orchid in their home gardens for making their home gardens beautiful. But the problem is that most of these growers may not have the knowledge to identify the specie of the plants as there are a number of similar looking plants which are in different species. And also they may not have the knowledge about the orchid diseases. Because of that they may not be able to get the maximum outcome from their cultivations. So the aim of our project is to address the above mentioned issues by introducing a system which can identify orchid species amp diseases and predict the healthiness of the orchid plants. The only input to this system is an image of an orchid leaf and the system will provide the orchid specie name diseases if there any healthiness of the orchid plant and suggestions to overcome the issues associated with the orchid plant as the output. We identify the orchid species and diseases by extracting the features of orchid plant leaf in the input image using image processing technics and with the use of data mining technics we predict the healthiness of the orchid plant. So this system will be a great help for the people who love to grow orchids but dont have knowledge about the orchid species and diseases. And also they will be able to find the healthiness of their orchid plants.

  16. Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data (SCED). NFES 2011-801

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this handbook, "Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data" (SCED), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the National Forum on Education Statistics have extended the existing secondary course classification system with codes and descriptions for courses offered at…

  17. Analysis of the classification of US and Canadian intensive test sites using the Image 100 hybrid classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocutt, W. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Labeling of wheat rather than total grains, particularly with only one acquisition, led to significant overestimates in some segments. The Image-100 software and procedures were written to facilitate classification of the LACIE segments but were not designed to record data for later accuracy assessment. A much better evaluation would have been possible if accuracy assessment data had been collected following each satisfactory classification.

  18. An Efficient Fingerprint Based Gender Classification System Using Dominant Un-decimated Wavelet Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gnana Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender classification is the major and challenging task in the field of forensic anthropology which minimizes the list of suspects search. The existing systems use the availability of bones, teeth and other identifiable body parts having physical features that allow gender and age estimation by conventional methods. The different biometrics traits such as face, gait, iris, speech and fingerprint are used to identify the gender and age. Among the biometrics, fingerprint is most commonly available in any crime scene. In this study, an efficient algorithm to identify the gender of a given fingerprint into male or female is proposed. The two most efficient techniques are utilized to enhance the performance of the gender classification system. As the first step, Un-decimated Wavelet Transform (UWT is employed to extract the features from the fingerprints by applying ranking. Secondly, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs technique is used as classifier for the process of gender classification. The proposed system is carried out with the database of 180 persons finger prints of all fingers in which 80 are female and 100 are male. The results show the satisfactory classification accuracy of over 90%.

  19. Evaluating the Reliability and Reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen Classification Systems for Ankle Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng-Chen; Yuan, Xue-Fei; Ma, Jun-Ming; Xia, Ye; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xiao-Li; Yan, Yin-Jie; Xu, Jin-Hai; Ye, Jie; Tong, Zheng-Yi; Feng, Yan-Qi; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wu, Xue-Qun; Mo, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Ankle injuries are responsible for more than 5 million emergency department visits each year. The AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems are widely used in the clinical diagnosis of ankle injuries. This study aimed to analyze the intraobserver reliability and interobserver reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems. In addition, the authors explored the differences among physicians' classification responses and evaluated the clinical value for diagnosis. Fifty-six patients with an ankle injury with complete clinical and radiologic data were enrolled. The definition of injury type, the index score typing methods, and the specific study criteria were explained in detail. Five observers, who were orthopedic surgeons, determined the classifications according to both the AO and Lauge-Hansen systems. The classification was repeated 1 month later. Cronbach's alpha and Cohen's kappa test were used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The physicians conducted 560 classifications (56 cases × 5 physicians × 2 times per patient). Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the AO system were 0.708 and 0.608, respectively. Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the Lauge-Hansen system were 0.402 and 0.398, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 96.7% for the AO system and 76.0% for the Lauge-Hansen system. The Lauge-Hansen classification system is a comprehensive yet cumbersome system. Comparatively, the AO classification system is easier to understand. This study shows that the AO classification system has more reliability and reproducibility, and thus has more value in clinical practice, than the Lauge-Hansen classification system.

  20. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  1. Orbit classification in the planar circular Pluto-Charon system

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate the orbital dynamics of a spacecraft, or a comet, or an asteroid in the Pluto-Charon system in a scattering region around Charon using the planar circular restricted three-body problem. The test particle can move in bounded orbits around Charon or escape through the necks around the Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ or even collide with the surface of Charon. We explore four of the five possible Hill's regions configurations depending on the value of the Jacobi constant which is of course related with the total orbital energy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits and distinguishing between three types of motion: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. In particular, we locate the different basins and we relate them with the corresponding spatial distributions of the escape and collision times. Our results reveal the high complexity of this planetary system. Furthermore, the numerical analysis shows a...

  2. A new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. 2. Potential applications of the classification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva; David Baxter; Lars K. Andersen [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    2009-02-15

    Part 1 of the present work introduced and evaluated a new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. The benefit of these classification systems is the use of significant correlations and actual element associations, and well-defined and genetically described mineral classes and species in coal. Potential applications of the chemically and mineralogically categorized coal types and subtypes are discussed in the present part 2. The data show that various technological problems, environmental risks and health concerns of coal use are related directly or indirectly to specific mineral and chemical coal types and subtypes. Furthermore, a concept of 'self-cleaning fuels' also is introduced and developed herein based on mineral coal types. The application of these chemical and mineral classification systems and concept is proposed to both the scientific and industrial community. 54 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Medical devices; gastroenterology-urology devices; classification of the colon capsule imaging system. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the colon capsule imaging system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the colon capsule imaging system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  4. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Magnetic Surgical Instrument System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the magnetic surgical instrument system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  5. Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Steerable Cardiac Ablation Catheter Remote Control System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the steerable cardiac ablation catheter remote control system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  6. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  7. A general view of politic system classifications in comparative political science of Ancient Greek era

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Nihat

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of Comparative Political Science, as a sub-discipline of the Political Science, is on a continuous increase today. This discipline receives many attentions as it provides detailed knowledge on politic systems of various countries. The historical background of such an area, which is drawing more and more interest in our day, is traced back to very old eras. The first political system classification made in the Comparative Political Science appeared in the Ancient Greek era. For ...

  8. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Condylar Process Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, Andreas; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Rasse, Michael; Torre, Daniel Dalla; Audigé, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial outlines the detailed system for fractures of the condylar process at the precision level 3 and is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system within topographical subdivisions along with rules for fracture coding and a series of case examples with clinical imaging. Basically, the condylar process comprises three fracture levels and is subdivided into the head region, the condylar neck, and the condylar base. Fractures of the con...

  9. Developing a science of clinical utility in diagnostic classification systems field study strategies for ICD-11 mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W; Reed, Geoffrey M; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Robles, Rebeca; Rebello, Tahilia; Sharan, Pratap; Gureje, Oye; First, Michael B; Andrews, Howard F; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luís; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Juergen; Saxena, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse has developed a systematic program of field studies to evaluate and improve the clinical utility of the proposed diagnostic guidelines for mental and behavioral disorders in the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). The clinical utility of a diagnostic classification is critical to its function as the interface between health encounters and health information, and to making the ICD-11 be a more effective tool for helping the WHO's 194 member countries, including the United States, reduce the global disease burden of mental disorders. This article describes the WHO's efforts to develop a science of clinical utility in regard to one of the two major classification systems for mental disorders. We present the rationale and methodologies for an integrated and complementary set of field study strategies, including large international surveys, formative field studies of the structure of clinicians' conceptualization of mental disorders, case-controlled field studies using experimental methodologies to evaluate the impact of proposed changes to the diagnostic guidelines on clinicians' diagnostic decision making, and ecological implementation field studies of clinical utility in the global settings in which the guidelines will ultimately be implemented. The results of these studies have already been used in making decisions about the structure and content of ICD-11. If clinical utility is indeed among the highest aims of diagnostic systems for mental disorders, as their developers routinely claim, future revision efforts should continue to build on these efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mishra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question answering systems (QASs generate answers of questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on types of questions generally asked by users, characteristics of data sources consulted, and forms of correct answers generated. Research in the area of QASs began in 1960s and since then, a large number of QASs have been developed. To identify the future scope of research in this area, the need of a comprehensive survey on QASs arises naturally. This paper surveys QASs and classifies them based on different criteria. We identify the current status of the research in the each category of QASs, and suggest future scope of the research.

  11. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amírola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  12. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. PMID:22163717

  13. INTELLIGENT SYSTEM TO EVALUATE THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern idea of town planning is to plan it under the hierarchic design of service centers levels begin from neighborhood unit level to residential district. It's done by using indicator numbers and areas, that the urban designer returned to them in the planning .this research aims to recognize the neighborhood units slandered by using the intelligent programs system to evaluated three plans of neighborhood unit designed by the researchers to make them in the right design . 

  14. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  15. Object Detection and Classification by Decision-Level Fusion for Intelligent Vehicle Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Il; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2017-01-22

    To understand driving environments effectively, it is important to achieve accurate detection and classification of objects detected by sensor-based intelligent vehicle systems, which are significantly important tasks. Object detection is performed for the localization of objects, whereas object classification recognizes object classes from detected object regions. For accurate object detection and classification, fusing multiple sensor information into a key component of the representation and perception processes is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new object-detection and classification method using decision-level fusion. We fuse the classification outputs from independent unary classifiers, such as 3D point clouds and image data using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The unary classifiers for the two sensors are the CNN with five layers, which use more than two pre-trained convolutional layers to consider local to global features as data representation. To represent data using convolutional layers, we apply region of interest (ROI) pooling to the outputs of each layer on the object candidate regions generated using object proposal generation to realize color flattening and semantic grouping for charge-coupled device and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. We evaluate our proposed method on a KITTI benchmark dataset to detect and classify three object classes: cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The evaluation results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the previous methods. Our proposed method extracted approximately 500 proposals on a 1226 × 370 image, whereas the original selective search method extracted approximately 10 6 × n proposals. We obtained classification performance with 77.72% mean average precision over the entirety of the classes in the moderate detection level of the KITTI benchmark dataset.

  16. Classification of patterns representing Apples and Oranges in three-qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Radhey, Kishori; Saraswat, V. K.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    The study of the classification of Apples and Oranges in a warehouse has been undertaken in a three-qubit system using the method of repeated iterations in Grover's algorithm and Ventura's algorithm separately. Operator describing an inversion about average has been constructed as a square matrix of order eight, the phase inversion operators and corresponding iteration operators for patterns separately representing Apples and Oranges have been derived, and various possible superpositions as the choice for search states for the classification of these patterns have been obtained for starting states consisting of two patterns and a single pattern, respectively. It has been demonstrated that on the second iteration of the exclusion superposition by the corresponding iteration operators, the patterns Apples and Oranges, respectively, are most suitably classified using the Grover's algorithm. The probabilities of classifications of Apples have also been calculated by using Ventura's algorithm (Ventura and Martinez in Inf Sci 124:273-296, 2000; Found Phys Lett 12:547-559, 1999) for all the possible superpositions as the search states, and the results have been compared with those of Grover's algorithm and it has been demonstrated that in general for classification of a given pattern (Apples) in three-qubit system, the Grover's and Ventura's algorithms are effective in the cases where the number of patterns in the stored database is larger or smaller, respectively.

  17. The Time Is Right for a New Classification System for Diabetes: Rationale and Implications of the β-Cell-Centric Classification Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Epstein, Solomon; Corkey, Barbara E; Grant, Struan F A; Gavin, James R; Aguilar, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The current classification system presents challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), in part due to its conflicting and confounding definitions of type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). The current schema also lacks a foundation that readily incorporates advances in our understanding of the disease and its treatment. For appropriate and coherent therapy, we propose an alternate classification system. The β-cell-centric classification of DM is a new approach that obviates the inherent and unintended confusions of the current system. The β-cell-centric model presupposes that all DM originates from a final common denominator-the abnormal pancreatic β-cell. It recognizes that interactions between genetically predisposed β-cells with a number of factors, including insulin resistance (IR), susceptibility to environmental influences, and immune dysregulation/inflammation, lead to the range of hyperglycemic phenotypes within the spectrum of DM. Individually or in concert, and often self-perpetuating, these factors contribute to β-cell stress, dysfunction, or loss through at least 11 distinct pathways. Available, yet underutilized, treatments provide rational choices for personalized therapies that target the individual mediating pathways of hyperglycemia at work in any given patient, without the risk of drug-related hypoglycemia or weight gain or imposing further burden on the β-cells. This article issues an urgent call for the review of the current DM classification system toward the consensus on a new, more useful system.

  18. Classification of Satellite Resonances in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Several pairs of solar system satellites occupy mean motion resonances (MMRs). We divide these into two groups according to their proximity to exact resonance. Proximity is measured by the existence of a separatrix in phase space. MMRs between Io–Europa, Europa–Ganymede, and Enceladus–Dione are too distant from exact resonance for a separatrix to appear. A separatrix is present only in the phase spaces of the Mimas–Tethys and Titan–Hyperion MMRs, and their resonant arguments are the only ones to exhibit substantial librations. Could there be a causal connection between the libration amplitude and the presence of a separatrix? Our suspicions were aroused by Goldreich & Schlichting, who demonstrate that sufficiently deep in a MMR, eccentricity damping could destabilize librations. However, our investigation reveals that libration amplitudes in both the Mimas–Tethys and Titan–Hyperion MMRs are fossils. Although the Mimas–Tethys MMR is overstable, its libration amplitude grows on the tidal damping timescale of Mimas’s inclination, which is considerably longer than a Hubble time. On the other hand, the Titan–Hyperion MMR is stable, but tidal damping of Hyperion’s eccentricity is too weak to have affected the amplitude of its libration.

  19. A novel classification system for assessment of approximal caries lesion progression in bitewing radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneby, Anna; Elfvin, Margareta; Stebring-Franzon, Christina; Rohlin, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    To design and pilot a novel classification system for the assessment of caries lesion progression in bitewing radiography and to report rater agreement of the system. A classification system with drawings and text was designed to assess caries lesion progression. Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were used to study and report rater agreement. Pairs of posterior bitewing radiographs (baseline and 1-year follow-up) with different status concerning caries lesion progression were selected from files from public dental health clinics. 10 raters, 5 general dental practitioners and 5 specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology were asked to assess the radiographs with the aid of the classification system. Seven raters repeated their assessments. Rater agreement was expressed as percentage of agreement and kappa. Kappa for the interrater agreement of 10 raters assessing progression was 0.61, indicating substantial agreement. Agreement was moderate for progression in the outer half of the dentine (kappa 0.55) and within enamel (kappa 0.44). Pairwise interrater agreement varied (range 69-92%; kappa 0.42-0.84). For about half of the pairs of raters, kappa was substantial (≥0.61). Intrarater agreement assessing progression was substantial (kappa 0.66-0.82). We demonstrated the applicability of the proposed classification system on caries lesion progression with respect to rater agreement. This system can provide a common framework for clinical decision-making on caries interventional methods and patient visiting intervals. Scientifically, this system allows for a comparative analysis of different methods of prevention and treatment of caries as well as of different caries risk assessment methods.

  20. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemamali Samaratunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  1. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Gianduzzo, Troy; Delahunt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  2. The changes in hazard classification and product notification procedures of the new European CLP and Cosmetics Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Herremans, Joke; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN-GHS) is developed to harmonize the criteria for hazard communication worldwide. The European Regulation on classification, labeling, and packaging of substances and mixtures [CLP Regulation (

  3. The changes in hazard classification and product notification procedures of the new European CLP and Cosmetics Regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, R.; Brekelmans, P.; Herremans, J.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN-GHS) is developed to harmonize the criteria for hazard communication worldwide. The European Regulation on classification, labeling, and packaging of substances and mixtures [CLP Regulation

  4. The changes in hazard classification and product notification procedures of the new European CLP and Cosmetics Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Herremans, Joke; Meulenbelt, Jan

    Introduction. The United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN-GHS) is developed to harmonize the criteria for hazard communication worldwide. The European Regulation on classification, labeling, and packaging of substances and mixtures [CLP Regulation

  5. A probablistic neural network classification system for signal and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Acoustical Heart Valve Analysis Package is a system for signal and image processing and classification. It is being developed in both Matlab and C, to provide an interactive, interpreted environment, and has been optimized for large scale matrix operations. It has been used successfully to classify acoustic signals from implanted prosthetic heart valves in human patients, and will be integrated into a commercial Heart Valve Screening Center. The system uses several standard signal processing algorithms, as well as supervised learning techniques using the probabilistic neural network (PNN). Although currently used for the acoustic heart valve application, the algorithms and modular design allow it to be used for other applications, as well. We will describe the signal classification system, and show results from a set of test valves.

  6. [Diversity and classification system of weed community in Harbin City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Shuang; Liang, Hong; Song, Kun; Da, Liang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the causes of weed community diversity and their strategies of adaption to the high heterogeneity of urban habitats, weed communities in the central urban area of Harbin, China were studied, and a classification system was established for the weed communities. There were 175 weed species, belonging to 128 genera and 38 families. The heterogeneous urban habitats and species' temporal niche differentiation resulted in the highly diversified weed communities. The high proportions of mono-species dominance and annual species dominance communities were their response to the unstable urban habitats under human disturbances with high intensities and frequencies. A four-level classification system was established in terms of plant species and habitat conditions. Within this system, the identified 1763 weed communities could be categorized into two types of life form, 5 types of dormancy form, 22 community groups, and 119 dominance communities.

  7. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs.

  8. LED-Induced Fluorescence System for Tea Classification and Quality Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongjiang; Mei, Liang; Feng, Chao; Yan, Chunsheng; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence system is developed by using several light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different wavelengths as excitation light sources. The fluorescence detection head consists of multi LED light sources and a multimode fiber for fluorescence collection, where the LEDs and the corresponding filters can be easily chosen to get appropriate excitation wavelengths for different applications. By analyzing fluorescence spectra with the principal component analysis method, the system is utilized in the classification of four types of green tea beverages and two types of black tea beverages. Qualities of the Xihu Longjing tea leaves of different grades, as well as the corresponding liquid tea samples, are studied to further investigate the ability and application of the system in the evaluation of classification/quality of tea and other foods.

  9. ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF THE MARKET OF UNIT INVESTMENT FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Zhdanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functions and interrelations of depositary, specialized depositary and registrar operating in the market of unit investment funds are presented and studied in the article. The conclusion is drawn on possibility of introduction of concept of accounting system in the market of unit investment funds.

  10. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  11. Wind Energy Conversion Systems. A Unit of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin

    The number of secondary schools, colleges, and universities offering courses in wind energy machine construction, repair, and installation, continues to increase. It is the purpose of this unit to include the study of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) as an integral part of related vocational and technical curriculum materials. The unit's…

  12. A comparative analysis of biopharmaceutics classification system and biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system: a cross-sectional survey with 500 bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Chiann, Chang; Dressman, Jennifer B; Storpirtis, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    Although policies of waiving bioequivalence studies are part of the legal framework of various regulatory agencies, there is no harmonization with regard to extension of the biowaiver to drugs other than those with high solubility and high permeability, nor is there any consensus or official endorsement of the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS). To better understand the applicability of the biowaiver, we carried out a cross-sectional survey to estimate the relative risk of obtaining nonbioequivalent (non-BE) or bioinequivalent (BIE) results for drug products containing drugs belonging to each of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and BDDCS classes. Five hundred bioequivalence studies were randomly sampled from a database of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The drugs were classified according to the BCS and BDDCS, to evaluate how characteristics related to drug and dosage form influence the outcome of bioequivalence studies. The relative risk of obtaining a non-BE result was approximately four times lower for drugs in classes 1 and 3 of BCS or BDDCS when compared with class 2 drugs. Thus, it seems that the final outcome of a bioequivalence study is strongly influenced by the solubility of the drug, but not by its intestinal permeability or extent of metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  14. Histological classification and stage of newly diagnosed bladder cancer in a population-based study from the Northeastern United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHNED, ALAN R.; ANDREW, ANGELINE S.; MARSIT, CARMEN J.; KELSEY, KARL T.; ZENS, MICHAEL S.; KARAGAS, MARGARET R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are limited data on the distribution of bladder cancers in the general population, classified by World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) criteria. This study evaluated the classification and stage of bladder cancers as part of a population-based epidemiological study of bladder cancer in the Northeastern United States. Material and methods All New Hampshire residents with bladder cancer newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2000 were identified through the state cancer registry. All slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. Tumors were classified by two sets of standard criteria. Results The retrieval rate for cases was over 90%. Of 342 cases reviewed, 15 were excluded for technical reasons or because malignancy was not definitively diagnosed. According to WHO/ISUP criteria, 25.7% of tumors were papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), 34.3% low-grade papillary carcinomas, 22.6% high-grade papillary carcinomas, 10.1% non-papillary urothelial carcinomas and 5.5% carcinoma in situ. By WHO (1973) criteria, 52.5% of tumors were grade 1, 21.4% grade 2 and 26.1% grade 3. Two-thirds of all tumors were stage Ta, 20.8% stage T1 and 7.6% stage ≥T2. 100% of PUNLMPs were non-invasive, 6.3% of low-grade carcinomas were invasive and 64.9% of high-grade carcinomas were invasive. Conclusions Compared to clinic or hospital referral-based series, this study documents a higher percentage of non-invasive tumors and a lower percentage of muscle-invasive tumors. There was also a higher percentage of PUNLMP tumors and fewer high-grade papillary carcinomas than in other series. These results may more accurately reflect prevalence data for bladder cancer grade and stage, although geographic variability may exist. PMID:18432530

  15. Application of a classification system focusing on potential asphyxia for cases of sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Brad; Donelan, Kent; Koponen, Mark; Sens, Mary Ann; Krous, Henry F

    2012-03-01

    Current classification schemes for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) may not be optimal for capturing scene events that potentially predispose to asphyxia. (1) To compare causes of death in a group of SUID cases assigned by multiple reviewers using our recently published classification scheme for SUID that is based on asphyxial risk at the death scene, and (2) To compare these newly assigned causes of death to that originally assigned by the medical examiners of record who performed the autopsies. Five reviewers independently assigned causes of death for 117 cases of SUID, including 83 originally diagnosed as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), accessioned into the San Diego SIDS/SUDC Research Project from the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office. The diagnostic categories are: A: SIDS; B: Unexplained-Potentially Asphyxia; C: Unexplained-Other Potential Causes of Death; D: Unclassified-Other; E: Unclassified; and F: Known Cause of Death. The reviewers collectively opined that conditions at the death scene contributed to or caused death in 32-50% of all of the 117 cases as well as in 40-59% of the 83 originally diagnosed SIDS cases. Another cause of death was considered plausible in 2-12% of the SIDS cases. Application of this new classification system resulted in 55-69% decrease in SIDS diagnoses. Asphyxia as a potential contributor to, or as the specific cause of death, appears to exist in a large percentage of cases designated as SIDS using other classification schemes. When certifiers use a classification system that focuses upon potential asphyxia in determining the cause of death the incidence of SIDS dramatically declines.

  16. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  17. Reliability analysis of two unit parallel repairable industrial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kumar Kakkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a reliability and profit analysis of a two-dissimilar parallel unit system under the assumption that operative unit cannot fail after post repair inspection and replacement and there is only one repair facility. Failure and repair times of each unit are assumed to be uncorrelated. Using regenerative point technique various reliability characteristics are obtained which are useful to system designers and industrial managers. Graphical behaviors of mean time to system failure (MTSF and profit function have also been studied. In this paper, some important measures of reliability characteristics of a two non-identical unit standby system model with repair, inspection and post repair are obtained using regenerative point technique.

  18. A retrospective study to validate an intraoperative robotic classification system for assessing the accuracy of kirschner wire (K-wire) placements with postoperative computed tomography classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Dong-Syuan; Su, Yu-Feng; Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-09-01

    This purpose of this retrospective study is validation of an intraoperative robotic grading classification system for assessing the accuracy of Kirschner-wire (K-wire) placements with the postoperative computed tomography (CT)-base classification system for assessing the accuracy of pedicle screw placements.We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 35 consecutive patients who underwent 176 robotic assisted pedicle screws instrumentation at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from September 2014 to November 2015. During the operation, we used a robotic grading classification system for verifying the intraoperative accuracy of K-wire placements. Three months after surgery, we used the common CT-base classification system to assess the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements. The distributions of accuracy between the intraoperative robot-assisted and various postoperative CT-based classification systems were compared using kappa statistics of agreement.The intraoperative accuracies of K-wire placements before and after repositioning were classified as excellent (131/176, 74.4% and 133/176, 75.6%, respectively), satisfactory (36/176, 20.5% and 41/176, 23.3%, respectively), and malpositioned (9/176, 5.1% and 2/176, 1.1%, respectively)In postoperative CT-base classification systems were evaluated. No screw placements were evaluated as unacceptable under any of these systems. Kappa statistics revealed no significant differences between the proposed system and the aforementioned classification systems (P system and various postoperative CT-based grading systems. The robotic grading classification system is a feasible method for evaluating the accuracy of K-wire placements. Using the intraoperative robot grading system to classify the accuracy of K-wire placements enables predicting the postoperative accuracy of pedicle screw placements.

  19. Implementation of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification system in periodontal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, William J; Weinberg, Mea A

    2008-07-01

    The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) classification is a preoperative rating given to each patient by an anesthesia provider with the sole purpose of assessing the physical state of the patient before anesthesia is administered. It was designed originally as a standardized way for dentists and physicians to convey information about the patient's overall health status and allow outcomes to be stratified by a global assessment of their severity of illness. However, in practice, the ASA-PS classification is often misused as a measure of operative risk, which is the basis of much criticism. Modification of periodontal treatment may be necessary in certain medically complex patients. The ASA-PS classification serves an integral part of risk assessment in determining how a patient should be managed by the periodontist. It should be incorporated into all periodontal practices. Medical assessment of patients has become an essential part of dentistry, as even the most common medical problems may require modifications to routine periodontal care. Periodontists must assess and manage patients for underlying medical conditions and are required to provide dental care to a diversity of medically complex patients. Today many patients in a periodontal practice have multiple medical conditions and are taking many medications. It is more difficult to manage these types of patients, and proper assessment of their physical status is an important part of clinical practice. The ASA-PS classification system is a valuable assessment tool that subjectively categorizes patients into subgroups by preoperative physical fitness prior to administering anesthesia.

  20. A Development of Group Decision Support System for Strategic Item Classification using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Tae, Jae Woong; Yang, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items that reflect the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines (Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act) since joining the NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with classifications that determine whether export items are relevant to nuclear proliferation or not according to NSG guidelines. However, due to qualitative characteristics of nuclear item definition in the guidelines, classification spends a lot of time and effort to make a consensus. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of an experts' group decision support system (GDSS) based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the classification of strategic items. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that a GDSS based on an AHP proved positive, systematically providing relative weight among the planning variables and objectives. By using an AHP we can quantify the subjective judgements of reviewers. An order of priority is derived from a numerical value. The verbal and fuzzy measurement of an AHP enables us reach a consensus among reviewers in a GDSS. An AHP sets common weight factors which are a priority of each attribute that represent the views of an entire group. It makes a consistency in decision-making that is important for classification.

  1. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar image unsupervised classification method based on artificial immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Gang, Wang; Teng, Zhu; Xiaojuan, Li; Qin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    An unsupervised classification method based on the H/α classifier and artificial immune system (AIS) is proposed to overcome the inefficiencies that arise when traditional classification methods deal with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data having large numbers of overlapping pixels and excess polarimetric information. The method is composed of two steps. First, Cloude-Pottier decomposition is used to obtain the entropy H and the scattering angle α. The classification result based on the H/α plane is used to initialize the AIS algorithm. Second, to obtain accurate results, the AIS clonal selection algorithm is used to perform an iterative calculation. As a self-organizing, self-recognizing, and self-optimizing algorithm, the AIS is able to obtain a global optimal solution and better classification results by making use of both the scattering mechanism of ground features and polarimetric scattering characteristics. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are demonstrated by experiments using a NASA-JPL PolSAR image and a high-resolution PolSAR image of Lingshui autonomous county in Hainan Province.

  2. Seismic Target Classification Using a Wavelet Packet Manifold in Unattended Ground Sensors Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enliang Song

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems in target classification is the extraction of a robust feature, which can effectively represent a specific type of targets. The use of seismic signals in unattended ground sensor (UGS systems makes this problem more complicated, because the seismic target signal is non-stationary, geology-dependent and with high-dimensional feature space. This paper proposes a new feature extraction algorithm, called wavelet packet manifold (WPM, by addressing the neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE algorithm of manifold learning on the wavelet packet node energy (WPNE of seismic signals. By combining non-stationary information and low-dimensional manifold information, WPM provides a more robust representation for seismic target classification. By using a K nearest neighbors classifier on the WPM signature, the algorithm of wavelet packet manifold classification (WPMC is proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed WPMC can not only reduce feature dimensionality, but also improve the classification accuracy up to 95.03%. Moreover, compared with state-of-the-art methods, WPMC is more suitable for UGS in terms of recognition ratio and computational complexity.

  3. A multiple classifier system based on Ant-Colony Optimization for Hyperspectral image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Xie, Li; Li, Guangyao

    2017-01-01

    Hyperspectral images which hold a large quantity of land information enables image classification. Traditional classification methods usually works on multispectral images. However, the high dimensionality in feature space influences the accuracy while using these classification algorithms, such as statistical classifiers or decision trees. This paper proposes a multiple classifier system (MCS) based on ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to improve the classification ability. ACO method has been implemented on multispectral images in researches, but seldom to hyperspectral images. In order to overcome the limitation of ACO method on dealing with high dimensionality, MCS is introduced to combine the outputs of each single ACO classifier based on the credibility of rules. Mutual information is applied to discretizing features from the data set and provides the criterion of band selection and band grouping algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is validated with ROSIS Pavia data set, and compared to k-nearest neighbour (KNN) algorithm. Experimental results prove that the proposed method is feasible to classify hyperspectral images.

  4. Public administration archives: state of the art of record management and classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Reale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at presenting the state of art related to the records management in the public sector and, more specifically, to the main tools required for managing current records according to the Direction general for Archives and its specific competencies which imply a role for defining and approving classification and preservation plans. The article analyses various projects developed for the public sectors in the last 25 years in connection with the innovation processes for the public administration and the crucial role recognised to the records management. The paper illustrates the work done by working groups for universities, municipalities, regions and provinces but also for health environment, chambers of trade, banks and educational institutions. With reference to the State institutions, a general picture is presented for ministries such as Ministry of Justice and Ministry for cultural heritage. In the last case, the classification system developed and adopted in 2004 in connection with the electronic registry system is discussed in detail. The paper presents also the project supported by the Agenzia dell’Italia digitale (AGID dedicated to the definition of a common classification plan for administrative functions in the public sector. Even if not complete the picture is able to provide elements to evaluate the tools and their critical aspects, to stress the need for cooperation, to update the present systems and study general methodologies. The contribution is also dedicated to the role of professionals with specific experience in the records management systems for the public sector.

  5. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity.

  6. Classification and Numbering of Dental Radiographs for an Automated Human Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental based human identification is commonly used in forensic. This is due to the teeth are resistant to temperatures up to 200°C and are not easily got rotten. Thus, teeth are suit for victim identification of natural disaster, fire, bombing, etc. In this paper, we developed an automated human identification system based on dental radiographs. The system has two main stages, the first stage is to arrange a database consisting of labeled dental radiographs, and the second stage is the searching process in the database in order to retrieve the identification result. Both stages use a number of image processing techniques, classification methods, and a numbering system in order to generate dental radiograph’s features and patterns. Our experiments using 6 bitewing and 10 panoramic radiographs that consist of 119 tooth objects in total, has shown good performance of classification. The accuracy of dental pattern classification and dental numbering system are 91.6 % and 81.5% respectively.

  7. A comparison of classification methods as diagnostic system: A case study on skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Suhail M; Baareh, Abdel Karim Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Numerous classification methods are currently available, but most of them were performed on different datasets. In this paper, different classification techniques were used for a diagnostic system on different skin lesions for the same data, which gives consistency for the data to have more accurate and better results. Four classification methods were proposed, a classical method based on K-Nearest Neighbor with Sequential Scanning selection technique for feature selection, a classical method with complex technique KNN with Genetic Algorithm, a complex method based on Artificial Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. From the results obtained we can say that the performance of KNN with optimization of genetic algorithm for the feature selection was the best with an accuracy rate of 94%. The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System result was also good with an accuracy rate of 92%, and the other techniques' results were also satisfactory. The improvement on the performance of the classifier depends on the feature selection methods. In addition, the diagnosis system as a decision support tool could be used to increase the performance of human experts to make a correct decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Methodologies for Developing an Early Warning System: Classification and Regression Tree Model versus Logistic Regression. REL 2015-077

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explicate the use of logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in the development of early warning systems. It was motivated by state education leaders' interest in maintaining high classification accuracy while simultaneously improving practitioner understanding of the rules by…

  9. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  10. An Adaptive System for Home Monitoring Using a Multiagent Classification of Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rammal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research takes place in the S(MA2D project which proposes software architecture to monitor elderly people in their own homes. We want to build patterns dynamically from data about activity, movements, and physiological information of the monitored people. To achieve that, we propose a multiagent method of classification: every agent has a simple know-how of classification. Data generated at this local level are communicated and adjusted between agents to obtain a set of patterns. The patterns are used at a personal level, for example to raise an alert, but also to evaluate global risks (epidemic, heat wave. These data are dynamic; the system has to maintain the built patterns and has to create new patterns. So, the system is adaptive and can be spread on a large scale.

  11. An Adaptive System for Home Monitoring Using a Multiagent Classification of Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Ali; Trouilhet, Sylvie; Singer, Nicolas; Pécatte, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This research takes place in the S(MA)2D project which proposes software architecture to monitor elderly people in their own homes. We want to build patterns dynamically from data about activity, movements, and physiological information of the monitored people. To achieve that, we propose a multiagent method of classification: every agent has a simple know-how of classification. Data generated at this local level are communicated and adjusted between agents to obtain a set of patterns. The patterns are used at a personal level, for example to raise an alert, but also to evaluate global risks (epidemic, heat wave). These data are dynamic; the system has to maintain the built patterns and has to create new patterns. So, the system is adaptive and can be spread on a large scale. PMID:18437224

  12. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Condylar Process Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Andreas; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Rasse, Michael; Torre, Daniel Dalla; Audigé, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    This tutorial outlines the detailed system for fractures of the condylar process at the precision level 3 and is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system within topographical subdivisions along with rules for fracture coding and a series of case examples with clinical imaging. Basically, the condylar process comprises three fracture levels and is subdivided into the head region, the condylar neck, and the condylar base. Fractures of the condylar head show typical fracture lines either within the lateral pole zone, which may lead to loss of vertical height, or medially to the pole zone, with the latter ones usually not compromising the vertical condyle to fossa relation. In condylar head fractures, the morphology is further described by the presence of minor or major fragmentation, the vertical apposition of fragments at the plane of the head fracture, the displacement of the condylar head with regard to the fossa including a potential distortion of the condylar head congruency resulting in dystopic condyle to fossa relations and the presence or absence of a loss of vertical ramus height. A specific vertical fracture pattern extending from the head to the neck or base subregion is considered. Fractures of the condylar neck and base can be differentiated according to a newly introduced one-third to two-thirds rule with regard to the proportion of the fracture line above and below the level of the sigmoid notch, which is presented in the classification article, and are basically subdivided according to the presence or absence of displacement or dislocation. In both condylar neck and base fractures, the classification is again based on the above mentioned parameters such as fragmentation, displacement of the condylar head with regard to the fossa, including dystopic condyle to fossa relations and loss of vertical ramus height, that is, according to the measurement of the condylar process. In addition, the

  13. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review summa

  14. Development and validation of the Slovenian drug-related problem classification system based on the PCNE classification V 6.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja

    2016-08-01

    Background Classifying drug-related problems increases pharmacists' awareness of patients' drug-related needs and supports the development of counselling skills through increased awareness of the nature and frequency of drug-related problems. No standardised classification system was used in daily pharmacy practice in Slovenia. Objective To translate, upgrade and validate the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) classification V 6.2 for use in Slovenian community pharmacies. Setting Expert panel meetings at the Faculty of Pharmacy and home-based classification validation. Methods The PCNE classification V 6.2 was translated to Slovenian language by forward-backward translation procedure. An expert panel consisting of nine practicing pharmacists upgraded the content of the translated version. Thirty-one community pharmacists validated this version with the PCNE set of 18 patient cases by coding problems, risk factors and interventions they believed were present in each case. The expert panel discussed the results and upgraded the classification accordingly. Afterwards, 33 community pharmacists validated the upgraded version with a set of 40 actual Slovenian pharmacy patient cases. Based on the results, the expert panel formed a final version of the classification. Main outcome measure Coding consistency between community pharmacists. Results The expert panel performed some major modifications to the PCNE classification V 6.2: the potential problem was added as a sub domain to problems domain; the term adverse drug event was used instead of adverse drug reaction; the causes domain was renamed to risk factors and its sub domains were organized into prescribing, dispensing and use of drugs; dispensing errors were specified; use of drugs was organized into intentional and unintentional use of drugs; the sub domains in the interventions domain were divided according to the communication and agreement with the prescriber. The average coding consistencies in the first

  15. Clinical demand in an emergency care unit according to the Manchester triage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Santos Diniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the present study is to identify the clinical demand of patients cared for by nursing professionals according to the risk classification of an Emergency Care Unit, following the Manchester triage system. It is a quantitative descriptive study whose sample was composed of 364 patient records. The data was analyzed via the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, using descriptive, bivariate statistics and Spearman’s correlation. The patient’s main complaints were: “Adult indisposition,” “Problems with the limbs,” “Abdominal pain,” and “Headaches.” There was inverse correlation between age and risk classification (rs = -0.14 p=0,005, and time of admittance and risk classification (rs = -1.02, p=0.046. We conclude that the patients classified according to risk presented urgent and non-urgent complaints. The higher the patient’s age and the later in the day they were admitted, the more severe their clinical condition.   doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.21700.

  16. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Siddiqui

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT, principal component analysis (PCA, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%. Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities

  17. An Automated and Intelligent Medical Decision Support System for Brain MRI Scans Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kanesan, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed in the medical health care applications that interpret neuroimaging scans by machine learning systems. This research proposes an intelligent, automatic, accurate, and robust classification technique to classify the human brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) as normal or abnormal, to cater down the human error during identifying the diseases in brain MRIs. In this study, fast discrete wavelet transform (DWT), principal component analysis (PCA), and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) are used as basic components. Firstly, fast DWT is employed to extract the salient features of brain MRI, followed by PCA, which reduces the dimensions of the features. These reduced feature vectors also shrink the memory storage consumption by 99.5%. At last, an advanced classification technique based on LS-SVM is applied to brain MR image classification using reduced features. For improving the efficiency, LS-SVM is used with non-linear radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The proposed algorithm intelligently determines the optimized values of the hyper-parameters of the RBF kernel and also applied k-fold stratified cross validation to enhance the generalization of the system. The method was tested by 340 patients' benchmark datasets of T1-weighted and T2-weighted scans. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed medical decision support system outperformed all other modern classifiers and achieves 100% accuracy rate (specificity/sensitivity 100%/100%). Furthermore, in terms of computation time, the proposed technique is significantly faster than the recent well-known methods, and it improves the efficiency by 71%, 3%, and 4% on feature extraction stage, feature reduction stage, and classification stage, respectively. These results indicate that the proposed well-trained machine learning system has the potential to make accurate predictions about brain abnormalities from the

  18. A method for verifying a vector-based text classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chris J; Humphrey, Susanne M; Browne, Allen C

    2008-11-06

    Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) is a vector-based text classification system developed at NLM (National Library of Medicine), originally in Lisp and now as a Java tool. Consequently, a testing suite was developed to verify training set data and results of the JDI tool. A methodology was developed and implemented to compare two sets of JD vectors, resulting in a single index (from 0 - 1) measuring their similarity. This methodology is fast, effective, and accurate.

  19. Weapons Systems, United States Army 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in a tactical environment. The M1070 trac - tor has front- and rear-axle steering, a central tire inflation system, and cab space for six personnel to...Cavalry Regiments-Squadrons, Field Artillery Battalions A3-based BFIST planned (XM7A1) France: AMX-10 PAC-90, AMX VTT /LT; Russia: BMP PRP-3, BMP PRP-4...Sensor-Heavy, Armored Transport and Treatment Vehicle (planned) China: Type 85 ACV, WZ-506, Type 90 CV; France: AMX-10PC, AMX VTT /PC; Germany: Tpzl

  20. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.